Bible Query Early Manuscripts of Romans

Feb. 7, 2018 version

 

Q: In Rom, what are early New Testament manuscripts we have preserved today?

A: Here are many of them.

Green Collection #425 Rom 9:18-21 some Rom 10. early 3rd century

p10 (=Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 209) Romans 1:1-7 (4th century). Alexandrian text

4th century - 1968 - The Text of the New Testament.

p26 Romans 1:1-16 c.600 A.D. Agrees with Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus

c.600 A.D. -1968 - The Text of the New Testament.

p27 Romans 8:12-22,24-27; 8:33-9:3; 9:5-9 (3rd century) The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts has a picture of part of p27 on p.109.

3rd century - 1968 - The Text of the New Testament.

p31 Romans 12:3-8 7th century. Agrees with Sinaiticus

7th century - 1968 - The Text of the New Testament.

p40 Rom 1:24-27; 1:31-2:3; 3:21-4:8; (2 out of 19 letters of 6:2), 7 out of 62 letters or 6:3) 6:4-5; (7 out of 56 letters of 6:15); 6:16; 9:17,27 (3rd century) Alexandrian text.

3rd century - 1968 - The Text of the New Testament does not mention verses 6:2-3, 15

p46 Chester Beatty II 100-150 A.D. Romans 5:17-6:3; 6:5-14; 8:15-25,27-35; 8:37-9:32; 10:1-11:22; 11:24-33; 11:35-15:9; 15:11-16:27, and other parts of Paul's letters and Hebrews. (233 verses of Romans) The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts has a photograph of part of p46 on p.192. It also says on p.197-198 that the quality and the stichiometric marks show that a professional scribe wrote this.

First half of 3rd century - 1936 - Frederic G. Kenyon according to The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts.

2nd century, 200 A.D. - 1935 - Ulrich Wilken according to The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts.

200 A.D. - 1968 - The Text of the New Testament.

81-96 A.D. - 1988 - Young Kyu Kim according to The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts.

About 200 A.D. - 1975 - Aland et al. Third edition.

About 200 A.D. - 1998 - Aland et al. Fourth revised edition.

Early to middle 2nd century - 1999 - The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts. This is based in part on the handwriting being very similar to Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 8 (late first or early second century) and Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 2337 (late first century).

p61 Romans 16:23,25-27; 1 Corinthians 1:1-2, 2-6; 5:1-3, 5-6, 9-13; Philippians 3:5-9, 12-16, Colossians 1:3-7, 9-13, 1 Thessalonians 1:2-3; Titus 3:1-5, 8-11, 14-15 Philemon 4-7. c.700 A.D.

c.700 A.D. - 1968 - The Text of the New Testament.

About 700 A.D. - 1975 - Aland et al. Third edition.

About 700 A.D. - 1998 - Aland et al. Fourth revised edition.

p94 Romans 6:10-13,19-22 (5th/6th century)

p113 (=Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 4498) Romans 2:12-13,20 (3rd century)

Uncial 0220 (c.300 A.D.) Rom 4:23-5:3; 5:8-13 (c.300 A.D.) The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts p.646 says this manuscript agrees with Vaticanus everywhere except on Romans 5:1. It also says that while Rom 5:8-13 is there too, it is too damaged for reconstruction.

Vaticanus 325-350 A.D.

Sinaiticus 340-350 A.D.

Bohairic Coptic 3rd/4th century

Fayyumic Coptic 3th/4th century

Sahidic Coptic 3rd/4rth century

Alexandrinus c.450 A.D.

Gothic 493-555 A.D.

Ephraemi Rescriptus 5th century

Armenian [Arm] from 5th century

Claromontanus 6th century

Ethiopic [Eth] from c.500 A.D.

Palestinian Syriac [Syr Pal] from c.6th century

Peshitta Syriac [Syr P] 411-435 A.D. Over 350 manuscripts.

Harclean Syriac [Syr H] 616.A.D Thomas of Harkel

 

Q: In Rom, what are the textual variations with the Textus Receptus, the basis for the KJV?

A: Jay P. Green, Sr. in the Interlinear Bible records variations in approximately 55 words between the Textus Receptus and the majority text. These are in 40 places. (These are in chapters 1, 2, 4, 7-15). This is not counting moving 16:25-27 to the end of chapter 14. In addition, he also records approximately 3 words (3 places) of alternates.

 

Q: In Rom, what are some of the textual variations?

A: Paul's Letter to the Romans has a total of 7,111 Greek words in 433 verses. This is the count in both Aland et al. 3rd edition and Aland et al. 4th revised edition, including 37 words in brackets. The text of the 3rd edition is on-line at http://www.greekbible.com. Romans has an estimated word-for-word accuracy of 96.4%, with 254 words in question. These are in 99 verses (111 places). Of these, 84 are single word, 12 are double word, and 7 are triple word, 1 is four word, 1 is five word, 1 is seven word, and 1 is 8 word. The largest 5 variants are ten words, eleven words, 13 words, 14 words, and the placement of 53 words. Of the other variants, we are virtually certain of the original reading, 50 variant words in 25 places are listed below, in non-bold, where we are virtually certain, so these are not counted in the totals.

Below are the variations with the primary choice and the top alternate choice. Aland et al. 4th revised edition and 3rd edition, from which this primarily is based, also give a judgment of the degree of certainty per variation. The list below does not include many places where the evidence for a particular reading is so strong that the alternatives are very unlikely. See the next question for which manuscripts support which variants.

Rom 1:1 "Christ Jesus" (p10, Vaticanus) vs. "Jesus Christ" (p26, Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, Byzantine Lectionary, Sahidic Coptic, Bohairic Coptic, Georgian, Chrysostom)

Rom 1:3 "coming from the seed of David" vs. "being born of the seed of David" (2 letters) (Origen, Syr Pal, apparent Byzantine) (1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 1:7a "being in Rome beloved of God" (almost all manuscripts) vs. "being beloved of God" (Italic, Origen, bilingual "G" ninth century, and 9th-11th century manuscripts, so 2 words not counted in the totals) See A Textual Commentary on the New Testament fourth revised edition by Bruce Metzger p.447 for more info.

Rom 1:7b "beloved of God" (p10, p26, Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus, Sahidic Coptic, Bohairic Coptic, Armenian, Origen) vs. "in the love of God" (some Italic) vs. absent (the support is overwhelming for the first way, so 2 words not counted in the totals.)

Rom 1:13 "not I wish" vs. "not I think" (Since Aland et al. call this variation "virtually certain" and no major manuscripts have this variation, these 2 words are not counted in the totals.)

Rom 1:15 "to you in Rome preach" vs. "preach" (bilingual G and the Latin translation of Origen) (3 words, though the support is overwhelming for the first way.)

Rom 1:16a "the gospel" vs. "the gospel of Christ" (only in later manuscripts so 2 words not counted in the totals)

Rom 1:16b "to the Jew first" (most manuscripts) vs. "to the Jew" (Vaticanus, G, some Italic, Sahidic Coptic, Tertullian, Ephraem) (1 word)

Rom 1:29 "iniquity, covetousness, malice" vs. "iniquity, malice, covetousness" vs. "malice, iniquity" vs. "sexual immorality iniquity, covetousness, malice"

Rom 1:31 "heartless/without affection, unmerciful/ruthless" vs. "heartless/without affection, implacable, unmerciful/ruthless"

Rom 2:2 "but that the judgment" vs. "for that the judgment"

Rom 2:5 "revelation, righteous judgment of God" vs. "revelation and righteous judgment of God" (only in harclean Syriac, Textus Receptus, and later manuscripts, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 2:8 "the truth" vs. "indeed/truly the truth" (only in Harclean Syriac and textus Receptus, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 2:13 "the God" vs. "God" (only in Vaticanus and original Bezae Cantabrigiensis, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 2:16 "Christ Jesus" vs. "Jesus Christ"

Rom 2:17 "But if (ε δ )" vs. "Loe/behold" (only in later manuscripts, so 2 words not counted in the totals)

Rom 3:7 "but" vs. "for"

Rom 3:9 "do we excel, not at all: vs. "are we excelling, not at all" (3 words)

Rom 3:11 "no one is seeking God" vs. "no one is seeking God" (missing the Greek word "o" which has no English equivalent. Only in Alexandrinus and Vaticanus, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 3:12 absent vs. "not is"

Rom 3:22 "to all" vs. "with all"

Rom 3:25 "through faith" vs. "through the faith"

Rom 3:26 "Jesus" (Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus, Ephraemi Rescriptus, Byzantine) vs. "Jesus Christ" (Bohairic Coptic, some Italic) vs. "Lord Jesus the Messiah" (Syriac Peshitta) (1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 3:28 "for" vs. "then"

Rom 4:1a "shall we say Abraham our ancestor" vs. "shall we say Abraham our father" vs. "Abraham our father shall we say"

Rom 4:1b "by Abraham" vs. "About Abraham"

Rom 4:11 "to be counted also" vs. "to be counted"

Rom 4:15 "for" (different Greek words)

Rom 4:19a "he considered" vs. "not he considered"

Rom 4:19b "already to have died" vs. "to have died"

Rom 4:22 "therefore also vs. "Therefore"

Rom 5:1 "we have" vs. "let us have"

Rom 5:2 "by faith" vs. "in by faith" vs. absent (2 words)

Rom 5:6 absent vs. "yet for"

Rom 5:8 "to us God" vs. "to us" vs. God to us" (2nd is only in Vaticanus. 3rd is only in Bezae Cantabrigiensis, later Irenaeus, and later manuscripts to 2 words not counted in the totals)

Rom 5:12 "death passed" vs. "passed death" vs. "passed"

Rom 5:17 "gift of" vs. "of the gift and of" vs. "of"

Rom 5:19 "one [Jesus Christ] vs. "one man [Jesus Christ]" (Only in Irenaeus and Bezae Cantabrigiensis, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 6:4 "therefore" vs. "for"

Rom 6:8 "for" (different Greek words)

Rom 6:11 "Christ Jesus " vs. "Christ Jesus our Lord" (Sinaiticus, Ephraemi Rescriptus, Byzantine, [Palatine Syriac], Bohairic Coptic) (3 words)

Rom 6:12 "the lusts of it" vs. "it" vs. "it in the lusts of it"

Rom 6:16 "sin unto death" vs. "sin"

Rom 6:21 "truly/indeed (the) end of those" vs. "(the) end of those")

Rom 7:6 "law, dying", vs. "law, the death"

Rom 7:14 "we know" (oidamen) vs. "I know indeed) (oida men) the only difference is a space, so 1 word not counted in the totals

Rom 7:18 "good where" vs. "good, not I find"

Rom 7:20 "I do not will" vs. "[I] do not will"

Rom 7:22 "God" vs. "mind" (Vaticanus only, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 7:23 "captive in the law" vs. "captive the law" (2 words)

Rom 7:25 "grace even of God" vs. "I thank God"

Rom 8:1 "Jesus" vs. "Jesus, walking not according to the flesh" vs. "Jesus, walking not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit." (8 words) (See the discussion on Romans 8:1 for more info.)

Rom 8:2 "you (singular)" vs. "me" vs. "us"

Rom 8:11a "Jesus from death" vs. "the one Jesus from death"

Rom 8:11b "Christ" vs. "the Christ" vs. "Christ Jesus" vs. "Jesus" (2 words)

Rom 8:11c "the indwelling of the him spirit" vs. the same. (different Greek words for "the" and "spirit" (2 words)

Rom 8:11d "through the Spirit" vs. "on account of the Spirit" (NRSV margin)

Rom 8:21 "hope, that" vs. "hope, because" vs. "hope,"

Rom 8:23 "groaned, adoption" vs. "groaned"

Rom 8:24a "he hopes" vs. "he endures/awaits"

Rom 8:24b "see anyone" vs. "sees anyone why also"

Rom 8:26 "intercedes/pleads our case" vs. "intercedes/pleads our case for us" (2 words)

Rom 8:28a "work together" vs. "work together with God"

Rom 8:28b "all things work together for good" vs. "God makes all things work together for good" vs. "in all things God works for good" (approximately 3 words)

Rom 8:34 "raised" vs. "raised from death" (2 words)

Rom 8:35 "Christ" vs. "God"

Rom 8:38 "nor powers nor present nor things to come" (Alexandrinus) vs. "nor present nor things to come nor powers" (Byzantine) (2 words)

Rom 9:4 "the covenants" vs. "the covenant"

Rom 9:5 "fathers and from whom" vs. "fathers from whom" (only in some early church writers so 1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 9:19 "why yet does He find fault with me" vs. "why yet does He find fault"

Rom 9:23 "and that he made known" vs. "and he made known"

Rom 9:28a "bring to an end" vs. "bring to an end in righteousness" (2 words)

Rom 9:28b "for the Lord will execute his sentence on the earth quickly and decisively" vs. "for he will finish his work and cut it short in righteousness because the Lord will make the sentence shortened on the earth" approximately (13 words)

Rom 9:32 "works" vs. "works of law"

Rom 9:33 "and" vs. "and each/every"

Rom 10:1 "they for may being saved" vs. "they be for may being saved" vs. "Israel be for may be saved" (3 words)

Rom 10:3 "God's righteousness" vs. "God's"

Rom 10:5a "law, doing" vs. "law, the doing"

Rom 10:5b "things man shall live" vs. "things shall live"

Rom 10:9 "Jesus" vs. "Jesus Christ" (p46)

Rom 10:14 "they might/may hear" (subjunctive) vs. "they hear" (indicative) vs. "they will hear" (future)

Rom 10:15 "feet" vs. "feet of those preaching the gospel of peace" (3 words)

Rom 10:17 "Christ" vs. "God"

Rom 11:1 "the people" vs. "the property/blessing"

Rom 11:6 "becomes grace." vs. "becomes grace. But if of works, no longer grace" vs. "no longer grace, otherwise it would no longer be work" approximately (14 words)

Rom 11:16 "if now" vs. "now"

Rom 11:17a "rich root" vs. "richness"

Rom 11:17b "the root [of] the fatness" vs. "the root and [of] the fatness"

Rom 11:21 "not how neither" vs. "neither" vs. "not" (2 words)

Rom 11:25 "in (εν)" vs. "for/in (παρ')" vs. [absent]

Rom 11:31 "these now disobeyed" vs. "these disobeyed"

Rom 11:32 "all" (pantas) masculine (Byzantine Lectionary, Syriac, Sahidic Coptic, Bohairic Coptic, Fayyumic Coptic, Gothic, Armenian, Origen (later), Chrysostom) vs. neuter (panta) (original Claromontanus, Italic, Vulgate, Irenaeus Against Heresies 1.9.3, Ambrose)

Rom 12:1 "well-pleasing to God" vs. "to God well-pleasing" (only in Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 12:2 "reasonable service" vs. "reasonable service of you" (="your reasonable service")

Rom 12:11 "Lord" vs. "time" (time is only in the Latin and Origen's version, and mentioned in the NRSV footnote) (1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 12:14 "persecuting you" vs. "persecute"

Rom 12:15 "rejoice with rejoicing ones, weep with weeping ones" vs. "rejoice with rejoicing ones and weep with weeping ones" (only in Tertullian, Alexandrinus, Peshitta Syriac, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 12:17 "before all men" vs. "before [the] God and before all men" (corrected Alexandrinus) vs. "before the only God and before all men" (Vulgate, Gothic, Lucifer) vs. "before men" (Italic d, Lucifer) (4 words not counted in the totals)

Rom 13:1 "Let all be be subject to the authorities" vs. "Let all souls be subject to the authorities above" (5 words)

Rom 13:5 "it is necessary to be subject to authorities" vs. "and be subject to the authorities"

Rom 13:9 "do not steal. "do not steal. Do not lust" (2 words)

Rom 13:11 "your" vs. "our" (1 letter difference)

Rom 13:11 "now (kairon)" vs. "Lord (kurion)" (only Clement of Alexandria in Stromata book 4 ch.22 p.435. (1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 13:12 "we should cast off" (different Greek word) (3 letters)

Rom 14:2 "eats herbs" vs. "has eaten herbs" (only p46 and Bezae Cantabrigiensis, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 14:4 "Lord" vs. "God"

Rom 14:5 absent vs. "for"

Rom 14:6 "he minds" vs. "and not minding the days to the Lord, minding" (only in Peshitta Syriac, Harclean Syrian, Armenian, and the Textus Receptus, so 9 words not counted in the totals)

Rom 14:9 "died and lived" vs. "died and rose" vs. "also died and rose and lived" (3 words)

Rom 14:10 "God" vs. "Christ"

Rom 14:12 absent vs. "to God"

Rom 14:16 "you"(plural) vs. "us"

Rom 14:19 "let us pursue" vs. "we pursue/are pursuing"

Rom 14:21 "stumbles" vs. "grieves" vs. "stumbles or be upset or weakened" (4 words)

Rom 14:22 "do you faith have?" vs. "do you faith not have?"

Rom 14:23 See Rom 16:25-27

Rom 15:7 "you" (plural) vs. "us"

Rom 15:8 "Christ" vs. "Jesus Christ" (only in Bezae Cantabrigiensis and later manuscripts) vs. "Christ Jesus" (Vulgate) (1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 15:15 "Holy" vs. "Holy Spirit" vs. "Holy God"

Rom 15:19 "Spirit of God" vs. "Spirit" vs. "Holy Spirit" (2 words)

Rom 15:23 "many years" vs. "a number of years"

Rom 15:24 "Spain" (most manuscripts) vs.
"Spain, I will come to you" (Byzantine Lectionary, Syr H, some Georgian) (3 words)

Rom 15:29 "Christ" vs. "the Gospel of Christ"

Rom 15:31 "ministry" vs. "gift" vs. "bring of a gift" (2 words)

Rom 15:32a "In joy coming to you through [the] will of God" vs. "coming in joy to you through [the] will of Jesus Christ"

Rom 15:32b "I may" vs. "and I may"

Rom 15:33 "amen" vs. [absent]

Rom 16:3 "Prisca" vs. "Priscilla" (only in Peshitta Syriac, harclean Syriac, Ethiopic, and later manuscripts, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 16:7a the name "Junias" vs. another name

Rom 16:7b "were" vs. "have been" (2 letters)

Rom 16:8 "our Lord Christ" vs. "our Lord Jesus Christ" (Coptic, Armenian) (1 word not counted in the totals)

Rom 16:10 "our Lord Jesus" vs. "Our Lord Jesus Christ" (Alexandrinus, Ephraemi Rescriptus, Byzantine, Syriac, Coptic)

Rom 16:15 the name "Julia". vs. "Junius"

Rom 16:20 "Jesus" vs. "Jesus Christ"

Rom 16:22 "I Tertius, the writer of this letter, greet you in the Lord" vs. absent vs. "I Tertius writing this letter in the Lord, greet you" (NRSV) (10 words)

Rom 16:24 The entire verse which says, "May the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with all or you. Amen." vs. absent in many Alexandrian manuscripts) (11 words)

Rom 16:25-27 all three verses are absent or moved to after Rom 14:23. (53 words)

Rom 16:27a "to whom" vs. "to him" (not counted in the totals since Rom 16:25-27 already counted)

Rom 16:27b literally "ages" vs. "ages of ages". In other words, "forever" vs. "forever and ever." (2 words not counted in the totals since Rom 16:25-27 already counted)

Postscript: Some later manuscripts postscripts. Sinaiticus, Aleandrinus, Vaticanus, Ephraemi Rescriptus, and Bezae Cantabrigiensis just have "to Romans". Others have, "to Romans written from Corinth, by/of/through/via Phoebe servant of the Cenchrea church/assembly." (None of these are early manuscripts, so about 10 words not counted in the totals)

Bibliography for this question: The Greek New Testament Third Edition by Kurt Aland et al., The Greek New Testament Fourth Edition by Kurt Aland et al., Interlinear Greek-English New Testament by George Ricker Berry, the Interlinear Bible by Jay P. Green, The Expositor's Bible Commentary volume 8, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament 2nd edition by Bruce M. Metzger, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture by Bart Ehrman, The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts edited by Philip W. Comfort and David P. Barrett, The Expositor's Greek Testament edited by W. Robertson Nicoll, and footnotes in the NASB, NIV, NKJV, and NRSV Bible translations. Manuscripts of the Greek Bible : An Introduction to Paleography by Bruce M. Metzger also has interesting information on the characteristics and quality of the copying of each manuscript.

 

Q: In Rom, how do the early manuscripts compare with each other?

A: The table below shows each of the places in question, and the number says which variant is in each manuscript.


This chart shows variants of early writers and manuscripts of Romans. The darker the shading the later the writing. Shaded verses mean we are virtually certain of the correct reading. For each verse, the variant Aland et al. views as correct is labeled as "1", the next choice "2", and so on. Corrections to manuscripts by later scribes are not included. "A" after a choice simply means the choice with the fewest words. A question mark means it is probably but not certain the manuscript had these words. Parentheses means fragmentary or hard to read. Where there is more than one number, such as "1 /2?", this means that one or more manuscripts in the family give the first choice, and one or more manuscripts are not clear, but appear to give the second choice. A parenthesis, such as (6), means that through translation or loss of letters are not sure, but it appears to support reading 6. Other writers that are not shown here are Marcion per Tertullian, Marcion per Adamantius, Athanasius, Victorinus-Rome, Basil, Julian-Eclanum, Pacian, Epiphanius, Theodoret, Gregory-Nissa, Orosius, Didymus, Niceta, Ambrose, Jerome, Cyril, Priscillian, Pachomius, Quodvultdeus, Optatus, Gaudentius, Amphilochius, Varimadum

Place of variant

words

p46

Polycarp

Iren

ClemA

Tert

Origen

Nov

Cyp

0220

Adam

Method

Pet A

p26

p27

p61

p40

p94

0221

048

0172

B

Si

p10

Ambstr

Hilary

Lucif.

Chrys

Pelag

Aug

Vulgate fam.

A

C

Ital b

Ital d

Theodore

Eth

D

Arm

Geo

Syr Pal

Syr P

Syr H

Sah

Boh

Fay

Byz

Place of variant

Rom 1:1

1

-

-

1 lat

-

-

1/ 2

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

2

1

 

-

-

2

2

 

1/ 2

2

-

2

2

 

(2)

-

1/2

-

2

2

2

2

2

-

2

Rom 1:1

Rom 1:7a

2

-

-

-

-

-

2/ 3

-

-

-

-

-

-

1?

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

1

1

 

-

-

1

1

 

1

1

1

1

1

 

1

-

1

-

1

1

1

1

1

1

-

Rom 1:7a

Rom 1:7b

2

-

 

 

 

 

1

-

-

-

-

 

 

1

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

1

1

 

-

 

1

 

 

1

1

1

 

 

 

1

-

1

-

 

 

 

1

1

1

-

Rom 1:7b

Rom 1:13

2

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

1

-

 

-

-

1

-

 

1

1

1

2

2

 

(1)

2

1

1

-

(1)

1

(1)

1

-

1

Rom 1:13

Rom 1:15

3

-

-

-

-

-

1/ 2

-

-

-

-

-

-

1?

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

1

-

 

-

-

-

1

 

1

1

1

1

1

 

(1)

1

1

-

1

1

1

1

1

-

1

Rom 1:15

Rom 1:16a

2

-

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

 

 

 

 

1

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

1

1

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rom 1:16a

Rom 1:16b

1

-

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

2

 

-

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

Rom 1:16b

Rom 1:29

1

-

-

-

-

-

(2)/3/4/5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

1?

1

2

-

 

-

(4)

1

(3)

 

(4)

2

2

(4)

3

 

2

-

4

(2)/ 4

-

(4)

4

2

(2?)

-

4

Rom 1:29

Rom 1:31

1

-

-

-

-

 

1/ 2

-

 

-

 

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

1

-

 

 

-

2

1

 

1?/2

1

2

1

1

 

-

1

2

2

-

2

2

1?

1

-

2

Rom 1:31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rom 2:2

1

-

-

-

-

1

1 lat

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

2

-

1

-

-

2

-

 

2

1

2

-

2

-

3

-

2

-

-

(1)

1

1/2

2

-

1

Rom 2:2

Rom 2:5

1 and

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

 

 

Rom 2:5

Rom 2:8

1 truly

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rom 2:8

Rom 2:13

1

-

 

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

1

-

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

 

Rom 2:13

Rom 2:16

1

-

-

-

-

-

(1)/2

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

1

-

 

-

-

2

2

 

1/ 3?

2

-

1

1

 

2

3

2

1/2

-

2

2

2

2

-

2

Rom 2:16

Rom 2:17

2

 

 

 

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

1

1

-

 

1

 

1

1

1

 

 

1

2

1

1

-

 

Rom 2:17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rom 3:7

1

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

2

1

-

 

-

-

2

2

 

1?/2

1

-

2

2

 

2

2

-

-

-

2

2

2

1

-

2

Rom 3:7

Rom 3:9

3

-

-

-

-

-

3/ 4

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

1

-

3

 

-

2

3

 

1

1

-

-

3

3

3

2

1

-

-

(3)

(3)

1?

1

-

1

Rom 3:9

Rom 3:11

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

2A

1

-

 

-

-

-

-

 

-

2A

-

-

-

 

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Rom 3:11

Rom 3:12

1

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

2

1

-

 

-

-

-

1

 

1

1

-

3

3

 

1

1

1

1

-

-

1

1

1

-

1

Rom 3:12

Rom 3:22

1

-

-

-

1

-

1/ 3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

 

-

-

1

1

-

 

-

-

3

2

 

2/ 3

1

1

3

3

 

-

3

1

3

1

3

3

1

1

-

3

Rom 3:22

Rom 3:25

1

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1?

-

 

-

-

1

2

-

 

-

-

1

3

 

3?

4

2

3

(3)

 

3

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

Rom 3:25

Rom 3:26

1

-

-

-

2

-

4 lat

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

1

-

4

-

-

1

4

1

1/ 4

1

1

-

4

-

1

-

1

-

4

5

1

1

1?/4

-

1

Rom 3:26

Rom 3:28

1

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

2

1

-

 

-

-

2

1

 

1

1

2

1

1

 

(1)

1

1

-

1

2

2

1

1

-

2/ 3

Rom 3:28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rom 4:1a

1

-

-

-

-

-

1/ 3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

2

1

-

 

-

-

4

3

 

3

1

1

3

3

 

-

3

1

3

1

(1)

-

1

(1)

-

4

Rom 4:1a

Rom 4:1b

1

-

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rom 4:1b

Rom 4:11

1

-

-

-

-

-

1/ 2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

2

2

-

 

-

-

-

-

 

1/ 2?

2

1

2

1

 

(1)

1

1

2

1

1

1

1/ 2

2

-

1

Rom 4:11

Rom 4:15

1

-

-

-

-

-

1/ 2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

1

-

 

-

-

-

2

 

1?/2

1

1

2

2

 

1

-

1

-

-

2

2

1

1

-

2

Rom 4:15

Rom 4:19a

1

-

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-

-

1/ 2

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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1

1

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-

-

1/ 2

2

 

1/ 2

1

1

2

2

 

1

2

(1)

2

-

1

2

1

1

1

2

Rom 4:19a

Rom 4:19b

1

-

-

-

-

-

1/ 2

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

2

1

-

 

-

-

2

2

 

1?/2

1

1

2

2

 

2

1

1

1/ 2

2

2

1

2

1

-

1

Rom 4:19b

Rom 4:22

1

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

2A

1

-

 

-

-

-

1

 

1/ 2A?

1

1

2

-

 

1

2A

2A

1

2A

2A

1

2A

2A

-

1

Rom 4:22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rom 5:1

1

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

1?

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

2

2

-

 

-

-

2

2

 

1?/2

2

2

2

2

 

2

2

2

1

-

-

-

1

1

-

1/ 2

Rom 5:1

Rom 5:2

2

-

-

-

-

-

1/ 3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

3

1

-

 

-

-

1/ 2

-

 

1/ 2?

2

1

1

3

 

1

3

1

1

1

1

1

3

1

-

1

Rom 5:2

Rom 5:6

1

-

-

4

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

-

1

-

 

-

-

2

4

 

3?/4

1

1?

4

4

 

2

1

2

2

(3)

(2)

 

3

(3)

-

2

Rom 5:6

Rom 5:8

2

-

 

3 lat

 

 

 

-

-

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

2

1

-

 

-

-

 

-

 

-

1

1

-

-

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rom 5:8

Rom 5:12

1

-

-

-

-

-

1 lat/ 3

-

-

1?

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

4

1

-

3

-

-

2

-

1

1

1

1

-

3

-

3

1

1

-

1

1

1/ 3

4

1

1

1

Rom 5:12

Rom 5:17

1

1

 

 

 

 

3/ 4

-

-

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

4A

1

-

 

 

 

2/ 4A

 

 

2

1

1

 

 

 

-

1

1

-

 

2

2

4A

1

1

1

Rom 5:17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rom 6:4

1

-

-

-

-

1

2/ 3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

1

-

 

-

-

1

2

 

2

1

1

2

1

 

1

1

2

2

1

3

1

1?

1

-

1

Rom 6:4

Rom 6:8

1

2

-

-

-

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

1

-

 

-

-

-

1

 

1/ 2?

1

1

1

1

 

1

1

1

1

1

(2)

1

1

1

-

1

Rom 6:8

Rom 6:11

3

1

-

3 lat

-

1/ 4

1/ 2/ 3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2?

 

-

-

1

2

-

 

1

-

2

1

 

1/ 2

1

2

1

1

 

(2)

1

2

1/ 2

(2)

(2)

1

1

2

-

2

Rom 6:11

Rom 6:12

1

2

-

2 lat

-

2

1/ 2

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

1

 

-

-

1

1

-

 

 

-

3

1

 

1

1

1

2

2

 

1

-

1

3

-

1

3

1

1

-

3

Rom 6:12

Rom 6:16

1

-

 

 

 

 

1/ 2

-

-

 

-

 

 

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

1

1

-

 

 

 

1

 

 

1/ 2

1

1

 

 

 

1

2

2

 

1

2

1

1

2

-

1

Rom 6:16

Rom 6:21

1 truly

 

 

 

1

 

 

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

2?

 

 

 

2

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

Rom 6:21

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rom 7:6

1

-

 

 

 

 

1/ 2

-

-

 

-

 

 

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

3

3

-

 

 

 

1

 

 

1/ 2

3

3

 

 

 

1

3

1/2

1

1

1

1

1

1

-

1

Rom 7:6

Rom 7:14

1

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

3

3

-

 

1

-

1

1

 

1

3

3

1

1

 

1

3

1?/2?

1

-

1

1

1

1

-

1

Rom 7:14

Rom 7:18

1

-

-

2

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

1

-

 

-

-

2

2

 

1

1

1

2

2

 

2

2

1

4

-

1

1

1

1

-

2

Rom 7:18

Rom 7:20

1

-

-

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

2A

1

-

 

-

-

1

2

 

2A

1

2A

-

2

 

2A

2A

2A

2A

-

-

1

2A

1

-

1

Rom 7:20

Rom 7:22

1

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

1

-

 

3A

-

1

1

 

 

2

1

1

1

 

1

1

-

-

-

1

1

1

1

-

1

Rom 7:22

Rom 7:23

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

-

 

 

-

 

 

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

1

1

-

 

 

 

2

 

 

1

2

2

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

 

 

1

1

-

1/ 2

Rom 7:23

Rom 7:25

2

-

 

(6)

-

 

2/ 3

-

-

-

-

1?/2

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

-

5

-

 

-

-

(5)

3

 

3

5

-

3

3

 

 

3

1

1/ 5

 

5

5

2

1

-

5

Rom 7:25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rom 8:1

8

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

1

-

 

-

-

2

2

 

2

2

-

1

1

 

(1)

1

1ms

1/ 2

-

-

3

1

1

-

2

Rom 8:1

Rom 8:2

1

-

-

-

2

1/ 2

2

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1

1

-

 

-

-

2

1

 

2

2

-

1

2

 

3

2

2

1/ 2

3

1

2

2

3

-

2

Rom 8:2

Rom 8:11a

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

1

6

-

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

6

7

 

 

 

?

5

2

 

 

 

 

3

-

 

2

Rom 8:11a

Rom 8:11b

2

 

 

 

1

 

2

-

-

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rom 8:11b

Rom 8:11c

2

-

-

2 lat

1

2

2 lat

-

-

-

1/ 2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

2

1

-

 

2

-

2

2

 

2

1

1

2

2

 

1

2

1

1

(2)

2

1

1

1

-

2

Rom 8:11c

Rom 8:11d

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rom 8:11d

Rom 8:21

1

1

-

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

1