Bible Query from
Q: In Mic, what is the main point of the book?
A: Like many other minor prophetic books, Micah speaks primarily to the rebellious, whom it is hoped will change and become penitent. It addresses two questions: where are we now, and where can we go from here?
See 735 Baffling Bible Questions Answered p.209, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : Old Testament p.1475, and the Believerís Bible Commentary p.1132 for more info.
Q: In Mic, what are the similarities with the book of Isaiah?
A: Micah and Isaiah lived at the same time, and they well might have known one another and listened to one another. While there are not exact quotes, there are a number of similarities in phrases and thought.
|Micah 1:8 stripped and naked||Isaiah 20:2-4; 47:3 naked|
|Micah 3:4 God does not hear their cry||Isaiah 1:15, God will not hear the many prayers of people whose hands are filled with blood|
|Micah 4:1 last days||Isaiah 2:2-4, 24-27|
|Micah 4:1-2 many shall come to Mount Zion||Isaiah 51:11 The redeemed shall return with singing to Zion|
|Micah 4:3 swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks, not learn war||Isaiah 2:4 swords into plowshares and spears into pruning hooks, not train for war anymore|
|Micah 4:5 walk in Godís name forever||Isaiah 59:21; 26:4; 40:8; 60:21; 65:18 Trust, live, rejoice forever|
|Micah 5:2 goings forth from everlasting.||Isaiah 9:6 Messiah called the "Everlasting Father" or "Father of Everlasting"|
|Micah 5:1 smite the judge of Israel with a rod upon the cheek||Isaiah 53:3,4-7 the suffering servant was wounded|
|Micah 4:12 They know not the thoughts of the Lord, nor understand His counsel||Isaiah 40:13, do not understand the mind of the Lord. Isaiah 55:8-12, Godís thoughts are not our thoughts|
|Micah 4:10 the daughter of Zion in the labor of birth||Isaiah 54:1-3 barren woman will give birth to a child|
|Micah 5:5 shepherds raised against Assyria||Isaiah 10:24; 36-37 [present] judgment against the Assyrians|
|Micah 4:10 future exile to Babylon||Isaiah 39 future exile to Babylon|
|Micah 5:13 God will get rid of the graven images||Isaiah 2:18-20 The people will get rid of their idols|
|Micah 6:1-2 speaking to the mountains||Isaiah 41,49 speaking to the islands|
|Micah 7:1 Micah says "Woe is me!" because of the peopleís sins||Isaiah 6:5 Isaiah says "Woe is me!" because of his and the peopleís sins|
|Micah 7:20 our fathers, including Abraham||Isaiah 51:2, Abraham your father|
|Micah 1:1 Morasheth was 25 miles southwest of Jerusalem||Jeremiah 1:1 Anathoth was 3 miles northeast of Jerusalem|
|Micah 3:4 God does not hear their cry||Jeremiah|
|Micah 3:11 Prophets working for money||Jeremiah 6:13; 8:10 all are greedy for gain. prophet and priest alike, all practice deceit|
|Micah 3:7 People will be ashamed||Jeremiah 3:25 We will lie down in our shame|
|Micah 4:10 future exile to Babylon||Jeremiah 20:4, etc.|
|Micah 7:1 Micah says "Woe is me!" because of the peopleís sins||Jeremiah 4:19; 9:1-2 Jeremiah is called the weeping prophet|
|Micah 7:5 woman lying next to you||Jeremiah 9:4 do not trust your immediate family|
|Micah 6:1-2 speaking to the mountains||Jeremiah 9:10 weeping and wailing for the mountains and pastures|
|Jeremiah 26:18 mentions Micah as Micaiah.|
Q: In Mic 1, when was this book written?
A: Since Micah mentions the city of Samaria, and this city existed from around 900 B.C., Micah had to be written after that time. As the skeptical Asimovís Guide to the Bible p.652 correctly points out, since Samaria was destroyed in 722 B.C., at least part of Micah was written before that time. Micah lived about the same time as Isaiah. Micah 3:12 was quoted a century later in Jeremiahís time in Jeremiah 26:18. Micah says it was written during the time of three kings, which would place it between 740 and 687 A.D. 735 Baffling Bible Questions Answered p.209 says between 750 and 686 B.C.
Q: In Mic 1:1, could this Micah be the same as Micaiah, who prophesied to Ahab in 1 Ki 22:8?
A: No. while Micah is a shortened form of Micaiah, Micaiah prophesied about 854 B.C., while Micah here lived over a hundred years later. The skeptical Asimovís Guide to the Bible p.650 says the same.
Q: In Mic 1:1, where was Morasheth?
A: Micahís hometown was about 40 kilometers, or 25 miles, southwest of Jerusalem. We are not exactly sure where this small village was, but the direction would put it close to the Philistine city of Gath.
Q: Why does Mic 1:1 mention the city of Samaria, since the Samaritans first existed a century later, after the exile?
A: Though the Samaritans did not exist until the exile, the city of Samaria pre-dated them. The city of Samaria was the capital of the northern kingdom of Israel from the time of Jeroboam prior to 900 B.C.
Q: In Mic 1:2, how is God a witness against some people?
A: God sees all and knows all. As judge of mankind, God is a witness of the evil people say and do. However, this verse emphasizes that God is a witness against them. For people who do evil, they would rather God not know what they do. While the Septuagint could be translated as "witness among" or "witness against" the context is of God being a witness against sin.
One issue is who is God a witness against? The following verses talk only about Judea and Samaria. If God is not accusing the entire nations, then God is accusing Judah and Samaria, and all of the nations are to hear and pay attention. See The Expositorís Bible Commentary vol.7 p.405 for more info.
Q: In Mic 1:4, when will mountains melt and split apart?
A: This and Micah 4 will happen in the last days. Zechariah 14 describes in more detail how the Mount of Olives will be split in two.
Q: In Mic 1:5, why does Micah call their sin "Jacobís transgression"?
A: As we see in Micah 1:10-15, Micah is very specific in his terms and phrases. Micah uses the name "Jacob" to remind them of the ancestry and who they are. Often when rebuking someone for their sin, it is good to remind them of who they are and where they have been. Rebuke can be loud and harsh; but rebuke can also be quiet and thoughtful.
Q: In Mic 1:6, how was Samaria to become as the heap on a field and the plantings of a vineyard?
A: These metaphors are visible reminders of the previously cleaned-up waste and useless material. As Christians, 2 Timothy 2:20-21 and 2 Peter 1:8 are reminders that we need to take care that our disobedience does not make us useless.
Q: In Mic 1:6 (KJV), what does it mean to discover the foundations of Samaria?
A: This means to strip the city and walls off of the foundations. The NIV translates this "lay bare her foundations." The NET Bible says. "tear down her fortifications to their foundations."
Q: In Mic 1:7, does God ever honor offerings given to Him of money gained by evil means?
A: God is free to do as He wishes with money gained by evil means. However, we should never give God our ill-gotten gains, but on the other hand, we should not have any ill-gotten gains in the first place. God wants us to give to Him of our honest, honorable work. Even David in 2 Samuel 24:24 would not give a sacrifice to the LORD that cost David nothing. David insisted on paying Araunah for what he was going to sacrifice. In Mark 12:41-44, Jesus commended the generosity of the widow who sacrificially gave. Money gotten from immoral or illegal means, or by exploiting others, is useless as something pleasing to God.
Q: In Mic 1:8 (KJV), why does it mention dragons?
A: The NIV and NKJV translate this as jackals; the NET Bible translates this as wild dogs. The Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.79 says that the Hebrew word, tannim, can refers to desert animals or dragons. The word is rather generic. This makes sense, as when one hears strange far-off howls in the desert, one does not see the relatively small jackal that makes such a large noise. Perhaps the Hebrew word originally referred to whatever made that sound, without being tied down to a physical description.
Q: In Mic 1:8-9 what is the significance of the jackal and the owl together? How does this relate to Micah?
A: Both are animals that move (and make sounds) at night. They might have scary sounds, but you do not see them. Perhaps in a similar manner, Micah will be mourning over them, regardless of whether they see him or not. Similarly God is warning them of their sin, and they need to listen even though they do not see him, or the effects of their sin, - yet.
Q: In Mic 1:9; 2:10, and Jer 30:12,15, when are peopleís spiritual wounds incurable by God?
A: For some people, some sins seem easier to repent of than others. While God is Almighty, there are certain things He chooses not to do. When some one does not want God to cure them of their evil, and refuses God, God is under no obligation to force on them what they do not want. When this is the case, the wound is incurable, as in Hosea 5:13.
Q: In Mic 1:10-14, why is this prophet using wordplays in this serious situation?
A: These plays on words are not humor, but a literary device in ancient Hebrew poetry. It was good for the prophecies to be delivered in a way that was easy to remember, as they would recall the words when the prophecy came true. Micah was not unique, as the first time God gave Jeremiah a vision, God gave it in the form of a pun.
While this, parables, and repeated sayings can serve as a memory device, saying this is just a memory device is an understatement. Whenever people heard the name of these familiar towns, they would remember this poem, and remember the judgment to come. Also, it is not just that judgment would come on the countryside in general, but these specific towns, (as well as the others) would be affected.
Q: In Mic 1:10-15a, these are not exactly plays on words, but they are close in meaning and more subtle. Commentators say this is hard to get the effect in English, but I have tried. Please fill in the blanks with places in the America.
A: Speak it not in Spokane.
Wallow, wallow, not at all.
In Destin roll in the dust.
Go in ugly shame, you who live in Butte.
The twin cities are besides themselves in mourning. They will miss their hippies.
There will be pain in Maine.
You who live in Motown your sin will be mowed down.
You who turn the ignition key for the sin of the people of God
You will only lose in the Windy City and never win in Las Vegas.
There will be deception in De Soto.
It will be a lost town, where patriots are revered.
You donít have a ghost of a chance, even in Casper.
Burn flags in mourning, for the country in which you delight.
Remove your hats as Americaís honor goes into exile.
If this were a prophesy, and you lived in the United States, you might have mixed feelings. On one hand, you might they "good, they deserve it". On the other hand these are towns with your friends and family living in them. You donít want them spoken of that way, and you surely donít want these things to happen to them.
Q: In Mic 1:10-15a, what was the point of this poetry?
A: While this, parables, and repeated sayings can serve as a memory device, saying this is just a memory device is an understatement. Whenever people heard the name of these familiar towns, they would remember this poem, and remember the judgment to come. Also, it is not just that judgment would come on the countryside in general, but these specific towns, (as well as the others) would be affected.
Q: In Mic 1:10a and 1:15b, how are these bookends, and that is their significance?
A: Micah 1:10a is not original to Micah. He is quoting 2 Samuel 1:20, when Saul and Jonathan were killed by the Philistines. In Micah 1:15b, the cave of Adullam, where David hid from Saul in 1 Samuel 22:1. These are in reverse chronological order.
Q: In Mic 1:13, how is some sin like "harnessing a team of horses to a chariot"?
A: Some sin, once you commit it, is basically done. Other sins are more addictive and grow, like cancer. But still other sins can be called "Gateway sins". .Just as marijuana can be a gateway drug to harder drugs, some sins break down barriers or enable the person to commit more sins. For example, stealing and getting money from that can enable the person to get drunk, pay a prostitute, take drugs, or other things. Some sins are just like "hitching a team to the chariot."
Lachish was a large city on the large plain of Megiddo, and known for its stable of horses. Deuteronomy 17:16-17 says that the king must not gather a great number of horses or wives. However, starting with Solomon, kings of Israel and Judah had large herds. However, horses are more important in offensive warfare, and les important when defending a city. According to the NIV Study Bible p.1373, Sennacherib was so proud of capturing it that he had a relief picture of it on his palace at Nineveh.
Q: In Mic 1:10a and 1:15b, how are these bookends, and that is their significance?
A: Micah 1:10a is not original to Micah. He is quoting 2 Samuel 1:20, when Saul and Jonathan were killed by the Philistines. In Micah 1:15b, the cave of Adullam, where David hid from Saul in 1 Samuel 22:1. These are in reverse chronological order.
Q: In Mic 1:16 (KJV), what does it mean to poll them of their delicate children?
A: The NIV, NKJV, and Greenís literal translation translate this as they should cut off their hair to mourn for their children, who will go into exile with them. The NET Bible translates this as "Shave your heads bald as you mourn for the children you love."
Q: In Mic 1:16, why would they shave their heads in mourning?
A: They were not mourning the loss of their houses or wealth, but their very children, who either were dead or taken into slavery and never seen again.
Q: In Mic 1:16, since there will be baldness as the eagle, were the bald eagles in Palestine?
A: There were no birds of the species we call "bald eagle" in Palestine, as these birds are in America. Micah 1:6 says "bald as the eagle/vulture".
Black vultures, also called ospreys, were bald in the head and neck, as many other birds are that scavenge dead animals.
Gier eagles, also called Egyptian vultures, have a bald head too, with yellow neck feathers.
Griffon vultures, also simply called eagles, have a neck that is bald or very thinly covered with white down.
Two true eagles in Palestine, the imperial eagle and the golden eagle do not have bald heads or necks.
According to the Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.91-92, the baldness prevents feathers clumping together due to blood clotting as the bird plunges head first into the insides of the dead animal.
Q: In Mic 2:1, what is significant about plotting evil on their beds?
A: Not only did people do evil when they were tempted in a situation, and not only did they do premeditated evil, but they even laid awake in their beds at night plotting how to do evil. Perhaps this is one reason Psalm 4:4 instructs people "when you are on your beds, search your hearts and be silent." (NIV)
Q: In Mic 2:1-2, how can people plot financial evil today?
A: Micah 2:2,9 specifically talks about seizing fields and defrauding men and women of their homes, and giving fields to traitors. Today it can also include taking peopleís investments, savings, and retirement, either through illegal means, or through legal but unscrupulous means.
Here is a simplistic example. Image an unscrupulous investment firm that has 8 funds, and each of them put all the money in investment that were as risky as Las Vegas. The odds of getting a 48% return were 50%, and the odds of losing everything were 50%. On average, half of the funds lost everything and quietly disappeared. Have of the funds made 40% (they would keep the other 8% for their management fees and bonuses.) Now repeat this for two years. On average, one fund would have a 40% annual return for three years straight, which looks like an extremely impressive track record. You never hear about the other funds, with almost the same strategy, that disappear.
A more realistic example is one investment newsletter service I tracked for a few months. When they said a stock would go up, it usually did go up, - about a third of the time. About a third of the time it went down. And about a third of the time it did nothing. So in reality following their advice was like throwing dice. However, they could advertise their winners that they called correctly, and be silent about the other two-thirds.
Q: In Mic 2:2b, how can a person defraud someone of their inheritance?
A: In Old Testament times the land was passed on through the clan. Even if the land was sold, it was supposed to revert to the original owner after up to seven years. However, at this time Israel and Judah were like the nations around them and not doing that. They were disobeying the law and keeping land forever which they were not supposed to keep. People can unscrupulously take things today through the court system, if they file expensive lawsuits or have false witnesses.
Q: In Mic 2:3, what is wrong with "walking proudly" or "walking tall"?
A: Being proud can indicate that you are relying more on yourself instead of God. It can make you feel better than others. Someone once said that in English the middle letter in both sin and pride is "I". When someone values themselves, or their self-importance grater than their love for God and others, they are disobeying the two greatest commandments Jesus gave.
Q: In Mic 2:3, how can it be "an evil time" (NKJV), or "a time of calamity" (NIV)?
A: When evil flourishes and is not held in check, that period of time can be dreadful and dangerous.
Q: In Mic 2:3, what about people who say the LORD does not get angry or have wrath?
A: They are missing a key aspect of Godís character. Have they never read Revelation? Have they never the Old Testament books besides the Song of Solomon, Ruth, and Esther? Every Old Testament book except these three brings up Godís anger and wrath. For that matter, every New Testament books brings up Godís anger and wrath except the following: Philippians, 1,2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, 1 Peter, 1, 2, 3 John. Here is a partial list of references.
God is a jealous God. Exodus 20:5; 34:14; Deuteronomy 4:24; 5:9; 6:15; Joshua 24:19; Nahum 1:2; Zechariah 8:1; 1 Corinthians 10:22
God punishes. Genesis 3:14-19; 4:13; 15:14; Exodus 32:34; Leviticus 18:25; 26:18,28; Deuteronomy 22:18; 1 Samuel 15:2; 2 Samuel 7:14; Job 21:19; 37:13; Psalm 59:5; 89:32; 94:10; Isaiah 10:12; 13:11; 24:21; 26:21; 27:1; Jeremiah 5:9; 29; 6:15; 9:9,25; 11:22; 14:10; 21:14; 23:34; 27:8; Ezekiel 5:8-10; Zechariah 10:3; (implied) Zephaniah 3:15; Matthew 25:36; Acts 7:7; 2 Corinthians 10:6; 1 Thessalonians 4:6; 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9; Hebrews 2:2; 4:18; 10:29; 12:6; Jude 7; Revelation 17:1; punish Babylon Jeremiah 25:12
God is not mocked. Galatians 6:7
God avenges. Deuteronomy 32:35,43; 1 Samuel 24:12; 2 Kings 9:7; Isaiah 1:24; Isaiah 65:6; 66:6; Jeremiah 5:9,29; 9:9; 15:15; 51:6b,36; Romans 12:19; 2 Thessalonians 1:6; Hebrews 10:30; Revelation 6:10; Implied Psalm 79:12; 94:2; Lamentations 3:64
God has wrath. Exodus 15:7; 22:24; 32:10-12; Leviticus 10:6; Numbers 11:33; 16:46; Deuteronomy 9:7-8,22; 11:17; 29:23,28; 1 Samuel 28:18; 2 Kings 22:13,17; 23:26; 1 Chronicles 27:24; 2 Chronicles 12:7,12 (wrath averted), 19:2,10; 24:18; 28:11,13; 29:8,10; 30:8; 32:25-26; 34:21,25; 36:16; Ezra 5:12; 8:22; 10:14; Nehemiah 13:18; Job 14:13; 21:20,30; 32:2; Psalm 2:5,12; 21:9; 59:13; 78:31,38,49; 79:6; 89:46; 90:7,11; 95:11; 102:10; 106:23,40; 110:5; 124:3; Proverbs 11:4; Isaiah 9:19; 10:6; 13:13; 14:6; 60:10; Jeremiah 7:29; 10:10; 18:20 (avert wrath); 21:5; 32:37; 50:13; Lamentations 3:1; Ezekiel 7:12,14,19; 21:31; 38:19; Hosea 5:10; 13:11; Amos 1:11; Nahum 1:2; Habakkuk 3:2,8; Zephaniah 1:15,18; Zechariah 7:12; 8:14; Matthew 3:7; Luke 3:7; 21:23; John 3:36; Romans 1:18; 2:5; 9:22; Ephesians 2:3 (children of wrath); 5:6; Colossians 3:6; 1 Thessalonians 1:10; Hebrews 3:11; 4:3; Revelation 6:16-17; 11:18; 12:12; 14:8,10,19; 15:1,7; 1:1,19; 18;3; 19:15
Get gets angry. Exodus 4:14; 11:10; 12:9; 22:22; 25:3-4; 32:10; Deuteronomy 4:25; 6:15; 7:4; 9:18-19; 13:17; 29:20,23-24,27-28; 31:17,29; 32:16,21-22; Joshua 7:1,26; 23:16; Judges 2:12,14,20; 3:8; 10:7; 2 Samuel 6:7; 24:1; 1 Kings 11:9; 14:9,15; 15:30; 16:2,7,13,26,33; 21:22; 22:53; 2 Kings 13:3; 17:11,17-18; 21:6,15; 22:17,19,26; 24:20; 1 Chronicles 13:10; 2 Chronicles 25:15; 33:6; 34:25; Ezra 9:14; Nehemiah 4:5; 9:5,13; Psalm 2:12; 6:1; 7:6,11; 21:9; 27:9; 38:3; 56:7; 69:24; 74:1; 76:7; 78:21,49,50; 79:5; 80:4; 85:3-5; 90:7,11; Ecclesiastes 5:6; Isaiah 1:4; 5:25; 9:12,17,21; 10:4-5,25; 12:1; 13:3,9,13; 42:25; 48:9 (God defers His anger); 63:3,6; 65:3; 66:15; Jeremiah 3:12; 4:8,26; 12:3; 15:14; 17:4; 18:23; 21:5; 23:20; 25:37-38; 30:23; 32:37; 33:5; 36:7; 42:18; 44:3,6; 49:37; 51:45; 52:3; Lamentations 1:12; 2:1,3,6,21-22; 4:11,16; Ezekiel 5:13,15; 7:3,8; 13:13; 20:8,21; 22:20; 25:14; 43:8; Daniel 9:16; Hosea 8:5; 11:9; Jonah 3:9; Micah 2:3; 5:15; Nahum 1:6; Zephaniah 2:2-3; Zechariah 10:3
Slow to anger (but still has anger). Joel 2:13b; Jonah 4:2; Nahum 1:3
Not angry for eve. Micah 7:18
God destroys [in anger] Genesis 6:13 (the flood); 19:12-13 (Sodom and Gomorrah); Amos 6:11; 9:8; Obadiah 8,15; Habakkuk 1:5-11; Haggai 2:22; Malachi 1:3; 2:16; Mark 12:9; 1 Corinthians 3:17; 10:8; James 4:12; 2 Peter 2:4-9,12
Godís fury. Daniel 9:16
Godís indignation. Malachi 1:3
God can be provoked to anger. Psalm 78:58; 106:29; Jeremiah 7:18-20; 8:19; 11:17; 25:6-7; 32:29-32; Ezekiel 8:17; 16:26
God can be provoked to jealousy. 1 Corinthians 10:22
God is the most loving being in the universes, but He also has the most wrath.
Q: In Mic 2:9, how can some one take Godís glory away from a child forever?
A: In our wills, and even who we grow up to be, we have a degree of interdependence with those around us.
Q: In Mic 2:11, why is it appropriate that false prophets would prophesy wine for this people?
A: A prophet like that would both prophesy what they people wanted, and what they were going to get. No supernatural gift was needed for a prophecy the people would only too gladly fulfill themselves. 2 Timothy 4:3 speaks of people who have "itching ears", and will listen only to preachers who say what they want to hear.
Q: In Mic 2:11, why do people tend to believe things that are pleasant to them?
A: This is a common trait of fallen human nature; people have a fallen version of hope. We want to believe things we hope are true, and can deceive ourselves. People want to call unpleasant things that are almost certain, as totally uncertain, and pleasing things that are very uncertain as certain. If you count the number of times in the news that someone stated something as a fact, when they could not it was a fact, you would count to a very high number.
Q: In Mic 2:12-13, absolutely no reason is given for these words of promise in Micah 1-2:10. Why do you think God promises this?
A: It has nothing to do with the people, per se. It has partly to do with God, and partly to do with Godís relationship with the people. God made promises to Abraham, David, and others, and God will keep His promise regardless. But God also loves the descendants of Abraham, and He will do this because of His love for them. Nothing at all indicates that they deserve it though
Q: In Mic 2:12 and Isa 34:6, where is Bozrah?
A: It was in Edom according to Amos 1:12. The Expositor's Bible Commentary volume 6 p.219, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : Old Testament p.1084 and the New Geneva Study Bible p.1081 say the capital of Edom is modern day Buseirah, which is 25 to 30 miles south of the Dead Sea.
Q: In Mic 3:1-2, why do some leaders, hate good and love evil?
A: Evil can be what criminals do, but evil can also be political, legal, and religious. Some leaders can be "symbionts", realizing their power only comes from unjustly favoring some over others.
Some people practice evil for no other reason except their own gain or security. But that is not necessarily loving evil. But others want to have "wicked smart" people as their allies, that they know will skirt the rules when it is in their benefit. Still others have a personal sense of pleasure in making the upright fall or seeing them afflicted.
Q: In Mic 3:2-4, is this speaking of actual cannibalism?
A: No. It is consuming peopleís souls for the sake of money. Micah is using such harsh, vivid language to convey the depth and obstinacy of the evil of the political, legal, and religious leaders.
Q: In Mic 3:4, does God ever keep his blessing away from people who ask for it?
A: Often He does. One has to ask why the people are asking for Godís blessings. When people want the blessings of a close relationship with God, while avoiding a close relationship of obedience to God, people do not always get what they want. James 4:3 speaks of people who ask God, and do not receive because they ask to use it for their own desires. See When Critics Ask p.311 for more info.
Q: In Mic 3:5-7,11 why does God sometimes give only silence people who say they want to hear Him?
A: People can "bite others" while they say peace. The Hebrews word for bite, nasak, can mean the bite of teeth, the bite of a serpent, and interest on a loan according to The Expositorís Bible Commentary vol.7 p.418.
Q: In Mic 3:9, what is the difference between not caring about justice and despising justice?
A: First some background, then the answer. The Hebrew word for despise, taíab, is a very strong one meaning to abhor. From 701 B.C. on, the leadership in Jerusalem was very weak. The Temple was destroyed and the king deported just over one hundred years later, in 597 B.C.
Some leaders care about justice for all, even those who did not support them. Other leaders donít really care if justice is served or not, as long as they get what they need. Perhaps they would rather not think about injustice. Still others believe "the end justifies the means" and any means just or not, is justified to get what they want. Some want a specific thing, such as to win an election. Others want all they can get, for themselves and their loyal supporters, and trying to satisfy those needs is never enough that they think "I can stop now."
Even in a church people can see Christ as just a means to get unjust gain. The Roman Catholic Pope Leo X said, "How well we know what a profitable superstition this fable of Christ has been for us and our predecessors." The pope's pronouncement is recorded in the diaries and records of both Pietro Cardinal Bembo (Letters and Comments on Pope Leo X, 1842 reprint) and Paolo Cardinal Giovio (De Vita Leonis Decimi, , op. cit.), two associates who were witnesses to it. This is in numerous places, including http://www.nairaland.com/372231/pope-leo-x-most-infamous. (Aug 12, 2016).
Q: In Mic 3:9, what are some examples in history of leaders despising justice?
A: Nabothís vineyard
The false decretals
The false decretals are 100 letters establishing the authority of the Popes. In them, Peter says that he was given authority to head Christís church on earth. Peter passed this authority to the next Pope, etc..
Most false decretals are "Pseudo-Isidorian" decretals, named after a man describing himself as "Isidore Mercator" who apparently wrote them in France and brought them to Metz, Germany between 847-859 A.D. They purport to be letters of Popes and church councils from 78-731 A.D. There are many plagiarized quotes, but overall the style is of one person.
Apparently the main motive behind the decretals was to establish more independence for the local bishops by saying they were responsible not to the metropolitans, synods, or the state, but only the pope. The false decretals had the profound effect of elevating the popes to a position greater than anybody else on this earth.
The decretals were used at the Synods of Worms (868), Cologne (887), Metz (893), and Tribur (895). The Orthodox church never accepted them, and they were rejected as forgeries in the west ~1100 A.D. Two insurmountable problems are that nobody ever heard of them before 850 A.D., and they have many historical anachronisms, i.e. "how come Popes quoted people born after their death?". Nevertheless, even in 1580 the Catholic Corpus Juris used the false decretals to prove Catholicism was correct. In 1628 it was still necessary for the Protestant David Blondel to refute the forgeries.
Character of some popes:
Should we join Pope Julius II, (The Warring Pope, 1504-1513) in his army, capturing, murdering, and looting in Italian cities to add to "Godís Kingdom", i.e. the Papal States?
How bad were some Popes? According to Austinís Topical History of Christianity, p.148,
"Then [after 904] began the so-called "pornocracy," during which Theodora and her two daughters, Theodora the Younger and Marozia, virtually controlled Rome and the church itself. Enticing harlots, these women had sold their bodies for positions, titles, and land, giving them widespread power. Marozia had an illicit affair with Pope Serius III, from which was born a son who later became Pope John XI. When Marozia sought to have herself crowned empress, her younger son Alberic kidnapped and imprisoned his mother, incarcerated his half brother, the pope, and became emperor himself. He reigned from 932 to 954, exercising absolute control over the papacy. After Albericís death, his son Octavian was elected as Pope John XII, and proved to be the most odious member of this depraved family.
b. The Otto Regimes. In 962, the wicked John XII crowned the German king Otto I as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Thinking he had an ally in depravity, John soon found the new emperor to be a man of character and devoted to restoring the papacy to decency and honor. When Otto assembled a synod to discuss deposing John, the pope threatened them all with excommunication, but they deposed him anyway. Three months later John called another synod which rescinded what Ottoís synod had done. Therefore Otto decided upon force to rid the papacy of its evil ruler.
... The next forty-two years [after 1004] of papal history were filled with intense rivalry, expedient mediocrity, spiritual impotence, vice, and corruption. It seemed to reach its lowest depth with the election of a degenerate twelve-year-old boy, Pope Benedict IX (1032-1045) who after shameful debauchery and erratic administration, sold the holy tiara (i.e. office of the Pope) to the highest bidder. He was known as Gregory VI (1045-1046)....
See also Manfred R. Lehmannís website (http://www.manfredlehmann.com/news/news_detail.cgi/23/0)
Q: In Mic 3:11-12 why do some who ignore God still trust in God to protect them?
A: Instead of leaning on the Lord, some try to remake God in their image.
People are deceiving themselves when they think of Christianity as nothing more than fire insurance. They see God many times as impotent, but they donít see their obedience as important. An American song states "God bless America", but a billboard was put up asking the question, "Does America bless God?"
Q: Why do you think Mic 4:1-3 almost identical with Isa 2:2-4?
A: This indicates that it is referring to the same event. There will be not only peace, but no threat of war; there will be no need for walled compounds and cities. Regardless of how much prosperity there is, there will be enough for all.
Q: In Mic 4:9-13, who is the woman in distress?
A: This is an allegory of the people of Judah and Israel. She is crying because of her loss. It is also like a woman in labor, for after the exile the returnees rebirthed their nation. See 1001 Bible Questions Answered p.139 for more info.
Q: In Mic 4:10, does this reference to Babylon show that, if this was not a divinely inspired prophecy vision of the future, then this indicates that Micah was written later, as Asimovís Guide to the Bible p.652-653 says?
A: Two points to consider in the answer.
1. Asimov probably says this because Babylon did not become the dominant world power until almost a century after Samaria was destroyed.
2. While this is a divinely inspired prophecy, Asimov overlooks some history here. Right after the Assyrians were stopped outside of Jerusalem, King Merodach-Baladan of Babylon sent ambassadors to Judah to make an alliance. King Hezekiah showed them everything in 2 Kings 20:12-15 and 2 Chronicles 32:31. God used Isaiah to tell Hezekiah that the people will be exiled to Babylon in 2 Kings 20:16-20.
In summary, the Babylonianís visit, combined with Isaiahís public prophecy at this time of Judahís exile, would not make Micah anachronistic.
Q: Why is Mic 4:11-13 poetic justice for the nations gathered against Jerusalem?
A: They gathered to devour and get the spoils of war. But God had a different idea. They end up gathering to be devoured and to become spoils of war.
Q: In Mic 5:2, why would Micah mention "Ephrathah" here?
A: There were two Bethlehemís, one in north, and one in Judah; Bethlehem Ephrathah was the Bethlehem in Judah. As Walter Kaiser says in Hard Sayings of the Bible p.335-336, "Ephrathah is the older name for Bethlehem. It comes from the word Ďto be fruitfulí, and that name is most appropriate for the birthplace of the one who would bring salvation to the earth." Bethlehem is called Ephrath in Genesis 35:19 and 48:7.
Also, one of Calebís wives was named Ephrath. Hur was their son, Salma was his son, and Salma was said to be the father of Bethlehem in 1 Chronicles 2:19,50-51.
Q: In Mic 5:2, what is surprising about Bethlehem here?
A: While Bethlehem was only 5 or 6 miles south by southwest of Jerusalem, it was far from it in terms of importance. It is so small and insignificant, that it was not even mentioned in the towns in Joshua 15 and Nehemiah 11. Since David had been born to Bethlehem, it was called the City of David. If it werenít for that, it would be called anything because nothing else happened there.
Q: In Mic 5:2b, how are the ruler of Israelís origins from old?
A: The Hebrew here literally means "days of immeasurable time". Jesus existed from ages past (John 1:1; 17:5; Hebrews 7:3). Before the very first second of time, Jesus was already begotten of God the Father.
Q: Since Mic 5:2 says "thousands" in the Masoretic text and the Septuagint, why does Mt 2:6 say "governors/rulers"?
A: Regardless of what Micah 5:2 says, this is what is reported the priests and teachers said to Herod. Let's look at four points that could explain why they said that.
1) Micah 5:2 says, "You, Bethlehem Ephratha, being least among the thousands of Judah you, He shall come forth to Me, to become ruler in Israel..." (Greenís Literal Translation) The point is that though Bethlehem was small in size, it will become great in importance.
2) The Hebrew word for "thousands" (plural) in Micah 5:2 is Ďalapim. The Greek equivalent is chiliasin. The Hebrew word for governors/rulers (plural) is Ďallupe. The Greek equivalent is hegemosin. While the Greek words are totally different, the Hebrew words are very similar, ignoring the vowels. The Old Testament was originally written with no vowels; they were only added about 700 A.D. This indicates they were not reading from the Greek Septuagint, but either the Hebrew, Aramaic, or possibly another Greek translation.
3) This was spoken by the priests and teachers of the law. They could have made a mistake, or they could have been quoting to Herod a Greek translation besides the Septuagint. More likely though, they could have been translating from Hebrew to Aramaic or Greek verbally as they were going along.
4) Actually though, the priests and teachers of the law did not make a mistake in conveying the meaning: small Bethlehem is NOT least in importance for the ruler who will come from there.
See Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p.318-319 for a complementary answer.
Q: In Mic 5:3, which prophesies that Israel would be abandoned until the Messiah comes, why do you think God did that?
A: While Scripture does not say, it might be like a playwright who sets the pace of the story, having a clam before the big scene.
Q: In Mic 5:4-5a, do you think this is a promise we can claim today, or is it only for us when we get to heaven?
A: It mentions "earth" so it is fulfilled on the earth. While it is ultimately fulfilled in the Millennium and the new heaven and earth, it is a promise we can claim to some extent now. Today God supplies us in His strength. Micah 5:5a says this shall be our peace, and this One is Jesus. Today we are to abide in God, and glorify His name to the ends of the earth.
Q: In Mic 5:5, why does it say seven shepherds and eight princely men?
A: Rulers in the Mideast were often called shepherds. This literary technique of coupling of numbers is also in Amos 1:3,6,9,11,13; 2:1,4,6 and Proverbs 30:15,18,21,29. It means the exact number is not important, it is the magnitude of the number. So in contrast to the vacuum of godly leaders, or even leaders at all, in Micahís time, there would be sufficient leaders to lead the people. See The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament p.1487, The New International Bible Commentary p.934, The Expositorís Bible Commentary vol.7 p.430, The New Geneva Study Bible p.1429, and the NIV Study Bible p.1376 for similar answers.
Q: In Mic 5:7, how are Godís people like dew from the LORD?
A: Dew is not conspicuous, but it waters everywhere. In Palestine, during the dry season, due was the primary means of crops getting moisture. Dew does not selectively target a few places; it goes everywhere. As we are a witness to the world, we might not be conspicuous, but Christians should go everywhere. We are the like a letter from Christ (2 Corinthians 3:3),. And the only letter from Christ some folks see.
Q: In Mic 5:12, why do people do witchcraft and spells, and how does Mic 5:12 relate to Mic 5:11 and 5:13?
A: Some do that because they think it might work, and others might not be sure, but do it just in case, and because they think it canít hurt. Some want to manipulate nature, spiritual forces, etc., to do their own bidding. Another part of the reason is a feeling of a sense of control over supernatural forces. Some people ask others to help them get some things, such as a love interest or to curse others. Sometimes people who sacrifice to idols or engage in the occult donít want anything, except to be left alone by demons. They have a fear of malevolent forces.
But even worse than this are people who just do it to make money, encouraging other people to do this.
Q: In Mic 5:12, why do you think that God is so against sorcery and soothsayers?
A: This is essentially acknowledging you believe in the supernatural, acknowledging that you need help, and turning to another instead of God. Imagine the weeks before a high school prom dance, and a guy asks a girl to go with him. How do you think he would feel if she said, "I really want to go to the prom dance, and I donít have anyone to go with, and I would rather go with just about anyone else instead of you." That may be a little like what people are telling God when they want to reject His help and protection, and go with evil demons instead.
Q: In Mic 6:1-2, why was Micah speaking to the hills and mountains?
A: This is a poetic use of a literary device called personification. God was calling the hills and mountains as witnesses of Godís faithfulness toward the Israelites and their unfaithfulness toward Him. As a side note, Isaiah, who lived at the same time, used similar literary devices.
Q: In Mic 6:3, how are some weary of religion and weary of God? What is the difference?
A: Some think they are weary of God, but they donít realize they are weary of religion. They are weary of doing the same things, meaningless to them, and see no result. But God says that even when we ask things of Him, with doubt instead of belief, we will get nothing (James 1:6-7). Some are actually weary of God, because they view obedience to God as keeping them from having the pleasure they really want to have. They do not see that man of Godís commands are not just for His glory, but also for our protection and benefit.
Q: In Mic 6:4-5, what is the remedy when we feel weary of serving God?
A: Draw near to God in a time of prayer.
Remember what God did for others in the past; read His Word.
Recall what God has done for you.
Plan how to start serving better God again from now forward.
Q: What does Mic 6:6-8, say about sacrifices in the Old Testament?
A: There is no command to discontinue sacrifices here. Five points to consider in the answer.
1. The speaker in this poetic passage is Micah, and not God.
2. Micah never says he will discontinue his sacrifices either. He will continue to bow before God, and bring burnt offerings.
3. Micah himself asks whether the Lord would be pleased with extravagant offerings, which God did not ask for, such as 1,000 rams, 10,000 rivers of oil, or human sacrifice of his firstborn. The implicit answer is, of course not.
4. Some might fail to see that Micah is speaking here of priorities. The most extravagant free-will offerings imaginable are not as good to God as to do justly and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with Him.
5. The immediate historical context here is probably the huge sacrifice Hezekiah made in 2 Chronicles 30:24, which included 1,000 bulls and 7,000 sheep in 2 Chronicles 30:24. Micah was putting a bit of a "damper" on this situation. As impressive as this sacrifice would look, God would be more impressed with the people all walking obediently with Him than with this outward show.
Q: In Mic 6:6-8, why is "walking" more important than sacrifices?
A: Sacrifice without obedience is useless and wearisome to God as Isaiah 1:14 says. If you are obediently pleasing God, you will want to do what sacrifices God wants. God cares about your heart as well as your actions. Jesus showed in Matthew 5:23-24 that if your brother has something against you, delay your sacrifice until you first settle the issue with your brother.
Q: In Mic 6:6-8, how were the people to obtain salvation here?
A: While people obtain salvation through God giving it to them, Micah 6:6-8 does not speak of salvation. Rather, for some one who is already a believer, Micah asks:
1) What he should bring to God
2) What God would be pleased with
3) And what God has showed is good and what does the Lord require.
It is interesting that the first two questions are answered by the following questions.
1) To know what you should bring to God, you should ask what would please God.
2) Instead of making up what God might be pleased with, ask what God has shown to be good and what does God require.
3) God has show that we should do justice, love mercy, and walk humbly with God.
See Hard Sayings of the Bible p.336-337 and 735 Baffling Bible Questions Answered p.209-210 for more info.
Q: In Mic 6:8, what is significant about the object of the sentence here?
A: The Hebrew word here adam means man. Thus, this is definitely not intended for just Israel but for all people.
Q: In Mic 6:6-8, why do some people get wrong ideas about how to please God?
A: When something first makes sense to you, you are more prone to believe it; even if it is not correct.
Taught wrong by others: Either they have only heard wrong things, or else they have heard both right and wrong things, and have chosen to believe the wrong things.
Easier to define: To say that God just wants you to obey laws sort of makes sense. After all, God gave a lot of laws. Also, God is a judge, and these are SMART: specific, measurable, actionable, realistic-looking or relevant, and time-bound. It is more cut and dry than being in a relationship with God.
Almost impossible to fail: To say that you only need to have loving-feelings towards God sounds more attractive. There is no struggle, no responsibility, sound nice. When someone views religious people who only care about obeying rules, sometimes they can react to the other extreme, and think Godís commands are no more than suggestions.
Feel better to achieve: In Matthew 7:21-23 many will try to tell Christ what they achieved, but Christ will say He never them those evildoers. Some can focus only on evangelism, or evangelism and discipleship, and if they work hard enough, then their lack of obeying god does not matter. Robin Hood was said to have the modus operandi of taking from the rich and giving to the poor. In other words, if you give some money to the poor, that excuses you robbing the rich. In the Middle Ages and later penance became a means of if you pay something to the church, or give up something, it excuses your sin.
There was a child care center that had a problem with parents picking up their children late. The staff could not go home when they were supposed to. So they started charging parents when they came late. The problem got worse instead of better, as the parents no longer felt any guilt for picking up their children late, since paying money would make it all right.
Finally, one reason is that they are not ultimately out to please God, but have their main goal as something else.
Q: In Mic 6:10-12, how do people cheat others by shortchanging them?
A: Back then, merchants would weigh out grain, metals, or other thing with weights where they would use a bar of known weight. However, if they deliberately made some bars lighter, or heavier, then they would be cheating others. It would be sort of like a gas pump where every time it said you pumped a gallon you only pumped 0.95 gallons. It would be like selling a house or care where you knew there was a problem but did not disclose it to the buyer.
Q: In Mic 6:11, what is a "deceitful weight"?
A: This is a weight that a trader deceitfully represents as either a certain weight, or else equivalent to another weight, as Deuteronomy 25:13 shows. For example, a cheating merchant, when weighing something out to sell it uses a weight labeled one kilogram that is really 0.95 kilograms. When he weighs out something to buy it he uses use a weight labeled 1 kilogram that is really 1.05 kilograms.
Q: In Mic 6:13-15, how will God shortchange their prosperity and happiness?
A: They will "eat but not be satisfied". Curiously God will still give them food and wealth. However, they will not keep or use well their food or wealth. If they think the answer to ultimate happiness is a lot of food and wealth, God will show them but letting them have those things, but not be satisfied.
There is a similarity between a hoarder of goods, and someone who goes the extra step of being dishonest to hoard wealth. They do not use dishonest weights, rob, and get ill-gotten treasures because they are starving. They are probably already well off, but want to hoard even more.
Q: In Mic 7, why does God not show mercy and then show mercy?
A: Three points to consider on the mercy of God.
1. Mercy is undeserved. Specifically, mercy is not getting the bad things you deserve.
2. God is under no obligation to give mercy to anyone. However, God is very merciful, and He delights to show mercy.
3. God is not required to give the same amount of mercy to everyone. As Romans 9 shows, God was just to both Esau and Jacob, but God had a special mercy to Jacob that He did not give to Esau.
Q: In Mic 7:1, what is bad about eating summer fruit?
A: It is not harvest time yet. The fruit can be small, bitter, and green. Even so, a little eaten now means a lot less at harvest time. People might still do this though, mortgaging their future, if they were desperate for food now.
Q: In Mic 7:1, how do people eat the summer fruit today?
A: People mortgage their future in a variety of ways.
Drastically, they harm their bodies with addictions to drugs, alcohol, and smoking.
More subtly, they can mortgage their future health with chronic low sleep, lack of exercise, and poor diet now. Occasionally, people can mortgage their future health with over exercise, or dangerously thrilling activities.
Financially, one can do a "reverse mortgage" where the bank pays them money every month for so many years, and at the end of the time the bank owns the entire house. Sometimes a person might only get back 50% of what they put in though, which would make this a horrible investment, unless the person is desperate.
With relationships they can betray or destroy a long-term friendship for immediate gain today.
Spiritually, they can get involved with the occult, or other things that can tend to give demons a "pull" on them for the rest of their life.
Character-wise, they can get involved in porn, a partying lifestyle, or other things that can also give demons a "pull" on them for the rest of their life. That is why it is so important to raise your kids well in the Lord.
Q: In Mic 7:3 what does doing evil with both hands mean?
A: They were not content just do to some evil to gain materially. They wanted to get greater gain by doing even more evil.
Q: In Mic 7:3, the last phrase is literally "weaving it all together". How do some oppressors in power weave together their net today?
A: The oppressed get hit form multiple side; unjust laws, Justin in the court system is too expensive for them, and people enforce injustice with laws. People violently hurt or rob them or illegally oppress, and they have no recourse.
Q: In Mic 7:4, how are some people like briers or thorns?
A: Some are like pretty roses but you get pricked by thorns when you get close to them. Others look ugly and have thorns too. Animals hurt their mouths if they graze on them.
Q: In Mic 7:5, who is the woman referred to here?
A: This woman would be the listenerís wife. The language is unusual here, implying a distance, or separation. It implies not only a lack of communication, but says there are legitimate reasons to keep information from her and not to trust her. This is a sad commentary on a marriage, when this situation is true. Marriages would be like this during these times of disobedience.
Q: In Mic 7:5-6, why is there often strife within a family?
A: Family members often have an expectation of unwavering, unconditional loyalty. It can be a jolt for family members to value an inheritance or money more than the people they grew up with. Addictions can also be a source of strife.
Q: In Mic 7:7-8, how do some believers wait for God in darkness for the light of their salvation and vindication?
A: They may be hard-pressed by others. Or they might have tribulations relating to health or finances. Or they might have discouragement that leads them to question if their work and ministry is even important, when a false prophet speaks lies.
Q: In Mic 7:14, why is a shepherdís staff important, and how does God metaphorically have a staff?
A: A staff has a crook in it so the shepherd can lift a sheep out of a tight spot. It can also be used as a club against predators.
Q: In Mic 7:16, what is a sense of shame, and why people sometimes have it, and sometimes lack it?
A: People have shown they are embarrassed about what they aid, or did, or even who they are. In Chinese culture shame means "red-faced". But some people have a conscience so deadened they no longer have any sense of shame.
Q: In Mic, what are some of the earliest manuscripts that still exist today?
A: Dead Sea scrolls: (300-200 B.C.) There are two copies of Micah among the Dead Sea scrolls, called 4Q81 (=4QXIIf) and 4Q82 (4QXIIg). The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated (p.479). Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p.271 says this was in the third century B.C. There is also a commentary on Micah called 1Q14 (=1QpMic) (The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated p.468.)
4Q81 contains Micah 5:1-2
4Q82 contains Micah 1:7,12-15; 2:3-4; 3:12; 4:1-2; 5:6-7; 7:2-3,20
See The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls p.418 for more info. However, The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated p.479 does not mention 4Q82 contains Amos, Jonah, and Micah.
Nahal Hever is a cave near Engedi, that has a fragment of the twelve minor prophets in Greek (8 Hev XIIgr). According to Manuscripts of the Greek Bible p.34, it is thought to be written between 50 B.C. and 50 A.D. It was hidden during the Bar Kokhba revolt against Rome. It is a revision of the Septuagint, made in Judea, and almost identical to the Masoretic text. It contains Micah 1:1-8; 2:7-8; 3:5-6; 4:3-10; 5:1-6 [LXX 2-7]
The wadi Murabb'at scroll (MurXII) is from c.132 A.D. It contains Micah 1:1-16; 2:1-13; 3:1-12; 4:1-14; 6:1-7,11-16; 7:1-20.
Overall, preserved in the Dead Sea scrolls, Nahal Hever, and wadi Murabbíat are following verses from Micah: 1:2-5,6,7,8,9,12-15; 2:2-3,6,10-11; 3:12; 4:1-2,13; 5:1-2, 6-7,14-16; 7:2-3,11,20. See The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls for more details.
Christian Bible manuscripts, from about 350 A.D., contain the Old Testament, including Micah. Micah is complete in both Vaticanus (325-250 A.D.) and Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.), where the books of the Twelve Minor Prophets were placed before Isaiah.
Hosea, Amos, and Micah were never present in Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.).
The New Testament quotes from Micah twice: Matthew 2:6; 10:35-36.
Q: Which early writers referred to Micah?
A: Pre-Nicene writers who referenced or alluded to verses in Micah are:
Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) mentions Micah as one of the twelve [minor prophets]. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.108 p.253
Melito/Meleto of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.)
Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (Implied) mentions the "Old Testament" and lists the books. He does not list the twelve minor prophets individually, but calls them The Twelve. Fragment 4 from the Book of Extracts vol.8 p.759
Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quoted from Micah
Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.20.4 p.451 mistakenly quoted Micah 7:9 as by Amos.
The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"
Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "Such are they of whom Micah the prophet says, "Hear the word of the Lord, ye peoples who dwell with pangs.í" Stromata book 4 ch.26 p.440
Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Therefore, since the sons of Israel affirm that we err in receiving the Christ, who is already come, let us put in a demurrer against them out of the Scriptures themselves, to the effect that the Christ who was the theme of prediction is come; albeit by the times of Daniel's prediction we have proved that the Christ is come already who was the theme of announcement. Now it behooved Him to be born in Bethlehem of Judah. For thus it is written in the prophet: ĎAnd thou, Bethlehem, are not the least in the leaders of Judah: for out of thee shall issue a Leader who shall feed my People Israel.í" [Micah 5:2] An Answer to the Jews ch.12 p.169
Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Concerning the forgiveness of sins, Micah also says," and quotes Micah 7:18-19. Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.10 p.358
Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) "through which the impassable Word of God came under suffering, as also the prophets testify to me. For thus speaks the blessed Micah:" and quotes Micah 2:7,8. Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.13-14 p.228
Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) "For thus speaks the blessed Micah: ĎThe house of Jacob provoked the Spirit of the Lord to anger. These are their pursuits. Are not His words good with them, and do they walk rightly? And they have risen up in enmity against His countenance of peace, and they have stripped off His glory. Ď" Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.15 p.229
Origen (240 A.D.) quotes Micah 2:9 as "this is what the divine Scripture expresses". Homilies on Jeremiah homily 28 ch.5 p.264 (translated by Jerome)
Origen (240 A.D.) quotes Micah 2:9 as "this is what the divine Scripture expresses". Homilies on Jeremiah Homily 28 ch.5 p.264 (translated by Jerome)
Origen (240-254 A.D.) (Greek) "Having spoken thus briefly on the subject of the divine inspiration of the holy Scriptures, it is necessary to proceed to the (consideration of the) manner in which they are to be read and understood,..." then he refers to Zechariah 9:10; Isaiah 7:15; Isaiah 11:6,7; Jeremiah 15:14; Exodus 20:5. He quotes 1 Samuel 15:11; Isaiah 45:7; Amos 3:6 Micah 1:12, and part of 1 Samuel 16:14; 18:10. Then Origen says, "and countless other passages like these - they have not ventured to disbelieve these as the Scriptures of God;" Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.47 p.595
Origen (225-254 A.D.) "the prophet Micah will prove when he says," and quotes Micah 6:8. de Principiis [Greek] book 3 ch.1.6 p.305
Treatise Against Novatian (c.248-258 A.D.) ch.12 p.661 quotes Micah 7:8-10 as by the Holy Spirit.
Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) quotes from Micah 6:6-9; 7:14-18 as by "Micah" in Treatise 12 the third ch.20 p.541.
Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) refers to Micah as Scripture.
Methodius of Olympus and Patara (270-311/312 A.D.) quotes Micah 4:4 as by Micah. The Banquet of the Ten Virgins Discourse 10 p.350
Athanasius (c.318 A.D.) quotes half of Micah
Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.) "For Micah announced that He would give a new law, in these terms: ĎThe law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. And He shall judge among many people, and rebuke strong nations.í" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.17 p.118
After Nicea (325 A.D.):
Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) (Implied because mentions the twelve prophets) "There are, then, of the Old Testament, twenty-two books in number; ... then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book...." Athanasius Easter Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.
Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D.)
Ephraim Syrus (350-378 A.D.)
Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) quotes half of Micah 2:7. On the Spirit ch.50 p.31
Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions the books of the Prophets, both of the Twelve and of the others. Micah 3:8 as in Micah, Joel 2:28 as in Joel, Haggai 2:4 as in Haggai, Zechariah 1:6 as in Zechariah. Catechetical Lectures Lecture 16.29 p.122
Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)
Gregory Nanzianzen (330-391 A.D.)
Didymus the blind (398 A.D.) quotes Micah 7:1-3 as by Micah the prophet. Commentary on Zechariah 12 p.294
Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.)
Rufinus (373-406 A.D.)
John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) refers to Micah 6:1 as by Micah Commentary on Romans Homily 5 p.366
Jerome (373-420 A.D.) discusses the books of the Old Testament. He specifically discusses Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, the Pentateuch, Job, Jesus son of Nave [Joshua], Judges, Ruth, Samuel Kings (2 books), twelve prophets, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai,, Zechariah, Malachi, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Esther, Ezra, Nehemiah, Letter 53 ch.7-8 p.99-101.
Council of Carthage (393-419 A.D.) (implied)
Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) mentions Micah in The City of God book 17 ch.30 p.376
Among heretics and spurious books
Tatian (died 172 A.D.) quotes from Micah.
Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) wrote an entire commentary on Micah, which we still have today.
After Nicea there are other writers too.
Q: In Mic, what are some of the translation differences between the Hebrew and Greek Septuagint?
A: Here are a few of the translation differences from Micah 1:1-10, the first being in Hebrew and the second being from the Greek Septuagint translation unless otherwise noted.
Mic 1:1 "of Moresheth" (Masoretic) vs. "son of Moresheth" (Septuagint)
Mic 1:2 "Let the peoples here" (Masoretic) vs. "hear [these] words, you peoples" (Septuagint)
Mic 1:2 "witness against you" (Masoretic) vs. "among you for a testimony" (Septuagint)
Mic 1:4 "mountains shall melt" (Masoretic) vs. "mountains shall be shaken" (Septuagint)
Mic 1:4 "valleys shall cleave themselves" (Masoretic) vs. "valleys shall melt" (Septuagint)
Mic 1:6 "ruins of the field" (Masoretic) vs. "store-house of the fruits of the field" (Septuagint)
Mic 1:7 "graven/carved images shall be beaten to pieces" (Masoretic) vs. "they shall cut in pieces all the graven/carved images" (Septuagint)
Mic 1:7 "all her gifts [or harlotry] shall be burned with fire." (Masoretic) vs. "all that she has hired they shall burn with fire" (Septuagint)
Mic 1:7 "they shall return to the reward of a harlot." (Masoretic) vs. "the hires of fornication has she amassed [wealth]" (Septuagint)
Mic 1:8 "I will wail and howl; I will go stripped and naked; I will make a wailing like the jackals" (Masoretic) vs. "she shall lament and wail, she shall go barefooted, and [being] naked she shall make lamentation as that of serpents" (Septuagint)
Mic 1:8 "daughters of ostriches" (Masoretic) vs. "daughters of sirens" (Septuagint)
Mic 1:9 "her wounds are incurable" (Masoretic) vs. "her plague has become grievous" (Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate)
Mic 1:10 "Do not declare [it] in Gath; do not sorely weep in the house of Leaphrah wallow [in] dust. (Masoretic) vs. "You (plural) that are in Geth, exalt not yourselves, and you Enakim, do not rebuild from [the ruins of] the house in derision: sprinkle dust [in the place of] your laughter." (Septuagint)
Mic 2:6 "They shall not return insult for insult" (Masoretic) (Masoretic) vs. "He shall not remove the reproaches" (Septuagint) (Masoretic) vs. "He shall not take shame" (Vulgate)
Mic 3:2 "chop them up like a kettle" (Masoretic) vs. "chop them up like meat in a kettle" (Septuagint)
Mic 4:10 "and I shall" (Masoretic) vs. "and [you] shall" (Septuagint, Syriac, Targum)
Mic 5:5 "Assyrians ... tread in our palaces" (Masoretic) vs. "Assyrians ... tread upon our soil" (Septuagint)
Mic 5:13 "I have made sick" (Masoretic) (Masoretic) vs. "I have begun" (Septuagint, Theodotion, Syriac, Vulgate). (Technically this is not a manuscript variant as the consonants are the same and originally vowels were not written)
Mic 6:13 "have made sick" (Masoretic) (Masoretic) vs. have begun" (Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate)
Mic 6:14 "Hunger shall be in your midst" (Masoretic) (Masoretic) vs. "You shall take hold" (Targum, Vulgate) vs. "there shall be darkness upon you" (Septuagint)
Mic 16:16a "the statutes/laws of Omri are kept" (Masoretic) vs. "you have kept the statutes/laws of Omri" (Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate, Targum)
Mic 6:16b "shame/scorn of/due my people" (Masoretic, Targum, Vulgate) vs. "shame/scorn of/due the nations" (Septuagint)
Mic 7:19 "cast all their sins" (Masoretic) vs. "cast all our sins" (Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate, Targum)
Bibliography for this question: the Hebrew translation is from Jay P. Greenís Literal Translation and the Septuagint rendering is from Sir Lancelot C.L. Brentonís translation of The Septuagint : Greek and English. The Expositor's Bible Commentary and the footnotes in the NASB, NIV, NKJV, and NRSV Bibles also were used.
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