What Nicea Until Ephesus Christians Taught on Doctrine

May 13, 2024 version - unfinished

 

Here is a consensus of what four or more writers said, and none contradicted, from Nicea (325 A.D.) until the Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.). You can read the quotes and context of them at www.archive.orghttp://www.ccel.org, and www.tertullian.org.

 


Contents

Bible Importance. 7

Sc1. Study or obey God’s Word as an authority. 7

Sc2. Old Testament has God’s words; study it 11

Sc3. New Testament has God’s words; study it 12

Sc4. Scripture is called the Word of God. 12

Sc5. Divine Scripture. 15

Sc6. Scripture is Holy/Sacred. 15

Sc7. We are to believe Scripture. 16

Sc8. We can understand Scripture. 17

Sc9. Meditate on God’s Word/commands. 17

Sc10. Search the scriptures. 17

Sc11. Scripture is inspired. 17

Sc12. Canon [of Scripture/truth/the church] 18

Sc13. Dual meaning of some prophecies. 18

Sc14. Unbelievers don’t understand OT/scripture. 18

Sc15. Veil on many when read Moses/OT.. 18

Sc16. Some parts of the Bible are allegorical 19

Sc17. Lion both good and bad in scripture. 19

Sc18. Don’t twist/corrupt meaning of Scripture. 20

Sc19. Acknowledge Bible copyist errors. 20

Sc20. Some corrupted [copies of] Scripture. 20

Sc21. God’s Word/Law is sweeter than honey. 20

Old and New Testaments. 21

On1. The Law was excellent or good. 21

On2. The law is/was spiritual 21

On3. Law a shadow of the gospel/things to come. 22

On4. Jesus superseded some Old Testament laws. 22

On5. Scripture was/is fulfilled. 23

On6. The prophets were until John. 23

On7. O.T. said the Messiah had to suffer/die. 24

On8. Old Testament has types of Christ 24

On9. Melchizedek was a type of Christ 25

On10. Joshua was a type of Christ 26

On11. Old and/or New Covenant 26

On12. Using the term “Old Testament”. 26

On13. Using the term “New Testament”. 27

On14. No more animal or blood sacrifices. 28

On15. No need to celebrate the Sabbath (except can fast) 28

On16. Eating meats forbidden to Jews OK.. 29

OLD TESTAMENT canon.. 29

Oc1. Genesis is scripture. 29

Oc2. Exodus is scripture or God said. 30

Oc3. Leviticus is Scripture or God says. 31

Oc4. Numbers is Scripture or God says. 31

Oc5. Deuteronomy is scripture or God says. 32

Oc6. Joshua is Scripture or the Lord says. 32

Oc7. 1 or 2 Samuel is scripture or God says. 32

Oc8. 1 or 2 Kings is scripture or the Holy Spirit says. 33

Oc9. Reference to 1 or 2 Chronicles as Chronicles. 34

Oc10. Job is scripture or the Lord says. 34

Oc11. Psalms are scripture or God/Spirit spoke. 34

Oc12. Proverbs are scripture or the Lord says. 35

Oc13. Isaiah is scripture or the Lord/Spirit says. 36

Oc14. Jeremiah is scripture or the Lord says. 37

Oc15. Ezekiel is scripture or the Lord says. 38

Oc16. Daniel is scripture or God showed. 38

Oc17. Hosea is scripture or God/the Word says. 38

Oc18. Joel is scripture or God says. 39

Oc19. Amos is scripture or God said. 39

Oc20. Micah is scripture. 39

Oc21. Habakkuk is scripture or God says. 40

Oc22. Zechariah is scripture or God says. 40

Oc23. Malachi is scripture or God/Spirit says. 40

Oc24. The Twelve [Minor Prophets] 41

Oc25. The Law and the prophets. 41

Oc26. The Old Testament is scripture. 42

Oc27. The Ten Commandments / Decalogue. 43

NEW TESTAMENT canon.. 43

Nc1. Matthew is scripture. 43

Nc2. Mark is scripture or God said. 44

Nc3. Luke is scripture or God said. 44

Nc4. John is scripture. 45

Nc5. Acts is scripture. 46

Nc6. Paul’s letters are authoritative. 47

Nc7. Romans is scripture. 48

Nc8. 1 Corinthians is scripture. 49

Nc9. 2 Corinthians is scripture. 49

Nc10. Galatians is scripture. 50

Nc11. Ephesians is scripture. 50

Nc12. Philippians is scripture. 50

Nc13. Colossians is scripture. 51

Nc14. 1 Thessalonians is Scripture. 51

Nc15. 1 Timothy is Scripture. 52

Nc16. 2 Timothy is Scripture. 52

Nc17. Titus is scripture. 52

Nc18. Revelation is scripture or the Lord says. 53

Nc19. The “New Testament” is Scripture. 54

OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORS. 54

Oa1. Moses wrote Genesis. 54

Oa2. Moses wrote Exodus. 55

Oa3. Moses wrote Leviticus. 55

Oa4. Moses wrote Numbers. 55

Oa5. Moses wrote Deuteronomy. 55

Oa6. David a writer of Psalms. 56

Oa7. Solomon a writer of Proverbs. 57

Oa8. Solomon, writer of Ecclesiastes. 57

Oa9. Isaiah wrote or said Isaiah. 58

Oa10. Jeremiah wrote or said Jeremiah. 58

Oa11. Ezekiel is by Ezekiel 59

Oa12. Daniel spoke or wrote Daniel 59

Oa13. Hosea wrote or spoke Hosea. 59

Oa14. Joel wrote Joel 60

Oa15. Amos wrote Amos. 61

Oa16. Micah wrote or said Micah. 61

Oa17. Habakkuk wrote Habakkuk. 62

Oa18. Zephaniah is by Zephaniah/Sophonias. 63

Oa19. Zechariah wrote Zechariah. 64

Oa20. Malachi wrote Malachi 65

Oa21. OT has writing in Hebrew.. 65

Oa22. Moses wrote the Law [Pentateuch] 66

NEW TESTAMENT AUTHORS. 67

Na1. Matthew wrote the Gospel of Matthew.. 67

Na2. Mark wrote the Gospel of Mark. 67

Na3. Luke wrote the Gospel of Luke. 67

Na4. John wrote the Gospel of John. 68

Na5. Luke wrote Acts. 68

Na6. Paul wrote Romans. 69

Na7. Paul wrote 1 Corinthians. 69

Na8. Paul wrote 2 Corinthians. 71

Na9. Paul wrote Galatians. 71

Na10. Paul wrote Ephesians. 72

Na11. Paul wrote Philippians. 72

Na12. Paul wrote Colossians. 73

Na13. Paul wrote 1 Thessalonians. 74

Na14. Paul wrote 2 Thessalonians. 74

Na15. Paul wrote 1 Timothy. 74

Na16. Paul wrote a 2nd letter to Timothy. 75

Na17. Paul wrote Titus. 75

Na18. Peter wrote 1 Peter 75

Na19. John wrote 1 John. 76

Na20. Jude wrote Jude. 76

Na21. At least 1 NT word originally in Greek. 77

Na22. The evangelists [gospel writers] 77

Messianic PRophecies. 78

Mp1. Genesis 49:10 refers to Christ 78

Mp2. Deuteronomy 18:15 refers to Christ 79

Mp3. Psalm 2 refers to Christ 79

Mp4. Psalm 16:8-11 prophesies of Christ 79

Mp5. Psalm 22 refers to Christ 80

Mp6. Psalm 45 refers to Christ 80

Mp7. Psalm 110:1-2 can only refer to Christ 80

Mp8. Isaiah 7:14 refers to Christ 81

Mp9. Isaiah 9:6 refers to Christ 81

Mp10. Isaiah 11 refers to Christ 81

Mp11. Isaiah 53 refers to Christ 82

Mp12. Isaiah 61:1-2 refers to Christ 82

Mp13. Isaiah 65:1-2 prophesies of Christ 82

Mp14. Jeremiah 11:19 prophesies of Christ 82

Mp15. Daniels’ 70 weeks messianic prophecy. 83

Mp16. Joel 2:28-30 refers to Christ 83

Mp17. Micah 5 refers to Christ 83

Mp18. Zechariah 3:1-8 prophesies of Christ 83

Mp19. Zechariah 9:9 refers to Christ 84

Mp20. Zechariah 12:10-12 refers to Christ 84

Mp21. Malachi 3:1-2 prophesies of Christ 84

Mp22. The OT prophesied about Jesus. 84

God’s TranscendEnce. 86

G1. There is only One True God. 86

G2. Living God. 87

G3. God / Jesus before birth was incorporeal 88

G4. God is holy, good, or pure. 88

G5. God does not speak lies / is Truth. 89

G6. God is a Father 89

G7. The Trinity: one God in three ‘Persons’ 92

G8. God is the Father of all [things] 94

G9. God/The Father is perfect 94

G10. Sun / beam / ray analogy of the Trinity. 94

G11. Majesty or glory of God. 94

G12. God is a jealous God. 95

G13. Genesis 1:26 refers to the Father & Son. 96

G14. God is Light 96

G15. The God of Jesus / Christ 96

G16. God’s Holy Name. 97

G17. The Godhead. 97

G18. God is a consuming fire. 98

G19. God is blessed. 98

G20. God is Spirit 98

G21. Fragrance of Heaven/God/Christ/Holy Spirit 99

G22. God is not in everything (pantheism is wrong) 99

G23. God fills heaven and earth. 99

God’s Eternal Power.. 100

Ge1. God is everywhere. 100

Ge2. God is almighty (omnipotent) 100

Ge3. God is sovereign / God’s sovereignty. 102

Ge4. The Most High God. 102

Ge5. God is above all 103

Ge6. God or His power is incomparable. 103

Ge7. God does not change / is unchangeable. 103

Ge8. God is uncreated. 104

Ge9. God is eternal 104

Ge10. God had no beginning / was unoriginated. 105

Ge11. God is incorruptible. 106

Ge12. God is the Ancient of Days. 106

Ge13. God / Jesus is immortal 106

Ge14. God is inscrutable/unsearchable. 106

Ge15. God knows all / even the secret things. 107

Ge16. God is all-seeing. 107

Ge17. God is invisible. 108

Ge18. God is Lord of heaven and earth. 109

Ge19. Calling God “I Am”. 109

God’s IMMINENCE. 109

Gi1. God is worthy. 110

Gi2. God needs nothing from us. 110

Gi3. God is just / not unjust 110

Gi4. God will judge/reward people’s secrets / secret things. 111

Gi5. God punishes. 111

Gi6. God is not mocked. 112

Gi7. God sends evildoers delusion(s) 112

Gi8. God can be offended. 112

Gi9. God is merciful 112

Gi10. God wants repentance not sinner’s death. 113

Gi11. God / Christ is heals /is healer 113

Gi12. God is our protector 113

Gi13. God is our refuge. 113

Gi14. God is our deliverer 114

Gi15. God/Christ rejoices over us. 114

Gi16. Calling God Abba, Father 114

Gi17. God of Abraham.. 114

Gi18. God of Isaac. 115

Gi19. The God of Jacob. 115

Gi20. God of Israel 116

Gi21. God is patient or long-suffering. 116

Gi22. God/Jesus is compassionate. 117

Gi23. God loves us or is kind. 117

Gi24. God avenges. 118

Gi25. Christians & Jews/Israel/Moses worship the same God. 118

Gi26. Abraham’s [Three] Visitors. 119

Gi27. The Lord/God is faithful / trustworthy. 119

Gi28. The Creator is our / the True God. 119

Gi29. God is the Lawgiver 119

Gi30. God has numbered the hairs on your head. 120

Gi31. The Holy One of Israel 120

Gi32. God of the living. 120

Gi33. God resists the proud. 120

Gi34. God is generous. 121

Gi35. All nations blessed through Abraham.. 121

Gi36. In God we live and move and have our being. 121

Timeless Truths of Jesus Christ.. 121

T1. Jesus is the Son of God. 121

T2. Jesus is the Only Begotten Son of God. 123

T3. The Deity of Jesus our Lord. 125

T4. Jesus is the Word of God. 127

T5. The Son existed from ages past 129

T6. All things were created through Christ / the Son of God. 131

T7. Jesus obedient or subject to the Father 132

T8. Worship, praise, or glorify Jesus. 133

T9. Inseparable/Father in Son or Son in Father 134

T10. Christ at right hand of God/the Father 135

T11. No one knows the Father except the Son and those revealed. 136

T12. Father and Son are distinct 137

T13. The Word was distinct from the Father at Creation. 137

T14. Son in the bosom of the Father 137

T15. An Equality of the Father and Son. 138

T16. God the Son. 138

T17. Specifically “Jesus” is the Only-Begotten / Son / Word / son of man. 138

T18. Specifically “Jesus Christ” is the Only-Begotten / Son. 138

T19. Specifically “Christ” is the Only-Begotten / Son / Son of man. 139

T20. Specifically the Son is God. 139

T21. The head of Christ is God. 139

T22. Christ had the Spirit of wisdom and understanding. 140

T23. Jesus and the Father are One. 140

T24. Jesus [Ad]ministered His Father’s will 140

T25. Jesus anointed with the oil of gladness/joy. 141

T26. Jesus called the Son before coming to earth. 141

Jesus Before ministry.. 141

Jb1. Virgin birth of Christ 141

Jb2. Incarnation of the Word/Jesus. 143

Jb3. Christ emptied Himself 144

Jb4. Jesus took the form of a servant 144

Jb5. Word was made/became flesh. 145

Jb6. Jesus humbled Himself 145

Jb7. Jesus Christ was a real, sinless man. 145

Jb8. Jesus of the tribe of Judah. 147

Jb9. Jesus was born in Bethlehem [of Judea] 147

Jb10. Jesus brought up by Joseph. 147

Jb11. Jesus’ earthly father was a carpenter 148

Jb12. Jesus [and His family] went to Egypt 148

Jb13. Jesus from Galilee. 148

Jb14. Jesus on earth was plain-looking. 148

Jb15. Christ, the Logos, the Son was obedient or learned obedience. 149

Jb16. Jesus was baptized. 149

Jb17. Jesus fasted for 40 days. 149

Jb18. Jesus hungered. 150

Jb19. Baby Jesus presented at the Temple. 150

Jesus’ ministry.. 150

Jm1. Jesus went to Capernaum.. 150

Jm2. Jesus found/called Nathanael 150

Jm3. Jesus ministered in Galilee. 151

Jm4. Jesus called/chose the Twelve. 151

Jm5. Jesus went through Samaria/Samaritan woman. 151

Jm6. Jesus said destroy the temple in 3 days…... 151

Jm7. Jesus’ answer to John. 151

Jm8. The Transfiguration. 152

Jm9. Jesus rode into Jerusalem on a donkey. 152

Jm10. Christ drove out the money-changers. 152

Jm11. Jesus was questioned. 152

Jm12. The Last Supper 152

Jm13. Christ prayed that this cup would pass. 152

Jm14. Jesus arrested / seized. 153

Jm15. Jesus washed His disciples’ feet 153

Jm16. Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss. 153

Jm17. Christ a High Priest after the Order of Melchizedek. 153

Jesus’ Passion and Beyond.. 153

Jp1. Some despised Christ 153

Jp2. Jesus was mocked. 153

Jp3. Jesus was crucified or died on the cross. 154

Jp4. Cross’s shape or outstretched arms. 156

Jp5. Jesus was hung on a tree [the cross] 156

Jp6. The wood of the cross. 156

Jp7. Sign of the cross. 157

Jp8. Calling the crucifixion the Passion. 157

Jp9. Christ’s crown of thorns. 157

Jp10. Jesus was beaten/scourged/whipped. 158

Jp11. They cast lots for Jesus’ clothes. 158

Jp12. Jesus given vinegar and gall to drink. 158

Jp13. Thief/robber on the cross in Paradise. 159

Jp14. Jesus asked God why God had forsaken Him.. 159

Jp15. Darkness or earthquake at Jesus’ death. 159

Jp16. Temple veil torn when Jesus died. 161

Jp17. Jesus’ bones were not broken. 161

Jp18. Jesus rose from the dead. 161

Jp19. Jesus rose on/after three days. 163

Jp20. Jesus ascended to heaven. 164

TIMELESS TitleS of Jesus. 165

t1. Jesus is the/our Lord. 165

t2. King of Kings and/or Lord of Lords. 167

t3. Jesus is the Alpha and Omega. 167

t4. Jesus is the Door or Gate. 167

t5. Christ is the Image of God. 168

t6. Jesus is the/our Rock/Stone/Cornerstone. 168

t7. Jesus is the Light or Light of Light 169

t8. Jesus is our Shepherd. 169

t9. Jesus Christ is the Lamb of God. 170

t10. Jesus is a Lion / as a lion’s whelp. 171

t11. Son/Jesus was/was begotten before the morning star 171

t12. Jesus/the cross the wisdom and power of God. 171

t13. Christ is the Holy One of God. 172

t14. Jesus / the Son is the Logos. 172

t15. [Christ] the King/Lord of glory. 172

INCARNATE TitleS of Jesus. 172

i1. Jesus is the first-born (not just of Mary) 172

i2. Christ is the Second/Last Adam.. 173

i3. Jesus called Emmanuel (God with us) 174

i4. Jesus is our High Priest 174

i5. Jesus is our Physician/Doctor 174

i6. Jesus is the Way. 175

i7. Jesus is the Truth. 175

i8. Jesus is our/the Life. 176

i9. Jesus is the Bread or Bread of Life. 176

i10. Jesus is the Vine. 177

i11. Jesus is the Messiah. 177

i12. Jesus a star rising out of Jacob. 177

i13. Christ is of the root of Jesse. 177

i14. Jesus is the descendent/seed of David. 178

i15. Jesus of Nazareth. 178

i16. Jesus is the first fruits. 179

i17. Jesus is the son of Abraham.. 179

i18. The sign of Jonah/Jonas refers to Jesus. 179

i19. Christ is the/our bridegroom.. 180

Purpose Of the Life of Jesus. 180

p1. Jesus sent by the Father 180

p2. Jesus/Christ came to save us/is our Savior 181

p3. Jesus was tempted. 182

p4. Jesus sent to suffer [for us] 183

p5. Christ is the end/fulfillment of the law.. 185

p6. Jesus is Lord of the Sabbath. 186

p7. Jesus is our Redeemer / redeemed us. 186

p8. Christ finished His work. 187

p9. Jesus forgives us / remits sins. 187

p10. Jesus: the/One Mediator (between God & man) 188

p11. Jesus bore our sins / infirmities. 189

p12. Jesus bore the curse for us. 189

p13. Christ suffered shame/disgrace. 189

p14. Jesus was a ransom.. 190

p15. Christ reconciled us. 190

p16. Christ overcame/triumphed. 191

p17. Grace and truth by Jesus Christ 191

p18. Jesus revealed the Father to us. 191

p19. Jesus the Paschal Lamb. 192

p20. Jesus baptized with the Holy Spirit & fire. 192

p21. Jesus provided purification. 192

p22. Jesus gives us living water 193

p23. Jesus came to save the lost 193

p24. Jesus/Christ rescued us. 193

p25. Do the will of the One who sent Him.. 194

p26. In 1 Jn 2:1 Jesus is our sins’ propitiation. 194

p27. The Son / Jesus gives life. 194

p28. Jesus called sinners to repentance. 194

p29. Jesus came to save His people from their sins. 195

The Holy Spirit.. 195

H1. Mention of the Holy Spirit 195

H2. The Holy Spirit is God. 198

H3. The Divine Spirit 198

H4. Person of the Holy Spirit 199

H5. Holy Spirit addressed as “He”. 200

H6. Glorify/worship the Holy Spirit 200

H7. The Spirit is everywhere. 201

H8. The Holy Spirit is distinct 201

H9. Holy Spirit called Spirit of truth. 201

H10. Sevenfold spirit or seven spirits. 202

H11. The Holy Spirit was known in the Old Testament 202

H12. The Holy Spirit/Comforter was promised. 202

H13. The Father sent the Holy Spirit 203

H14. Jesus sent the Holy Spirit 203

H15. Paraclete or Holy Spirit already present 203

H16. The Spirit was poured out on believers. 204

H17. Holy Spirit dwells/lives in us. 204

H18. Live in the Spirit 205

H19. We can grieve the Holy Spirit 205

H20. Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit 205

THE HOLY SPIRIT’s WORK.. 206

Hw1. The Power of the Holy Spirit 206

Hw2. God’s Spirit moved over abyss/waters. 206

Hw3. The Holy Spirit spoke Scripture. 206

Hw4. Sword of the Spirit is the word of God. 207

Hw5. Christ born of Mary by the Holy Spirit 207

Hw6. Holy Spirit appeared as a dove. 207

Hw7. Holy Spirit came down at Pentecost 208

Hw8. Holy Spirit gives gifts. 208

Hw9. The Holy Spirit is a gift 208

Hw10. Fruit of the Spirit 209

Hw11. Baptized/washed with the Holy Spirit 209

Hw12. The Holy Spirit seals believers. 209

Hw13. Filled with the Holy Spirit 210

Hw14. The Holy Spirit directs. 210

Hw15. Holy Spirit taught us. 210

Hw16. The Holy Spirit gives knowledge. 211

Hw17. Spirit gives us guidance/understanding. 211

Hw18. The Comforter/Holy Spirit comforts us. 211

Hw19. Disciples received the Holy Spirit 212

Hw20. The Holy Spirit witnesses. 212

Hw21. Under trial the Spirit will give us words to say. 213

The Work of God IN GENESIS. 213

Wg1. God made all things in heaven and earth. 213

Wg2. Heaven and earth were created good. 215

Wg3. God created things from nothing. 215

Wg4. Six days of Creation. 216

Wg5. God blessed the Seventh Day. 216

Wg6. God imparted the breath of life. 216

Wg7. Garden of Eden. 216

Wg8. Four rivers leaving the Garden of Eden. 217

Wg9. Tree of knowledge. 217

Wg10. Eve from Adam’s rib. 217

Wg11. Enoch was translated without dying. 217

Wg12. Noah’s ark. 218

Wg13. Judgment of Noah’s flood / deluge. 218

Wg14. God confused/altered the languages. 219

Wg15. Scattering after the Tower of Babel 219

Wg16. Abraham’s seed like the stars of heaven. 219

Wg17. Judgment against Sodom or Gomorrah. 219

Wg18. Lot’s wife a pillar of salt 220

Wg19. Jacob’s ladder 220

Wg20. Jacob wrestled with God/an angel 220

Wg21. The Seventh Day is Holy / Sanctified. 220

Work of God IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.. 221

Wo1. God’s appearances in the Old Testament 221

Wo2. The earth is God’s footstool 221

Wo3. God sends the rain on everyone. 221

Wo4. The burning bush of Moses. 221

Wo5. Plagues of Egypt 222

Wo6. The firstborn of Egypt perished. 222

Wo7. Cloud and/or pillar of fire. 222

Wo8. Crossing the Red Sea. 222

Wo9. Water from the rock. 223

Wo10. [Moses] and the Amalekites. 223

Wo11. Manna. 224

Wo12. The Ark [of the Covenant] 224

Wo13. Bronze/brazen serpent in the wilderness. 224

Wo14. Hezekiah and the Assyrian army. 225

Wo15. Elisha did miracle(s) 225

Wo16. Christ with the 3 youths in Daniel 225

Wo17. Daniel in the lion’s den. 226

Wo18. Joshua [Jesus son of Nun] crossed the Jordan [River] 226

Wo19. Joshua’s long day [sun stood still] 226

Wo20. Moses’ face shown [with glory] 226

Work of God IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.. 226

Wn1. Zechariah was made mute [temporarily] 226

Wn2. The star [of Bethlehem] 227

Wn3. Jesus performed miracles. 227

Wn4. Jesus at Cana or turning water to wine. 228

Wn5. Jesus calmed the storm.. 228

Wn6. Jesus fed the 5,000. 228

Wn7. Jesus walked on water/waves/deep. 229

Wn8. Jesus healed a leper 229

Wn9. Jesus healed the paralytic. 229

Wn10. Healing the flow of blood. 229

Wn11. Raising the widow’s son. 229

Wn12. Raising Lazarus from the dead. 230

Wn13. The apostle(s) worked miracles. 230

Wn14. Ananias or Sapphira killed. 231

Wn15. Jesus healing the blind. 231

People. 232

Pe1. People are made in the image of God. 232

Pe2. Our bodies die but our souls are immortal 232

Pe3. People were made of dust 233

Pe4. Our bodies will return to dust 233

Pe5. People are like clay. 234

Pe6. Soul shares body’s pain and feelings. 234

Pe7. People have the will to choose. 234

Pe8. We should tremble at God’s Word. 234

Pe9. Do not trust in man. 235

Pe10. The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak. 235

Pe11. No profit to gain the whole world and lose your soul 235

Pe12. Positive mention of non-Biblical Jews. 235

Pe13. Even the elect an be deceived. 236

Pe14. We are God’s workmanship. 236

Pe15. People were given dominion over the earth. 236

Pe16. All flesh is grass. 236

SIN.. 236

Si1. Man fell when Adam and Eve ate the fruit 237

Si2. Adam & Eve covered themselves for shame. 237

Si3. We have or inherited a sinful nature. 237

Si4. All have sinned. 238

Si5. Those who sin are sin’s servants/slaves. 238

Si6. People have guilt 238

Si7. Reason/understanding was darkened. 238

Si8. People are corrupted/corruptible. 239

Si9. People are hardened. 239

Si10. Idolators/sinners are shameful 239

Si11. The sinful provoke God. 239

Si12. We were dead in sin. 240

Si13. The conscience of some is seared. 240

Si14. Hardness of people’s hearts. 240

Si15. Works of the flesh / sinful nature. 240

Si16. Ezekiel 18 referring to an individual 241

Si17. World’s wisdom is foolishness to God. 241

Si18. Cross/resurrection is foolish to the world. 241

Si19. People deceive others. 241

Si20. Some people deceive themselves. 241

Si21. People themselves have broken cisterns. 242

Si22. People are enslaved by sin / lust / the devil 242

Si23. Kept from the wise/prudent and given to babes. 242

Si24. Don’t be double-minded / double-hearted. 242

Si25. [Many] Jews rejected Jesus as the Messiah. 242

Si26. Some profess to be wise but are fools. 243

Salvation.. 243

S1. O.T. pointed to salvation in Christ in New.. 243

S2. Salvation is a gift of God’s grace. 243

S3. Jesus’ death paid for our sins. 243

S4. Saved by Jesus’ blood or dying for us. 244

S5. Even Jews who reject Jesus will perish. 245

S6. Believers God’s Elect 245

S7. The reprobate (non-elect) will be lost 245

S8. Some elect died before knowing Savior 246

S9. Some follow Christ for a time, yet perish. 246

S10. Not saved if living in sin. 246

S11. Adoption as sons of God. 247

S12. We need to have faith. 247

S13. Live by faith. 248

S14. We are God’s chickens. 248

S15. Shipwrecked faith/salvation. 248

S16. Confidence or assurance of salvation. 248

S17. Hope in God or Christ 249

S18. Our faith is precious. 249

S19. God’s great, glorious, precious promises. 249

S20. Mystery of the Lord/faith. 249

S21. Be born again. 250

S22. The precious blood of Christ 250

S23. Heirs of salvation / Christ / the Lord. 250

S24. God has called us. 251

S25. Predestined or predestination. 251

S26. God can raise Abraham’s kids from stones. 251

S27. Jesus bestowed remission of sins. 251

S28. Many are called but few are chosen. 251

S29. Narrow is the gate to life. 252

S30. No way of salvation apart from Christ 252

S31. Salvation/church for all kinds of people. 252

End Times. 253

E1. The AntiChrist will come -after 125 A.D. 253

E2. Heresies and persecution come before AntiChrist or Christ’s return. 253

E3. Before this will be many lesser antiChrists. 253

E4. Jesus will return in glory -after 125 A.D. 254

E5. Rapture of believers. 254

E6. Resurrection of believers / all 254

E7. Christ will judge all / quick and dead. 255

E8. Believers will judge the world or angels. 256

E9. Believers are sons of God. 256

E10. Believers will reign with Christ 256

E11. Jesus returns in [literal] clouds. 257

E12. The Tree of Life. 257

E13. Fulfillment of the Cosmos has come to us. 257

E14. The Endtimes tribulation. 257

E15. Every knee will bow to Jesus. 258

E16. Moon will turn to blood. 258

E17. Abomination that causes desolation. 258

E18. God’s future temple on earth/in Jerusalem.. 258

E19. Christ’s coming like the days of Noah. 258

E20. Meeting the Lord in the clouds. 258

E21. The endtime [sound of the] trumpet 259

E22. The Day of the Lord. 259

Revelation Specific.. 259

R1. Seven churches in Revelation. 259

R2. Two witnesses come before Christ returns. 259

R3. The Book of Book of Life / the Living. 260

R4. The Beast or his mark. 260

R5. The Millennium or the 1,000 years. 260

R6. Devil and followers cast in Lake of Fire. 261

R7. Heavenly (24) elders in Revelation. 261

R8. Woman Babylon in Revelation. 261

R9. Two-edged sword out of Christ’s mouth. 261

R10. Souls under the altar [in Revelation] 262

R11. John was exiled to Patmos. 262

R12. Jesus rides the White Horse in Rev 19:11-16. 262

R13. The Second Death in Rev 2:11; 20:6,14. 262

R14. Only Christ is worthy to open the scroll in Rev 5:2-9. 262

Ultimate Things - Heaven and Hell. 263

U1. The Kingdom of God. 263

U2. Inheriting the Kingdom of God. 263

U3. Description of God’s throne. 263

U4. Paul went up to the third heaven. 263

U5. Reincarnation (transmigration) is wrong. 264

U6. All who die rejecting Jesus go to Hell 264

U7. Unquenchable/eternal fire. 264

U8. The worm of the lost does not die. 265

U9. Some lost have more severe judgment 265

U10. Those who die are with Christ 265

U11. Believers who die have eternal life. 266

U12. Believers have rewards in Heaven. 266

U13. Believers have crowns. 266

U14. Flesh & blood not inherit God’s kingdom.. 267

U15. We will put on incorruption. 267

U16. Church/Believers are Christ’s bride. 267

U21. Abraham’s Bosom.. 267

U18. The wedding banquet 267

U19. The earth shall pass away. 268

U20. New Heaven and New Earth. 268

U21. New/heavenly Jerusalem.. 268

U22. Outer darkness. 268

U23. Gates of Hell/Death/Hades. 268

U24. Entering the Kingdom of God. 268

U25. Many mansions in heaven. 269

U26. Paradise. 269

ANGELS. 269

An1. Angels are servants of God. 269

An2. Holy angel[s] 270

An3. The heavenly host 270

An4. The archangel Michael 271

An5. The angel Gabriel 271

An6. Four Living Creatures / Seraphim.. 271

An7. Cherubim.. 272

An8. Guardian angels. 272

An9. Angelic / Heavenly powers. 272

An10. Angels worship/praise God/Jesus. 273

An11. Angels rejoice. 273

An12. Angelic hymns / choir(s) 273

An13. Angels visit shepherds at Christ’s birth. 273

An14. Angels announce/preach the gospel 273

An15. An angel spoke with Cornelius before he was a believer 273

An16. Gabriel appeared to Mary. 274

An17. Kid’s angels see the Father’s face in Heaven. 274

An18. Destroying angel(s) 274

An19. Angels are not given in marriage. 274

SATAN.. 275

St1. Satan / Lucifer / the Devil 275

St2. Satan is called Lucifer 276

St3. The devil / Satan is a personal being. 276

St4. Satan looks like an angel of light 276

St5. Satan/demons fell from heaven. 277

St6. Satan is a dragon. 278

St7. Satan is a serpent 278

St8. Wiles/craftiness/devices of the devil 279

St9. Satan deceives. 279

St10. Serpent beguiled Eve. 280

St11. The Serpent was cursed at the fall 280

St12. Enmity between serpent and Eve’s seed. 280

St13. The prince of this world/air is evil/Satan. 280

St14. Satan, a murderer from the beginning. 281

St15. Satan can have lying wonders. 281

St16. Satan sought to sift Peter as wheat 281

St17. Satan entered into Judas. 282

St18. The devil had envy / jealousy. 282

St19. Snare(s)/scheme(s) of the Devil 282

St20. The devil possessed free will 282

DEMONS. 282

Dm1. Demons. 282

Dm2. [Demons are] unclean spirits. 283

Dm3. Power/principalities of darkness. 283

Dm4. Demons can possess people. 284

Dm5. Devil/demons tempt people. 284

Dm6. Demons vex/cause harm to people. 284

Dm7. Demons/Satan can bind people. 284

Dm8. Demons deceive / delude people. 284

Dm9. There are doctrines of demons / devils. 284

Dm10. Demons are worshipped by pagans. 285

Dm11. Demons tremble at/fear Christ 285

Dm12. Demons subject to Christ 286

Dm13. Beelzebub/Baalzebub. 286

Dm14. Some cast into eternal fire for the devil and his angels. 286

 


Bible Importance

 

Sc1. Study or obey God’s Word as an authority

 

Luke 4:18-19,21; John 7:38; 10:35; 12:38-40; 2 Timothy 3:16, (partial) Hebrews 4:12

2 Peter 3:1-2 Peter puts his words and the other apostles’ words as the same authority as the Old Testament

 

Scripture is not just “suggestions for life”, but we must take its authority in our lives as seriously as our Lord and Biblical writers meant. John 10:35; Matthew 4:1-11; John 14:23-24; 2 Peter 1:19-21;3:16; Romans 3:1-4; 2 Timothy 3:15-16; Proverbs 30:5-6; Amos 8:11-2; Isaiah 66:5

;Ps119:74,81,89, 92,105

The entire Bible is authoritative, trustworthy, primary, and complete. Proverbs 30:5-6; 2 Timothy 3:16; 2 Samuel 22:31; Psalm 33:4;119:72,97,105,120,151; Proverbs 30:5-6

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; John 7:38; 12:38-40

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; John 7:38; 12:38-40

p86 (350 A.D.) implied has Mark 1:25-26 where Jesus appeals to the Old Testament as an authority.

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 4:18-19,21; John 7:38; 12:38-40

 

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) “Forasmuch as may enrolled among the Clergy, following covetousness and lust of gain, have forgotten the divine Scripture, which says, ‘He hath not given his money upon usury,” and in lending money ask the hundredth of the sum [as monthly interest],… he shall be deposed from the clergy and his name stricken from the list.” Canon 17 p.36

&&&Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) Select Demonstrations

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) “Neither is it safe to affirm that the Son had his existence from things that were not, since this is nowhere declared concerning him in the divinely inspiried Scriptures.” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.45 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) “and are contrary indeed to the sense of the divinely-inspired Scripture.” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) appealed to Scriptures as an authority. Acts of Archelaus (=Archelaus Disputation with Manes) ch.18 p.191. See also ibid ch.25 p.201.

Council of Arminum (orthodox Arian compromise) (355 A.D.) “be begat him, according to the Scriptures:” Socrates Ecclesiastical History ch.37 p.61

Council of Arminum (orthodox Arian compromise) (355 A.D.) “since the divine Scriptures have nowhere spoken concerning the substance fo the Father and the Son.” Socrates Ecclesiastical History ch.37 p.62

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (356-362 A.D.) ch.7 p.197 “But Antony having learned from the Scriptures that the devices of the devil are many,”

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) &&&

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) “But since the holy scripture is of all things sufficient for us, therefore recommending to those who desire to know more of these matters, to read the Divine word, I now hasten to set before you that which most claims attention, and for the sake of which principally I have written these things.” To the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.4 p.225

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Matthew 22:29 “Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures nor the power of God” Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.12.52 p.337.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions “proofs from scripture” Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.3.10 p.311

Athanasius of Alexandria (333 A.D.) says we should meditate on scripture day and night and the quotes Psalm 1:1-2. Easter Letter 5 ch.1 p.517. See also Easter Letter 11 (339 A.D.) ch.6 p.535

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) (implied) speaks of the authority of scripture. book 5 p.211

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) proves his point using what the scripture taught on Jacob and Aaron. Nisibine Hymns hymn 18 no.3 p.187

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) “Many things are set forth by inspired Scripture as binding upon all who are anxious to please God.” Letter 22 ch.1 p.127

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) “Never neglect reading, especially of the New Testament, because very frequently mischief comes of reading the Old; not because what is written is harmful, but because the minds of the injured are weak. All bread is nutritious, but it may be injurious to the sick. Just so all Scripture is God inspired and profitable, and there is nothing in it unclean: only to him who thinks it is unclean, to him it is unclean.” Basil to Julian Letter 41.3 p.144-145

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) appeals to the authority of Scripture. On the Spirit ch.27.68 p.43

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (345-381 A.D.) “No Psalms composed by private individual nor any uncanonical books may be read in the church, but only the Canonical Books of the Old and New Testaments.” Canon 59 p.158

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says we to follow all of scripture. Part 1 question 2 p.15

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) “Scripture alone is sufficient to correct heresies. Question 7 p.23

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) speaks of the importance of scripture in Catechetical Lecture 5 ch.12 p.32

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says to pray for the Old Testament to lead us. Catechetical Lecture 10 ch.6 p.59

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) appeals to scripture as his authority on baptism. On Baptism ch.1.1 p.87

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Appeals to scripture to establish the foretelling of the AntiChrist. Commentary on Zechariah 11 p.282

Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) (implied) “In order that you may be assured that this is so, the following was written in Malachi, ‘I will reject your offerings, because I have been a witness among you and the women of your youth, that you have been unfaithful to, those who are the women of your covenant. But I will be true with you.” Memra 22 ch.19 p.268

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) “We can tell the solution of any question not through our own reasonings but from what follows from the Scriptures.” Panarion (=Against Heresies) 65 as quoted in Examination of the Council of Trent I, p.153

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “Then, finally, that the Scriptures were written by the Spirit of God.” Origen’s de Principiis Preface 8 p.241

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says the Savior tells us to “thoroughly examine the scriptures” Homilies on Joshua. homily 19 ch.2 p.171

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “…for no other reason than that they themselves might have leisure ‘for the ministry of the Word.’ To this we ought to equally to apply ourselves, unless indeed we are endued with a power of working miracles..On the Priesthood book 4 ch.3 p.65 “Wherefore it should be our amibition that the word of Christ dwell in us richly. [Colossians 3:16] On the Priesthood book 4 ch.4 p.65

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) “the law of Moses commands” On the Creation of the World ch.1 p.1

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) proves a point “as Scripture attests” Defense Against the Pelagians ch.15 p.133

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) mentions the “testimony of the Scriptures” Defense Against the Pelagians ch.23 p.147

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.) “All [nuns] had every day to learn a certain portion of the holy scriptures.” Letter 108.20 p.206

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.10 p.266 (370/380-425 A.D.) bishop Symeon showed other Christians about to be martyred from the sacred scriptures that their death would be true life, but to live in fear and deny God would be true death.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) (implied) “as they are exemplified in the writings of men who, by reading the Scriptures, have attained to the knowledge of divine and saving truth, and have ministered to the Church. Then he quotes Cyprian of Carthage On Christian Doctrine book 4 ch.21.45 NPNF first series vol.2 p.590

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says there are differing opinions on marriage, but we must see which of them are agreeable to the truth of divine Scriptures. On the Good of Marriage ch.2 p.399. See also On the Gospel of John Tractate 124 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.449.

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) write of Paphnutius speaking of the authority of holy scripture. Conference of the Bishop Paphnutius ch.6 p.321

 

Athanasius (c.296-373):

The holy and inspired Scriptures are fully sufficient for the proclamation of the truth. (Against the Heathen, I:3, quoted in Carl A. Volz, Faith and Practice in the Early Church [Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1983], p. 147.)

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.310-386):

For concerning the divine and holy mysteries of the Faith, not even a casual statement must be delivered without the Holy Scriptures; nor must we be drawn aside by mere plausibility and artifices of speech. Even to me, who tell you these things, give not absolute credence, unless you receive the proof of the things which I announce from the Divine Scriptures. For this salvation which we believe depends not on ingenious reasoning, but on demonstration of the Holy Scriptures. (Catechetical Lectures, IV:17, in The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers [Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1983 reprint], Second Series, Vol. VII, p. 23.)

 

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) “[W]e are not entitled to such license, namely, of affirming whatever we please. For we make Sacred Scripture the rule and the norm of every doctrine. Upon that we are obliged to fix our eyes, and we approve only whatever can be brought into harmony with the intent of these writings.” (On the Soul and the Resurrection, quoted in Jaroslav Pelikan, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition [Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971], p. 50.) 

Let the inspired Scriptures then be our umpire, and the vote of truth will be given to those whose dogmas are found to agree with the Divine words. (On the Holy Trinity, in The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. V, p. 327.)

 

Augustine of Hippo (354-430):

Let them show their church if they can, not by the speeches and mumblings of the Africans, not by the councils of their bishops, not by the writings of any of their champions, not by fraudulent signs and wonders, because we have been prepared and made cautious also against these things by the Word of the Lord; but [let them show their church] by a command of the Law, by the predictions of the prophets, by songs from the Psalms, by the words of the Shepherd Himself, by the preaching and labors of the evangelists; that is, by all the canonical authorities of the sacred books. (On the Unity of the Church, 16, quoted in Martin Chemnitz, Examination of the Council of Trent, Part I [Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1971], p. 159.)

What more can I teach you, than what we read in the Apostle? For Holy Scripture sets a rule to our teaching, that we dare not “be wise more than it behooves to be wise,” but be wise, as he says, “unto soberness, according as unto each God has allotted the measure of faith.” (On the Good of Widowhood, 2, in The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, First Series, Vol. III, p. 442. The quotation is from Romans 12:3.)

 

John Chrysostom (c.347-407):

Let us not therefore carry about the notions of the many, but examine into the facts. For how is it not absurd that in respect to money, indeed, we do not trust to others, but refer to [our own] calculation; but in calculating upon [theological] facts we are lightly drawn aside by the notions of others; and that too, though we possess an exact balance, and square and rule for all things, the declaration of the divine laws? Wherefore I exhort and entreat you all, disregard what this man and that man thinks about these things, and inquire from the Scriptures all these things; and having learned what are the true riches, let us pursue after them that we may obtain also the eternal good things… (Homily 13 on 2 Corinthians, in The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, First Series, Vol. XII, p. 346.)

Regarding the things I say, I should supply even the proofs, so I will not seem to rely on my own opinions, but rather, prove them with Scripture, so that the matter will remain certain and steadfast. (Homily 8 On Repentance and the Church, in The Fathers of the Church, Vol. 96, p. 118.)

They say that we are to understand the things concerning Paradise not as they are written but in a different way. But when Scripture wants to teach us something like that, it interprets itself and does not permit the hearer to err. I therefore beg and entreat that we close our eyes to all things and follow the canon of Holy Scripture exactly. (Homily 13 on Genesis.)

There comes a heathen and says, “I wish to become a Christian, but I know not whom to join: there is much fighting and faction among you, much confusion: which doctrine am I to choose?” How shall we answer him? “Each of you” (says he) “asserts, ‘I speak the truth.'” No doubt: this is in our favor. For if we told you to be persuaded by arguments, you might well be perplexed: but if we bid you believe the Scriptures, and these are simple and true, the decision is easy for you. If any agree with the Scriptures, he is the Christian; if any fight against them, he is far from this rule. (Homily 33 on the Acts of the Apostles [in The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 1, 11:210-11; PG 60.243-44])

 

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379) “They are charging me with innovation, and base their charge on my confession of three hypostases [persons], and blame me for asserting one Goodness, one Power, one Godhead. In this they are not wide of the truth, for I do so assert. Their complaint is that their custom does not accept this, and that Scripture does not agree. What is my reply? I do not consider it fair that the custom which obtains among them should be regarded as a law and rule of orthodoxy. If custom is to be taken in proof of what is right, then it is certainly competent for me to put forward on my side the custom which obtains here. If they reject this, we are clearly not bound to follow them. Therefore let God-inspired Scripture decide between us; and on whichever side be found doctrines in harmony with the Word of God, in favor of that side will be cast the vote of truth.” (Letter 189 [to Eustathius the physician], 3, in The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. VIII, p. 229.)

What is the mark of a faithful soul? To be in these dispositions of full acceptance on the authority of the words of Scripture, not venturing to reject anything nor making additions. For, if “all that is not of faith is sin” as the Apostle says, and “faith cometh by hearing and hearing by the Word of God,” everything outside Holy Scripture, not being of faith, is sin. (The Morals, in The Fathers of the Church, Vol. 9, p. 204.)

We are not content simply because this is the tradition of the Fathers. What is important is that the Fathers followed the meaning of the Scripture. (On the Holy Spirit, 7:16.)

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) speaks of Holy Scripture in Acts of the Apostles. Candidus’ First Letter p.56

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) says we have learned from the Holy Spirit in his Candidus’ Second Letter p.57

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Appeals to the authority of Scripture. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.250

Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) appeals to divine scripture Commentary on Zechariah ch.11 p.377-378

 

Sc2. Old Testament has God’s words; study it

 

Luke 4:18-19,21; Luke 6:10; 24:44

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; 6:10; 24:44

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; 6:10; 24:44

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 4:18-19,21; 24:44

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (333 A.D.) says we should meditate on scripture day and night and the quotes Psalm 1:1-2. Easter Letter 5 ch.1 p.517

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) mentions the Old Testament and New Testament in Acts of Archelaus (=Archelaus Disputation with Manes) ch.41 p.214,215. See also ibid ch.40 p.214

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) mentions the importance of the two testaments. Nisibine Hymns hymn 3 no.11 p.171

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) “Never neglect reading, especially of the New Testament, because very frequently mischief comes of reading the Old; not because what is written is harmful, but because the minds of the injured are weak. All bread is nutritious, but it may be injurious to the sick. Just so all Scripture is God inspired and profitable, and there is nothing in it unclean: only to him who thinks it is unclean, to him it is unclean.” Basil to Julian Letter 41.3 p.144-145

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 49 p.158 “No psalms composed by private individuals nor any uncanonical books may be read in the church, but only the Canonical Books of the Old and New Testaments”

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 17 p.133 “The Psalms are not to be joined together in the congregations, but a lesson shall intervene after every psalm.”

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) syas we to follow the Old Testament. question 23 p.29

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) speaks of proof the Old Testament. Catechetical Lecture Lecture 10 ch.6 p.59.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says to pray for the Old Testament to lead us. Catechetical Lecture 10 ch.6 p.59

Augustine of Hippo (404 A.D.) says the church does not want to place her hope in man, let she fall under the curse pronounced in scripture, and quotes Jeremiah 17:5. Letter 89.5 p.375

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Micah has a thankfulness towards God. Commentary on Micah ch.7 p.244

 

Sc3. New Testament has God’s words; study it

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) mentions the Old Testament and New Testament in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.214. See also Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.40 p.213

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (partial) says the word of God is profitable. On the Trinity book 1 ch.6 p.141

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes John 14:9-13 as scripture to prove his argument. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.20 p.440

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) “Never neglect reading, especially of the New Testament, because very frequently mischief comes of reading the Old; not because what is written is harmful, but because the minds of the injured are weak. All bread is nutritious, but it may be injurious to the sick. Just so all Scripture is God inspired and profitable, and there is nothing in it unclean: only to him who think it is unclean, to him it is unclean.” Basil to Julian Letter 41.3 p.144-145

The Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) (partial) canon 59 p.158 mentions the Old and New Testaments.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) emphasizes the important of holy scripture in Catechetical Lecture 5 ch.12 p.32

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:24-25 as by “Paul, who, filled with the Spirit of God.” Of the Christian Faith book 1 ch.16.101 p.218.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in Of the Christian Faith book 1 ch.8.57 p.210

 

Among heretics

Mani/Manes (4th century) said we are not to follow the Law and the Prophets, just the New Testament. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) eating meat is fine (“kill and eat”). Discusses Acts 10:9-13 and Peter seeing the cloth from heaven. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.251

 

Sc4. Scripture is called the Word of God

 

Mention of the Word of God referring to Jesus is not included here.

 

1 Samuel 3:1,7,21

 

2 Samuel 22:31

1 Kings 2:27

1 Kings 12:24

1 Kings 13:1

2 Kings 23:16; 24:2

1 Chronicles 10:13; 11:3; 12:23; 15:15; 16:15; 35:6; 36:21,22;

 

Psalm 18:30; 33:4,6

Psalm 105:28

Psalm 119:9,11,16,17,25,28,38,-172

Psalm 138:2

 

Proverbs 30:5 “Do not add to his [God’s] Words, lest he rebuke you and you be found a liar.”

 

Word of God means just Scripture here

Mark 7:13 in speaking about Corban says, “Thus you nullify the word of God by your tradition that you have handed down. And you do many things like that.”

John 10:34-35 “Is it not written in your Law, ‘I have said you are gods’? If he called them ‘gods,’ to whom the word of God came – and the Scripture cannot be broken”

Acts 17:11,13 “Now the Bereans were of more noble character than the Thessalonians, for they received the message with great eagerness and examined the Scriptures every day to see if what Paul said was true. (13) When the Jews in Thessalonica learned that Paul was preaching the word of God at Berea, they went there too,…”

Romans 9:6 “It is not as though God’s word had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel. Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham’s children. On the contrary, ‘It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned.”

Galatians 6:6 “Anyone who receives instruction in the word must share all good things with his instructor”

 

Word of God means Scripture and/or truth

Isaiah 1:10 “Hear the word of the LORD, you rulers of Sodom; listen to the law of our God, your people of Gomorrah!”

Luke 11:28 “He [Jesus] replied, ‘Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey it.’”

2 Corinthians 2:17 “Unlike so many, we do not peddle the word of God for profit. On the contrary, in Christ we speak before God with sincerity, like men sent from God.”

2 Corinthians 4:2 “Rather, we have renounced secret and shameful ways; we do not use deception, nor do we distort the word of God. On the contrary, by setting forth the truth plainly we commend ourselves in every man’s conscience in the sight of God.”

Colossians 1:25 “to present to you the word of God in its fullness”

Titus 2:5 ... so that no one will malign the word of God”

1 Peter 4:11 “If anyone speaks, he should do it as one speaking the very words of God.”

1 Thessalonians 2:13 “And we also thank God continually because, when you received the word of God, which you heard from us, you accepted it not as the word of men, but as it actually is, the word of God, which is at work in you who believe.”

Hebrews 4:12 “For the word of God is sharper than any two-edged sword…” (scripture, truth)

1 Peter 1:23,25 “for you have been born again not of seed which is perishable but imperishable that is, through the living and abiding word of God. (25) But the Word of the Lord abides forever. And this is the word which was preached to you.” (NASB) (scripture, truth)

 

Word of God means Jesus Christ, scripture, and/or truth

1 John 2:14 (Christ, scripture, truth)

 

Word of God means just Jesus Christ

Revelation 19:13 His [Jesus’] name is the Word of God.

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) (partial – For the word of God)

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 10:34-35

 

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (implied) says the word of God is profitable, referring to 1 Timothy 3:16. On the Trinity book 1 ch.6 p.141

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) (partial) “Of the beliefs and practices whether universally accepted or publicly enjoined which are preserved in the Church some we possess derived from written teaching; others we have received delivered to us ‘in a mystery’ by the tradition of the apostles; and both of these in relation to true religion have the same force. ... For were we to attempt to reject such customs as have no written authority, on the ground that the important they possess is small, we should unintentionally injure the Gospel in its very vitals;”

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) “be humble and tremble at God’s words” On Penitents ch.6.1 p.76

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) (partial) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “Then, finally, that the Scriptures were written by the Spirit of God.” Origen’s de Principiis Preface 8 p.241

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) (implied) says God’s Word is holy. Commentary on Matthew homily 11 p.73

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) “God said that the devil is a murderer; they say that he can cure diseases, in contradiction to God’s word.Against the Jews book 8.

 

How important are we to consider God’s word in scripture? To explain this, it is hard to improve on what an ancient Christian saint and deep Biblical scholar said:

 

Let us then also learn hence to consider all things secondary πάρεργα to the hearing the word of God, and to deem no season unseasonable, and, though a man may even have to go into another person’s house, and being a person unknown to make himself known to great men, though it be late in the day, or at any time whatever, never to neglect this traffic. Let food and baths and dinners and the other things of this life have their appointed time; but let the teaching of heavenly philosophy have no separate time, let every season belong to it. For Paul saith, “In season, out of season, reprove, rebuke, exhort” and the Prophet too saith, ‘and David also glances at this, saying, ‘In His law will he meditate day and night’ and Moses commanded the Jews to do this always.’” John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) Homilies on John homily 18 ch.4 p.65. John Chrysostom preached a lot of good words himself, but even he would consider his own words secondary to God’s word.

 

Sc5. Divine Scripture

 

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) “Forasmuch as may enrolled among the Clergy, following covetousness and lust of gain, have forgotten the divine Scripture, which says, ‘He hath not given his money upon usury,” and in lending money ask the hundredth of the sum [as monthly interest],… he shall be deposed from the clergy and his name stricken from the list.” Canon 17 p.36

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) frequently mentions “divine scripture”

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) “and are contrary indeed to the sense of the divinely-inspired Scripture.” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) “divine Word” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.45 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Council of Arminum (orthodox Arian compromise) (355 A.D.) “since the divine Scriptures have nowhere spoken concerning the substance fo the Father and the Son.” Socrates Ecclesiastical History ch.37 p.62

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) mentions “divine scripture” Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.6 p.154

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) mentions “divine words” [of scripture]. book 4 p.188-189

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) mentions divine scripture. question 73 p.208; question 65 p.305

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) mentions “divine Scripture”. Against Eunomius book 3 ch.2 p.142

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “They who receive the wild doctrines of Valentinus and Marcion, and of all whose minds are similarly diseased, exclude the Law given by God to Moses from the catalogue of the Divine Scriptures.” On the Priesthoods book 4 ch.4 p.65

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says there are differing opinions on marriage, but we must see which of them are agreeable to the truth of divine Scriptures. On the Good of Marriage ch.2 p.399.

 

Sc6. Scripture is Holy/Sacred

 

Romans 1:2; 2 Timothy 3:15

 

(The terms “Divine Scripture” and “Holy Covenant” are not included here.)

 

p10 (= P. Oxyrhynchus 209) Romans 1:1-7 (4th century) has Romans 1:2.

 

Synod of Antioch in Encaenis (summer 341 A.D.) canon 2 p.108 calls scripture sacred.

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) mentions “Holy Scripture” Select Demonstrations Demonstration 22.26 p.411, 412

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) “for the sacred Scriptures teach us” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Council of Arminum (orthodox Arian compromise) (355 A.D.) “But we say that the Son is in all tings like the Father, as the Holy Scriptures affirm and teach.” Socrates Ecclesiastical History ch.37 p.62

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) “For we have been instructed beforehand with regard to you: we have been both warned and armed against you by the Holy Scriptures. You are a vessel of AntiChrist; and no vessel of honour, in sooth, but a mean and base one, used by him as any barbarian or tyrant may do, who, in attempting to make an inroad on a people living under the righteousness of the laws,Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) “For it is written, ‘So much better than angels;’ let us then first examine this. Now it is right and necessary, as in all divine Scripture, so here, faithfully to expound the time of which the Apostle wrote,” Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.54 p.338.

Athanasius of Alexandria (339 A.D.) mentions “Holy Scripture”. Circular Letter ch.3 p.94

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) speaks of Holy Scripture. On the Spirit ch.6.3 p.9

Council of Gangra (345-381 A.D.) p.101 calls scripture sacred.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says scrpture is holy question 5 p.51 question 57 p.198

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) emphasizes the important of holy scripture in Catechetical Lecture 5 ch.12 p.32; lecture 3 ch.4 p.15; lecture 4 ch.17 p.23.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) mentions holy Scripture. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.35 p.82

Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “But how shall any one who is unskillful as these men pretend, be able to convict the gainsayers and stop their mouths? Or what need is there to give attention to reading and to the Holy Scriptures, if such a state of unskillfulness is to be welcome among us?”. On the Priesthood ch.4.8 p.68. See also Himilies on rOmans homily1 p.339 “In the Holy Scriptures”

Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “For of the fact that we have an immortal soul, and that we shall hereafter render an account of what we have done here, and stand before a fearful Tribunal, their minds are at once thoroughly persuaded, and they have also regulated their whole course of life by such hopes as these; and have become superior to all worldly show, instructed as they have been by the sacred Scriptures, that ‘all is vanity, yea, vanity of vanities,’ [Ecclesiastes 1.2] and they do not greedily long for any of those things which seem to be so splendid.On the Statues ch.19.3 p.465

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) discusses scripture as “the sacred texts”. On the Creation of the World ch.5 p.4

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.) “All [nuns] had every day to learn a certain portion of the holy scriptures.” Letter 108.20 p.206

Palladius of Auxerre (419-420 A.D.) says of Evagrius “who helped me understand Holy Scripture” Four Desert Fathers p.30.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) "Of the bliss of Paradise, of Paradise itself, and of the life of our first parents there, and of their sin and punishment, many have thought much, spoken much, written much. We ourselves, too, have spoken of these things in the foregoing books, and have written either what we read in the Holy Scriptures" City of God book 15 ch.1 p.284

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) write of Paphnutius speaking of the authority of holy scripture. Conference of the Bishop Paphnutius ch.6 p.321

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) speaks of Holy Scripture in Acts of the Apostles. Candidus’ First Letter p.56

 

Sc7. We are to believe Scripture

 

John 2:22

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 2:12

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) (implied)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) On the Statues homily 12 ch.12 p.423; On the Statues homily 6 ch.3 p.381

 

Sc8. We can understand Scripture

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (359 A.D.) (implied) speaks of understanding the “Sense of scripture” On the Councils ch.45 p.474

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) (implied) says to learn from studying inspired scripture. Letter 22 p.125

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) says w emust understand scripture. On the Gospel of John Tractate 10 ch.2 p.69

Palladius of Auxerre (419-420 A.D.) says of Evagrius “who helped me understand Holy Scripture” Four Desert Fathers p.30. See also part 2 p.72.

 

Sc9. Meditate on God’s Word/commands

 

Psalm 63:6; 77:3,6,12; 119:15,27,47-48,78,148

 

Meditate on God and His word, laws, promises, ways, wonders. Ps 104:34; 1:2; 119: 15,23,27,48,78,97,99,103,140,148; 39:3; 2 Cor 7:1; 2 Pet 1:4, and works. Ps 77:12; 143:5

-morning/night. Ps 5:3; 16:7; 63:6; 119:55,148; 92:2; 42:8; 77:6; Is26:9;Job 35:10; Gen 24:63

meditating on God pleases Him.Ps19:14;5:1;104:34 and enriches us. Js1:8; Ps1:2-3

 

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says to meditate on the word of God. question 110 p.120

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “"In His law will he meditate day and night" (Psalm 1:3); and Moses commanded the Jews to do this always.Homilies on John homily 18 ch.4 p.65

No Ambrose.

 

Sc10. Search the scriptures

 

Acts 17:11 (implied)

 

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “And the Lord when He exhorts the Jews to 'search the Scriptures,' the more urges us to the enquiry, for He would not thus have spoken if it were possible to comprehend them immediately at the first reading.Homilies on John homily15 p.50

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) (implied) “’from Nazareth’, - for he had searched the scripture, and knew that the Saviour was to be expected thence,” On the Gospel of John Tractate 7 ch.17 p.54

 

Sc11. Scripture is inspired

 

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) “and are contrary indeed to the sense of the divinely-inspired Scripture.” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) speaksof “inspired scripture” question 91 p.361

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “those Scriptures alone which were inspired by the Holy Spirit, i.e., the Gospels and Epistles, and the law and the prophets, according to the declaration of Christ Himself.de Principiis book 1 ch.3.1 p.252

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) mentions “inspired scripture” Letter 22 ch.1 p.128

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) mentions “inspired Scripture”. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.6 p.127

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “And where can we see that all these things came true? In Pilate's unlawful court of law. Although they testified to so many things against him, as Matthew said, Jesus made no  answer to them. Pilate, the presiding official, said to him: 'Do you hear what  witness these men bear against you? And he made no answer but stood there silent. This is what the heaven-inspired prophet meant when he said: 'Like a lamb led to the  slaughter or a sheep before the shearer, he was silent.'Against the Jews book 6 ch.2

 

Sc12. Canon [of Scripture/truth/the church]

 

Galatians 6:16 rule (kanon)

 

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) mentions “the canon of sacred writers” Answering Eunomius’ Second Book p.260

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) “Does not the canonical epistle of the Apostle Jude declare that he [Enoch, seventh for Adam] prophesied? But the writings of these men could not be held as authoritative either amon the Jews or us, on account of their too great antiquity, which made it seem needful to regard them with suspicion, lest false things should be set forth instead of true. … For the purity fo the canon has not admitted these writings, not because the authority of these men who pleased God is rejected, but becaseu they arenot believed to be theirs.” The City of God book 18 ch.38 p.383

 

Sc13. Dual meaning of some prophecies

 

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) mentions dual fulfillment of prophecy. Commentary on Matthew homily 8 p.53

 

Sc14. Unbelievers don’t understand OT/scripture

 

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) (implied) “.... Come here, Daniel,’ he said, ‘because the words are to be kept secret and sealed’ (indicating the obscurity of the words) ‘until the time of the end. Then the angel mentioned the reason why God consented to these evils: ‘As long as many are chosen, made white, and purged, as long as the lawless act lawlessly, as long as all the unholy ones shall not understand and the holy ones do understand.’Against the Jews book 5 ch.8

 

Sc15. Veil on many when read Moses/OT

 

2 Corinthians 3:14

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “I shall speak now with the utmost brevity of the veil of Moses and the ministration of death. For I do not think that these things at least can introduce very much to the disparagement of the law. The text in question, then, proceeds thus: ‘But if the ministration of death, engraven in letters on the stones, was made in glory, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away;’ and so on. Well, this passage at any rate acknowledges the existence of a glory on the countenance of Moses, and that surely is a fact favourable to our position. And even although it is to be done away, and although there is a veil in the reading of the same, that does not annoy me or disturb me, provided there be glory in it still.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.43 p.219

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) veil when reading the Old Testament. On the Spirit ch.52 p.33

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) speaks of the veil when some read the Old Testament. Catechetical Lecture 15 ch.32 p.114

 

Sc16. Some parts of the Bible are allegorical

 

Mark 2:22; Revelation 12

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Mark 2:22

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) discusses Old Testament “dives proclamations, listen, as in figure” Festal Letter 1.4 p.507

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says some parts are figurative. Five &&&

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) shows that some screiptures have a spirutal meaning. question 112 p.137 and question 44 p.64

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) discusses metaphors in scripture. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.23 p.63

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) mentions “after a figure” On the Gospel of John Tractate 10 ch.4 p.70

 

Sc17. Lion both good and bad in scripture

 

Good: Revelation 5:5

Bad: 1 Peter 5:8

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) (partial), lion is evil. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 5.6 p.354

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (lion is bad) compares Satan to a lion. History of the Arians ch.20 p.276

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) said that the lion was good (represented Christ) question 59 p.142

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) said that Satan prowls around like a lion. question 102 p.315-316

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) (lion is bad) quotes 1 Peter 5:8. Duties of the Clergy book 1 ch.49.250 p.40. He also quotes 1 Peter 5:8 in Sermon Against Auxentius ch.4 p.430.

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) (lion is good) “And what is meant by the words ‘thou didst lie down and slumber as a lion?’ For as the lion is terrible not only when he is awake but even when he is sleeping, so Christ also not only before the cross but also on the cross itself and in the very moment of death was terrible, and wrought at that time great miracles, turning back the light of the sun, cleaving the rocks, shaking the earth, rending the veil, alarming the wife of Pilate, convicting Judas of sin, for then he said ‘I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood;’ and the wife of Pilate declared ‘Have nothing to do with that just man, for I have suffered many things in a dream because of Him.’” homilyon Matthew 26:19 ch.1 p.&&&

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) (lion is bad) “Do you stray outside the flock and have you no fear of the lion that  prowls about outside the fold? ‘For your enemy, like a lion, goes about seeking whom he may seize.’Against the Jews homily34 ch.7

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) says the devil prowls like a roaring line. On the Gospel of John Tractate 7 ch.6 p.50

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) says Christ is a lamb and a lion. On the Gospel of John Tractate 13 ch.5 p.89

 

Sc18. Don’t twist/corrupt meaning of Scripture

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (354 A.D.) discusses those who wrest scripture. Letter 48 p.557.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) (implied)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) speaks of corrupters of the Scriptures. The Hexaemaron homily 2 ch.2 p.59

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) Concerning Lowliness of Mind ch.2 p.148

others too

 

Sc19. Acknowledge Bible copyist errors

 

(Issues of canonicity are not included here)

 

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) &&&

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.) created the Old Testament of the Vulgate from Theodotus, Symmachus, and other copies of the Septagint in Origin’s Hexapla. Prologema p.xxxi

Augustine of Hippo (400 A.D.) mentions variants in Matthew 9:29. Harmony of the Gospels book 2 ch.68 p.135

Augustine of Hippo (400 A.D.) mentions variants of Psalm 2:7. He says a phrase is not present in the earliest Greek codices. Harmony of the Gospels book 2 ch.14 p.120.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says the Greek manuscripts of Matthew 5:22 do not contain “without cause”. Rectractions book 1 ch.19.4 p.&&&

 

Sc20. Some corrupted [copies of] Scripture

 

This includes both changed the Christian scriptures and those who made their own books taking pieces of Christian scriptures.

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) said Marcion corrupted scripture. Catechetical Lecture 6 ch.16 p.38

 

Sc21. God’s Word/Law is sweeter than honey

 

Psalm 19:10; 119:103

 

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) quotes Psalm 19:9-10 (Septuagint). The Hexaemeron homily 8 ch.8 p.101

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) “And again, ‘How sweet are Thy words unto my throat.’ (He said not to my hearing, but to my ‘threat’); ‘more than honey and the honeycomb to my moutn.’ (Psalm 119:103). Homilies on Hebrews homily8 ch.9 p.407.

Augustine of Hippo (&&&) (implied)

 

Old and New Testaments

 

On1. The Law was excellent or good

 

Psalm 119:39

Romans 7:12-13,16 The Law was holy and good.

1 Timothy 1:8

1 Timothy 4:4 (partial, everything God created is good)

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) “This also he added in the law, that nothing senseless should be done but that we should be careful and direct our life in accordance with what is just and righteous. Now this law was suspended over men, discharging most sharply its curse against those who might transgress it.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.31 p.203

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) “I understand, then, that his [Manes’] chief effort was directed to prove that the law of Moses is not consonant with the law of Christ; and this position he attempted to found on the authority of our Scriptures. Well, on the other hand, not only did we establish the law of Moses, and all things which are written in it, by the same Scripture; but we also proved that the whole Old Testament agrees with the New Testament, and is in perfect harmony with the same, and that they form really one texture, just as a person may see one and the same robe made up of weft and warp together.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.215

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) says the law was admirable and the shadow was excellent. Festal Letter 1 ch.3 p.507

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says the Law was holy. question 110 p.118l question 46 p.275-282

Rufinus (373-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “The Apostle Paul makes use of no circumlocution, when he says, ‘The law is good; and the commandment is holy, and just, and good.’ From which it is clear that Paul had not learned the language of those who separate justice from goodness, but had been instructed by that God, and illuminated by His Spirit, who is at the same time both holy, and good, and just; and speaking by whose Spirit he declared that the commandment of the law was holy, and just, and good.” de Principiis book 2 ch.5.4. p.280

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) says the law was holy, just, and good. Commentary on Romans homily 12 p.422

others too.

 

On2. The law is/was spiritual

 

Romans 7:14a “For we know that the law is spiritual”

 

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) quotes Romans 7:14”let us ask the Apostle Paul. … For he saith: ‘For we know that the Law is spiritual, but I am carnal, sold under sin.’” On the Psalms Psalm 126 ch.1 p.603

 

On3. Law a shadow of the gospel/things to come

 

Colossians 2:17; Hebrews 8:5; 10:1

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) “For the law was admirable, and the shadow was excellent, otherwise, it would not have wrought fear, and induced reverence in those who heard; especially in those who at that time not only heard but saw these things. Now these things were typical, and done as in a shadow.Easter Letter 329 A.D. p.&&&

 

On4. Jesus superseded some Old Testament laws

 

Mark 7:19; (implied) Colossians 2:16; (implied) Hebrews 10:18

Romans 10:4; Galatians 3:25; Romans 8:1-4

 

The NT says some OT commands have been fulfilled and are not to be done. (eating pork, sacrifices, etc.) Acts 10:9-16;15:1,5-29; Mark 7:19; Galatians 5:2-4; Hebrews 9:9-10;10:18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Mark 7:19

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Mark 7:19

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) (implied) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Mark 7:19

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) shows that Jesus superseded Old Testament laws. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1.19 p.352

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) discusses how Christ superseded the Sabbath as Lord of the Sabbath. Acts of Archelaus (=Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.42 p.216

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) (implied) “in which Flesh, as the Apostle says, He reconciled the enmity which was against us and destroyed the law of the commandments in ordinances, that He might make the two into one new man, making peace, and reconcile both in one body to the Father. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.3 p.88

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) saus Jesusoverruled some O.T. laws. Letter 160 ch.3 p.273

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says that Jesus canceled some OT commandments. question 44 p.66

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&&

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) “This is the wish of our schoolmaster the law, of the prophets who intervened between Christ and the law, of Christ who is the fulfiller and end of the spiritual law; of the emptied Godhead, of the assumed flesh, of the novel union between God and man,” In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.23 p.209

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (implied) We do not need to observe circumcision and the Sabbath anymore. Letter 3 ch.20.1 p.61

Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) (implied) “When he said, ‘He made both of them one Testament’, and he annulled law of the commandments by his commandments, so that he might make everything new with one testament. ‘From now on not a single letter ‘iota’ will pass away from the Law and the prophets.’ As for the rest, ‘The whole Law and Prophets up to John were established in order to serve and then pass away.’ ‘For the thing that has become old is worn out and close to destruction, and from then on we ought not to speak about these. From then on, that one letter iota will remain – which is the ten commandments, which are called ‘iota’ for there are ten commandments in the number of the signs.” Memra 22 ch.21 p.269-270

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) discusses how Jesus “enhanced” the law of the Sabbath in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 39.3 p.257.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) discusses how Christians no longer have to keep the Jewish ceremonial law. Letter 75 ch.3.5 p.335

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Christ “will bring the Law to an end” Commentary on Malachi ch.4 p.422

 

On5. Scripture was/is fulfilled

 

Luke 24:44; John 19:24

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament, including all of Deuteronomy, and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 24:44-45

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 24:44-45

Vercelli (Latin a) (4th century) Mt 1:1-25:1; 25:13-end; Mk 1:1-21;1:35-15:14; Lk 1:1-11:11; 11:27-12:36; 13:1-end Luke 24:44-45

 

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “Saviour, it is written that the prediction of the prophet Joel was fulfilled,de Principiis book 2 ch.7.2 p.285

Rufinus (364-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “His coming now He fulfilled that law which has a shadow of good things to come” de Principiis book 4 ch.25 p.375

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) says that scripture was fulfilled. Commentary on Acts ch.1.3 p.18

 

On6. The prophets were until John

 

Matthew 11:13; Luke 16:16

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 11:13; Luke 16:16

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (implied) Diodorus the Christian says that Manes is using this scripture (for the prophets were until John) to say to discard all of the Old Testament.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.40 p.215

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “For all the prophets,' saith He [Jesus], 'and the law prophesied until John.Homilies on Matthew homily 37 p.240

 

On7. O.T. said the Messiah had to suffer/die

 

Luke 24:44-46

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end.  Luke 24:44-46

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says tha the Messiah had to die. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 17.9 p.390

First Council of Constantinople (381/382 A.D.) Creed ch.1 p.163

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) says that Paul, opening the scriptures, reasoned with the Jews that Christ must suffer. Homilies on Acts homily 37 p.228

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes Luke 24:46 and then references verses about Christ’s suffering. On the Psalms Psalm 5 ch.4 p.179

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes Luke 24:44. On the Psalms Psalm 72 ch.17 p.332

 

No Athanasius of Alexandria, Ambrose, Socrates, Sozomon, Theodoret, Jerome

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Acts of the Holy Apostle Thomas (date unknown) p.548-549 “And he [Jesus] showed them a second time, beginning from the prophets, and explaining the things concerning Christ, and that it was necessary for Him to come, and for all things to be fulfilled that had been said to us beforehand concerning Him.”

 

On8. Old Testament has types of Christ

 

John 1:51; 3:13; 1 Corinthians 10:1-4

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 3:13

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that Joseph was a type of Christ. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 21.9 p.396

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) “for the types given by Moses are complete and realized.” Then he gives the type of Joshua the Son of Nave fighting against the Amalekites. On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.2

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) mentions types of Jesus in the Old Testament. Calls Moses a servant of God

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions the Old Testament pointing to Christ. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.59 p.341

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) prototypes of Christ. On the Spirit ch.21 p.20

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that Noah is a figure of Christ. Catechetical Lecture 17 ch.10 p.126

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) (partial) mentions Melchizedek. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.37 p.94

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “This Melchizedek was at the same time both priest and king; he was to be a type of  Christ, and Scripture makes clear mention of this. For Abraham attacked the  Persians, rescued his nephew Lot from their hands, seized all the spoils, and was returning from his mighty victory over his foes. After describing those  events the Scripture had this to say about Melchizedek.Against the Jews book 7 p.&&&

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.) said “Jesus [Joshua] Son of Nave was a type of the Lord in name as well as in deed – who crossed over Jordan,…”

Philo of Carpasia (365-425 A.D.) “And he manifested himself to Abraham to whom the word or prophecy was given, and told him: ‘It is not now, but cross the Jordan and I will manifest to you’. And he told him he encountered Melkisedek and he blessed him. And Malka Sedeq blessed our father Abraham and gave him the typoi of the flesh and blood of Christ. Thus Abraham say in prophecy through the hands of Malka Sedeq, and Abraham rejoiced and gave the tenth from all he received, and gave a tithe to Malka Sedeq, his first interpretation means ‘king of Peace’, who did not have a father and who did not have a mother and whose birth is unknown, and whose life has no end and has no beginning.

 

On9. Melchizedek was a type of Christ

 

Genesis 14:18; Psalm 110:4: Hebrews 5:6-10; 6:20 7:1-17

 

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) (partial) says that Melchizedek was Christ. question 109 p.73

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) (implied) speaks of Melchizedek like Christ. Catechetical Lecture 10 ch.11 p.60

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) (partial) mentions Melchizedek. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.37 p.94. See also ibid book 6 ch.2 p.184.

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “This Melchizedek was at the same time both priest and king; he was to be a type of  Christ, and Scripture makes clear mention of this. For Abraham attacked the  Persians, rescued his nephew Lot from their hands, seized all the spoils, and was returning from his mighty victory over his foes. After describing those  events the Scripture had this to say about Melchizedek.Against the Jews book 7 p.&&&

Philo of Carpasia (365-425 A.D.) “And he manifested himself to Abraham to whom the word or prophecy was given, and told him: ‘It is not now, but cross the Jordan and I will manifest to you’. And he told him he encountered Melkisedek and he blessed him. And Malka Sedeq blessed our father Abraham and gave him the typoi of the flesh and blood of Christ. Thus Abraham say in prophecy through the hands of Malka Sedeq, and Abraham rejoiced and gave the tenth from all he received, and gave a tithe to Malka Sedeq, his first interpretation means ‘king of Peace’, who did not have a father and who did not have a mother and whose birth is unknown, and whose life has no end and has no beginning.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes Psalm 110:4 as Melchizedek being a type of Christ” On Christian Doctrine book 4 ch.21.45 NPNF first series vol.2 p.590

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) “‘In them the second death hath no power,’ are added the words, ‘but they shall be priests of God and Christ, and shall reign with Him a thousand years’; and this refers not to the bishops alone, and presbyters, who are now specially called priests in the Church; but as we call all believers Christians on account of the mystical chrism, so we call all priests because they are members of the one Priest. Of them the Apostle Peter says, ‘A holy people, a royal priesthood.’ Certainly he implied, though in a passing and incidental way, that Christ is God, saying priests of God and Christ, that is, of the Father and the Son, though it was in His servant-form and as Son of man that Christ was made a Priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.Concerning the Last Judgment ch.10 p.&&&

 

On10. Joshua was a type of Christ

 

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) “for the types given by Moses are complete and realized.” Then he gives the type of Joshua the Son of Nave fighting against the Amalekites. On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.2

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that Joshua was a figure of Christ. Catechetical Lecture 10 ch.11 p.60

 

On11. Old and/or New Covenant

 

Jeremiah 31:31-34; Ezekiel 26:26-28; Luke 22:20b; Hebrews 7:22,28; 8:6-13; 9:15-18; 10:9-16

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Hebrews 7:25; 8:6; 9:15; 1 Timothy 2:5

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Hebrews 7:25; 8:6; 9:15; 12:24; 1 Timothy 2:5

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 22:20b

 

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) mentions the new Covenant. question 44 p.62-63

 

On12. Using the term “Old Testament”

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (c.350 A.D.) mentions the Old Testament and New Testament in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.214,215. See also ibid ch.40 p.214

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) starts of the list of the books of the Old Testament as “These are, then, of the Old Testament,” in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) “Son, all the books of Scripture, both Old Testament and New, are inspired by God and useful for instruction [2 Tim 3:16], as it is written; but to those who really study it the Psalter yields especial treasure.Athanasius on Psalms

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books, calling them the “Old Testament”. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) uses the term “Old Testament” question 127 p.41

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&&

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) mentions th e”Old Testament”.. On the Spirit ch.5.11 p7

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments. The Panarion section 3 scholion 1 and 5 p.334

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) uses ther term “Old Testament”. Commentary on Acts ch.6 p.39

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) in discussing the scriptures says, “In the Old Testament, the law appeared first, followed by the prophets … Here we find twelve prophets, namely Hosea and others; then the four famous ones, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel.” On the Creation of the World ch.3 p.3

Jerome of Stridon (393 A.D.) mentions the “Old Testament”. Against Jovinianus book 2 ch.28 p.409

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) mentions the “Old Testament” and the “New Testament” On the Gospel of John Tractate 3 ch.1 p.19

 

On13. Using the term “New Testament”

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions the Old Testament and New Testament in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.214,215. See also ibid ch.40 p.214

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions there are neither two old testaments nor two new testaments. (The Christian Diodorus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.45 p.220

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) “Son, all the books of Scripture, both Old Testament and New, are inspired by God and useful for instruction [2 Tim 3:16], as it is written; but to those who really study it the Psalter yields especial treasure.Athanasius on Psalms

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) “Never neglect reading, especially of the New Testament, because very frequently mischief comes of reading the Old; not because what is written is harmful, but because the minds of the injured are weak. All bread is nutritious, but it may be injurious to the sick. Just so all Scripture is God inspired and profitable, and there is nothing in it unclean: only to him who think it is unclean, to him it is unclean.” Basil to Julian Letter 42.3 p.144-145

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) uses the phrase “New Testament” question 44 p.65

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in Of the Christian Faith book 1 ch.8.57 p.210

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) mentions the New Testament in On Penitents ch.4.1 p.74

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) refers to the Old and New Testament. Commentary on Zechariah 8 p.201

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments. The Panarion section 3 scholion 1 and 5 p.334

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “You see what great praise is bestowed upon widowhood, and this in the New Testament, when the beauty of virginity also was clearly brought to light. Nevertheless even the lustre of this state could not obscure the glories of widowhood, which shines on brightly all the same, keeping its own value. When then we make mention of widowhood from time to time, do not be cast down, nor consider the matter a reproach;Letters to a Young Widow ch.1 p.122

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) uses the terms “Old Testament” and “New Testament” On the Creation of the World ch.3 p.3

Jerome of Stridon (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the “New Testament”, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as “the Lord’s team of four”, seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the New Testament in The City of God book 17 ch.4 p.341; book 17 ch.6 p.344

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the New Testament in Commentary on Psalms p.405,521,531,681

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) mentions the “Old Testament” and the “New Testament” On the Gospel of John Tractate 3 ch.1 p.19

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) The New Testament referred to by name in the Institutes of John Cassian book 1.1 p.201 and the Conference of the Abbot Paphnutius ch.15 p.327

 

Among heretics

Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423.429 A.D.) refers by name to the New Testament, quoting Matthew 28:2-3. Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.331

 

On14. No more animal or blood sacrifices

 

Hebrews 10:18-20

(partial) Hebrews 8:13

 

Vaticanus (B) (partial) contains Hebrews 8:13

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) contains Hebrews 10:18-20

 

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) &&&

The Donatist schismatic Tyconius (after 390 A.D.) &&& Book of Rules &&&

 

On15. No need to celebrate the Sabbath (except can fast)

 

Hosea 2:11

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says we don’t celebrate the Sabbath anymore. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1.19 p.352

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says we don’t celebrate the Sabbath. Letter 160 ch.3 p.273

X Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.375/390 A.D.) “But keep the Sabbath and the Lord’s day festival; because the former is the memorial of the creation, and the latter of the resurrection.” book 7 section 2.23 p.469

X Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.375/390 A.D.) “but assemble yourselves together every day, morning and evening, singing psalms and praying in the Lord’s house: in the morning saying the sixty-second Psalm, and in the evening the hundred and fortieth, but principally on the Sabbath-day. And on the day of our Lord’s resurrection, which is the Lord’s day, meet more diligently, sending praised to God that made the universe by Jesus, …” book 2 ch.8.59 p.423

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) “Christians must not judaize by resting on the Sabbath, but must work on that day, rather honoring the Lord’s Day; and, if they can, resting then as Christians. But if any shall be found to be judaizers, let them be anathema from Christ.” Canon 29 p.148

X Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions assemblies for communion held on the fourth day, on the Sabbath evening, and the Lord’s Day. (Panarion 3.22, as quoted in Concordia Triglotta, p.385)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says we don’t celebrate the Jewish Sabbath. Homilies on Galatians homily4.1 p.30

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “By the grace, then, of the Holy Spirit, along with numerous other results, this most glorious consequence is clearly demonstrated, that with regard to those things which were written in the prophets or in the law of Moses, it was only a few persons at that time, viz., the prophets themselves, and scarcely another individual out of the whole nation, who were able to look beyond the mere corporeal meaning and discover something greater, i.e., something spiritual, in the law or in the prophets; but now there are countless multitudes of believers who, although unable to unfold methodically and clearly the results of their spiritual understanding, are nevertheless most firmly persuaded that neither ought circumcision to be understood literally, nor the rest of the Sabbath, nor the pouring out of the blood of an animal, nor that answers were given by God to Moses on these points. And this method of apprehension is undoubtedly suggested to the minds of all by the power of the Holy Spirit.” de Principiis book 2 ch.7.2 p.285

Jerome of Stridon (393 A.D.) says we don’t need to celebrate sabbaths, new moons, and eating all meat is the same. Against Jovinianus book 2 ch.16 p.401

 

On16. Eating meats forbidden to Jews OK

 

Mark 7:17-23, especially 7:19; Acts 10:9-16; Colossians 2:16; Acts 15:28-29

 

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) Homilies on Matthew homily 51 ch.&&&

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) shows that all meat is fine for us to eat. Homilies on Acts homily22 p.143

Jerome of Stridon (393 A.D.) says we don’t need to celebrate sabbaths, new moons, and eating all meat is the same. Against Jovinianus book 2 ch.16 p.401

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) eating meat is fine (“kill and eat”). He then discusses Acts 10:9-13 and Peter seeing the cloth from heaven. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.251

 

 

OLD TESTAMENT canon

 

Oc1. Genesis is scripture

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) (implied) “Even that great serpent himself was not evil previous to man, but only after man, in whom he displayed the fruit of his wickedness, because he willed it himself. If, then, the father of wickedness makes his appearance to us after man has come into being, according to the Scriptures, how can he be unbegotten who has thus been constituted evil subsequently to man, who is himself a production?” (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.18 p.191

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) (implied) “Whereas scripture showed this, when relating his [Satan’s] artifices against Eve in Paradise” Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.3 p.224

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says God spoke in Genesis 4:13. question 5 p.52

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&&

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) refers tp Genesis chapter 1 as scripture. The hexaemeron homily 3 ch.2 p.66

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says Moses wrote Genesis 1:3 is Scripture, and God said. Answer to Eunomius’ Second Book p.270

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) (implied) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) quotes Genesis 4:9 then immediately says “But it may be objected, that the Gentile allows nothing of this sort. Come then, let us discuss this point, and as we have done with respect to the creation, having carried on the warfare against these objectors not only by the help of the Scriptures, but of reason, so also let us now do with respect to conscience.” On the Statues homily 12 ch.11-12 p.423

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) (implied for Genesis) “For Scripture says: "For Cain and his offerings he had no regard". Noah offered to God sacrifices of sheep and calves and birds. The Scripture  say: "And the Lord smelled a sweet odor", that is, he accepted the offerings.Against the Jews ch.5

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) calls Genesis scripture. On Christian Doctrine book 4 ch.21.45 NPNF first series vol.2 p.590

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) “while Scripture, in the Book of Genesis, was speaking of Adam and Eve” On the Gospel of John Tractate 3 ch.1 p.19

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 section 1 p.441 “the divine Scripture testifies that God said to Christ, His only-begotten, ‘Let us make man after our image, and after our likeness. And God made man: after the image of God made He him; male and female made He them.’”

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) God says in divine scripture. And quotes Genesis 2:2; 4:15; Ecclesiastes 11:2. Commentary on Micah ch.5 p.231

 

Oc2. Exodus is scripture or God said

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says that Exodus 3:15 was said by God to Moses

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) “and there are others also, heavenly ones, for Scripture says, ‘The Lord of powers is with us, the God of Jacob is our refuge.’” [Exodus 12:41] Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.20 p.163

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes Exodus 20:6 as God says though His prophet. question 14 p.92-93

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) quotes Exodus 25:10 as scripture. On the Spirit ch.4.6 p.5

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) quotes Exodus 1:7 as “scripture”. The Panarion section 1 ch.8,4,5 p.25

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) (implied) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) has God speaking in Exodus. Commentary on Acts ch.17 p.111

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) quotes Exodus 3:!4 as “God spoke” On the Gospel of John Tractate 2 ch.2 p.14

 

Oc3. Leviticus is Scripture or God says

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) quotes Leviticus 23:26-27 as scripture and God speaking to Moses. Easter Letter 1 ch.4 p.508

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes Leviticus as God speaks. question 103 p.96

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

Jerome of Stridon (393 A.D.) quotes Levicitus 16:29 as God is speaking. Against Jovinianus part 2 ch.17 p.402

 

Oc4. Numbers is Scripture or God says

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) quotes Numbers 10:1-2 as “divine scripture” and “God revealing to Moses” Easter Letter 1 ch.2 p.507

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes Numbers 6:27 as God says. question 11 p.82-83

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

Oc5. Deuteronomy is scripture or God says

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 32:8 as scripture. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.13 p.313

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) discusses Deuteronomy 6:4 as Scripture. On Not Three Gods p.336

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) (implied) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) says that God spoke Deuteronomy 18:15,18a,19. Commentary on Acts ch.9 p.56

 

Oc6. Joshua is Scripture or the Lord says

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including Joshua son of Nun in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&&

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

Oc7. 1 or 2 Samuel is scripture or God says

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including the four books of kings [1, 2 Samuel, 1, 2 Kings] in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) quotes from 1 Samuel 7:4 as Scripture. Letter 8 ch.3 p.117

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) discusses 1 Sam 16:14; 18:10 in his discussion of “holy scriptures”. (It is in the original Greek also.) de Principiis book 4 ch.1.8 p.356

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) refers to 2 Samuel as scripture in Commentary on Psalms p.412

 

Oc8. 1 or 2 Kings is scripture or the Holy Spirit says

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) (partial, allusion)

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including the four books of kings [1, 2 Samuel, 1, 2 Kings] in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) (partial, allusion) &&&

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) refers to the book of Kings. book 2 p.109

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes 1 Kings as God says. question 11 p.12 question 42 p.125

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes 1 Kings 1:4 as “Holy Scripture in the Book of Kings” Catechetical Lectures Lecture 12.21 p.78

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) (partial)

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) (partial, allusion)

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) (partial, allusion)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today. The Panarion

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) quotes 1 Kings 19:14 as “Scripture” in Homilies on Romans homily 18 p.482

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) alludes to 1 Kings 21:1-16. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.8 p.125

Council of Carthage (393-419 A.D.)

Fragment of Nicephorus of Constantinople referring to Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) (partial) 1 Kings 8:27 “Solomon the son of David, in the books styled ‘The Reigns of the Kings,’ comprehending not only that the structure of the true temple was celestial and spiritual, but had also a reference to the flesh, which He who was both the son and Lord of David was to build up, … Will God in very deed dwell with men on the earth?” Fragment by Nicephorus of Constantinople quoting Clement of Alexandria against the Judaizers. p.584

Sulpicius/Sulpitius Severus (historian) (363-420 A.D.) (partial) mentions 1 Kings as the Third Book of Kings in History book 1 ch.40 p.90

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) (allusion)

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) &&&

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) &&&

 

Oc9. Reference to 1 or 2 Chronicles as Chronicles

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) mentions first and second Chronicles in the books of the Old Testament. Easter Letter 39 ch.4 p.552

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

Oc10. Job is scripture or the Lord says

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including Job in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “even the Lord in the book of Job says, “Thou wilt take with a hook the apostate dragon,” i.e., a fugitive. de Principiis book 1 ch.5.5 p.260

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) says that Job is scripture. On the Gospel of John Tractate 125 ch.5 p.449

 

Oc11. Psalms are scripture or God/Spirit spoke

 

Jesus quoted Psalm 41:9 as scripture, in John 13:18.

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. References Mark 12:10-11; John 10:34-35; John 13:18.

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “There are, then, of the Old Testament, twenty-two books in number; for, as I have heard, it is handed down that this is the number of the letters among the Hebrews; their respective order and names being as follows. The first is Genesis , then Exodus, next Leviticus, after that numbers, and then Deuteronomy. Following these there is Joshua, the son of Nun, then Judges, then Ruth. And again, after these four books of Kings, the first and second being reckoned as one book, and so likewise the third and fourth as one book. And again, the first and second of the Chronicles are reckoned as one book. Again Ezra, the first and second are similarly one book. After these there is the book of Psalms, then the Proverbs, next Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs. Job follows, then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book. Then Isaiah, one book, then Jeremiah with Baruch, Lamentations, and the epistle, one book, afterwards, Ezekiel and Daniel, each one book. Thus far constitutes the Old Testament.” Paschal Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.)”God says” in Psalm 132:1. Book 1 p.94

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says “The Holy Spirit says” in Psalm 9:23,24 book 2 p.108

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&&

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says David wrote Psalm 103:8 and quotes it as Scriptures. Answer to Eunomius’ Second Book p.265

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) was crazy over the number 22. He gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) &&& Sermon on the Mount book 1 ch.&&&

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) “For if thou wouldest learn how great is the profit of the Scriptures, examine thyself, what thou becomest by hearing Psalms,  and what by listening to a song of Satan; and how thou art disposed when staying in a Church, and how when sitting in a theatre; and thou wilt see that great is the difference between this soul and that, although both be one.Homilies on Matthew homily 2 p.&&&

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.) calls Psalms scripture. Letter 10 ch.1 p.11

others too.

 

Among heretics

Arian heretic Eunomius of Cyzicus (c.360-c.394 A.D.) (partial) alludes to Psalms 113:11 as by the prophetic voice. Apologetic Letter ch.23 p.65

 

Oc12. Proverbs are scripture or the Lord says

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Proverbs 8:22 and Hebrews 3:2 then says, “They are accustomed to allege the aforesaid passages of divine Scripture, which have a good meaning,” Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.14.1 p.348

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including Proverbs in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes Proverbs 20:9 as scripture. question 112 p.136. See also question 33 p.140.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) quotes Proverbs 9:12 as scripture. Commentary on Acts ch.7 p.48

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Proverbs 9:1-5 as “according to the declaration of holy Scripture” de Principiis book 2 ch.11.3 p.297

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) refers to Proverbs as Scripture in Commentary on Psalms p.412

others too.

 

Among heretics

Arian heretic Eunomius of Cyzicus (c.360-c.394 A.D.) quotes part of Proverbs 8:22 as the Lord is speaking. Apologetic Letter ch.25 p.71

Arian heretic Eunomius of Cyzicus (c.360-c.394 A.D.) quotes Proverbs 8:22,23,25 as “Holy Scripture proclaims” Apologetic Letter ch.28 p.75

 

Oc13. Isaiah is scripture or the Lord/Spirit says

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. References Mark 15:28; Luke 4:18-21.

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including Isaiah in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 5:2 as scripture. question 42 p.86

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 53 as scripture. Commentary on Acts ch.19 p.121

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes part of Isaiah 45:7 in his discussion of “holy scriptures”. (It is in the original Greek also.) de Principiis book 4 ch.1.8 p.356

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) in discussing the scriptures says, “In the Old Testament, the law appeared first, followed by the prophets … Here we find twelve prophets, namely Hosea and others; then the four famous ones, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel.” On the Creation of the World ch.3 p.3

Augustine of Hippo (388-430) mentions the greater prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah in contrast to the minor prophets. City of God ch.33 p.379

others too.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 2 ch.1 p.396 quotes Isaiah 66:2 as “The Lord says by Esias [Isaiah]”

 

Oc14. Jeremiah is scripture or the Lord says

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including Jeremiah in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

&&&Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) discusses Jeremiah 15:14 in his discussion of “holy scriptures”. (It is in the original Greek also.) de Principiis book 4 ch.1.8 p.356

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) quotes Jeremiah 35:3 as scripture. Commentary on Acts ch.14 p.93

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) in discussing the scriptures says, “In the Old Testament, the law appeared first, followed by the prophets … Here we find twelve prophets, namely Hosea and others; then the four famous ones, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel.” On the Creation of the World ch.3 p.3

Augustine of Hippo (388-430) mentions the greater prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah in contrast to the minor prophets. City of God ch.33 p.379

others too.

 

Oc15. Ezekiel is scripture or the Lord says

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including Ezekiel in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) in discussing the scriptures says, “In the Old Testament, the law appeared first, followed by the prophets … Here we find twelve prophets, namely Hosea and others; then the four famous ones, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel.” On the Creation of the World ch.3 p.3

others too.

 

Oc16. Daniel is scripture or God showed

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including Daniel in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

&&&Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) in discussing the scriptures says, “In the Old Testament, the law appeared first, followed by the prophets … Here we find twelve prophets, namely Hosea and others; then the four famous ones, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel.” On the Creation of the World ch.3 p.3

 

Oc17. Hosea is scripture or God/the Word says

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Hosea 7:13 as the Lord Himself uttered by the prophet Hosea. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 7 p.309-310

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) (partial) lists the books of the Old Testament, mentioning the twelve minor prophets as “then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book.” in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes Hosea 6:6 as scripture. question 103 p.97

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) in discussing the scriptures says, “In the Old Testament, the law appeared first, followed by the prophets … Here we find twelve prophets, namely Hosea and others; then the four famous ones, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel.” On the Creation of the World ch.3 p.3

 

Oc18. Joel is scripture or God says

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) alludes to the caterpillar in Joel 2:25 as “Scripture”. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.5 p.309

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) alludes to “flesh” in Scripture as by Joel the Prophet. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 3 ch.31 p.410

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) (partial) lists the books of the Old Testament, mentioning the twelve minor prophets as “then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book.” in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) quptes Joel 2:11 as by Joel. The Hexaemeron homily 2 ch.7 p.64

 

Oc19. Amos is scripture or God said

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) (partial) lists the books of the Old Testament, mentioning the twelve minor prophets as “then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book.” in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that Amos 4:13 (LXX) is scripture. The Hexaemeron homily 3 ch.4 p.67

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes the last half of Amos 3:6f in his discussion of “holy scriptures”. (It is in the original Greek also.) de Principiis book 4 ch.1.8 p.356

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes part of Amos 9:3 as “of which another passage of Scripture speaks” On the Psalms Psalm 89 ch.11 p.432

 

Oc20. Micah is scripture

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) (partial) lists the books of the Old Testament, mentioning the twelve minor prophets as “then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book.” in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “the prophet Micah in these words and quotes Micah 6:8. de Principiis [Latin] book 3 ch.1.6 p.305

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes part of Micah 1:12 in his discussion of “holy scriptures”. (It is in the original Greek also.) de Principiis book 4 ch.1.8 p.356

 

Oc21. Habakkuk is scripture or God says

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) (partial) lists the books of the Old Testament, mentioning the twelve minor prophets as “then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book.” in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (356-362 A.D.) ch.26 p.203 says that God sent by the prophet Habakkuk. And quotes Habakkuk 2:15 (Septuagint)

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&&

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

Oc22. Zechariah is scripture or God says

 

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) (partial) lists the books of the Old Testament, mentioning the twelve minor prophets as “then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book.” in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) (partial) So I have been compelled, as it is written, to touch as it were the apple of my eye.”. Letters of Basil Letter 102 To the citizens of Satala p.185

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes Zechariah 12:1 as scripture. question 23 p.29

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) alludes to Zechariah 3:1 as by Zechariah. de Principiis book 3 ch.2 p.329

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

Oc23. Malachi is scripture or God/Spirit says

 

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

Athanasius of Alexandria (&&&)

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) (partial) lists the books of the Old Testament, mentioning the twelve minor prophets as “then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book.” in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) (partial) mentions Malachi.book 4 p.181

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) quotes Malachi 3:6 “I am the Lord, I change not.” As “when God has declared”. Letters of Basil Letter 272 ch.2 p.301

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes Malachi 1:8 as God says. question 5 p.52

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

Oc24. The Twelve [Minor Prophets]

 

&&&Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) &&&

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, mentioning the twelve minor prophets as “then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book.” in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah. He also lists the “Twelve Prophets”.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions the prophets and the twelve. Catechical Lectures Lecture 16.29 p.122

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) quotes Nahum 3:10 as by “Nahum, seventh of the twelve prophets” Commentary on Zechariah 11 p.257

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) was crazy over the number 22. He gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) in discussing the scriptures says, “In the Old Testament, the law appeared first, followed by the prophets … Here we find twelve prophets, namely Hosea and others; then the four famous ones, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel.” On the Creation of the World ch.3 p.3

RufinusCommentary on the Apostles’ Creed (374-410 A.D.)

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (c.240 A.D.) mentions the twelve prophets. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 2 ch.10 p.165.

Council of Carthage (393-419 A.D.)

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.) (implied)

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) mentions Isaiah and the twelve prophets in The City of God book 17 ch.29 p.376

others too.

 

Oc25. The Law and the prophets

 

Haggai 2:10 (partial, the law)

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Quotes Matthew 11:12-15

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) This is not therefore an idle question, but there are the mightiest issues involved in this word. For just as all the law and the prophets are summed up in two words, so also all our hope is made to depend on the birth by the blessed Mary.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.49 p.225-226

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) mentions the Law and the prophets. Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.4 p.224

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (partial) mentions the Law. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.59 p.341

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) mentions the law and the prophets. question 29 p.210

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) “This is the wish of our schoolmaster the law, of the prophets who intervened between Christ and the law, of Christ who is the fulfiller and end of the spiritual law; of the emptied Godhead, of the assumed flesh, of the novel union between God and man,” In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.23 p.209

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) speaks of the prophets and the law. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.2 p.102

Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) (implied) “‘From now on not a single letter ‘iota’ will pass away from the Law and the prophets.’” Memra 22 ch.21 p.269-270

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “Law given by God to Moses from the catalogue of the Divine Scriptures.” On the Priesthoods book 4 ch.4 p.65

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) in discussing the scriptures says, “In the Old Testament, the law appeared first, followed by the prophets … Here we find twelve prophets, namely Hosea and others; then the four famous ones, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel.” On the Creation of the World ch.3 p.3

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) refers to the Law and the prophets. He also says the Law was our teacher to Christ. Commentary on the Song of Songs ch.1 p.70

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (Greek) “with respect to the five books of Moses, who have once given in their adhesion to the apostle, as divinely inspired;” de Principiis book 4 ch.1.13 p.362 (The Latin translation is very similar). See also Homilies on Jeremiah homily 5 ch.13 p.35

Jerome of Stridon (393 A.D.) “They have Moses and the prophets. … And in both passages no one doubts that Moses signifies the law.” Against Jovinianus book 1 ch.22 p.362

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) mentions the law, the prophets, and Psalms. On the Gospel of John Tractate 9 ch.6 p.65

 

Waldenses (1176-) “The Vaudois remained all day at Bobbi, …and the latter preached on the sixteenth chapter of St. Luke, ‘The law and the prophets were until John, since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man preseth into it.’’” p.322-323 Authentic Details of the Valdenses in Piemont and Other Countries p.108. Published by John Hatchard and Son, Piccadilly 1827.

 

Among heretics

Arian heretic Eunomius of Cyzicus (c.360-c.394 A.D.) mentions the law and prophets. Apologetic Letter ch.21 p.61

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) The law and the prophets. Commentary on Zechariah ch.5 p.351

 

Oc26. The Old Testament is scripture

 

Luke 24:44-45

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament, including all of Deuteronomy, and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 24:44-45

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 24:44-45

Vercelli (Latin a) (4th century) Mt 1:1-25:1; 25:13-end; Mk 1:1-21;1:35-15:14; Lk 1:1-11:11; 11:27-12:36; 13:1-end Luke 24:44-45

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) “Son, all the books of Scripture, both Old Testament and New, are inspired by God and useful for instruction [2 Tim 3:16], as it is written; but to those who really study it the Psalter yields especial treasure.Athanasius on Psalms

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) ch.1 lists as canonical scrpture inspired by God all of the Old Testament books, calling them the “Old Testament”. He did not list Lamentations separately, perhaps including it with Jeremiah.

&&&Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

 

Oc27. The Ten Commandments / Decalogue

 

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) speaks of the ten commandments. Epistle 55 ch.&&&

Gregory Nanzianzen (330-391 A.D.) “Give me the tables of your heart; I will be your Moses, though this be a bold thing to say; I will write on them with the finger of God a new Decalogue.Letter 40 ch.45 p.&&&

John Chryosostom (martyred 407 A.D.)

 

NEW TESTAMENT canon

 

Nc1. Matthew is scripture

 

(Jesus / the Lord / the Savior said is not counted.)

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “The Spirit in the evangelist Matthew is also careful to give note of these words of our Lord Jesus Christ:” and then quotes Matthew 24:5,24. (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes Matthew 5:8 as Scripture. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.42 p.217

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes Matthew 24:4,5,23-26 including “For there shall arise false Christs, and false apostle, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders;...” Then in the same chapter Archelaus tells Manes “whereas, even were you to do signs and wonders, we would still have to reckon you a false Christ, and a false prophet, according to the Scriptures.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.54 p.232

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that Matthew and Mark are Scripture. Letter 236 ch.1 p.276

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Matthew 9:22 is scripture. Question 115 p.389. See also question 40 p.285

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “The Scripture is always wont to use this manner of speech, not only when it is mentioning what occurs in the time immediately after, but also of things which are to come to pass many years later. Thus also, for example, when His disciples came unto Him as He sat on the Mount of Olives, and sought to learn about His coming, and the taking of Jerusalem: [Mt 24:3] and yet ye know how great is the interval between those several periods.Homilies on Matthew homily10 p.58

Jerome of Stridon (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the “New Testament”, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as “the Lord’s team of four”, seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

Nc2. Mark is scripture or God said

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that Matthew and Mark are Scripture. Letter 236 ch.1 p.276

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Mark 9:12 is screipture. Question 115 p.389

 

Nc3. Luke is scripture or God said

 

(Jesus / the Lord / the Savior said is not counted.)

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “I understand, then, that his [Manes’] chief effort was directed to prove that the law of Moses is not consonant with the law of Christ; and this position he attempted to found on the authority of our Scriptures. Well, on the other hand, not only did we establish the law of Moses, and all things which are written in it, by the same Scripture; but we also proved that the whole Old Testament agrees with the New Testament, and is in perfect harmony with the same, and that they form really one texture, just as a person may see one and the same robe made up of weft and warp together.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.215

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Luke 16:29 is scripture. On the Spirit ch.14.33 p.20

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes part of Luke 4:41 as Scripture Lecture 10.15 p.4 and refers to it as the Gospel in Lecture 2.4 p.9.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Asterius of Amasea (400-410 A.D.) refers to the rich man and Lazarus as “the Scripture” The Rich Man and Lazarus sermon 1 ch.1 p.1

Jerome of Stridon (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the “New Testament”, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as “the Lord’s team of four”, seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

Nc4. John is scripture

 

(Jesus / the Lord / the Savior said is not counted.)

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “Moreover, when they came upon the word which is given us in our Scriptures touching the Paraclete, he [Manes] took it into his head that he himself might be that Paraclete; for he had not read with sufficient care to observe that the Paraclete had come already,-namely, at the time when the apostles were still upon earth.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.54 p.232

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes John 16:14 as scripture. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “Furthermore, there is but one only inconvertible substance, the divine substance, eternal and invisible, as is known to all, and as is also borne out by this scripture: ‘No man hath seen God at any time, save the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father.’” (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.205

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) (implied) implies that John 2:4 and 10:18 are scripture. question 115 p.388

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes John 4:24 as sacred scripture according to John. Catechical Lectures Lecture 17 ch.34 p.132

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Jerome of Stridon (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the “New Testament”, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as “the Lord’s team of four”, seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

Sozomon (370/380-425 A.D.) quotes John 3:13 as scripture. Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 6 ch.27 p.364

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “To learn how false this is, listen to what Christ said about the devil: 'He was a murderer from the beginning.' [John 8:44] God says he is a murderer; do you rush to him as you would to a physician?Against the Jews book 8

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) quotes John 6:49 as Scripture. Commentary on Hosea ch.2 p.45

 

Nc5. Acts is scripture

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) writes that Archelaus quotes Acts 2:6 as Scripture. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210. Archelaus also quotes Acts 9:15 in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208.

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that Acts 16:29-31 is scripture. Homilies on Ephesians ch.8 p.89

Jerome of Stridon (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the “New Testament”, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as “the Lord’s team of four”, seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

Nc6. Paul’s letters are authoritative

 

2 Peter 3:15-16 (scripture)

 

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. Calls the writings of Paul scripture. 2 Peter 3:15-16

p15 1 Corinthians 7:18-8:4 (late 3rd century) (implied because is 1 Corinthians)

p16 Philippians 3:10-17; 4:2-8 (late 3rd century) (implied because is Philippians)

 

Eusebius of Caesarea wrote whole commentaries on Luke and 1 Corinthians. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.41

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes 2 Corinthians 13:3 as by Paul and calls him an apostle. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.42 p.218

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) Diodorus appeals to “the Apostle Paul and the Gospels” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.45 p.221

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (356-362 A.D.) ch.7 p.198 “applied greater pains for advancement, often repeating to himself the saying of Paul: ‘Forgetting the things which are behind and stretching forward to the things which are before.’” [Philippians 3:13b]

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Athanasius of Alexandria (335 A.D.) declares that eating meat is fine and quotes 1 Corinthians 6:13 as by Paul. Easter Letter 7 ch.2 p.524

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) mentions Paul and refers to Ephesians 1:3. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.60. He also refers to Paul and Romans 11:13 in ch.1 p.60

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Gregory of Nyssa (356-397 A.D.) (partial) 1 Corinthians 15:51,52 “the divine Apostle … to the Corinthians” On the Making of Man ch32.6 p.412

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament, including gthe fourteen epistles of Paul. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) refers to 2 Corinthians 5:9-10 as by the Apostle Paul. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.18 p.140

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 1 Thessalonians 4:17 as by the apostle. de Principiis book 2 ch.11.5 p.299

Jerome of Stridon (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the “New Testament”, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as “the Lord’s team of four”, seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Epistles of Paul and then the four books of the Gospel. On The Profit of Believing ch.7 p.350

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) alludes to Hebrews 7:11 as by the blessed Paul. Commentary on Hosea ch.24 p.56 and Hebrews 9:13 as by Paul in Commentary on Jonah preface p.187

 

Nc7. Romans is scripture

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “Hegemonius of Sirmium said: By all means. Now let us select some instance from among those statements which you allege to be on your side; so that if these be once found to have been properly dealt with, other questions may also be held to rank with them; and if the case goes otherwise, I shall come under the condemnation of the judges, that is to say, I shall have to bear the shame of defeat. You say, then, that the law is a ministration of death, and you admit that ‘death, the prince of this world, reigned from Adam even to Moses;for the word of Scripture is this: ‘even over them that did not sin.’ [Romans 5:14] Manes said: Without doubt death did reign thus, for there is a duality, and these two antagonistic powers were nothing else than both unbegotten. Hegemonius of Sirmium said: Tell me this then,-how can an unbegotten death take a beginning at a certain time? For ‘from Adam’ is the word of Scripture, and not ‘before Adam.’” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.29 p.202

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Romans is scripture. Question 33 p.140

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Romans 8:32 as Scripture. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.17.109 p.219.

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes of Romans 1:1-4 in “Paul’s Epistle to the Romans.” de Principiis book 2 ch.4.2 p.276

 

Among heretics

The heretic Manes (4th century) accepts as scripture Archelaus quoting Romans 5:14. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.29 p.202

 

Nc8. 1 Corinthians is scripture

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “But from this we are able to show that there is a unison of powers in these two substances, that is to say, in that of the body and in that of the soul; of which unison that greatest teacher in the Scriptures, Paul, speaks, when he tells us, that “God hath set the members every one of them in the body as it hath pleased Him.’” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.18 p.193

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (Archelaus is speaking) “For when the Scripture speaks of glory, it shows us also that it had cognizance of differences in glory. Thus it says: ‘There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars: for one star differeth from another star in glory.’” [1 Corinthians 15:21] Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.43 p.218

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says 1 Corinthians 8:6 is scripture. On the Spirit ch.4.6 p.5

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 1:24 as “And we have learnt fro the Scripture that the Son is the power of the Father.” Against Eunomius book 12 ch.3 p.245

 

Nc9. 2 Corinthians is scripture

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) “(for it is so understood according to the usage of Scripture, as I the words of Paul, ‘if any man be in Christ he is a new creature’), the renewal owhich takes place I nthis life,” On the Spirit ch.19.49 p.31

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) calls 2 Corinthians 3:17 scripture. Question 20 p.139

 

Nc10. Galatians is scripture

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Quotes Galatians 6:10 as scripture. Memra 4 ch.1 p.24

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

 

Nc11. Ephesians is scripture

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 6:12 as by Paul to the Ephesians. de Principiis book 3 ch.4 p.332

 

Nc12. Philippians is scripture

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Philippians 4:13 as by Paul. de Principiis book 3 ch.2.5 p.333

 

Nc13. Colossians is scripture

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes of Colossians 1:15 as by Paul. de Principiis book 1 ch.5 p.247

 

Nc14. 1 Thessalonians is Scripture

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Jerome of Stridon (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the “New Testament”, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as “the Lord’s team of four”, seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

Nc15. 1 Timothy is Scripture

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that 1 Timothy is scripture. Homilies on 1 Timothy homily7 ch.5 p.430

Jerome of Stridon (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the “New Testament”, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as “the Lord’s team of four”, seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

Nc16. 2 Timothy is Scripture

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

 

Nc17. Titus is scripture

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Jerome of Stridon (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the “New Testament”, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as “the Lord’s team of four”, seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

Nc18. Revelation is scripture or the Lord says

 

Revelation 1:1;22:18-19

 

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) has all of Revelation

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes “John in the Apocalypse” saying Jesus is the Alpha and Omega. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.28 p.444

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

Ephraem Syrus (350-378 A.D.) alludes to Revelation

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) calls Revelation 10:8 scripture in question 72 p.305

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes Revelation 1:8 as “Scripture”. On the Christian Faith book 2 ch.4.35 p.228. See also Concerning Repentance book 1 ch.10 no.46 p.337

The Donatist schismatic Tyconius (after 390 A.D.) refers to Revelation 1:15.

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.)

Gregory of Elvira (after 392 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) alludes to Revelation 1:6 in On Virginity ch.24 p.376

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) alludes to Revelation (vol.14)

Chromatius of Acquileia (martyred 407 A.D.)

Sulpicius/Sulpitius Severus (363-420 A.D.) (partial) says John the apostle and evangelist wrote Revelation in History book 2 ch.31 p.112

Council of Carthage (393-419 A.D.)

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) alludes to Revelation 20:12 as in the Apocalypse of John. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.13 p.131

Jerome of Stridon (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the “New Testament”, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as “the Lord’s team of four”, seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

Augustine of Hippo (388-8/28/430 A.D.) quotes Revelation 5:9 as by John. On the Forgiveness of Sin, and Baptism) book 1 ch.51 p.34. He also refers to Revelation 21:3.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes Revelation 1:8 as Jesus speaking in the Apocalypse. On Faith and the Creed ch.5.15 p.327

John Cassian the Semi-Pelagian (419-420 A.D.) quotes Revelation 4:4 as the Holy Apocalypse in the Conference of the Abbot Abraham ch.1 p.531.

 

Among heretics

The heretic Priscillian (385 A.D.) refers to Revelation 18:2,3,12

 

Nc19. The “New Testament” is Scripture

 

Mentioning just a verse or portion of the New Testament is not counted here.

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) calls the “New Testament” scripture. Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.26 p.168

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) “Son, all the books of Scripture, both Old Testament and New, are inspired by God and useful for instruction [2 Tim 3:16], as it is written; but to those who really study it the Psalter yields especial treasure.Athanasius on Psalms

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

 

Teachings on Bible canon not on the list

1. The Law is our teacher (1 writer so far: Hegemonius of Sirmium)

 

 

OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORS

 

Oa1. Moses wrote Genesis

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “Hence in Genesis , where Moses gives an account of the construction of the world,” (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.22 p.195

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Moses wrote Genesis. question 106 p.5 question 107 p.23

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says Moses wrote Genesis 1:3 is Scripture, and God said. Answer to Eunomius’ Second Book p.270

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) says that Moses wrote Genesis 1.1 On the Creation of the World ch.2 p.1. See also ch.5 p.4

 

Oa2. Moses wrote Exodus

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says Exodus 7:23 was by Moses in Lecture 13 ch.3 p.82

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) God addresses Moses and quotes Exodus 32:33. On Penitents ch.5.1 p.75

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) refers to Exodus 17:12 as by Moses vol.14 Commentary on John homily 14 p.50

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (&&&)

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.) “Moses writes in Exodus” and quotes Exodus 12:29. The Perpetual Virginity of the Blessed Mary ch.12 p.339

 

Oa3. Moses wrote Leviticus

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 5:14

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (347 A.D.) says Moses wrote Leviticus. Easter Letter 19 ch.3 p.545

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) quotes Leviticus 26:27-28 as “in the composition of Moses”. Commentary on Zechariah 7 p.150

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “In connection with which, even this statement does not appear superfluous, that Moses indeed hears from God what is described in the book of Leviticus, while in Deuteronomy it is the people that are the auditors of Moses, and who learn from him what they could not hear from God.de Principiis book 4 ch.24 p.375. (The Greek of Origen does not say this.)

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) alludes to Leviticus 23 as by Moses Reply to Faustus the Manichaean book 32 ch.3 p.333

 

Oa4. Moses wrote Numbers

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Numbers 11:29 as by Moses in Lecture 16 ch.26 p.122

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) alludes to Numbers 9:10-12 as “Moses, indeed, is accused by the voice of God” Reply to Faustus the Manichaean book 16 ch.16 p.225

 

Oa5. Moses wrote Deuteronomy

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 19:7

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (277/278 A.D.) refers to Deuteronomy 18:15 as by Moses. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.42 p.217

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) quotes as true Dionysius of Rome who quotes Deuteronomy 32:6 as “says Moses in his great song in Deuteronomy”. Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.26 p.168

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Deuteronomy 18:15 was written by Moses. question 51 p.278

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says Deuteronomy 28:66 was by Moses in Catechetical Lectures Lecture 12.19 p.87

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 13:6; 13:8-9 (Septuagint) as by “Moses” and “the Book of Deuteronomy” Letter 3 ch.17.1 p.58

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 4:2 as by Moses Commentary on Matthew homily 5.1 p.314

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that Moses wrote Deuteronomy 18:25 Homilies on Galatians homily2 p.22

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) refers to Deuteronomy 21:23 as written by Moses in Reply to Faustus the Manichaean book 14 ch.1 p.207.

 

Oa6. David a writer of Psalms

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that David wrote Psalm 118:22. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1.6 p.347

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) quotes part of Psalm 22 as “according to the saying of David” On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.3

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) David wrote Psalm 71/72. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.41 p.330

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) “The Psalms of David, which includes 151 Psalms, the first one beginning with 'Blessed is the man who has not walked in the counsel of the ungodly'; The Parables of Solomon, beginning with 'The Proverbs of Solomon son of David, who reigned in Israel, to know wisdom and instruction'; Ecclesiastes by the same author, which begins 'The words of the Preacher, the son of David, king of Israel in Jerusalem: vanity of vanities ... all is vanity'; Song of Songs by the same author, which begins 'The Song of songs, which is Solomon’s: let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth: for thy breasts are better than wine';

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says David wrote Psalm 132:2. book 2 p.109

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says David wrote Psalm 17:50 and 55:10. question 44 p.66

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says David wrote Psalm 36:6. Letter 8 ch.8.11 p.121

Gregory Nanzienzen (330-391 A.D.) “if he takes possession of a shepherd makes him a Psalmist, subduing evil spirits by his song, and proclaims him King; … Call to mind David and Amos” On Pentecost ch.14 p.384

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes Psalm 92:1 as by David. Letter 3 ch.17.2 p.59

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Appeals to David as an authority and quoting Psalm 146:7-8. On Baptism ch.7.2 p.93

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says David wrote Psalm 103:8 and quotes it as Scriptures. Answer to Eunomius’ Second Book p.265

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) quotes Psalms 2:1,2 as by David in Commentary on Matthew homily 36.3 p.240

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) mentions David quoting part of Psalm 22. On the Creation of the World ch.7 p.6

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) quotes part of Psalm 30:11 as by David. Commentary on Zechariah ch.13 p.377

 

Oa7. Solomon a writer of Proverbs

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says that Solomon wrote Proverbs.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) “The Prophet Solomon teaches us what this Tree of Life is in his exhortation concerning Wisdom: ‘She is a tree of life to all them that lay hold upon her, and lean upon her.’” (Proverbs 3:18) Homilies on Psalms Psalm 1 ch.14 p.239

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) says Solomon wrote Proverbs 10:27. In Defense of his Flight ch.14 p.260

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) “The Psalms of David, which includes 151 Psalms, the first one beginning with 'Blessed is the man who has not walked in the counsel of the ungodly'; The Parables of Solomon, beginning with 'The Proverbs of Solomon son of David, who reigned in Israel, to know wisdom and instruction'; Ecclesiastes by the same author, which begins 'The words of the Preacher, the son of David, king of Israel in Jerusalem: vanity of vanities ... all is vanity'; Song of Songs by the same author, which begins 'The Song of songs, which is Solomon’s: let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth: for thy breasts are better than wine';

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Solomon wrote Proverbs 8:22. Letter 8 ch.8 p.120

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Solomon wrote Proverbs 4:19. question 110 p.121

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says Solomon wrote Proverbs 1:6 (Septuagint). Against Eunomius book 3 ch.2 p.138

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) alludes to Proverbs 18:19 as by Solomon. Letter 3 ch.20.2 p.62

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) alludes to Proverbs 2:5 as “according to the words of Solomon” in Rufinus’ translation of Origen’s de Principiis book 2 ch.2.9 p.245

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) alludes to Proverbs 25:21,22 as by Solomon. To Those Who Had Not Attended the Assembly ch.6 p.230

Asterius of Amasea (400-410 A.D.) “for Solomon says in the book of Proverbs” Against Covetousness sermon 3 ch.1 p.6

 

Oa8. Solomon, writer of Ecclesiastes

 

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) “The Psalms of David, which includes 151 Psalms, the first one beginning with 'Blessed is the man who has not walked in the counsel of the ungodly'; The Parables of Solomon, beginning with 'The Proverbs of Solomon son of David, who reigned in Israel, to know wisdom and instruction'; Ecclesiastes by the same author, which begins 'The words of the Preacher, the son of David, king of Israel in Jerusalem: vanity of vanities ... all is vanity'; Song of Songs by the same author, which begins 'The Song of songs, which is Solomon’s: let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth: for thy breasts are better than wine';

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that Solomon wrote Ecclesiastes. Letter 51 p.1554

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Ecclesiastes 9:7,8 as by Solomon in Ecclesiastes in Lecture 22 ch.8 p.152

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) loosely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “That this, however, is also brought about by the opposing powers, is shown by Solomon in the book of Ecclesiastes in the following manner: ‘If the spirit of the ruler rise up against thee, leave not thy place; for soundness restrains great offences.’ de Principiis book 3 ch.2.4 p.&&&

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) says that Solomon wrote that the sleep of the laborer is sweet (Ecclesiastes 5:12). On the Statues homily2 ch.23 p.352

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) said Ecclesiastes 7:2 was by Solomon vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily40 p.263

 

Oa9. Isaiah wrote or said Isaiah

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 3:3

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says Isaiah wrote Isaiah 2:3. He also says that Isaiah wrote Isaiah 44:6.

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) Isaiah wrote Isaiah 28:16. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1.6 p.347

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) paraphrases Isaiah 53:7f as “the prophecy of Esias” [Isaiah] On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.1

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) says Isaiah wrote Isaiah 26:20. In Defense of his Flight ch.21 p.262

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says Isaiah wrote Isaiah 60:14 in book 1 p.76. Optatus also says Isaiah wrote Isaiah 22:4 in book 3 p.125.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that Isaiah 46:13 is by Isaiah. On the Spirit ch.5.7 p.5-6

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 4%:7 as by Isaiah. question 106 p.6

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 40:12 as by Isaiah. Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.9.90 p.126.

Gregory of Nyssa (378-397 A.D.) quotes part of Isaiah 6 as by Isaiah. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.23 p.64

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 2 ch.1 p.396 quotes Isaiah 66:2 as “The Lord says by Esias [Isaiah]”

 

Oa10. Jeremiah wrote or said Jeremiah

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. References Matthew 27:9

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says that Jeremiah wrote Jeremiah 8:9.

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says Jeremiah wrote Jeremiah 6:4-8. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1.3 p.346

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) quotes Jeremiah 31:22 as “which Jeremiah says, according to the edition of the seventy translators” Statement of Faith ch.3 p.85

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says Jeremiah wrote Jeremiah 11:23 in book 4 p.199.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that Jeremiah wrote Jeremiah 9:1. Letter 46 ch.1 p.149

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says Jeremiah 9:17 is by Jeremiah. Funeral Oration on Meletius p.576

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “Moses foretold this, but Jeremiah shows that it came true. For Moses said: ‘The refined and delicate woman, so delicate and refined that she would not venture to put her foot upon the step, shall put her hand to the unholy table and eat her own children.’ But Jeremiah shows that this came true when he said: ‘The hands of compassionate women boiled their own children.’” Against the Jews ch.5

Jerome of Stridon (393 A.D.) says Jeremiah 2:6 is by Jeremiah. Against Jovinianus book 2 ch.37 p.415

 

Oa11. Ezekiel is by Ezekiel

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says Ezekiel wrote Ezekiel 13:10. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1.6 p.347

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) says Ezekiel wrote Ezekiel 18:23,32. Easter Letter 3 ch.4 p.514

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says Ezekiel in Ezekiel 3:8 in book 1 p.5. Optatus also said Eekial wrote Eeiel 18:3-22 in book 1 p.75.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Ezekiel wrote Ezekiel 18:24. Letter 42 ch.21 p.143-144

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes Ezekiel 38:5 as by Ezekiel. question 108 p.8

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) quotes Ezekiel 31:3-9 as by the prophet Ezekiel. Commentary on Zechariah 11 p.258-259

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) refers to Ezekiel 9:4 as by Ezekiel in vol.9 Concerning the Statues homily 18.9 p.462

 

Oa12. Daniel spoke or wrote Daniel

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 24:15

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) ssays that Daniel wrote Daniel 2:34-35. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1.8 p.347

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says thatDaneil wrote Daniel. Letter 46 ch.5 p.151

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes from Daniel by Daniel. question 26 p.204

 

Oa13. Hosea wrote or spoke Hosea

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says that Hosea wrote Hosea 13:4.

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says Hosea 10:12 is in Hosea. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1.11 p.348

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Hosea 7:13 as the Lord Himself uttered by the prophet Hosea. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.7 p.309-310

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) “The Twelve Prophets, which are counted as one book; and of these Hosea is the first, which begins, 'The word of the Lord which came to Osee the son of Beeri, in the days of Ozias, and Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joas, king of Israel. The beginning of the word of the Lord by Osee'; next is Amos, which begins 'The words of Amos which came to him in Accarim out of Thecue, which he saw concerning Jerusalem, in the days of Ozias king of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joas king of Israel, two years before the earthquake'; Michaeas [Micah], which begins 'and the word of the Lord came to Michaeas the son of Morasthi, in the days of Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, concerning what he saw regarding Samaria and Jerusalem.'; Joel, which begins 'The word of the Lord which came to Joel the son of Bathuel: hear these words, ye elders, and hearken all ye that inhabit the land'; Obdias [Obadiah], which begins, 'The vision of Obdias: thus saith the Lord God to Idumea'; Jonas, which begins, 'Now the word of the Lord came to Jonas the son of Amathi, saying, Rise, and go to Nineve, the great city'; Naum [Nahum], which begins 'The burden of Nineve: the book of the vision of Naum the Elkesite'; Ambacum [Habakkuk], which begins 'The burden which the prophet Ambacum saw'; Sophonias [Zephaniah], which begins 'The word of the Lord which came to Sophonias the son of Chusi, the son of Godolias, the son of Amorias, the son of Ezekias, in the days of Josias son of Amon, king of Juda'; Aggaeus [Haggai], which begins 'In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, on the first day of the month, the word of the Lord came by the hand of the prophet Aggaeus, saying'; Zacharias, which begins 'In the eighth month, in the second year of the reign of Darius, the word of the Lord came to Zacharias, the son of Barachias, the son of Addo, the prophet, saying'; Malachias, which begins 'The burden of the word of the Lord to Israel by the hand of his messenger.' These, then, are the Twelve in one book.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that Hosea wrote Hosea. Letter 46 ch.3 p.150

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes Hosea 2:24 as by Hosea. question 44 p.66-67

 

Council of Constantinople II (553 A.D.) mentions Hosea by Hosea. Sentences of the Council p.311

 

Oa14. Joel wrote Joel

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says Joel wrote Joel 2:28. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.30 p.410

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) “The Twelve Prophets, which are counted as one book; and of these Hosea is the first, which begins, 'The word of the Lord which came to Osee the son of Beeri, in the days of Ozias, and Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joas, king of Israel. The beginning of the word of the Lord by Osee'; next is Amos, which begins 'The words of Amos which came to him in Accarim out of Thecue, which he saw concerning Jerusalem, in the days of Ozias king of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joas king of Israel, two years before the earthquake'; Michaeas [Micah], which begins 'and the word of the Lord came to Michaeas the son of Morasthi, in the days of Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, concerning what he saw regarding Samaria and Jerusalem.'; Joel, which begins 'The word of the Lord which came to Joel the son of Bathuel: hear these words, ye elders, and hearken all ye that inhabit the land'; Obdias [Obadiah], which begins, 'The vision of Obdias: thus saith the Lord God to Idumea'; Jonas, which begins, 'Now the word of the Lord came to Jonas the son of Amathi, saying, Rise, and go to Nineve, the great city'; Naum [Nahum], which begins 'The burden of Nineve: the book of the vision of Naum the Elkesite'; Ambacum [Habakkuk], which begins 'The burden which the prophet Ambacum saw'; Sophonias [Zephaniah], which begins 'The word of the Lord which came to Sophonias the son of Chusi, the son of Godolias, the son of Amorias, the son of Ezekias, in the days of Josias son of Amon, king of Juda'; Aggaeus [Haggai], which begins 'In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, on the first day of the month, the word of the Lord came by the hand of the prophet Aggaeus, saying'; Zacharias, which begins 'In the eighth month, in the second year of the reign of Darius, the word of the Lord came to Zacharias, the son of Barachias, the son of Addo, the prophet, saying'; Malachias, which begins 'The burden of the word of the Lord to Israel by the hand of his messenger.' These, then, are the Twelve in one book.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes Joel 2:31 as by Joel. question 105 p.211-212

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) loosely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “Saviour, it is written that the prediction of the prophet Joel was fulfilled,de Principiis book 2 ch.7.2 p.285

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) says that Joel wrote the Book of Joel. Commentary on Acts ch.5 p.33

 

Oa15. Amos wrote Amos

 

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) “The Twelve Prophets, which are counted as one book; and of these Hosea is the first, which begins, 'The word of the Lord which came to Osee the son of Beeri, in the days of Ozias, and Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joas, king of Israel. The beginning of the word of the Lord by Osee'; next is Amos, which begins 'The words of Amos which came to him in Accarim out of Thecue, which he saw concerning Jerusalem, in the days of Ozias king of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joas king of Israel, two years before the earthquake'; Michaeas [Micah], which begins 'and the word of the Lord came to Michaeas the son of Morasthi, in the days of Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, concerning what he saw regarding Samaria and Jerusalem.'; Joel, which begins 'The word of the Lord which came to Joel the son of Bathuel: hear these words, ye elders, and hearken all ye that inhabit the land'; Obdias [Obadiah], which begins, 'The vision of Obdias: thus saith the Lord God to Idumea'; Jonas, which begins, 'Now the word of the Lord came to Jonas the son of Amathi, saying, Rise, and go to Nineve, the great city'; Naum [Nahum], which begins 'The burden of Nineve: the book of the vision of Naum the Elkesite'; Ambacum [Habakkuk], which begins 'The burden which the prophet Ambacum saw'; Sophonias [Zephaniah], which begins 'The word of the Lord which came to Sophonias the son of Chusi, the son of Godolias, the son of Amorias, the son of Ezekias, in the days of Josias son of Amon, king of Juda'; Aggaeus [Haggai], which begins 'In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, on the first day of the month, the word of the Lord came by the hand of the prophet Aggaeus, saying'; Zacharias, which begins 'In the eighth month, in the second year of the reign of Darius, the word of the Lord came to Zacharias, the son of Barachias, the son of Addo, the prophet, saying'; Malachias, which begins 'The burden of the word of the Lord to Israel by the hand of his messenger.' These, then, are the Twelve in one book.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Amos 8:9 as by the prophet Amos. Catechical Lectures Lecture 13 ch.25 p.89

 

Oa16. Micah wrote or said Micah

 

“In Micah” in Melito of Sardis and Cyprian or Carthage, is not counted.

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says that Micah wrote Micah 4:2.

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) “The Twelve Prophets, which are counted as one book; and of these Hosea is the first, which begins, 'The word of the Lord which came to Osee the son of Beeri, in the days of Ozias, and Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joas, king of Israel. The beginning of the word of the Lord by Osee'; next is Amos, which begins 'The words of Amos which came to him in Accarim out of Thecue, which he saw concerning Jerusalem, in the days of Ozias king of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joas king of Israel, two years before the earthquake'; Michaeas [Micah], which begins 'and the word of the Lord came to Michaeas the son of Morasthi, in the days of Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, concerning what he saw regarding Samaria and Jerusalem.'; Joel, which begins 'The word of the Lord which came to Joel the son of Bathuel: hear these words, ye elders, and hearken all ye that inhabit the land'; Obdias [Obadiah], which begins, 'The vision of Obdias: thus saith the Lord God to Idumea'; Jonas, which begins, 'Now the word of the Lord came to Jonas the son of Amathi, saying, Rise, and go to Nineve, the great city'; Naum [Nahum], which begins 'The burden of Nineve: the book of the vision of Naum the Elkesite'; Ambacum [Habakkuk], which begins 'The burden which the prophet Ambacum saw'; Sophonias [Zephaniah], which begins 'The word of the Lord which came to Sophonias the son of Chusi, the son of Godolias, the son of Amorias, the son of Ezekias, in the days of Josias son of Amon, king of Juda'; Aggaeus [Haggai], which begins 'In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, on the first day of the month, the word of the Lord came by the hand of the prophet Aggaeus, saying'; Zacharias, which begins 'In the eighth month, in the second year of the reign of Darius, the word of the Lord came to Zacharias, the son of Barachias, the son of Addo, the prophet, saying'; Malachias, which begins 'The burden of the word of the Lord to Israel by the hand of his messenger.' These, then, are the Twelve in one book.

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) quotes Micah 7:1-3 as by Micah the prophet. Commentary on Zechariah 12 p.294

Rufinus (376-406 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (implied) “the prophet Micah will prove when he says: ‘If it has been announced to thee, O man, what is good, or what does the Lord require of thee, except to do justice and to love mercy?’” [in both Latin and Greek] de Principiis book 3 ch.1.6 p.305

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) refers to Micah 6:1 as by Micah Commentary on Romans homily5 p.366

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Micah has a thankfulness towards God. Commentary on Micah ch.7 p.244

 

Oa17. Habakkuk wrote Habakkuk

 

“In Habakkuk” per Cyprian and Melitio of Sardis, is not counted here.

 

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) “The Twelve Prophets, which are counted as one book; and of these Hosea is the first, which begins, 'The word of the Lord which came to Osee the son of Beeri, in the days of Ozias, and Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joas, king of Israel. The beginning of the word of the Lord by Osee'; next is Amos, which begins 'The words of Amos which came to him in Accarim out of Thecue, which he saw concerning Jerusalem, in the days of Ozias king of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joas king of Israel, two years before the earthquake'; Michaeas [Micah], which begins 'and the word of the Lord came to Michaeas the son of Morasthi, in the days of Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, concerning what he saw regarding Samaria and Jerusalem.'; Joel, which begins 'The word of the Lord which came to Joel the son of Bathuel: hear these words, ye elders, and hearken all ye that inhabit the land'; Obdias [Obadiah], which begins, 'The vision of Obdias: thus saith the Lord God to Idumea'; Jonas, which begins, 'Now the word of the Lord came to Jonas the son of Amathi, saying, Rise, and go to Nineve, the great city'; Naum [Nahum], which begins 'The burden of Nineve: the book of the vision of Naum the Elkesite'; Ambacum [Habakkuk], which begins 'The burden which the prophet Ambacum saw'; Sophonias [Zephaniah], which begins 'The word of the Lord which came to Sophonias the son of Chusi, the son of Godolias, the son of Amorias, the son of Ezekias, in the days of Josias son of Amon, king of Juda'; Aggaeus [Haggai], which begins 'In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, on the first day of the month, the word of the Lord came by the hand of the prophet Aggaeus, saying'; Zacharias, which begins 'In the eighth month, in the second year of the reign of Darius, the word of the Lord came to Zacharias, the son of Barachias, the son of Addo, the prophet, saying'; Malachias, which begins 'The burden of the word of the Lord to Israel by the hand of his messenger.' These, then, are the Twelve in one book.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes Hanakkuk 2:4 as by Habakkuk. question 44 p.63

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Habakkuk 3:3 as by Habakkuk. Catechical Lectures Lecture 12 ch.20 p.77

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) &&&

 

Macarius Chrysocephalus of Constantinople (&&& A.D.) quoting Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) refers to Habakkuk 3:4. “And the prophet Habakkuk sees Him bearing horns, and celebrates His defensive attitude-horns in His hands.’” fragment 11 ch.2 p.582

 

Oa18. Zephaniah is by Zephaniah/Sophonias

 

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) “The Twelve Prophets, which are counted as one book; and of these Hosea is the first, which begins, 'The word of the Lord which came to Osee the son of Beeri, in the days of Ozias, and Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joas, king of Israel. The beginning of the word of the Lord by Osee'; next is Amos, which begins 'The words of Amos which came to him in Accarim out of Thecue, which he saw concerning Jerusalem, in the days of Ozias king of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joas king of Israel, two years before the earthquake'; Michaeas [Micah], which begins 'and the word of the Lord came to Michaeas the son of Morasthi, in the days of Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, concerning what he saw regarding Samaria and Jerusalem.'; Joel, which begins 'The word of the Lord which came to Joel the son of Bathuel: hear these words, ye elders, and hearken all ye that inhabit the land'; Obdias [Obadiah], which begins, 'The vision of Obdias: thus saith the Lord God to Idumea'; Jonas, which begins, 'Now the word of the Lord came to Jonas the son of Amathi, saying, Rise, and go to Nineve, the great city'; Naum [Nahum], which begins 'The burden of Nineve: the book of the vision of Naum the Elkesite'; Ambacum [Habakkuk], which begins 'The burden which the prophet Ambacum saw'; Sophonias [Zephaniah], which begins 'The word of the Lord which came to Sophonias the son of Chusi, the son of Godolias, the son of Amorias, the son of Ezekias, in the days of Josias son of Amon, king of Juda'; Aggaeus [Haggai], which begins 'In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, on the first day of the month, the word of the Lord came by the hand of the prophet Aggaeus, saying'; Zacharias, which begins 'In the eighth month, in the second year of the reign of Darius, the word of the Lord came to Zacharias, the son of Barachias, the son of Addo, the prophet, saying'; Malachias, which begins 'The burden of the word of the Lord to Israel by the hand of his messenger.' These, then, are the Twelve in one book.

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “It is Zephaniah who said: "The Lord shall appear to all nations, and will  make all the gods of the nations waste away; then each from its own place shall adore Him.Against the Jews book 5 ch.12.8

 

Oa19. Zechariah wrote Zechariah

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says that Zechariah wrote Zecharia 3:1-21.

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) quotes Zechariah 4:2 as by the prophet Zechariah. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1 ch.8 p.347-348.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says Zecharias wrote Zechariah 1:3,12. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.31 p.360.

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) “The Twelve Prophets, which are counted as one book; and of these Hosea is the first, which begins, 'The word of the Lord which came to Osee the son of Beeri, in the days of Ozias, and Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joas, king of Israel. The beginning of the word of the Lord by Osee'; next is Amos, which begins 'The words of Amos which came to him in Accarim out of Thecue, which he saw concerning Jerusalem, in the days of Ozias king of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joas king of Israel, two years before the earthquake'; Michaeas [Micah], which begins 'and the word of the Lord came to Michaeas the son of Morasthi, in the days of Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, concerning what he saw regarding Samaria and Jerusalem.'; Joel, which begins 'The word of the Lord which came to Joel the son of Bathuel: hear these words, ye elders, and hearken all ye that inhabit the land'; Obdias [Obadiah], which begins, 'The vision of Obdias: thus saith the Lord God to Idumea'; Jonas, which begins, 'Now the word of the Lord came to Jonas the son of Amathi, saying, Rise, and go to Nineve, the great city'; Naum [Nahum], which begins 'The burden of Nineve: the book of the vision of Naum the Elkesite'; Ambacum [Habakkuk], which begins 'The burden which the prophet Ambacum saw'; Sophonias [Zephaniah], which begins 'The word of the Lord which came to Sophonias the son of Chusi, the son of Godolias, the son of Amorias, the son of Ezekias, in the days of Josias son of Amon, king of Juda'; Aggaeus [Haggai], which begins 'In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, on the first day of the month, the word of the Lord came by the hand of the prophet Aggaeus, saying'; Zacharias, which begins 'In the eighth month, in the second year of the reign of Darius, the word of the Lord came to Zacharias, the son of Barachias, the son of Addo, the prophet, saying'; Malachias, which begins 'The burden of the word of the Lord to Israel by the hand of his messenger.' These, then, are the Twelve in one book.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378 A.D.) quotes parts of Zechariah 10:1,2 as by Zechariah. Letter 210 ch.6 p.251

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes Zechariah 12:1 as by Zechariah. question 23 p.29

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions the books of the Prophets, both of the Twelve and of the others. Micah 3:8 as in Micah, Joel 2:28 as in Joel, Haggai 2:4 as in Haggai, Zechariah 1:6 as in Zechariah. Catechetical Lectures Lecture 16.29 p.122

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) alludes to Zechariah 3:1 as by Zechariah. [Latin] de Principiis book 3 ch.2 p.329

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) mentions Zechariah 5:7,8 as by Zechariah vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 38 p.253

Augustine of Hippo (388-430) “Zephaniah, one of the minor prophets, is put along with him, because he himself says that he prophesied in the days of Josiah; but he does not say till when.” City of God ch.33 p.379

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 section 3 ch.20 p.448 quotes Zechariah 9:9 as Zechariah says.

 

Oa20. Malachi wrote Malachi

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says that Malachi wrote Malachi 2:10.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says Malachi wrote Malachi 2:10. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.59 p.380

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century ) “The Twelve Prophets, which are counted as one book; and of these Hosea is the first, which begins, 'The word of the Lord which came to Osee the son of Beeri, in the days of Ozias, and Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joas, king of Israel. The beginning of the word of the Lord by Osee'; next is Amos, which begins 'The words of Amos which came to him in Accarim out of Thecue, which he saw concerning Jerusalem, in the days of Ozias king of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joas king of Israel, two years before the earthquake'; Michaeas [Micah], which begins 'and the word of the Lord came to Michaeas the son of Morasthi, in the days of Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, concerning what he saw regarding Samaria and Jerusalem.'; Joel, which begins 'The word of the Lord which came to Joel the son of Bathuel: hear these words, ye elders, and hearken all ye that inhabit the land'; Obdias [Obadiah], which begins, 'The vision of Obdias: thus saith the Lord God to Idumea'; Jonas, which begins, 'Now the word of the Lord came to Jonas the son of Amathi, saying, Rise, and go to Nineve, the great city'; Naum [Nahum], which begins 'The burden of Nineve: the book of the vision of Naum the Elkesite'; Ambacum [Habakkuk], which begins 'The burden which the prophet Ambacum saw'; Sophonias [Zephaniah], which begins 'The word of the Lord which came to Sophonias the son of Chusi, the son of Godolias, the son of Amorias, the son of Ezekias, in the days of Josias son of Amon, king of Juda'; Aggaeus [Haggai], which begins 'In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, on the first day of the month, the word of the Lord came by the hand of the prophet Aggaeus, saying'; Zacharias, which begins 'In the eighth month, in the second year of the reign of Darius, the word of the Lord came to Zacharias, the son of Barachias, the son of Addo, the prophet, saying'; Malachias, which begins 'The burden of the word of the Lord to Israel by the hand of his messenger.' These, then, are the Twelve in one book.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes Malachi 1:8 as by Malachi. question 103 p.97

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Malachi 3:1-3,5 as by Malachi the prophet in Lecture 15 ch.2 p.104

Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) (partial) “In order that you may be assured that this is so, the following was written in Malachi, ‘I will reject your offerings, because I have been a witness among you and the women of your youth, that you have been unfaithful to, those who are the women of your covenant. But I will be true with you.’” Memra 22 ch.19 p.268

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) quotes Malachi 3:2-3 by Malachi. Vol.9 Letters to the Fallen Theodore ch.12 p.101

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) quotes Malachi 4:6 as by Malachi. Commentary on Acts ch.5 p.33

 

Oa21. OT has writing in Hebrew

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) speaks of the Hebrews of Isaiah 52:11. Catechical Lectures Lecture 10 ch.12 p.60

Gregory of Nyssa (378-397 A.D.) mentions the Hebrew of Proverbs. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.63. See also Answer to Eunomius’ Second Book p.276.

 

Oa22. Moses wrote the Law [Pentateuch]

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Quotes John 7:23

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) (partial) says that God gave the Law to Moses. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1.19 p.352

Athanasius of Alexandria (347 A.D.) (implied) “For had they believed him to whom they hearkened, they would not have denied the Lord, Who spake by Moses, when He was present.” Easter Letter 19 ch.5 p.546

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “But after Moses had made his appearance, and had given the law to the children of Israel,” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.30 p.203

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “I understand, then, that his [Manes’] chief effort was directed to prove that the law of Moses is not consonant with the law of Christ; and this position he attempted to found on the authority of our Scriptures.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.215

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (implied) “Let this be taken as our answer from the books of Moses, or rather as the answer of Moses himself. This is after quoting Exodus 3:2,4-6; Deuteronomy 6:4; 32:39; and 32:43 (LXX). Then he quotes Deuteronomy 33:16. On the Trinity book 4 ch.33-35 p.81

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) (implied) says the law was “given by Moses” question 111 p.127

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) refers to the “Law of Moses” Commentary on Zechariah 12 p.300

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) quotes Leviticus 26:27-28 as “in the composition of Moses”. Commentary on Zechariah 7 p.150

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) “the law of Moses commands” On the Creation of the World ch.1 p.1

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) alludes to Leviticus 23 as by Moses Reply to Faustus the Manichaean book 32 ch.3 p.333

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) refers to Deuteronomy 21:23 as written by Moses in Reply to Faustus the Manichaean book 14 ch.1 p.207.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says Exodus 7:23 is by Moses. Catechical Lectures Lecture 13 ch.3 p.82

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Numbers 11:29 as by Moses in Lecture 16 ch.26 p.122

Gregory of Nyssa (378-397 A.D.) says Moses gave the Law. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.25 p.67

 

pseudo-Justin Martyr (168-200 A.D.) says that Moses gave the law Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.9 p.277

 

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) “but if (thou wouldst read of) the beginning of the world, thou hast the Genesis of the great Moses; and if laws and commandments, thou hast the glorious Law of the Lord God.”

 

 

NEW TESTAMENT AUTHORS

 

Na1. Matthew wrote the Gospel of Matthew

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “The Spirit in the evangelist Matthew is also careful to give note of these words of our Lord Jesus Christ: ‘Take heed that no man deceive you: for many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many. But if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it not. For there shall arise false Christs, and false apostles, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect. Behold, I have told you before. If they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: if they shall say, Behold, he is in the secret chambers; believe it not.’” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) mentions the gospels written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. question 2 p.400

The Donatist schismatic Tyconius of Africa (after 390 A.D.) &&&

 

Na2. Mark wrote the Gospel of Mark

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) mentions the gospels written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. question 2 p.400

The Donatist schismatic Tyconius of Africa (after 390 A.D.) &&&

 

Na3. Luke wrote the Gospel of Luke

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Luke writing his gospel. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.51 p.421

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) “The evangelist Luke, when giving the genealogy according to the flesh our God and Saviour Jesus Christ…” Against Eunomius book 2 p.312

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) mentions the gospels written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. question 2 p.400

The Donatist schismatic Tyconius of Africa (after 390 A.D.) &&&

Asterius of Amasea (400-410 A.D.) “tell us, wonderful Luke” in quoten fro the rich man and Lazarus. The Rich Man and Lazarus sermon ch.1 p.3

 

Na4. John wrote the Gospel of John

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) quotes John 1:12 as in the Gospel of John. In Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.3.6 p.154.

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) mentions the gospels written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. question 2 p.400

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes John 1:5 as written by John. question 122 p.22

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes John 4:24 as according to John. Catechical Lectures Lecture 17 ch.34 p.132

The Donatist schismatic Tyconius of Africa (after 390 A.D.) &&&

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) Latin translation of Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) speaks of “John, in his Gospel” Origen’s de Principiis 8 p.245

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) quotes John 1:1 as by John the evangelist. On the Creation of the World ch.2 p.2

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) alludes to Revelation 20:12 as in the Apocalypse of John. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.13 p.131

 

Na5. Luke wrote Acts

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) (quotes Acts as scripture, but no mention of Luke) Hegemonius of Sirmium quotes Acts 2:6 as Scripture. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210. Hegemonius of Sirmium also quotes Acts 9:15 in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208. He possibly alludes to Acts 9:40 in fragment 1 p.234. He does not refer to any other verses in Acts.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) quotes Acts 1:1 “as Luke wrote”. Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.1 p.223.

 

Na6. Paul wrote Romans

 

Romans 1:1

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says Paul wrote Romans 8:21

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:2-4 as by Paul. On the Trinity book 7 ch.25 p.129

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) mentions Paul’s Letter to the Romans as part of the New Testament. It quotes all of Romans 1:1.

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommsen Catalogue) (ca.360-370 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) quotes Romans 11:36 as by Paul. On the Spirit ch.5 p.5

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Paul wrote Romans 9:5. question 91 p.351

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions Romans 8:14 as by Paul written to the Romans Lecture 14.29 p.102

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:24-25 as by “Paul, who, filled with the Spirit of God.” On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.16.101 p.218.

The Donatist schismatic Tyconius of Africa (after 390 A.D.) &&&

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes Romans 2:4-5 as by the Apostle Paul. On Penitents ch.11.2 p.84

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) says Romans 1:1 is by Paul in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.4 p.105 and the Epistle to the Romans in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.9 p.117

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:1-4 as by Paul. Commentary on Zechariah 10 p.233-234

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:1-4 in “Paul’s Epistle to the Romans.” de Principiis book 2 ch.4.2 p.276

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:4 as by Paul in Homilies on John homily 23 p.12

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) quotes Romans 9:3 as by Paul. On the Priesthood book 3 ch.7 p.48

 

Waldenses (1176-) “We find in St. Paul’s epistle to the Romans, written from Corinth, chapter xv. Verse 24,…” p.109 Authentic Details of the Valdenses in Piemont and Other Countries p.108. Published by John Hatchard and Son, Piccadilly 1827.

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) paraphrases Romans 1:26,28 as by Paul. Commentary on Zechariah ch.11 p.380. He quotes part of Romans 1:18 as by the blessed Paul. Commentary on Hosea ch.5 p.61

 

Na7. Paul wrote 1 Corinthians

 

1 Corinthians 1:1

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes 1 Corinthians 13:8-10 as “For in that first Epistle to the Corinthians, Paul speaks…” (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.37 p.211

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes as by Paul 1 Corinthians 15:3-9 as “his epistle to the Corinthians” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Paul wrote 1 Corinthians 8:6. question 122 p.226

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 11:23 by the blessed Paul in Lecture 22.1 p.151

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 11:16 as by Paul. Letter 1 ch.2.3 p.19

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 11:27 as by Paul to the Corinthians about taking the Lord’s supper unworthily. On Penitents ch.7.3 p.78

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) (partial) 1 Corinthians 15:51,52 “the divine Apostle ... to the Corinthians” On the Making of Man ch32.6 p.412

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) refers to 1 Corinthians as Paul to the Corinthians. Commentary on Zechariah 10 p.233

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 8:8 as by Paul. Memra 15 ch.6 p.143

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 3:2 as by Paul. The Panarion section 2 end of the Letter to Flora p.207

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) quotes part of 1 Corinthians 15:32 as by Paul. On the Statues homily 1 ch.20 p.339

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 1:24 as by Paul. de Principiis book 1 ch.2.1 p.246

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 14:15 as by Paul in de Principiis book 2 ch.2 p.287

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) quotes part of 1 Corinthians 15:10 as by Paul. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.10 p.127

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 1:4-7 as what “the Apostle Paul wrote to the Corinthians” Defense Against the Pelagians ch.21 p.144

Sozomon (370/380-425 A.D.) says 1 Corinthians 11:12 as by the Apostle Paul. Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 4 ch.29 p.324

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 10:17 as being by the Apostle Paul in The City of God book 17 ch.5 p.345.

Augustine of Hippo (-430 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 2:14 as by “the Apostle Paul”. Sermons on the New Testament sermon 21 ch.30 p.328

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) quotes one-fourth of 1 Corinthians 3:16; 4:16 as by Paul in the Institutes of John Cassian book 9.3 p.264

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) refers to 1 Corinthians 12:9 as by the Apostle Paul in Conference of the Abbot Piamun ch.13 p.485 as well as p.470

 

Among heretics

Mani/Manes (4th century) “As Paul, too, has given these further testimonies, that” and quotes part of 2 Corinthians 3:6-7, 1 Corinthians 15:56. (Manes is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.31 p.203

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 16:22 as by Paul. Commentary on Zechariah ch.14 p.394, and 1 Corinthians 10:11 as by Paul in Commentary on Jonah preface p.187

 

Na8. Paul wrote 2 Corinthians

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (c.350 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 13:3 as by Paul and calls him an apostle. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.42 p.218

Hegemonius of Sirmium (c.350 A.D.) quotes as by Paul 2 Corinthians 11:23 as “in another place” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

Hegemonius of Sirmium (c.350 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 13:3 as by Paul and calls him an apostle. Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (partial) quotes 2 Corinthians 13:4 as “to the Corinthians he [the blessed Apostle] writes” On the Trinity book 9 ch.3 p.159

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) “(for it is so understood according to the usage of Scripture, as I the words of Paul, ‘if any man be in Christ he is a new creature’), the renewal owhich takes place I nthis life,” On the Spirit ch.19.49 p.31

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 13:3 as by Paul in Lecture 10.17 p.62

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 2:6-8 as by Paul in the Second Letter to the Corinthians. Letter 3 ch.18.1 p.60

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) alludes to 2 Corinthians 5:16 as by Paul in Against Eunomius book 6 ch.2 p.184. Also Paul to the Corinthians for 2 Corinthians 5:20 in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.14 p.128-129

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) quote 2 Corinthians 3:2 as from Paul. On Infants Early Deaths p.377

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) refers to 2 Corinthians 5:9-10 as by the Apostle Paul. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.18 p.140

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 4:13 as by Paul. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.248

 

Na9. Paul wrote Galatians

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes part of Galatians 4:3 as by Paul the apostle. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Paul wrote Galatians 1:9. question 1 p.359

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes part of Galatians 4:4 as by Paul in Lecture 12.31 p.80

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes part of Galatians 5:13 as by the Apostle Paul. On Penitents ch.3.2 p.74

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) quotes part of Galatians 1:8-9 as by Paul in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.14 p.129

John Chrysostom (406 A.D.) quotes Galatians 5:19,20,21 as the words of Saint Paul. On the Priesthood 2.2 p.40

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) wrote commentaries on John, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews.

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) alludes to Galatians 3:22 as by Paul. Commentary on Jonah preface p.190

 

Na10. Paul wrote Ephesians

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) refers to Ephesians 4:6

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes half of Ephesians 3:8 as by Paul. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.207

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) mentions Paul’s Letter to the Ephesians as part of the New Testament. It quotes all of Ephesians 1:1.

The schismatic Lucifer of Cagliari (370/371 A.D.) refers to Ephesians 4:9; 5:9; 5:15

Titus of Bostra (before 378 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378 A.D.) refers to Ephesians 4:32

Ambrosiaster (after 384 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) (implied) quotes Ephesians 2:10 as by the Apostle in Lecture 2.1 p.8

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that Paul wrote to the Ephesians. Letter 160 ch.3 p.213

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.)

Gregory of Elvira (after 392 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) alludes to Ephesians 3:18 as “Paul … people of Ephesus”. Also, the Great Catechism ch.32 p.150

John Chrysostom (406 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 6:12 as the words of Saint Paul. On the Priesthood 2.2 p.40

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) wrote commentaries on John, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews.

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 6:12 as by Paul to the Ephesians. de Principiis book 3 ch.4 p.332

Jerome of Stridon (393 A.D.) says Paul wrote Ephesians 3:10. Against Jovinianus book 2 ch.23 p.407

 

Na11. Paul wrote Philippians

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) Against the Manichaeans ch.38 p.212 quotes from Philippians 3:19 as by the Apostle.

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (356-362 A.D.) ch.7 p.198 quotes Philippians 3:4 as by Paul

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) says Paul wrote Philippians. History of the Arians book 7 ch.52 p.189

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that Paul wrote Philippians 3:13-14. Letter 42 ch.1 p.143

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Philippians 4:13 as by Paul. de Principiis book 3 ch.2.5 p.333

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says Philippians 2:8 was written by “the mighty Paul”. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.14 p.121

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) quotes Philippians 4:4 as by Paul in Homilies on Acts homily 16 p.104

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) wrote commentaries on John, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) alludes to Philippians 1:15,17 as being by the Apostle Paul in On Baptism, Against the Donatists ch.47 p.511

 

Na12. Paul wrote Colossians

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes as by Paul Colossians 1:23; 2:6-9 as “in the epistle which he wrote to the Colossians” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) refers to Colossians 2:2-3 as by Paul. On the Trinity book 9 ch.62 p.177

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) mentions Paul’s Letter to the Colossians as part of the New Testament. It quotes Colossians 1:1-2a.

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Paul wrote Colossians 2:13. On the Spirit ch.23.69 p.43

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Paul wrote Colossians 1:15. question 112 p.225

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Colossians on p.19

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (implied) quotes Colossians 2:14-15 as by the apostle. On Baptism ch.4.1 p.90

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:16 as by Paul in Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.63-64

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:15 as by Paul. de Principiis book 1 ch.5 p.247.

John Chrysostom 396 A.D. wrote down 12 sermons on Colossians, which we still have today. He said it was by Paul

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) wrote commentaries on John, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews.

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translation Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:15 was by Paul. de Principiis book 2 ch.6.1 p.281.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says Paul (On the Forgiveness of Sin, and Baptism) book 1 ch.43 p.31 (vol.5) wrote the books Romans, 1 Corinthians and 2 Corinthians (ch.44 p.32), Galatians (ch.45 p.32), Ephesians (ch.46 p.33), Colossians (ch.47 p.33), 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy (ch.48 p.33), Titus (ch.49 p.33), Epistle to the Hebrews (doubted by some) (ch.50 p.34)

The semi-Pelagian John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:16 as by Paul in Seven Books book 6.21 p.601

 

Among heretics

The heretic Priscillian (-385 A.D.) refers to Colossians 2:13

Arian heretic Eunomius of Cyzicus (c.360-c.394 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:15-16 as by “the blessed Paul” Apologetic Letter ch.24 p.65

The heretic Pelagius (416-418 A.D.) refers to Colossians 3:4

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (428 A.D.)

 

Na13. Paul wrote 1 Thessalonians

 

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Jerome of Stridon (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the “New Testament”, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as “the Lord’s team of four”, seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

Na14. Paul wrote 2 Thessalonians

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that Paul wrote 2 Thessalonians 1:1. On the Spirit ch.5.10 p.7

 

Na15. Paul wrote 1 Timothy

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that Paul wrote to Timothy and quotes 1 Timothy 5:11-12. Letter 189 ch.18 p.237

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) quotes 1 Timothy 6:16 as by Paul. Against Eunomius book 12 ch.2 p.243

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) quotes 1 Timothy 3:7 as by “the blessed Paul”. On the Priesthood book 2 ch.4 p.42

 

Na16. Paul wrote a 2nd letter to Timothy

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “as Paul also gives us to understand when he writes in the following terms in his second Epistle to Timothy: ‘As Jamnes and Mambres withstood Moses, so have these also resisted the truth: men of corrupt mind, reprobate concerning the faith.” (The orthodox Diodorus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.45 p.221

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) quotes 2 Timothy 4:7-8 as by “the blessed apostle” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209. He also alludes to 2 Timothy 3:8,9 in ch.36 p.210.

 

Na17. Paul wrote Titus

 

Titus 1:1

 

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

The Donatist schismatic Tyconius of Africa (after 390 A.D.) &&&

Jerome of Stridon (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the “New Testament”, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as “the Lord’s team of four”, seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

Na18. Peter wrote 1 Peter

 

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) lists Hebrews (by Paul), James, 1 and 2 Peter, 1, 2, 3, John, Jude as scripture.

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 3:22 as by Peter in Lecture 14:29 p.102

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 1:2 as by Peter. Commentary on Zechariah 13 p.307-308

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 1:9 as by Peter. de Principiis book 2 ch.3 p.287

 

Na19. John wrote 1 John

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says that 1 John 1:8 was by John in book 1 p.102.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that John wrote 1 John 3:24. On the Spirit ch.5.9 p.7

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes 1 John 4:12 as by John. question 71 p.83

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) (partial) quotes 1 John 2:22 as by the Apostle in Lecture 10.14 p.61

The Donatist schismatic Tyconius of Africa (after 390 A.D.) &&&

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes 1 John 5:16 (sins leading to death) as by John. On Penitents ch.4.3 p.75

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) says “John in one of his Catholic Epistles” and quotes 1 John 2:1. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.14 p.128

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 1 John 1:5 as John writes in his Epistle. de Principiis book 1 ch.1.1 p.242

Jerome of Stridon (393 A.D.) says John wrote 1 John 5:16. Against Jovinianus book 2 ch.30 p.411

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Apostle John and refers to 1 John 4:7 in The City of God book 17 ch.5 p.342

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) quotes 1 John 1:1-2 as by the Apostle John in Seven Books book 5.6 p.584

 

Na20. Jude wrote Jude

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) “Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John.” (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions Jude in the “Seven Catholic Epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude” in Lecture 4.36 p.28

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions the four gospels, 14 letters of Paul, James, Peter, John, Jude, Acts, Apocalypse of John, Wisdom of Solomon and Sirach (=Ecclesiasticus).

Jerome of Stridon (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the “New Testament”, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as “the Lord’s team of four”, seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

Augustine of Hippo quotes Jude 24 as being by Jude the apostle in On Rebuke and Grace ch.10 p.475 (vol.5). Also The City of God book 18 ch.38 p.383

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) (partial) quotes Jude 5 as by the Apostle in Seven Books book 5.9 p.586

 

Na21. At least 1 NT word originally in Greek

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “Moreover, when they came upon the word which is given us in our Scriptures touching the Paraclete, he took it into his head that he himself might be that Paraclete; for he had not read with sufficient care to observe that the Paraclete had come already,-namely, at the time when the apostles were still upon earth.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.54 p.232

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “and since our Saviour also is called the Paraclete in the Epistle of John, when he says, ‘If any of us sin, we have a Paraclete with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous, and He is the propitiation for our sins;’ let us consider whether this term Paraclete should happen to have one meaning when applied to the Saviour, and another when applied to the Holy Spirit. Now Paraclete, when spoken of the Saviour, seems to mean intercessor. For in Greek, Paraclete has both significations-that of intercessor and comforter. On account, then, of the phrase which follows, when he says, ‘And He is the propitiation for our sins,’ the name Paraclete seems to be understood in the case of our Saviour as meaning intercessor; for He is said to intercede with the Father because of our sins. In the case of the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete must be understood in the sense of comforter, inasmuch as He bestows consolation upon the souls to whom He openly reveals the apprehension of spiritual knowledge.de Principiis book 2 ch.7.4 p.286

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) (implied) says the Greek manuscripts of Matthew 5:22 do not contain “without cause”. Rectractions book 1 ch.19.4 p.&&&

 

Na22. The evangelists [gospel writers]

 

Hegemonius (3rd century) translating Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) quotes Matthew 24:4-5,23-26. The Spirit in the evangelist Matthew is also careful to give note of these words of our Lord Jesus Christ: ‘Take heed that no man deceive you: for many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many. But if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it not. For there shall arise false Christs, and false apostles, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect.” (Archelaus is speaking) Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “But the holy John, the greatest of the evangelists, also tells us of the giving and diffusing of grace for grace; for he indicates, indeed, that we have received the law of Moses out of the fulness of Christ, and he means that for that one grace this other grace has been made perfect in us through Jesus Christ.Acts of Archelaus (= Disputation with Manes) ch.45 p.&&&

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) “declared by the evangelists” Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 3 ch.29 p.424

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) mentions the evangelist Mark in On the Christian Faith book 5 ch.5.64 p.292

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) &&&

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “And to convince thee that the Pharisees came with one mind, and the people with another, hear how the evangelist hath declared this too; saying of the people, "that they came and were baptized of him, confessing their sins;" [Mt 3:6] but concerning the Pharisees, no longer like that, but that "when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming, he said, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?" O greatness of mind!Commentary on Matthew homily 11 ch.1 p.&&&

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.) “And to Timothy he says: ‘Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery.’… For even at Alexandria from the time of Mark the Evangelist until the episcopates of Heraclas and Dionysius the presbyters always named as bishop one of their own number chosen by themselves and set in a more exalted position, just as an army elects a general, or as deacons appoint one of themselves whom they know to be diligent and call him archdeacon. For what function excepting ordination, belongs to a bishop that does not also belong to a presbyter? It is not the case that there is one church at Rome and another in all the world beside. Gaul and Britain, Africa and Persia, India and the East worship one Christ and observe one rule of truth. If you ask for authority, the world outweighs its capital. Wherever there is a bishop, whether it be at Rome or at Engubium, whether it be at Constantinople or at Rhegium, whether it be at Alexandria or at Zoan, his dignity is one and his priesthood is one. Neither the command of wealth nor the lowliness of poverty makes him more a bishop or less a bishop. All alike are successors of the apostles.” Jerome, To Evangelus, Epistle 146:1 (ante A.D. 420).

 

 

Messianic PRophecies

 

Mp1. Genesis 49:10 refers to Christ

 

Genesis 49:10

 

Hegemonius (351 A.D.) quoting Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) in discussing prophecies of Christ says, “This, then, is the veil which was placed upon the face of Moses, and this also is his testament; for he says in the law: ‘A prince shall not be wanting from Judah, nor a leader from his thighs, until He come whose he is; and He will be the expectation of the nations: who shall bind His foal unto the vine, and His ass’s colt unto the choice vine; He shall wash His garments in wine, and His clothes in the blood of grapes; His eyes shall be suffused with wine, and His teeth white with milk; ‘and so on.” Disputation with Manes ch.43 p.219

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) mentions Genesis 49:10 as referring to Christ. Basil to Amphilochius Letter 236 ch.3 p.277

 

Mp2. Deuteronomy 18:15 refers to Christ

 

Acts 7:37 quotes Deuteronomy 18:15 as by Moses referring to Christ

 

Hegemonius (mid 3rd century) quotes Detuyeronomy 18:15 as referring to Christ. Archelaus’ Disputation with Manes ch.43 p.219

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 18:15 as referring to Emmanuel. Four Discourse Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.54 p.338

Apostolic Constitutions (c.380 A.D.) book 5 section 3 ch.30 p.448 quotes Deuteronomy 18:15 as referring to the Christ of God.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 18:15 as referring to Christ. Catechetical Letters Lecture 12 ch.17 p.76

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) says Deuteronomy 18:15 refers to Christ. Homilies on Acts homily19 p.56

 

Mp3. Psalm 2 refers to Christ

 

A pesher commentary found at Qumran called 4QFlorilegium also brings together Psalm 2:7 and 2 Samuel 7:14 as talking about the Messiah. See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.98 p.426 for more info.

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that Psalm 2 refers to Christ. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 17.9 p.390

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) Says Psalm 2:1 refers to Christ. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.4 p.312

Apostolic Constitutions (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 5 section 3 ch.18 p.447 quotes Psalm 2:1-2 as referring to the Lord.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&&

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Psalm 2:2 as referring to Christ. De Principiis book 3 ch.3 p.335.

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) quotes as Messianic prophecies Psalm 103:22; Psalm 8:18; Psalm 24:8; Isaiah 53:12; Isaiah 61:1 (Luke 4:19); Psalm 2:4; Micah 4:3; Zechariah 9:9; Malachi 3:1-2; Malachi 4:2. The Gospel of St. Matthew homily19 ch.12 p.139

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) quotes Psalm 2:1-2 as referring to Christ. Homilies on Acts homily 13 p.83

Augustine of Hippo (400 A.D.) says that Psalm 2:6 refers to Christ. Harmony of the Gospels book 2 ch.4 p.105.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Psalm 2:6, 10-11 refer to Christ. Exposition on Psalms Psalm 48 ch.5 p.165

 

Mp4. Psalm 16:8-11 prophesies of Christ

 

Acts 2:25-28 quotes Psalm 16:8-11

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Psalm 16:10 as referring to the one who is David’s Lord.. In ch.15.15 he says this is Christ … the Son of God. “”Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.16 p.336.

 

Mp5. Psalm 22 refers to Christ

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that Psalm 22 refers to Christ. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 17.9 p.390

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) quotes part of Psalm 22 as “according to the saying of David” On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.3

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Psalm 22:9 as referring to Christ. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 4 ch.28 p.444

Apostolic Constitutions (c.380 A.D.) book 5 section 3 p.444 alludes to Psalm 22:16 as referring to Christ. “And these reproaches did these bulls and dogs in their madness cast upon Him [the Lord]”

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&&

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) references Psalm 22:19-20 as referring to Christ. de Principiis book 2 ch.8 p.287

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) says Psalm 2:1-2 prophecies of Christ. Homilies on Acts homily11 p.70

 

Mp6. Psalm 45 refers to Christ

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) has an entire chapter on Psalm 45:7-8 and how it relates to Christ. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.12.46-52 p.333-337.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&&

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) references Psalm 45:1-2 as referring to Christ. de Principiis (both Greek and Latin) book 4 ch.3 p.352

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) &&&

 

Mp7. Psalm 110:1-2 can only refer to Christ

 

Matthew 22:44; Mark 12:36-37; Luke 20:42-44; Acts 2:34-35; Hebrews 1:13; 5:10, and extensively discussed in Hebrews 7:1-28

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 22:44

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 22:44; Acts 1:34-35; Hebrews 1:13

 

Juvencus the Spaniard (329/330 A.D.) says that Psalm 110 refers to Christ. Englynion book 4  45-50 p.94

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says that Psalm 110:1 refers to Christ.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) discusses Psalm 110 and Christ. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 2 ch.14 p.355-356

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes Psalm 110:1 as referring to Christ. On the Christian Faith book 2 ch.12.103 p.237

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “For thus says holy Scripture, ‘The Lord said to My Lord, Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool.’” de Principiis book 1 ch.6.1 p.260

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) says Psalm 110:1-2 refers to Christ. Homilies on Acts homily6 p.41

Philo of Carpasia (365-425 A.D.) discusses Psalm 10 and Melchizedek being a type (typoi) of Jesus.

Augustine of Hippo (413-426 A.D.) says that Psalm 110:1 openly refers to Christ. The City of God book 17 ch.17 p.355

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes Psalm 110:4 as referring to Christ” On Christian Doctrine book 4 ch.21.45 NPNF first series vol.2 p.590

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) (implied) says Psalm 110:1 refers to the Son. Sermon on the Mount book 1 ch.30 p.14

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) &&&

 

Mp8. Isaiah 7:14 refers to Christ

 

Matthew 1:22-23

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 6:10; 7:14-15

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that Isaiah 7:14 and Isaiah 9:6 refer to Christ. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 17.9 p.390

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 7:14 as a prophecy of Christ. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 2 ch.54 p.356

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 37 no.4 p.198

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 7:14-15 as referring to Christ and His virgin birth. On Baptism ch.3(2) p.87

Cyril of Jerusalem (c/349-386 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 4-7 A.D.)

 

Mp9. Isaiah 9:6 refers to Christ

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that Isaiah 7:14 and Isaiah 9:6 refer to Christ. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 17.9 p.390

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says that Isaiah 9:6 refers to Christ. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that Isaiah 9:6 prophesies of Christ. Against Eunomius book 3 ch.2 p.141

 

Mp10. Isaiah 11 refers to Christ

 

Isaiah 11

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) says that Isaiah 11 refers to Christ. Easter Letter 3 ch.5 p.515

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 11:1 “of which it was well prophesied: ‘A rod shall go forth from the root of Jesse, and a flower shall rise from his root. The root of Jesses the patriarch is the family of the Jews, Mary is the rod, Christ the flower of Mary, Who, about to spread the good odour of faith throughout the whole world, budded forth from a virgin womb, …” On the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.38 p.119

 

Mp11. Isaiah 53 refers to Christ

 

John 1:29

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that Isaiah 53 refers to Christ. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 17.9 p.390

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) says that Isaiah 53:7 refers to Christ. Festal Letter 1 ch.9 p.509.

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) goes thorugh how Isaiah 53 refers to Christ. On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.2

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) discuesses Isaiah 53 as referring to Christ. question 40 p.282-283 and question 74 p.282-283

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that Isaiah 53 prophesies of Christ. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.11 p.121

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) quotes as Messianic prophecies Psalm 103:22; Psalm 8:18; Psalm 24:8; Isaiah 53:12; Isaiah 61:1 (Luke 4:19); Psalm 2:4; Micah 4:3; Zechariah 9:9; Malachi 3:1-2; Malachi 4:2. The Gospel of St. Matthew homily19 ch.12 p.139

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) &&&

 

Mp12. Isaiah 61:1-2 refers to Christ

 

Isaiah 61:1-2; Luke 4:17-21

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 61:1 as referring to Christ. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.47 p.334

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) quotes as Messianic prophecies Psalm 103:22; Psalm 8:18; Psalm 24:8; Isaiah 53:12; Isaiah 61:1 (Luke 4:19); Psalm 2:4; Micah 4:3; Zechariah 9:9; Malachi 3:1-2; Malachi 4:2. The Gospel of St. Matthew homily19 ch.12 p.139

 

Mp13. Isaiah 65:1-2 prophesies of Christ

 

Isaiah 65:1-2; Romans 10:21

 

(not Athanasius)

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Isaiah 65:1 refers to Christ. On the Psalms Psalm 123 ch.2 p.622

 

Mp14. Jeremiah 11:19 prophesies of Christ

 

Jeremiah 11:19 (Masoretic and LXX)

 

Jeremiah11:19 in the Septuagint says, “Buyt as I an innocent lamb led ot the slaughter, knew not: against me they devised an evil device, saying, Come and let us put wood into his bread, and let us utterly destroy him from off the land of the living, and let his name not be remembered any more.” (Brenton)

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) “They deised againstMe a wicked device, saying – (He who knows the devices, knew He not the result of them? And what said they? – Come, let us place a beam upon His bread.” Catechetical Lecture 5 ch.13 p.87

 

Mp15. Daniels’ 70 weeks messianic prophecy

 

Daniel 9:27-29 + Nehemiah 2:1-10 (445/4 B.C.)

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that Daniel’s seventy-week prophecy 53 refers to Christ. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 17.9 p.390

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the Jews could find the right reason for when the Messiah would come by reading Daniel. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.16 p.356. Also, Jesus said that Moses wrote of Jesus in To the Bishops of Egypt ch.4 p.224

X Julius Hilarianus (ca.397 A.D.) (non-Messianic view of Daniel 9) Chronologia sive Libellus de Mundi Duratione preserved in Jerome’s Commentary on Daniel

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) discusses Daniel and “Two times” in question 44 p.67.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&&

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) &&&

Jerome of Stridon (407 A.D.) Commentary on Daniel

Augustine of Hippo (407-430 A.D.) &&&

 

Among heretics

Apollinaris of Laodicea (ca.360 A.D.) in Jerome’s Commentary on Daniel

 

Mp16. Joel 2:28-30 refers to Christ

 

Acts 2:17-18 quotes Joel 2:28-32

Acts 2:19 quotes Joel 2:30

 

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) quotes Joel 2:28-30 as referring to Christ. The Actos of the Apostles homily5 p.32

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes Joel 2:28-29 as “according to Christ’s promise”. Christ promised in Acts 1:8. The City of God book 18 ch.30 p.377

 

Mp17. Micah 5 refers to Christ

 

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) refers to Micah and the prophecy of Bethlehem. Nativity Hymns hymn 1 p.223

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) &&&

 

Mp18. Zechariah 3:1-8 prophesies of Christ

 

Zechariah 3:1-8

 

No Athanasius, John Chrysostom

No Augustine of Hippo except the following:

Augustine of Hippo (418 A.D.) (partial, quotes from Zechariah 3:4, but does not have any reference to Christ.)“Now when he speaks of uncleanness here, the mere perusal of the passage is enough to show that he meant sin to be understood. It is plain from the words, of what he is speaking. The same phrase and sense occur in the prophet Zechariah, in the place where ‘the filthy garments’ are removed from off the high priest, and it is said to him, ‘I have taken away thy sins.’” On Marriage on Concupiscence book 2 ch.50 p.324

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.)” “For Jesus, the great High Priest (as Zechariah says), Who offered up his own lamb, that is, His own Body, for the sin of the world,” Against Eunomius book 6 ch.2 p.184

 

Mp19. Zechariah 9:9 refers to Christ

 

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) quotes as Messianic prophecies Psalm 103:22; Psalm 8:18; Psalm 24:8; Isaiah 53:12; Isaiah 61:1 (Luke 4:19); Psalm 2:4; Micah 4:3; Zechariah 9:9; Malachi 3:1-2; Malachi 4:2. The Gospel of St. Matthew homily19 ch.12 p.139

 

Mp20. Zechariah 12:10-12 refers to Christ

 

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 section 3 ch.19 p.447-448 quotes part of Zechariah 12:10 as referring to Christ.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&&

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Zechariah 12:10-12 refers to Christ. Sermons on the Gospels Sermon 77 ch.10 p.482

 

Among heretics and spurious works

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) wrote an entire commentary on the book of Zechariah.

 

Mp21. Malachi 3:1-2 prophesies of Christ

 

Malachi 3:1-2

 

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) quotes as Messianic prophecies Psalm 103:22; Psalm 8:18; Psalm 24:8; Isaiah 53:12; Isaiah 61:1 (Luke 4:19); Psalm 2:4; Micah 4:3; Zechariah 9:9; Malachi 3:1-2; Malachi 4:2. The Gospel of St. Matthew homily19 ch.12 p.139

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) quotes Malachi 3:1 as showing two persons in the Godhead. The Gospel of St. John homily6 p.26

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Malachi 3:1 refers to John the Baptist, (forerunner of Christ). On the Psalms Psalm 50 ch.11 p.182

 

Mp22. The OT prophesied about Jesus

 

Luke 24:26-27; John 12:37-40; 19:37; Hebrews 1:5-13; 2:6-8,12,13; 1 Peter 1:10-12

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 24:15; John 12:37-40

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 24:15; John 12:37-40; 19:37

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Luke 24:15; John 12:37-40; 19:37

0242 Mt 8:25-9:2; 13:32-38,40-46 (24 verses) (4th century) Matthew 13:35f quotes Psalm 78:2 as by the prophet and being fulfilled in Christ.

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) (implied) shows that many Old Testament prophecies refer to Christ. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1.2 p.346; 17.9 p.390

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) Jesus Christ was prophesied in Acts of Archelaus (=Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.43 p.219

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) Moses prophesied of Jesus in Deuteronomy 18:18. Acts of Archelaus (=Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.216

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the Jews could find the right reason for when the Messiah would come by reading Daniel. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.16 p.356. Also, Jesus said that Moses wrote of Jesus in To the Bishops of Egypt ch.4 p.224

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) “In truth, dead men were raised, lame walked, blind saw afresh, lepers were cleansed, and the water became wine, and five loaves satisfied five thousand, and all wondered and worshipped the Lord, confessing that in Him were fulfilled the prophecies, and that He was God the Son of God;Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.1 p.150

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) “And again, what is the Old Testament to the Jews, unless they acknowledge the Lord whose coming was expected according to it? For had they believed the writings of Moses, they would have believed the words of the Lord; for He said, ‘He wrote of Me.’” To the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.4 p.224

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) refers to Isaiah 7:14 and other passages. Nisibine Hymns hymn 37 no.4 p.198

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes Psalm 110:1 as referring to Christ. On the Christian Faith book 2 ch.12.103 p.237

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says many passages are prophecies of the Incarnation. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.15.99 p.217

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) mentions messianic prophecies of Jesus. question 69 p.173 and question 127 p.41

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that the prophets spoke of Chirst. Catechetical Lecture Lecture 10 ch.12 p.60.

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) “for it is very evident the Twenty-first Psalm refers to Christ.” [They number many of the Psalms one differently than we do today. On the Son – Fourt`h Theological Oration ch.5 p.311

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 7:14-15 as referring to Christ and His virgin birth. On Baptism ch.3(2) p.87

First Council of Constantinople (381/382 A.D.) Creed ch.1 p.163

Jerome of Stridon (394 A.D.) interpreted Haggai 2:6,7, Zechariah 3:3,9; 6:1-3; 9:9,10; Malachi 1:10-11 as messianic in Letter 53 ch.8 p.101.

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that Jesus appealed to the prophets and scriptures as testifying of him. Homilies on John homily30 ver.33 p.104

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) quotes Isaiah and says it refers to Christ in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 36 p.240.

Philo of Carpasia (365-425 A.D.) “Because of this he was named king, for he alone did priestly ministry within her. That is Jerusalem, a prophecy of the one who was to come, Jesus, Savior of the world.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Psalm 110:1 openly refers to Christ. The City of God book 17 ch.17 p.355

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Micah 2:6 prophesies of Christ. Commentary on Micah ch.5 p.225-226

Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) “I am aware … that the Law contained an outline of everything to do with Christ the Lord.” Commentary on Zechariah ch.9 p.367

Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (implied) promises [of the Messiah] made to Abraham and David. Commentary on Jonah preface p.185

 

 

God’s TranscendEnce

 

G1. There is only One True God

 

Deuteronomy 4:39; 6:4,35-39; 2 Samuel 7:22; Mark 12:29-33; Isaiah 43:10-12; 44:6-8,24; 45:5-14; 46:9; Matthew 19:17; Mark 10;18; 12:29,32; John 17:3; 1 Corinthians 8:4,6; 1 Timothy 1:17; 6:15-16; James 2:19

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament, including all of Deuteronomy, and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 19:17; Mark 10:18; 12:29,32; John 17:3

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 19:17; Mark 10:18; 12:29,32; John 17:3

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 19:17; Mark 10:18; 12:29,32; John 17:3

 

While Mormonism has taught that there are many gods over many planets, both the Bible and the early church teach there is only one true God.

 

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 “One God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things…”

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) “We believe in one God, the Father Almighty;” in Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.26  NPNF second series vol.2 p.28-29.

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says there is no other God, quoting Deuteronomy 4:37

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says there is only One God. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 22.12 p.406

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) says there is only One God. Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.7 p.154

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions “the One God” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.18 p.192 and “one God” in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.29 p.202.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (implied) says that if any man says that the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit are three Gods; let him be anathema. On the Councils ch.38 Canon 22 of the Council of Sirmium p.15.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. One God, Father Almighty. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , One God, Father Almighty, made all things, Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that God is the One and Only. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.3 (12) p.69

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says that God is One in ch.1 p.22.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says there is only One God. On the Spirit ch.44 p.26

First Council of Constantinople (381/382 A.D.) says there is only One God. Creed ch.1 p.163

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says there are not three gods but a Trinity in On Not Three Gods p.336

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says there is only One God. question 97 p.254 and question 107 p.28.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that God is one. Lecture 4 ch.4 p.20; Lecture 7 ch.1 p.74

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) mentions only one God in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 71 p.432.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ is God, and very God, and with the Father “the One and only God” On the Trinity book 1 ch.6 p.21

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) says there is One God, who is the first cause of all things and unchangeable. Candidus’ First Letter ch.1,2 p.54

Creed of Eunomius (extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) “We believe in One God, the Father Almighty, of Whom are all things…” Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

 

G2. Living God

 

Deuteronomy 5:26; Joshua 3:10; 1 Samuel 17:26,33; 2 Kings 19:4,16; Psalm 42:2; 84:2; Isaiah 37:4,17; Jeremiah 10:10; 23:36; Daniel 6:20,26; Hosea 1:10

Matthew 16:26; 26:63; John 6:69; Acts 14:15; Romans 9:26; 2 Corinthians 3:3; 6:16; 1 Thessalonians 1:9; 3:15; 4:10; 6:27; Hebrews 3:22; 9:14; 10:31; 12:22; Revelation 7:2

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Sinaitic Old Syriac most of the four gospels (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 26:63

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium translating Archelaus (4th century) “we believe in the living God alone.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.2 p.179

Athanasius of Alexandria (335 A.D.) “And one earnestly implores, saying, ‘As the hart panteth after the fountains of waters, so panteth my soul after Thee, O God! My soul thirsteth for the living God, when shall I come and see the face of God?’Easter Letter 335 A.D. ch.6 p.&&&

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) smentions the Living God in ch.7 p.287, ch.3 p.158, ch.4 p.199.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) mentions “the Living God” Against Eunomius book 2 ch.4 p.105

Palladius of Auxerre (419-420 A.D.) mentions the Living God. Lausiac History in Four Desert Fathers. p.488

 

G3. God / Jesus before birth was incorporeal

 

(partial, Implied) John 1:14 The Word became flesh

(partial) John 3:8 Holy Spirit is like the wind

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) (partial) says that Jesus was before the earth, quoting Proverbs 8:23

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says the Word existed before being incarnated.

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) “Men were created of matter, and that passible; but God is immaterial and incorporeal.In Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.10 p.&&&

 

G4. God is holy, good, or pure

 

Habakkuk 1:13; Hebrews 12:10; (implied) John 10:11

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) (implied) John 10:11

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) (implied) John 10:11

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 10:11

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “irrational and foolish fashion common to the mass of men, and ascribe no such confusion to the God of goodness.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes book 1 ch.5 p.182

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions that contrary to Manes thinking, the God who gave Moses the Old Testament is good. (Diodorus, friend of Archelaus, is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.45 p.220

Athanasius of Alexandria (335 A.D.) discusses the Father’s lovingkindness and goodness. Easter Letter 9 ch.10 p.527

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) wrote that when the Arians point to Isaiah 65:16; Mark 10:18; 1 Timothy 6:15, leaving no truth, goodness, or power to the Son.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says God is holy. On the Spirit ch.38 p.24

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) “It is easy, however, to show that not even the word ‘one’ separates the Father from the Son. … For He says, ‘I and the Father are one.’ [John 10:30] If, then, the good is one, and a particular kind of unity is contemplated in the Father and the Son, it follows that the Word, in predicating goodness of ‘one,’ claimed under the term ‘one’ the title of ‘good’ also for Himself, Who is one with the Father, and not severed from oneness of nature.” Against Eunomius book 11 ch.2 p.232-233 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.5.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) speaking of the Son says, “Uncreated of Uncreated, God of Good, Eternal of Eternal, without prejudice to Its eternity by Its being in the Father by way ofgeneration.”. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.3 p.186

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says that God is goodness. question 9 p.400

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) God is good and just. The Panarion section 3 scholion 7 and 15 p.32-

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says the world was created by “This just and good God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ” de Principiis Preface ch.4 p.240

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says God has no change at all. The City of God book 11 ch.6 p.208

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ is God and the Son of God is “unchangeably good”. On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.175

 

G5. God does not speak lies / is Truth

 

Numbers 23:19; 1 Samuel 15:24; John 7:28; 14:6; Titus 1:2; Hebrews 6:18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 7:28; 14:6

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) John 7:28; 14:6

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 7:28; 14:6

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) said that Manes was wrong to make Jesus into a liar. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.27 p.200

Athanasius of Alexandria (347 A.D.) quotes Hebrews 6:18 that it is impossible for God to lie. Easter Letter 19 ch.3 p.546

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says God cannot lie. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.6 p.351

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) Jesus says of God the Father “Thy wordis truth.” Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.19 p.404

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) says that God is the Father of Truth. Nativity Hymns hymn 1 p.273

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that God cannot lie in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.4 p.104

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says that God cannot lie. question 117 p.60

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that God is Truth. Answer to Eunomius’ Second Book p.251

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) de Principiis book 1 ch.2.7 p.248

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “as he [the apostle] does in the Epistle to the Hebrews; where he says, ‘Taht by two immutable things in which it was impossible for God to lie, we may have a strong encouragement.’” vol.13 Homilies on Ephesians homily 2 verse 14 p.56

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) (partial) God knows all truth vol.14 Commentary on John homily 42 p.152

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that God is Almighty, but He cannot die, be deceived, lie, or deny Himself. On the Creed ch.2 p.371

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says God is not the author or creator of a lie. The City of God book 14 ch.4 p.264

 

G6. God is a Father

 

First person Isaiah 63:16 (twice); 64:8

2 Samuel 7:14; 1 Chronicles 17:11-14; 22:10; 28:6; Psalm 2:7; Proverbs 3:12; 30:4f; Isaiah 9:6; Jeremiah 3:4; 3:19; 31:9; Hosea 11:1; Malachi 1:6; 2:10; others

Matthew 26:39,42; Luke 9:21-22; Tt 1:4; Hebrews 12:9, 1 Peter 1:2,17; others

(implied) Hebrews 12:6

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 9:21-22

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Luke 9:21-22

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 26:39,42; Luke 9:21,22

 

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 “One God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things… one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father…”

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) “We believe in one God, the Father Almighty;” in Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.26  NPNF second series vol.2 p.28-29.

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) calls God Father. Theophania book 2 ch.85 p.11 and ibid book 3 ch.4 p.5.

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) mentions Father, Almighty God.

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says God is our Oe Father. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 22.12 p.406

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions God the Father and the Lord’s prayer in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.20 p.194 . He also mentions God the Father in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.31 p.203. See also Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions God as the Father. (Diodorus, friend of Archelaus, is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.45 p.221

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (356-362 A.D.) ch.69 p.214 “the Son of God was not a created being, neither had He come into being from non-existence, but that He was the Eternal Word and Wisdom of the Essence with the Father.”

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) (implied) calls Christ “Only-Begotten; for He alone was begotten of the Father”. On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.3

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says there is no question that the Father is greater than Jesus. Of the Synods ch.8 p.6. See also Of the Synods ch.15 p.8 and ch.20 p.9.

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) mentions the Father and the Son. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.1 p.87

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) mentions the Father. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.1 p.87

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. One God, Father Almighty. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , One God, Father Almighty, made all things, Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) speaks of the all-powerful Father. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.5 (32) p.83

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) mentiosn “God the Father” in ch.1 p.60 and that God is the Father in ch.2 p.104.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that God is the Father of Truth. Nativity Hymns hymn 1 p.273

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) Spekas of God as the Father. Letter 29 ch.3 p.250

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) “For our Savior Himself entreated His Father for those who had sinned, as it is written in the Gospel:” and then he quotes Luke 23:34 ch.16 p.402

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.6 p.439 “believing in the one and the only true God and Father, through Jesus Christ, the great High Priest, and Redeemer of our souls, and rewarder of our sufferings.”

First Council of Constantinople (381/382 A.D.) calls God the Father Creed ch.1 p.163

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) speaks of God the Father in many places. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.14 p.31; book 1 ch.23 p.63. Also Against Eunomius book 2 ch.8 p.113

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) calls God the Father. question 31 p.233 and question 111 p.127

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that God is a Father. (First Catechetical Lecture 6 ch.1 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.33)

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) discusses God the Father, the unbegotten, and the begotten being of the same essence. On the Son ch.11 p.305

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says Jesus it the image of the Father. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.48 p.208

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Virgin, Father. Commentary on Zechariah 8 p.197

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) God is a Father. Memra 4 ch.1 p.24

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Christ raised the dead. Mentioned the Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit. The Panarion section 3 ch.46 p.350

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Excerpts “The Father gives to the Son, and the Son, who is not inferior to the Father, receives from the Father, particularly in two ways. First, that we might be led to one union with the Deity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, in contradistinction to a multitude of gods.” Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) “The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…” homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) mentions the father, and Holy Ghost along with Jesus our Lord. Commentary on Philippians Introductory discourse p.183

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “confessing, indeed, that the Godhead of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, is all one, while we add thereunto a Trinity of Persons. On the Christian Priesthood book 4 ch.4 p.66

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) quotes John 14:22. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 p.211

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are one. Memoir to Augustine on the Error of the Priscillianists and Origenists ch.2 p.171

Orosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) “Son of God” and the Father. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151-152

Palladius of Auxerre (419-420 A.D.) mentions God the Father. Lausiac History in Four Desert Fathers. p.487

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) discusses “Our Father” in the Lord’s prayer in Sermons on the New Testament Sermon 8 p.284-285.

 

Among heretics

The First Form of the Gospel of Thomas (shorter Greek version) ch.19 p.398 has Jesus saying “I must be about my Father’s business” It concludes with “And Jesus advanced in wisdom, and stature, and grace. To whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.”

The Second Form of the Gospel of Thomas (longer Greek version) ch.11 p.399 says that Mary “rejoiced and glorified Him [Jesus], with the Father and the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and forevermore. Amen.”

The Latin Form of the Gospel of Thomas ch.15 p.404 mentions “God the Father Almighty”. It ends with “He is the Son of God throughout all the world. To Him is due all glory and honour for ever, who lives and reigns God through all ages of ages. Amen.”

Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Saviour p.405 begins with “In the name of the Father, and the son, and the Holy Spirit, one God.”

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Refers to God the Father. Commentary on Malachi ch.3 p.416

 

There are more besides these too among heretics.

 

G7. The Trinity: one God in three ‘Persons’

 

(partial) Matthew 28:19

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) (partial) Matthew 28:19

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) (partial) Matthew 28:19

 

Juvencus the Spaniard (329/330 A.D.) “It is not too great toil to praise the Trinity.Englynion book 1

The Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) (implied) extensively discusses the Trinity, without using the name. Athanasius of Alexandria’ On the Councils (=de Synodis) part 1 ch.26 p.462-464

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial, against Sabellius) “or what alien dogmas he has destroyed, whether of a Valentinian, or a Marcion, or a Tatian, or a Sabellius, or any others of those who have constructed for themselves their peculiar systems of knowledge.” (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.37 p.211

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) (partial)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) refers to the Holy Trinity in Letter to the Church of Antioch ch.3 p.484

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) (partial) mentions God the Father, and the Son Jesus Christ or Word and the Holy Spirit. (Does not use the word Trinity though.) Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.5 (32) p.83

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) wrote an entire work, of twelve books, called On the Trinity.

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) mentions the Trinity in ch.1 p.11 and ch.1 p.86.

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 3 no.14 p.173

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) mentions “the adorable Trinity”. On the Spirit ch.18.45 p.28

First Council of Constantinople (381/382 A.D.) “We believe in one God, the Father, almighty, maker of heaven and earth… Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten from the Father before all ages, … through Whoim all things came in to existence. And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and life-giver, Who proceeds from the father, Who with the Father and the Son is together worshipped and together glorified…” p.297-298

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) speaks of the “Trinity”. question 87 p.354 and question 3 p.55

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) “We neither separate the Holy Trinity, like some; nor do we as Sebellius work confusion.” Catechetical Letters Lecture 16 ch.4 p.116

Damasus I of Rome (386-389 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) mentions the “Trinity” in On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.4.33 p.206

Ambrose of Milan (379-390 A.D.) mentions Abraham receiving the strangers, seeing the Trinity in a type, “when beholding Three he worshipped One and preserving the distinction of the Person, yet addressed on eLord, he offered to Three th honour of his gift, while acknowledging one Power.” Book 2 On Belief in the Resurrection ch.96 p.189-190

First Council of Constantinople (381/382 A.D.) mentions the Trinity. Synodical Letter p.189

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) mentions the Holy Trinity, the Holy Spirit, and the Godhead in Letter 2 to the City of Sebasteia p.528-529

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) mentions the Trinity twice and discusses it. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.21 p.309

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (partial) Baptize in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Letter 3 ch.11.1 p.51

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) “the one deity of the Trinity is indicated ... and in the second place, that by the incarnation of the deity He assumed the gift of dignity, power, and perfection which have been given by the Father to the Son for the one spiritual union of the deity.” Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (implied) discusses in detail about the distinctness in the Trinity in de Principiis book 1 ch.7 p.254-255

Chromatius of Aquileia (407 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “confessing, indeed, that the Godhead of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, is all one, while we add thereunto a Trinity of Persons. On the Christian Priesthood book 4 ch.4 p.66

Asterius of Amasea (400-410 A.D.) “and the mystery of the Trinity was adequately bodied forth in the tent of this old man when he entertained the three angels as wayfaring men.The Rich Man and Lazarus ch.35. See also “the mystery of the Trinity” ch.1 p.3

Niceta of Remesianus (366-415 A.D.) Instructions for Candidates for Baptism

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) says the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are one. Memoir to Augustine on the Error of the Priscillianists and Origenists ch.2 p.171

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.) speaks of the “mysteries of the Trinity.” Against the Luciferians ch.15 p.327

Palladius of Auxerre (419-420 A.D.) says that three particular demons denied the mystery of the Holy Trinity. [Both Greek and Coptic] Lausiac History 38.11 in Four Desert Fathers. (Chapter: Evagrius Debates Three Demons) p.179

Augustine of Hippo (388-8/28/430 A.D.) wrote an entire work, On the Holy Trinity.

Augustine of Hippo (388-8/28/430 A.D.) speaks on the Trinity and against Sabellius in On the Trinity book 1 ch.4,7 p.20.

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity in a number of places, including Seven Books of John Cassian book 2 ch.2 p.557. See also The Incarnation of Christ p.551-552.

Macarius the Great (392-423/429 A.D.) &&&

 

G8. God is the Father of all [things]

 

Just saying God is a/the Father is not counted here.

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (after 347 A.D.) (implied) Athanasius is quoting a letter from Constantius, Victor, Maximus, Augustus to Alexandria. “take care to offer up with him your prayers to God, the Father of all, in behalf of yourselves, and for the well-being of your whole lives.Defence Against the Arians ch.55 p.130

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “For to all hath He given one nobility, having vouchsafed to be called the Father of all alike.Homilies on Matthew homily 19 ch.6 p.&&&

 

Among heretics

The mild Arian Creed of Antioch (c.341/344) (partial) says God is the “Make of all things” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

 

G9. God/The Father is perfect

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) “For never was the essence of the Father imperfect, that what is proper to it should be added afterwards; nor, as man from man, has the Son been begotten, so as to be later than His Father’s existence, but He is God’s offspring, and as being proper Son of God, who is ever, He exists eternally.Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.2.14 p.&&&

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) (partial, Son, not the Father) “And again, who should be Son of God, but His Word? For there are not many words, or each would be imperfect, but one is the Word, that He only may be perfect, and because, God being one, His Image too must be one, which is the Son.Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.17 p.160

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) “And are we to suppose that the wisdom of God, the Maker of all cration, He who is eternally perfect, who is wise without a teacher, the Power of God, ‘in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge,’ needs piecemeal instruction to mark out the manner and measure of His operations? I presume that in the vanity of your calculations,…” On the Spirit ch.8.20 p.14

 

G10. Sun / beam / ray analogy of the Trinity

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) (partial) says the Son is a ray of the Father. Theophania book 1 ch.1 p.1

Athanasius of Alexandria (328 A.D.) gives an analogy of the Father and the Son as brightness coming from light. Statement of Faith ch.4 p.85 and On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.4 p.89. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (356-360 A.D.) discourse 2 ch.33 p.366 and discourse 3 ch.11 p.400.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) uses light as an analogy of the Trinity. question 9 p.401

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) mentions the sun and the ray and the fragrance as analogies of the Trinity. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.36 p.84

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) mentions the sun and the beam as an analogy again.. Against Eunomius book 8 ch.4 p.204

 

G11. Majesty or glory of God

 

Psalm 19:1; Zechariah 2:5; Micah 5:4

Matthew 24:30; Mark 13:26; Luke 2:9; 21:27; John 1:14; 2:14; 7:18; 12:28; 17:5; Romans 1:23; 3:7,23; 11:36; 15:7; 16:27; 1 Corinthians 10:31; 2 Corinthians 1:20; 4:6; 4:15; 8:19; Galatians 1:5; Ephesians 3:21; Philippians 4:19; Colossians 1:17; 2 Thessalonians 1:9; Titus 2:13; Hebrews 1:3; 1 Peter 4:13,14; 2 Peter 1:17

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 12:28; 17:5

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “I understand, then, that his [Manes’] chief effort was directed to prove that the law of Moses is not consonant with the law of Christ; and this position he attempted to found on the authority of our Scriptures. Well, on the other hand, not only did we establish the law of Moses, and all things which are written in it, by the same Scripture; but we also proved that the whole Old Testament agrees with the New Testament, and is in perfect harmony with the same, and that they form really one texture, just as a person may see one and the same robe made up of weft and warp together. For the truth is simply this, that just as we trace the purple in a robe, so, if we may thus express it, we can discern the New Testament in the texture of the Old Testament; for we see the glory of the Lord mirrored in the same.” (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.215

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) quotes Dionysius of Rome: “the dignity and exceeding majesty of the Lord;” Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.26 p.168

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) mentions God’s everlasting majesty in ch.4 p.199.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) speaks of God’s majesty On the Spirit ch.45 p.28

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) speaks of God’s majesty. question 127 p.49

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) mentions the eternal Majesty. Of the Holy Spirit book 1 ch.8.97 p.106

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) mentions the “divine majesty” in On the Christian Faith book 5 ch.5.66 p.293

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) speaks of the majesty of God. Against Eunomius book 3 ch.7 p.150

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) speaks of the “infinite majesty” of God in Commentary on John homily 3 (vol.14) p.13. See also Homilies on John homily 27 p.95

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) mentions the Divine Majesty. Commentary on Acts ch.1.2 p.14

 

G12. God is a jealous God

 

Exodus 20:5; 34:14; Deuteronomy 4:24; 5:9; 6:15; Joshua 24:19; Nahum 1:2; Zechariah 8:1; 1 Corinthians 10:22

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

X Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says we should not ascribe jealousy to God. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.29 p.363

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “And hath God jealousy? Yea the jealousy not of passion, but of love, and earnest zeal.” Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

Palladius of Auxerre (419-420 A.D.) speaks of the “jealous God” Four Desert Fathers &&& p.487.

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) God is a jealous God. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.252

 

G13. Genesis 1:26 refers to the Father & Son

 

Genesis 1:26

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says Genesis 1:26 refers to the Father. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 2 ch.18.31 p.365.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) discusses on “Let us make” cannot refer to angels as Jewish fables say, but to the Father and the Son, whom the Jews reject. The Hexaemeron ch.5 p.106

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 section 1 p.441 “the divine Scripture testifies that God said to Christ, His only-begotten, ‘Let us make man after our image, and after our likeness. And God made man: after the image of God made He him; male and female made He them.’”

 

G14. God is Light

 

Isaiah 49:6; 60:19,20; John 1:4-9; John 8:12; 2 Corinthians 4:6; 1 John 1:5

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says that God is Spirit, and that God is Light.

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) “Jesus is Light of Light” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (implied) “If, then, God is a light, it must needs be that light (if Jesus is to be credited) shall shine on the whole world, and not on any portions of it merely.” (The judges are speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.22 p.195

Athanasius of Alexandria (328 A.D.) gives an analogy of the Father and the Son as brightness coming from light. Statement of Faith ch.4 p.85. See also On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.4 p.89

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says the ungenerated Is light. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.36 p.84

 

Among heretics

The mild Arian Creed of Antioch (c.341/344) Christ is “Light of Light” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

 

G15. The God of Jesus / Christ

 

Ephesians 1:3, 17; 1 Peter 1:3; Hebrews 1:9

Revelation 1:6 (God of Jesus)

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (partial) quotes Ephesians 1:3-5. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.75 p.189

 

G16. God’s Holy Name

 

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) “If, however, they rely on the passage, The Word was made Flesh and dwelt among us, and because of this erase the noblest part of Man (as cobblers do the thicker part of skins) that they may join together God and Flesh, it is time for them to say that God is God only of flesh, and not of souls, because it is written, "As Thou hast given Him power over all Flesh," [Jn 17:2] and "Unto Thee shall all Flesh come;" [Ps 65:2] and "Let all Flesh bless His holy Name," [Ps 145:21] meaning every Man.” Letter 101 p.&&&

 

G17. The Godhead

 

Acts 17:29; Romans 1:20; Colossians 2:9

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) mentiosn the Godhead. Theophania book 1 ch.4 p.1

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “For in Him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead.” (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions the Godhead Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29 p.424. See also ibid. discourse 1 ch.12 no.50 p.336

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) wrote about the Godhead. On the Trinity book 5 ch.18 p.77. See also On The Trinity book 8 ch.42 p.149.

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) mentions Jesus’ Godhead. Hymns on the Nativity hymn 3 p.236. See also Nisibine Hymns hymn 21 no.11 p.192

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) speaks of the Godhead. Letter 8 ch.7 p.119

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) speaks of the Godhead. question 114 p.329

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) talks about Jesus and the Godhead. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.1 p.183. See also Against Eunomius book 7 ch. 1 p.194.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) mentions the Holy Trinity, the Holy Spirit, and the Godhead in Letter 2 to the City of Sebasteia p.528-529

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) mentions the Godhead Letters of Gregory of Nyssa Letter 17 p.544.

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) discusses God’s power and Godhead are eternal. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.10.62 p.211

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) distinguishes the true Father, Son and Spirit in the Godhead, vs. the confusion of the Sabellians or the division of Arius. Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.12 p.133. See also Of the Holy Spirit book 1 ch.8.95 p.106. Ambrose frequently uses the word “Godhead”.

First Council of Constantinople (381/382 A.D.) mentions the Godhead. Ch.5 p.181

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions the Godhead in many places, including Oration on the Holy Light ch.11 p.355 and Fourth Theological Oration ch. 5 p.311.

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) “This is the wish of our schoolmaster the law, of the prophets who intervened between Christ and the law, of Christ who is the fulfiller and end of the spiritual law; of the emptied Godhead, of the assumed flesh, of the novel union between God and man,” In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.23 p.209

Council of Constantinople II (381 A.D.) canon 5 p.181 “the unity of the Godhead of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. The Synodical Letter of 382 A.D. also mentions the Godhead on p.189.

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Excerpts “For in the transfiguration His [the Son’s] face, even in the flesh, since His deity was still present, shone like the sun, that is, the flesh which came from Mary and from our human race was transfigured to heavenly glory, so that it acquired, in addition to its own natural powers, the glory, honor, and perfection of the Godhead, the flesh receiving the heavenly glory here in communion with the divine Logos, which it did not have from the beginning.” Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “confessing, indeed, that the Godhead of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, is all one, while we add thereunto a Trinity of Persons. On the Christian Priesthood book 4 ch.4 p.66

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) “contemplation of the Godhead with pure and spiritual love.” Commentary on the Song of Songs Prologue p.44

 

G18. God is a consuming fire

 

Deuteronomy 4:24; Deuteronomy 9:3; Hebrews 12:29

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “The God of the Old Testament is the inventor of evil, who speaks thus of Himself: ‘I am a consuming fire.’” (Manes is speaking, but Hegemonius of Sirmium accepts this description of the God of the Old Testament) fragment from Cyril of Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.1 p.234

Athanasius of Alexandria (332 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 4:24/Hebrews 12:29 in Paschal Letter 4 ch.3 p.514

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says God is a consuming fire. Festal Letter 3 ch.3 p.514

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) says that God is a consuming fire. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 2 ch.2 p.112

 

pseudo-Justin Martyr (168-200 A.D.) (says that Aeschylus calls God a consuming fire.) “Aeschylus, in expounding… expressed himself also as follows… He seems as a consuming fire that burns Unsated;” Justin on the Sole Government of God ch.2 p.290

 

G19. God is blessed

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (338 A.D.) “Blessed be the Lord, Who hath not given us over as a prey to their teeth” Easter Letter 10 ch.11 p.531

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that God is blessed. Letter 161 ch.1 p.214

Gregory of Nyssa (378-397 A.D.) mentions “the blessed deity Himself” Against Eunomius book 1 ch.28 p.74

 

G20. God is Spirit

 

John 4:24a

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says that God is Spirit, and that God is Light.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) quotes John 4:24a. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.15 p.182

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.41 p.370

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says “God is Spirit”. On the Spirit ch.9.22 p.15

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says God is Spirit. question 112 p.138

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that God is Spirit. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.14 p.129

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes all of John 4:24. de Principiis book 1 ch.1 p.242.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Gregory Thaumaturgus (?) (author unknown but could be Gregory Thaumaturgus) quotes John 4:24 in A Sectional Confession of Faith ch.10 p.43.

 

G21. Fragrance of Heaven/God/Christ/Holy Spirit

 

2 Corinthians 2:15-16 (implied) (we are the aroma of Christ)

Ephesians 5:2b [Christ was] “an offering and a sacrificed ot God for a sweet-smelling aroma.”

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) References 2 Corinthians 2:15-16; Ephesians 5:2b

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) References 2 Corinthians 2:15-16; Ephesians 5:2b

 

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) “…destroyed the odour of sorrowful death. And so the Apostle says: ‘For we are the good odour of Christ to God;’” OF the Holy Spirit book 1 ch.9.102 p.107.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&& Catechetical Lectures Lecture

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) (partial) “He [God] smelled a sweet savour.” Answer to Eunomius’ Second Book p.274

 

G22. God is not in everything (pantheism is wrong)

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) says that God is not in His creation. Theophania book 1 ch.27 p.3

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) “And how shall we preserve the truth that God pervades all things and fills all, as it is written “Do not I fill heaven and earth? saith the Lord,” [Jer. 23:24] and “The Spirit of the Lord filleth the world,” [Wisdom 1:7] if God partly contains and partly is contained?  For either He will occupy an empty Universe, and so all things will have vanished for us, with this result, that we shall have insulted God by making Him a body, and by robbing Him of all things which He has made; or else He will be a body contained in other bodies, which is impossible; or He will be enfolded in them, or contrasted with them, as liquids are mixed, and one divides and is divided by another;—a view which is more absurd and anile than even the atoms of Epicurus and so this argument concerning the body will fall through, and have no body and no solid basis at all.” Letter 28 ch.8 p.&&&

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) (implied) says that all existence is separated into two categories: creation and the unoriginated. Against Eunomius book 3 ch.&&&

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) (implied) “that He swelt in a spiritual temple they [mickers] laugh; while they themselves are not ashamed to bring down God’s substance into cucumbers, and melons, and flies, and caterpillars, and asses, thus excogitating a new fasion of idolatry; for let it not be as the Egyptians have it, ‘The onion is God;’ but let it be, ‘God in the onion’?” Commentary on Acts ch.2 p.16

 

G23. God fills heaven and earth

 

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) “And how shall we preserve the truth that God pervades all things and fills all, as it is written “Do not I fill heaven and earth? saith the Lord,” [Jer. 23:24] and “The Spirit of the Lord filleth the world,” [Wisdom 1:7] if God partly contains and partly is contained?  For either He will occupy an empty Universe, and so all things will have vanished for us, with this result, that we shall have insulted God by making Him a body, and by robbing Him of all things which He has made; or else He will be a body contained in other bodies, which is impossible; or He will be enfolded in them, or contrasted with them, as liquids are mixed, and one divides and is divided by another;—a view which is more absurd and anile than even the atoms of Epicurus and so this argument concerning the body will fall through, and have no body and no solid basis at all.” Letter 28 ch.8 p.&&&

 

God’s Eternal Power

 

Ge1. God is everywhere

 

Psalm 139

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says that no one can say God is “not everywhere present” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.21 p.194

&&&Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) says that God ‘Is universally present, and yet do not say that He is any of those things…” Against Eunomius book 6 ch.3 p.186

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Wisdom 1:7 “For the Spirit of the Lord filled the whole world.” Of the Holy Spirit book 1 ch.7.87 p.104

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the “omnipresent power” in The City of God book 7 ch.30 p.140

 

Ge2. God is almighty (omnipotent)

 

Job 42:2; Luke 1:37; Romans 9:29; Revelation 11:17; 15:3; 16:7,14; 19:15; 21:22

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 1:37

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Luke 1:37

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 1:37

 

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 “One God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things…”

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) “We believe in one God, the Father Almighty;” in Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.26  NPNF second series vol.2 p.28-29.

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) mentions Father, Almighty God.

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) says that the Word of God is almighty. Theophania book 1 ch.15 p.2

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “quotes Galatians 4:4, “May the Omnipotent God preserve you whole in soul and in spirit.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “as is the way with this most depraved man, who, in his impiety, refuses to ascribe to the Omnipotent God even equal power with men?” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.21 p.194-195

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) mentions God Almighty. On the Trinity book 1 ch.37 p.50

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Athanasius of Alexandria (328 A.D.) says God is Almighty. Statement of Faith p.84.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says God is Almighty. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.16.23 p.361

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) (351 A.D.) One God, Father Almighty. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) “One God, Father Almighty, made all things,” Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) speaks of the all-powerful Father. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.5 (32) p.83

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says God is Almighty in ch.1 p.2.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that God is almighty. On the Spirit ch.20.51 p.32

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.7 p.439 “For the Almighty God Himself will raise us up through our Lord Jesus Christ,…”

First Council of Constantinople (381/382 A.D.) says God is almighty. Creed ch.1 p.163

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says the Father is Almighty. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.16 p.54

Ambrose of Milan (c.384 A.D.) “O Almighty Lord God of Israel,” On the Mysteries ch.9 no.43 p.336

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says God is Almighty. question 9 p.400 and question 8 p.114

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Lord Almighty. Commentary on Zechariah 8 p.197

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) calls God the Almighty. de Principiis book 1 ch.2.5 p.247; book 1 ch.2.10 p.249

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) speaks of the Sovereign God’s “unlimited power” On the Creation of the World ch.6 p.5

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) speaks of “Almighty God” in Defense Against the Pelagians ch.26 p.152 and ch.27 p.153

 

pseudo-Justin Martyr (&&& A.D.) says that God is Almighty. Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.38 p.287

 

Among heretics

The Arians Patricius and Aetius (363-365 A.D.) “These are the attributes of God, Unbegotten, without origin, Eternal, not to be commanded, Immutable, All-seeing, Infinite, Incomparable, Almighty, knowing the future without foresight; without beginning. These do not belong to the Son, for He is commanded, is under command, is made from nothing, has an end, is not compared [with the Father], the Earlier surpasses Him... of Christ is found: as pertaining to the Father, He is ignorant of the future. He was not God, but Son of God; God of those who are after Him: and in this He possesses invariable likeness with the Father, namely He sees all things because all things ... because He is not changed in goodness; [but] not like in the quality of Godhead, nor in nature. But if we said that He was born of the quality of Godhead, we say that He resembles the offspring of serpents(12a), and that is an impious saying: and like as a statue produces rust from itself, and will be consumed by the rust itself, so also the Son, if He is produced from the nature of the Father, will consume the Father.” Exposition of Patricius and Aetius in Athanasius.

Creed of Eunomius (extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) “We believe in One God, the Father Almighty, of Whom are all things…” Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) refers to the Lord Almighty. Commentary on Malachi ch.3 p.419

 

Ge3. God is sovereign / God’s sovereignty

 

Genesis 15:2,8; Psalm 68:20; Daniel 4:17,25,32; 5:21; 7:14; 2 Peter 2:1; Jude 4; many others

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that Christ is sovereign of all. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.17 p.357

Athanasius of Alexandria (after 347 A.D.) says that God is sovereign. Defense Against the Arians part 4 ch.61 p.132

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says God is sovereign. question 9 p.400-401

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that God is “sovereign”. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.11 p.120

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) speaks of the Sovereign God’s “unlimited power” On the Creation of the World ch.6 p.5

Rufinus (c.410 A.D.) translation Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “to admit that the architect of this world is the Son of God, and that His Father is the first God and Sovereign Ruler over all things.Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.47 p.595

 

pseudo-Justin Martyr (168-200 A.D.) Reveal to men their great and sovereign Lord.” On the Sole Government of God ch.1 p.290

 

Ge4. The Most High God

 

(El Elyon in Hebrew)

Genesis 14:18,19,20,22; Psalm 9:17; 57:2; 78:56; 91:1; Daniel 3:26; 4:17,24,32,34; 5:18,21; 7:18,22,25,27; Hosea 7:16; 11:7

Mark 5:7; Luke 1:32,35,76; 6:35; 8:28; Acts 7:48

Most high: Numbers 24:16; Deuteronomy 32:8; 2 Samuel 22:14; Psalm 9:2; 21:7; 46:4; 50:14; 56:2; 73:11; 77:10; 78:17; 82:6; 83:18; 91:9; 92:1,8; Lam 3:35,38

Lord Most High Psalm 7:17; 47:2

God most High: Psalm 57:2

(implied) Isaiah 40:18,25

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac most of the four gospels (350-400 A.D.) Luke 1:76; 6:35

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says [Jesus] is the Son fo the Most High.

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) calls God the Most High. Ebncomium on the Martyrs ch.2 p.3

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) mentions the “Most High God” Select Demonstrations Demonstration 6.6 p.367

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) mentions the Most High God. To the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.3 p.224

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) uses the term “Most High” in ch.4 p.191.

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) in his hymn has Mary calling Jesus “Son of the Most High” Hymns on the Nativity hymn 4 p.235

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) speaks of the Mos tHig God question 109 p.68 and question 51 p.208

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) (implied) discusses the end times, Gabriel’s message, the fourth beast will speak blasphemous words against the Most High. In ch.14 he refers to 2 Thessalonians 2:9 as by Paul. These false signs by Satan and the AntiChrist will abhor idols and be seated in the Temple of God. Catechetical Lectures Lecture 15 ch.13-15 p.108

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) calls God the “Most High”. Treatise Against Eunomius second book p.274

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) speaks of the Most High God. Homilies on Ephesians homily8 p.93

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) See also Commentary on the Song of Songs prologue p.44

Jerome of Stridon (390 A.D.) calls God the “Most High”. The Life of St. Hilarion ch.4 p.304

Palladius of Auxerre (419-420 A.D.) mentions the Most High. Lausiac History in Four Desert Fathers. p.490

Philo of Carpasia (365-425 A.D.) (partial) mentions the “high God”.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Melchizedek was priest of the most high God. On Christian Doctrine book 4 ch.21.45 NPNF first series vol.2 p.590

 

Ge5. God is above all

 

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says God is above all. question 9 p.401

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that God is supreme. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.24 p.66

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that God is over all. Homilies on Ephesians homily11 p.103

 

Ge6. God or His power is incomparable

 

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “For Paul would not have decided that the same expression suited the Son, unless he had been very confident that between Father and Son there was an equality of honor; since it would have been an act of extremest rashness to refer what suited an incomparable Nature to a nature inferior to, and falling short of it.Commentary on John ch.&&& p.23

 

Ge7. God does not change / is unchangeable

 

Malachi 3:6a

(partial) James 1:17

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the God does not change. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.10.36 p.327

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) “as Paul in another place calls him ‘first-born of all creation’ (Colossians 1:15). But by calling him First-born, He shows that He is not a Creature, but Offspring of the Father. For it would be inconsistent with his deity for Him to be called a creature. For all things were created by the Father through the Son, but the Son alone was eternally begotten from the Father, whence God the Word is ‘first-born of all creation,’ unchangeable from unchangeable. However, the body which He wore for our sakes is a creature.” Statement of Faith ch.3 p.85

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says the Father and Son are unchangeable. Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.17 p.232

&&&Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that God is unchangeable. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.61

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says God is unchanging. Catechical Lectures Lecture 4 ch.4 p.20; Lecture 18 ch.4 p.135; Lecture 10 ch.12 p.60

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that God is not changed. The City of God book 20 ch.26 p.447. See also On Christian Doctrine ch.7.7 p.524

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) says there is One God, who is the first cause of all things and unchangeable. Candidus’ First Letter ch.1,2 p.54

The Arians Patricius and Aetius (363-365 A.D.) “These are the attributes of God, Unbegotten, without origin, Eternal, not to be commanded, Immutable, All-seeing, Infinite, Incomparable, Almighty, knowing the future without foresight; without beginning. These do not belong to the Son, for He is commanded, is under command, is made from nothing, has an end, is not compared [with the Father], the Earlier surpasses Him... of Christ is found: as pertaining to the Father, He is ignorant of the future. He was not God, but Son of God; God of those who are after Him: and in this He possesses invariable likeness with the Father, namely He sees all things because all things ... because He is not changed in goodness; [but] not like in the quality of Godhead, nor in nature. But if we said that He was born of the quality of Godhead, we say that He resembles the offspring of serpents(12a), and that is an impious saying: and like as a statue produces rust from itself, and will be consumed by the rust itself, so also the Son, if He is produced from the nature of the Father, will consume the Father.” Exposition of Patricius and Aetius in Athanasius.

 

Ge8. God is uncreated

 

Genesis 1:1 “In the beginning, God...”

John 1:1 (In the beginning was the word...”

 

(implied) God alone Isaiah 44:8,24

(implied) John 1:3; Colossians 1:16

(implied) Titus 1:2 (before the beginning of time)

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says God is unoriginate. Opinions of Dionysius ch.16 p.182

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says the Father alone is unbegotten. Catechical Lectures Lecture 4 ch.4 p.20; Lecture 11 ch.13 p.68

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) goes into great detail affirming that God is unoriginated. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.13 p.126

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) speaking of the Son says, “Uncreated of Uncreated, God of Good, Eternal of Eternal, without prejudice to Its eternity by Its being in the Father by way ofgeneration.”. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.3 p.186

 

Ge9. God is eternal

 

1 Timothy 1:17

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) (partial) says that Jesus is eternal. Theophania book 3 ch.61 p.9

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) “for He [the Son[ is eternal, as is the Father, of whom He is the Eternal Word, - to which subject let us now return again.”. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.18 p.317

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says that God is everlasting in ch.4 p.199.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says God is eternal. question 9 p.402

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) speaks of God’s “eternity”. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.55 p.83

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) speaking of the Son says, “Uncreated of Uncreated, God of Good, Eternal of Eternal, without prejudice to Its eternity by Its being in the Father by way ofgeneration.”. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.3 p.186

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) “The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…” homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “And not only so, but because the nature of Father, and Son, and Holy Spirit, whose intellectual light alone all created things have a share, is incorruptible and eternal,...de Principiis [Latin] book 4 ch.36 p.381

 

pseudo-Justin Martyr (168-200 A.D.) speaks of “eternal God” Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.38 p.283

 

Among heretics

The Arians Patricius and Aetius (363-365 A.D.) “These are the attributes of God, Unbegotten, without origin, Eternal, not to be commanded, Immutable, All-seeing, Infinite, Incomparable, Almighty, knowing the future without foresight; without beginning. These do not belong to the Son, for He is commanded, is under command, is made from nothing, has an end, is not compared [with the Father], the Earlier surpasses Him... of Christ is found: as pertaining to the Father, He is ignorant of the future. He was not God, but Son of God; God of those who are after Him: and in this He possesses invariable likeness with the Father, namely He sees all things because all things ... because He is not changed in goodness; [but] not like in the quality of Godhead, nor in nature. But if we said that He was born of the quality of Godhead, we say that He resembles the offspring of serpents(12a), and that is an impious saying: and like as a statue produces rust from itself, and will be consumed by the rust itself, so also the Son, if He is produced from the nature of the Father, will consume the Father.” Exposition of Patricius and Aetius in Athanasius.

 

Ge10. God had no beginning / was unoriginated

 

Hebrews 7:3; John 1:2

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) says that God is “unoriginate”. Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.8 p.155

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) discusses how the Father and Son are not of things originate. Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.19-20 p.163

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says God was not originated. question 9 p.402

Gregory of Nyssa (378-397 A.D.) says that God was “unoriginated” Against Eunomius book 1 ch.23 p.61

 

Ge11. God is incorruptible

 

Romans 1:23; 1 Timothy 1:17 (incorruptible aphthartou)

2 Timothy 1:10 (incorruption aphtharsian)

(implied) Acts 2:27,31

(partial) 1 Corinthians 15:42,50,53,54; 1 Peter 1:4,23

 

Gregory of Nyssa (356-397 A.D.) “and yet it is plain to every one who has given any attention to the uses of words, that the word incorruption denotes by the privative particle that neither corruption nor birth appertains to God: just as many other words of like formation denote the absence of what is not inherent rather than the presence of what is; e.g. harmless, painless, guileless, undisturbed, passionless, sleepless, undiseased, impassible, unblamable, and the like. For all these terms are truly applicable to God,…” Against Eunomius book 2 p.264. See also Answer to Eunomius Second Book p.263.

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) “And thus we see that God is not a body. For no inspired teacher has yet asserted or admitted such a notion, nor has the sentence of our own Court allowed it. Nothing then remains but to conceive of Him as incorporeal. But this term Incorporeal, though granted, does not yet set before us—or contain within itself His Essence, any more than Unbegotten, or Unoriginate, or Unchanging, or Incorruptible, or any other predicate which is used concerning God or in reference to Him.Letter 28 ch.9 p.41

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.)

 

Ge12. God is the Ancient of Days

 

Daniel 7:9, 13, 22

Isaiah 43:13 (partial) “Yes, and from ancient days I am he.”

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) calls God the Ancient ofDays Select Demonstrations Demonstration 5.6 p.354

 

Ge13. God / Jesus is immortal

 

1 Timothy 6:16 (immortality athanasian);

... Romans 1:23; 1 Timothy 1:17 and 2 Timothy are actually incorruptible.

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) says that Jesus is eternal and immortal. Theophania book 3 ch.61 p.9

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the God and Jesus are immortal. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.21 p.318

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that God is immortal. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.35 p.82. See also ibid book 1 ch.37 p.90.

 

Ge14. God is inscrutable/unsearchable

 

Job 5:9; Psalm 145:3; Romans 11:33

(implied, unsearchable riches of Christ) Ephesians 3:8

 

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 40:12 as by Isaiah. Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.9.90 p.126.

 

Ge15. God knows all / even the secret things

 

Psalm 44:21; 139; John 21:17; 1 Corinthians 14:25; 1 Chronicles 28:9; Ecclesiastes 12:14

Jeremiah 23:24 “‘Can anyone hide in the secret places so that I cannot see him?’ declares the LORD.”

(partial) Isaiah 44:7, (partial) Luke 12:6, (partial) Romans 2:16

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 21:17

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) John 21:17

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 21:17

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (after 347 A.D.) says that God knows all things. Defense Against the Arians part 5 ch.84 p.145

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “Not thus is it with the Holy Spirit: God forbid; but He divides to all, and knows all kinds of tongues, and has understanding of all things, and is made all things to all men, so that the very thoughts of the heart cannot escape His cognizance.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210

Life of Antony (356-362 A.D.) ch.31 p.204 “For they know none of those things which are not yet in existence; but God only is He who knoweth all things before their birth”

&&&Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that God knows the secrets of men. Letter 97 p.181

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says that God knows the secret things. question 11 p.82

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (partial) The Holy Spirit knows all languages. Letter 2 ch.4.2 p.31

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “And this, I think, was the opinion of the Apostle Paul himself, when he said, “Their thoughts mutually accusing or excusing them in the day when God will judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to my Gospel.de Principiis book 2 ch.10.4 p.295

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) (partial) The Holy Spirit searches all things. Homilies on Acts homily 1 ch.2 p.12

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that God knows every future thing, otherwise He would not be God. The City of God book 5 ch.9 p.92

 

Ge16. God is all-seeing

 

Proverbs 15:3; Hebrews 4:13-14

 

Juvencus the Spaniard (329/330 A.D.) &&&

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) “And the opportunity for this the all-seeing God most wisely grants him,” From the 96th exposition p.451

Gregpry of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) “since He [God] saw beforehand by His all-seeing power the failure of their will to keep a direct course to what is good, and its consequent declension from the angelic life,” On the Making of Man ch.17.4 p.407

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.) &&&

Augustine of Hippo (414 A.D.) “Or if it be some other higher spirit that assumes their form and visits our minds, I leave this to the all-seeing eye of Him before whom everything from the highest to the lowest is uncovered.'” Letters of Augustine Letter 158 ch.9 p.512.

 

The Life of Eusebius (&&&) “Hence it is followed by hymns and psalms, words and songs of praise to the all-seeing God: and a sacrifice of thanksgiving is offered in memory of such men, a bloodless, a harmless sacrifice, wherein is no need of the fragrant frankincense, no need of fire; but only enough of pure light (4) to suffice the assembled worshipers.” Ch.12 p.571

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536 A.D.) “(So.) Can we escape the Eye of God here? (Lu.) No, he sees all Things clearly.” Colloquies of Erasmus p.295

 

John Wesley (1831 A.D.) “There is no such thing as either foreknowledge or afterknowledge in God. All time, or rather all eternity (for time is only a small fragment of eternity which is allotted to the children of men), being present to God at once, He does not know one thing before another, or one thing after another; but sees all things in one point of view, from everlasting to everlasting. As all time, with every thing that exists therein, is present with Him at once, so he sees as once whatever was, is or will be to the end of time.” Sermons on Several Occasions, 1831, p.39.

 

Among heretics

The Arians Patricius and Aetius (363-365 A.D.) “These are the attributes of God, Unbegotten, without origin, Eternal, not to be commanded, Immutable, All-seeing, Infinite, Incomparable, Almighty, knowing the future without foresight; without beginning. These do not belong to the Son, for He is commanded, is under command, is made from nothing, has an end, is not compared [with the Father], the Earlier surpasses Him... of Christ is found: as pertaining to the Father, He is ignorant of the future. He was not God, but Son of God; God of those who are after Him: and in this He possesses invariable likeness with the Father, namely He sees all things because all things ... because He is not changed in goodness; [but] not like in the quality of Godhead, nor in nature. But if we said that He was born of the quality of Godhead, we say that He resembles the offspring of serpents(12a), and that is an impious saying: and like as a statue produces rust from itself, and will be consumed by the rust itself, so also the Son, if He is produced from the nature of the Father, will consume the Father.” Exposition of Patricius and Aetius in Athanasius.

 

Ge17. God is invisible

 

Colossians 1:15; 1 Timothy 1:17

(implied) Hebrews 11:27

(partial) Romans 1:20

1 John 4:12

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) says that God is invisible. Theophania book 3 ch.39 p.4

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says God is invisible. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.208

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) says that God is invisible. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.27 p.168

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) discusses the invisibility of God. Of the Synods ch.12,15 p.7

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that God is invisible. On the Spirit ch.47 p.29

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that Christ is th eimage of the invisible God. On the Spirit ch.6.13 p.4

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says that God is invisible. question 71 p.84 and question 122 p.221

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) says “The Son is the Image of the invisible God.” Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.12 p.132. See also On the Christian Faith (378-381 A.D.) book 1 ch.7.48 p.208

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that God is unseen. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.35 p.82

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says that we should not think that God [the Father] is visible. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.12 p.219

 

Ge18. God is Lord of heaven and earth

 

Act 17:24

 

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) calls God “Lord of Heaven and earth” question 100 p.182

Macarius the Great (392-423/429 A.D.) “If indeed it was necessary to express that other utterance, as Jesus says, "I thank thee, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes," and as it is written in Deuteronomy (xxix. 29), "The hidden things for the Lord our God, and the manifest things for us," therefore the things that are written for the babes and the ignorant ought to be clearer and not wrapped in riddles.Apocriticus ch.9

 

Ge19. Calling God “I Am”

 

John 8:58b

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Quotes John 8:58.

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) quotes John 8:58-59. In Defense of His Flight ch.12 p.259

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) calls God “I Am” Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.26 p.165

 

pseudo-Justin Martyr (&&& A.D.) speaks about “I am” Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.20 p.281 and Jehovah in ibid ch.9 p.277.

 

 

God’s IMMINENCE

 

Gi1. God is worthy

 

2 Samuel 22:4; 1 Chronicles 16:25; Psalm 18:3; 48:1; 96:4; 145:3; Hebrews 3:3; Revelation 4:11; 5:9,12

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (implied) “Uniting then the two titles, Scripture speaks of ‘Son,’ in order to herald the natural and true offspring of His essence; and, on the other hand, that none may think of the Offspring humanly, while signifying His essence, it also calls Him Word, Wisdom, and Radiance; to teach us that the generation was impassible, and eternal, and worthy of God.Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.28 p.322-323

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “For the goodness of God, as is worthy of Him, incites and attracts all to that blissful end, where all pain, and sadness, and sorrow fall away and disappear.” de Principiis book 1 ch.8.3 p.266

 

Gi2. God needs nothing from us

 

Acts 17:25

Psalm 50:9-13 (implied)

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) “It was not then the Word, considered as the Word, who advanced; who is perfect from the perfect Father, who needs nothing, nay brings forward others to an advance; but humanly is He here also said to advance, since advance belongs to man.Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 3 ch.52 p.422

Palladius of Auxerre (419-420 A.D.) says that God needs nothing from us. Lausiac History in Four Desert Fathers. p.488

 

pseudo-Justin Martyr (168-200 A.D.) “and power, being in need of nothing else; but the fashioner frames his” Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.22 p.282

 

Gi3. God is just / not unjust

 

Deuteronomy 32:4; 2 Chronicles 12:6; Job 36:3; Psalm 9:6; 33:5; 45:6; 99:4; 101:1; 140:12; 29:26; Isaiah 5:16; 30:18; 42:4; 61:8; Jeremiah 10:24; 30:11; 48:28; Ezekiel 33:19-20

Matthew 12:18; Luke 11:42; 18:7-8; Romans 3:25-26; 2 Thessalonians 1:6; 1 John 1:9; Revelation 15:3; 16:5,7; 19:2,11

partial: Malachi 2:17

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. References Matthew 12:18; Luke 11:42; 19:7-8

 

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that God is just. Answering Eunomius’ Second Book p.263

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) God is good and just. The Panarion section 3 scholion 7 and 15 p.32-

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “For what it behooves every one who maintains the truth of what is recorded in Scripture, and who desires to show that the God of the law and the prophets is just, to render a reason for all these things, and to show how there is in them nothing at all derogatory to the justice of God,de Principiis [Latin] book 3 ch.9 p.309

 

Gi4. God will judge/reward people’s secrets / secret things

 

(Only mentioning that God knows secrets is not counted here)

 

Romans 2:16

1 Corinthians 14:25

 

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) (partial) God searches people’s minds and hearts. question 125 p.335

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) question  p.

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “And this, I think, was the opinion of the Apostle Paul himself, when he said, “Their thoughts mutually accusing or excusing them in the day when God will judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to my Gospel.” [Latin] de Principiis book 2 ch.10.4 p.295

 

Gi5. God punishes

 

Genesis 3:14-19; 4:13; 15:14; Exodus 32:34; Leviticus 18:25; 26:18,28; Deuteronomy 22:18; 1 Samuel 15:2; 2 Samuel 7:14; Job 21:19; 37:13; Psalm 59:5; 89:32; 94:10; Isaiah 10:12; 13:11; 24:21; 26:21; 27:1; Jeremiah 5:9; 29; 6:15; 9:9,25; 11:22; 14:10; 21:14; 23:34; 27:8; Ezekiel 5:8-10; Zechariah 10:3;

(implied) Zephaniah 3:15

Matthew 25:36; Acts 7:7; 2 Corinthians 10:6; 1 Thessalonians 4:6; 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9; Hebrews 2:2; 4:18; 10:29; 12:6; Jude 7; Revelation 17:1

 

punish Babylon Jeremiah 25:12

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. References Matthew 25:36

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “And the law was called a ‘ministration of death’ from the fact that then only transgressors of the law were punished, and not those who kept it, and who obeyed and observed the things which are in the law, as Abel did, whom Cain, who was made a vessel of the wicked one, slew.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.30 p.203

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) mention retribution at the hand of [God’s] angel. Commentary on Micah ch.5 p.230

 

Gi6. God is not mocked

 

Galatians 6:7

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says God is not mocked. Catechical Lectures Lecture 8 ch.4 p.48

 

Gi7. God sends evildoers delusion(s)

 

2 Thessalonians 2:11

 

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) (partial) God made evildoers blind. question 125 p.338

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) “The Apostle warns thee, and says beforehand, 'And for this cause God shall send them a working of error’; (‘send’, that is, ‘shall allow to happen’;) not that they might make excuse, but ‘that they might be condemned' [2 Thess 2:11]” Book 2 ch.11 p.&&&

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) God sends some delusions. On Penitents ch.11.2 p.83

 

Gi8. God can be offended

 

Ezekiel 8:6-18

 

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “Let us not therefore be senseless; but then let us grieve when any one deprives us of our dignity of soul, when we commit sin, when we have offended the common Lord of all; since as regards the things that have now befallen us, so far are they from injuring the city, that if we are watchful, they will greatly benefit us.On the Statues book 17 ch.13 p.&&&

 

Gi9. God is merciful

 

Exodus 20:6; Numbers 14:18; 1 Chronicles 16:34; Psalm 115:1; 116:5; 118:1; 119:41; Jonah 4:2; Luke 18:13; Hebrews 4:16, others

 

Vaticanus (325-350 A.D.) contains most of the Old Testament.

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. References Luke 1:72

 

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (356-362 A.D.) ch.89 p.218 speaks of God’s mercy.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) “And many now too keep the Savior’s command, being merciful as is their Father which is in heaven,” Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.10 p.399

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says that God is merciful. question 119 p.112 and question 111 p.126

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that God is merciful. Catechical Lectures Lecture 10 ch.8 p.59

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that God is merciful. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.11 p.119

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) speaks of God’s mercy. Commentary on Acts ch.1 p.8

Palladius of Auxerre (419-420 A.D.) says that God is compassionate. Lausiac History in Four Desert Fathers. p.485

 

Gi10. God wants repentance not sinner’s death

 

Ezekiel 18:23,32; 2 Peter 3:9

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (332 A.D.) specifically mentions Ezekiel and says that God desires repentance and not the death of a sinner as Ezekiel 18:23 says. Paschal Letter 4 ch.4 p.514

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) (partial) quotes Ezekiel 18:3-20 in ch.1 p.75.

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 8 section 2 ch.9 p.484 refers to Ezekiel 18 and 23.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) In discussing Ezekiel 18 says that God wants the wicked to repent and live, not die. question 111 p.126

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) God “did not devise death nor rejoices in the destruction of the living”. (Allusion to Wisdom 1:13 and Ezekiel 18:32; 33:11) On Penitents ch.6.1 p.76

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.) (implied) says that the Savior does not want the sinner’s death to repentance. Letter 11 p.11

 

Gi11. God / Christ is heals /is healer

 

Matthew 8:14-15; 8:16; 8:17

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. References Matthew 8:14-15; 8:16; 8:17

 

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that God heals us. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.15 p.134

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “For He [Jesus] was not, we know, a healer to bodies only, [p.182] but a curer also of the soul, and a teacher of self-restraint; by both disclosing Himself, both by putting away their diseases, and by doing nought for display.Homilies on Matthew homily27 p.182

 

Gi12. God is our protector

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says there is only One God. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 8.17 p.380

Palladius of Auxerre (419-420 A.D.) &&& Four Desert Fathers &&& p.487.

 

Gi13. God is our refuge

 

Deuteronomy 32:27; 2 Samuel 22:3,31; Psalm 2:12; 5:11; 9:9; 16:1; 17:7; 18:2; 31:2; 34:8; 36:7; 46:1; 62:8; 71:1; 91:2; 144:2; Proverbs 30:5

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

Athanasius (356-360 A.D.) “'Become my God and defence,’ and 'the Lord became a refuge for the oppressed,Four Discourse Against the Arians Discourse 2 ch.14.13 p.&&&

 

Gi14. God is our deliverer

 

Palladius of Auxerre (419-420 A.D.) &&& Four Desert Fathers &&& p.487.

 

Gi15. God/Christ rejoices over us

 

Zephaniah 3:17

 

Aphrahat/Aphraates (337-344 A.D.) Select Demonstrations

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)

 

Gi16. Calling God Abba, Father

 

Mark 14:36; Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:6

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) calls God Abba, Father. Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.4.31 p.172

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) calls God Abba, Father. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.22 p.441

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) calls God “Abba”. On the Spirit ch.19.49 p.31

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says God is called Abba, Father. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.37 p.88

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says we can call God Abba, or Father. Homilies on Galatians homily4.6-7 p.30

Augustine of Hippo (-430 A.D.) quotes Galatians 4:6. Sermons on the New Testament sermon 21 ch.29 p.328

 

Gi17. God of Abraham

 

Exodus 3:6; Matthew 23:32; Acts 7:32

 

Vaticanus (325-350 A.D.) contains most of the Old Testament.

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. References Matthew 23:32

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) calls the Lord the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Theophania book 4 ch.5 p.2

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says God is the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 8.16 p.360

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that God is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.25.14 p.401-402

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 6 p.464 says that God is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) calls God the God of Abraham. question 16 p.87

Ambrose of Milan (379-390 A.D.) “The patriarchs also live, for God could not be called the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, except the dead were living; for He is not the God of the dad but of the living.” Book 2 On Belief in the Resurrection ch.96 p.189

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “Have you not read what was spoken by God to Moses: I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; He is not a God of the dead, but of the living.’” de Principiis book 2 ch.4.1 p.276

Jerome of Stridon (407 A.D.) speaks of the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. Against Vigilantius ch.5 p.419

 

Gi18. God of Isaac

 

Exodus 3:6; Matthew 23:32; Acts 7:32

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. References Matthew 23:32

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) calls the Lord the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Theophania book 4 ch.5 p.2

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says God is the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 8.16 p.360

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 6 p.464 says that God is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that God is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.25.14 p.401-402

Ambrose of Milan (379-390 A.D.) “The patriarchs also live, for God could not be called the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, except the dead were living; for He is not the God of the dad but of the living.” Book 2 On Belief in the Resurrection ch.96 p.189

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “Have you not read what was spoken by God to Moses: I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; He is not a God of the dead, but of the living.’” de Principiis book 2 ch.4.1 p.276

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) says that God is the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob. Commentary on Acts ch.9 p.55

Jerome of Stridon (407 A.D.) speaks of the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. Against Vigilantius ch.5 p.419

 

Gi19. The God of Jacob

 

Exodus 3:6; Matthew 23:32; Acts 7:32

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. References Matthew 23:32

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) calls the Lord the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Theophania book 4 ch.5 p.2

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says God is the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 8.16 p.360

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that God is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.25.14 p.401-402

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) “and there are others also, heavenly ones, for Scripture says, ‘The Lord of powers is with us, the God of Jacob is our refuge.’” [Exodus 12:41] Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.20 p.163

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 6 p.464 says that God is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) calls God the God of Jacob. question 111 p.126

Ambrose of Milan (379-390 A.D.) “The patriarchs also live, for God could not be called the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, except the dead were living; for He is not the God of the dad but of the living.” Book 2 On Belief in the Resurrection ch.96 p.189

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “Have you not read what was spoken by God to Moses: I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; He is not a God of the dead, but of the living.’” de Principiis book 2 ch.4.1 p.276

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) says that God is the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob. Commentary on Acts ch.9 p.55

Jerome of Stridon (407 A.D.) speaks of the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. Against Vigilantius ch.5 p.419

 

Gi20. God of Israel

 

Exodus 24:10; Numbers 16:9; Joshua 7:19; Judges 5:3; 1 Samuel 5:8; 2 Samuel 7:26; 1 Kings 11:31; 2 Kings 10:31; 1 Chronicles 4:10; 2 Chronicles 2:12; Ezra 1:3; Psalm 41:13; Isaiah 17:6; 45:3; Jeremiah 7:3; Ezekiel 8:4; Zephaniah 2:9; Malachi 2:16

Matthew 15:31; Luke 1:68

(implied) Deuteronomy 6:4

(implied) Amos 4:12 “prepare to meet your God, O Israel”

Genesis 49:24 (partial, rock of Israel)

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. References Matthew 15:31

 

Ambrose of Milan (c.384 A.D.) “LORD God of Israel” Concerning Repentance book 1 ch.9 no.43 p.336

 

pseudo-Justin Martyr (&&& A.D.) “wings, and the wheels beside them; and the glory of the Lord God of Israel was over them above” [Ezekiel 11:22] Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.31 p.286

 

Gi21. God is patient or long-suffering

 

Romans 9:22; 2 Peter 3:9

 

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that God is patient. Against Eunomius book 7 ch.5 p.198

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “They do not read what is written respecting the hope of those who were destroyed in the deluge; of which hope Peter himself thus speaks in his first Epistle: ‘That Christ, indeed, was put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit, by which He went and preached to the spirits who were kept in prison, who once were unbelievers, when they awaited the long-suffering of God in the days of Noah, when the ark was preparing, in which a few, i.e., eight souls, were saved by water. Whereunto also baptism by a like figure now saves you.’” de Principiis book 2 ch.5.3 p.279

 

pseudo-Justin Martyr (168-200 A.D.) “But forgetfulness having taken possession of the minds of men, through the long-suffering of God, has acted recklessly in transferring to mortals the name which is applicable to the only true God;On the Sole Government of God ch.1 p.290

 

Gi22. God/Jesus is compassionate

 

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that God shows compassion. Anaswer to Eunomius’ Second Book p.292

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “That is, ‘When He [Jesus] saw,’ it is said, ‘the multitudes, He was moved with compassion on them, because they were troubled, and and scattered abroad, as sheep having no shepherd. Then saith He unto His disciples, The harvest truly is plenteous, but the laborers are few, pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that He will send forth laborers into His harvest.’” Commentary on Matthew homily32 ch.4 p.&&&

 

Gi23. God loves us or is kind

 

John 3:16; Ephesians 1:4

Isa 54:10 (God has compassion)

(implied) Exodus 2:25

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 3:16

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) John 3:16

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. References John 3:16

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (335 A.D.) discusses the Father’s lovingkindness and goodness. Easter Letter 9 ch.10 p.527. See also Easter Letter 10 (338 A.D.) ch.9 p.531

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that lovingkindness prevailed. Nisibine Hymns hymn 2 no.18 p.170

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) . Against Eunomius book &&&

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) teaches on the lovingkindness of God. Commentary on Philippians homily 1 verse 5 p.185 He also says that God created everything through goodness and love for men. homily 4 verse 30 p.202

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that God loves us. Homilies on Ephesians homily2.1-14 p.&&&

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says at how great a price God rated us, and how God loved us by Christ dying for us. On the Trinity book 13 ch.13 p.175

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) write of Paphnutius speaking of the loving kindness of the Lord. Conference of the Bishop Paphnutius ch.5 p.321

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) said that the highest deity is kind. Ginza p.548

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) God has grace and lovingkindness towards Israel. Commentary on Zechariah ch.13 p.386

 

Gi24. God avenges

 

Deuteronomy 32:35,43; 1 Samuel 24:12; 2 Kings 9:7; Isaiah 1:24; Isaiah 65:6; 66:6; Jeremiah 5:9,29; 9:9; 15:15; 51:6b,36; Romans 12:19; 2 Thessalonians 1:6; Hebrews 10:30; Revelation 6:10

Implied Psalm 79:12; 94:2; Lamentations 3:64

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (334 A.D.) prays that God avenge the martyrs of the curch. Circular Latter ch.6 p.96

 

Among spurious works

Apostolic Constitutions (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 7 section 1 ch.3 p.466 “You shall not slay your child by causing abortion, nor kill the baby that is born. For ‘everything that is shaped and has received a soul from God, if it is slain, shall be avenged, as being unjustly destroyed’” (quoted form Ezek 21:23 Septuagint) (quoted from A Dictionary of Early Christian Beliefs. David W. Bercot, ed. p.3)

 

Gi25. Christians & Jews/Israel/Moses worship the same God

 

Matthew 8:11-12a ; Acts 22:14; Romans 3:9-31

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (implied) References Matthew 8:11-12a

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “Him, again, who spake with Moses, and the Jews, and the priests, he declares to be the prince of the darkness; so that the Christians, and the Jews, and the Gentiles are one and the same body, worshipping the same God: for He seduces them in His own passions, being no God of truth.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.11 p.185. See also ibid ch.40 p.214.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (implied) “I understand, then, that his [Manes’] chief effort was directed to prove that the law of Moses is not consonant with the law of Christ; and this position he attempted to found on the authority of our Scriptures. Well, on the other hand, not only did we establish the law of Moses, and all things which are written in it, by the same Scripture; but we also proved that the whole Old Testament agrees with the New Testament, and is in perfect harmony with the same, and that they form really one texture, just as a person may see one and the same robe made up of weft and warp together. For the truth is simply this, that just as we trace the purple in a robe, so, if we may thus express it, we can discern the New Testament in the texture of the Old Testament; for we see the glory of the Lord mirrored in the same.” (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.215

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) “And again, what is the Old Testament to the Jews, unless they acknowledge the Lord whose coming was expected according to it? For had they believed the writings of Moses, they would have believed the words of the Lord; for He said, ‘He wrote of Me.’” To the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.4 p.224

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says that the Jew forsook the Loving God and went after other gods in ch.4 p.199.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) (implied) says that Jesus is the Redeemer of Israel. question 66 p.200

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.)  (implied) speaks of God’s Law which He gave. Homilies on Galatians homily3.19 p.28

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) implied that we have the same God as the Jews. Homilies on Acts homily9 p.61

 

Gi26. Abraham’s [Three] Visitors

 

Genesis 18:1-16

 

Ambrose of Milan (379-390 A.D.) mentions Abraham receiving the strangers, seeing the Trinity in a type, “when beholding Three he worshipped One and preserving the distinction of the Person, yet addressed on eLord, he offered to Three th honour of his gift, while acknowledging one Power.” Book 2 On Belief in the Resurrection ch.96 p.189-190

 

Gi27. The Lord/God is faithful / trustworthy

 

1 John 1:9

 

Jesus Christ being the faithful witness is not counted here.

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that God is faithful. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 2 ch.6 p.357

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “since it is said of us, ‘There hath no temptation taken you, but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able.’de Principiis book 3 ch.2.3 p.&&&

 

Gi28. The Creator is our / the True God

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) (implied) John 1:3

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) (implied) John 1:3

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says, “God is the artificer of all things.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.19 p.193

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “God made all Creation good.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.204

 

Gi29. God is the Lawgiver

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (after 347 A.D.) calls God “the author of the Law” Defence Against the Arians part 4 ch.61 p.132

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) said that God gave the Law. To the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.3 p.224

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) (implied) “For since death was an incurable ill, and all was contrived for life’s sake; He makes a law that the living brother should marry her, and should call the child that is born by the name of the dead, so that his house should not utterly perish. For if the dead were not so much as to leave children, which is the greatest mitigation of death, the sorrow would be without remedy. Therefore you see, the lawgiver devised this refreshment for those who were by nature deprived of children, and commanded the issue to be reckoned as belonging to the other.Homilies on Matthew homily 48 p.281

 

Gi30. God has numbered the hairs on your head

 

Matthew 10:30

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. References Matthew 10:30

 

Augustine of Hippo (385-430) quotes Matthew 10:30 and then says, “Our hairs our numbered by God; how much more is our conduct known to Him to whom our hairs are thus known?” Lessons on the Gospels Sermon 12 ch.15 p.303

 

Gi31. The Holy One of Israel

 

John Chrysostom martyred 407 A.D.) (implied) “For inasmuch as they continually disbelieved the prophets, and used to say, 'Where is the day of the Lord:' [Amos 5:18] and 'let ]p.67] the counsel of the Holy One of Israel come, that we may know it,' [Isa 5:19] by reason that it was many years before what they said came to pass; to lead them off from this encouragement also, he sets the terrors close to them.” Homilies on Matthew homily11 p.67

 

Gi32. God of the living

 

Exodus 3:6; Matthew 22:29

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. References Matthew 22:29

 

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 6 p.464 says that all are alive to God.

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “He is not God of the dead but of the living.” Origen’s de Principiis book 2 ch.4 p.276

 

Gi33. God resists the proud

 

James 4:6; 1 Peter 5:5

 

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 7 section 1.5 p.466 says that “God resisteth the proud.”

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.) says that God resists the proud. Letter 12 p.13

 

Gi34. God is generous

 

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) “These were the objects of her prayers and hopes, in the fervour of faith rather than of youth. Indeed, none was as confident of things present as she of things hoped for, from her experience of the generosity of God.Homilies homily18 ch.12 p.258

 

Gi35. All nations blessed through Abraham

 

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) says all people will be blessed through Abraham. Homilies on Acts homily9 p.56

 

Among heretics

Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) all nations blessed through Abraham. Commentary on Zechariah ch.9 p.367

 

Gi36. In God we live and move and have our being

 

Acts 17:28

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) ‘Man is the image and glory of God’: ‘always,’ that it was written, ‘For we which live are always;’ ‘in Him’ In Him we luive and move and have our being;” Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.5.20 p.163

 

Timeless Truths of Jesus Christ

 

T1. Jesus is the Son of God

 

Matthew 3:17; Luke 9:35; John 3:16; 10:36; Hebrews 1:2; 4:16; 10:29; 1 John 4:15; 2 John 3

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 9:35; John 3:16; 10:36

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Luke 9:35; John 3:16; 10:36

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 9:35; John 3:16; 10:36

 

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 “one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father”

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says Jesus is the Son of God.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) calls Jesus the Son of God. Select Demonstrations Demonstration &&&

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) “and in his [God’s] only-begotten Son Jesus Christ our Lord” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “No man hath seen God at any time, save the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.205

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (356-362 A.D.) ch.26 p.203 says Jesus is the Son of God.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things, flesh through the Virgin Mary, suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus is the only Begotten Son of God. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus was begotten before all things. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.3 (14) p.71

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Only Begotten Son. Of the Synods ch.15 p.7. He also says that there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, who is “true God”. On the Trinity book 1 ch.38 p.51

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) quotes Mark 1:1.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the centurion called Jesus the “Son of God” Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29 p.424

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Only-begotten Son of God in On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says that Christ is the Son of God in ch.5 p.223 and ch.1 p.102-103.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) calls Jesus the Son of God. question 41 p.19-20

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) “Believe also in the Son of God, the one and only, our Lord Jesus Christ, who is God begotten of God, who is life begotten of life, who is light begotten of light, who is in all things like unto the begetter, and who did not come to exist in time but was before all the ages, eternally and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father. He is the Wisdom of God” First Catechetical Lectures lecture 4 ch.7 p.20. See also lecture 11 ch.14 p.17.

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) calls Jesus the Son of God in numerous places, including On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.53 p.208

First Council of Constantinople (381/382 A.D.) says Jesus is the “Only Begotten Son of God”. Creed ch.1 p.163

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) says God, the Word was in the Beginning. He says the Son is Only-Begotten. He is the way, truth, life, and light. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.17 p.307

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) often emphasizes Jesus as the “Only-Begotten”. For example, he speaks of “the Only-begotten God, the Maker of all the creation, whether He always was, or whether He came into being afterwards as an addition to His Father?” Against Eunomius book 8 ch.5 p.208

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) calls Christ the Son of God. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.23 p.63

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) “The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…” homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “His Only-begotten Son the Word” de Principiis book 8 ch.1 p.640

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions the Only-begotten of God, through whom all things were made.” in Origen’s de Principiis book 2 ch.6.3 p.282

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) speaks of Jesus as the Only-Begotten in vol.14 Commentary on John homily 3 p.13.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151-152

Palladius of Auxerre (419-420 A.D.) says that Christ is the “Son of God” Four Desert Fathers &&& p.491.

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.10 p.266 (370/380-425 A.D.) a Christian slave woman taught the barbarians that they should worship the Son of God.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) calls Jesus the Son of God, the word, and quotes John 1:12-14. On the Trinity book 13 ch.9 p.174

 

Among heretics

The mild Arian Creed of Antioch (c.341/344) “his only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, who was begotten of the Father before all ages; God of God…” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Son of God. Candidus’ First Letter ch.4 p.55

Eunomius (extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) “We believe … one only-begotten Son of God, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things…” Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) “The Son is the Son of God” Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.328

 

T2. Jesus is the Only Begotten Son of God

 

John 3:16,18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 3:16,18

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) John 3:16,18

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 3:16-18

 

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 “one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God”

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) “and in his [God’s] only-begotten Son Jesus Christ our Lord” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “No man hath seen God at any time, save the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.205

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. (implied, does not say “of God”) only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) mentions Christ as only begotten Son. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Only Begotten Son. Of the Synods ch.15 p.7. He also says that there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, who is “true God”. On the Trinity book 1 ch.38 p.51

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus is the only Begotten Son of God. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.60

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Only-begotten Son of God in On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (partial) “to His [Christ] being the Only-begotten Word.” Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 374

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Jesus is the Only Begotten Son of God. On the Spirit ch.54 p.35

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) “Believe also in the Son of God, the one and only, our Lord Jesus Christ, who is God begotten of God, who is life begotten of life, who is light begotten of light, who is in all things like unto the begetter, and who did not come to exist in time but was before all the ages, eternally and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father. He is the Wisdom of God” First Catechetical Lectures lecture 4 ch.7 p.20. See also lecture 1 ch.1 p.6.

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) discusses Christ as the Only Begotten. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.16 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.23

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) discusses how Jesus is the only-begotten of God. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.14.89 p.216. See also Letter 22 no.6 p.437

First Council of Constantinople (381/382 A.D.) says Jesus is the “Only Begotten Son of God”Creed ch.1 p.163

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says God, the Word was in the Beginning. He says the Son is Only-Begotten. He is the way, truth, life, and light. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.17 p.307

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) often emphasizes Jesus as the “Only-Begotten”. For example, he speaks of “the Only-begotten God, the Maker of all the creation, whether He always was, or whether He came into being afterwards as an addition to His Father?” Against Eunomius book 8 ch.5 p.208. See also Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.61

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) (partial) “The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…” homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) (implied) Divine Word, the only-begotten Son, begotten of him without beginning and not in time. The Panarion section 44 p.243

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) speaks of Jesus as the Only-Begotten in vol.14 Commentary on John homily 3 p.13.. See also Homilies on John homily 27 p.95

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “His Only-begotten Son the Word” Origen’s de Principiis book 8 ch.1 p.640

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions the Only-begotten of God, through whom all things were made.” in Origen’s de Principiis book 2 ch.6.3 p.282

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) (partial) calls Jesus the only-begotten Son. Commentary on the Song of Songs ch.1 p.70

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ Jesus is the “only-begotten Son, God co-eternal with Himself, to become man”. He says that Jesus is the Mediator of God and men. On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.174. See also On the Gospel of John Tractate 124 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.449.

 

Among heretics

The mild Arian Creed of Antioch (c.341/344) “his only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, who was begotten of the Father before all ages; God of God…” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) (partial) Jesus is the Son of God. Jesus is the first and original effect of God. Candidus’ First Letter ch.4 p.55

Creed of Eunomius (extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) “We believe … one only-begotten Son of God, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things…” Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

 

T3. The Deity of Jesus our Lord

 

Son is God. Hebrews 1:8-9; John 1:1,18; 20:28; Hos 1:7; Isa 7:14; 1 John 5:11,12,21; Colossians 2:9; Matthew 1:23

[Only one Lord Isaiah 26:13-14]

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:1,18; 20:28

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) John 1:1,18; 20:28

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 20:28

 

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 “one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God”

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) “We believe in one God, the Father Almighty; And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages, the Divine Logos, through whom all things were made” in Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.26  NPNF second series vol.2 p.28-29.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) “and in his [God’s] only-begotten Son Jesus Christ our Lord… God of God” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says Jesus is God. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 17.11 p.392

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) writes “…Christ. For in Him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead.” He is quoting Colossians 2:6-9 in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (356-362 A.D.) ch.78 p.216 “We, teaching the faith of Christ, expose your superstition, since all recognize that Christ is God and the Son of God.”

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things, flesh through the Virgin Mary, suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, who is “true God”. On the Trinity book 1 ch.38 p.51

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says that Jesus is mighty God and ruler. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says Jesus is Mighty God and ruler. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus was God, and He did not lie. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.61

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) (implied) says that the Son of Man is God in ch.4 p.191.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Jesus is fully God and fully man. Nisibine Hymns hymn 36 no.16 p.197

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) mentions the deity of Jesus. Letter 8 ch.2 p.116

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) discusses the Son’s Deity. Against Eunomius book 4 ch.1 p.153

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes and discusses John 1:1 On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.8.56 p.209

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Jesus is God. question 9 p.400 and question 35 p.249

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) said that Jesus is God and man. Catechetical Lecture 13 ch.3 p.82

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) discusses how Jesus is God. On the Son ch.14-17 p.306-307

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) “First, that we might be led to one union with the Deity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, in contradistinction to a multitude of gods. And second, that we might also be led to the transfiguration, to the glory of the incarnation, and to the union with the Deity. For in the transfiguration His face, even in the flesh, since His deity was still present, shone like the sun, that is, the flesh which came from Mary and from our human race was transfigured to heavenly glory, so that it acquired, in addition to its own natural powers, the glory, honor, and perfection of the Godhead, the flesh receiving the heavenly glory here in communion with the divine Logos, which it did not have from the beginning. We must also understand in this sense the passage, He has given all judgment to the Son [John 5:22], and also the passage, He gave Him power, so that He gives life to whom He wishes [John 5:21], that in the first place ... the one deity of the Trinity is indicated ... and in the second place, that by the incarnation of the deity He assumed the gift of dignity, power, and perfection which have been given by the Father to the Son for the one spiritual union of the deity.” Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) “The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…” homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says the Jesus’ miracles declared Him God in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 28 p.191. He also says that Jesus remained God in Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.214.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) refers to the fullness of divinity in Christ Jesus. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.17 p.138

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ Jesus is the “only-begotten Son, God co-eternal with Himself, to become man”. He says that Jesus is the Mediator of God and men. On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.174

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) teaches on Thomas seeing Jesus after Jesus’ resurrection and saying to Jesus, “My Lord and My God.” On the Gospel of John Tractate 121 ch.20.5 vol.7 p.438.

 

Among heretics

The mild Arian Creed of Antioch (c.341/344) “his only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, who was begotten of the Father before all ages; God of God…” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

Creed of Eunomius (extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) “We believe … one only-begotten Son of God, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things…” Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) “divinity of Christ the Lord.” Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.329

 

T4. Jesus is the Word of God

 

John 1:1-2; Revelation 19:13

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:1-2

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) John 1:1-2

 

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) “We believe in one God, the Father Almighty; And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages, the Divine Logos,” in Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.26  NPNF second series vol.2 p.28-29.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things, flesh through the Virgin Mary, suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) calls Jesus the “Word of God”. Theophania book 3 ch.31 p.8

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) (implied) says Jesus is God’s Word. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.11 p.157

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) (partial) says that Jesus was the Word. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.2 p.87

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) “to His [Christ] being the Only-begotten Word.” Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 374

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) speaks of the Word of God. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.4 (27) p.79

` (349-386 A.D.) speaks of Jesus as the Word. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.8 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.21

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes John 1:1. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.8.56 p.209

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Jesus is the Word of God. question 19 p.13 and question 91 p.360

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) “There is One Only Holy Ghost, the Comforter; and as there is One God the Father, and no second Father;—and as there is One Only-begotten Son and Word of God, who hath no brother;—so is there One Only Holy Ghost, and no second spirit equal in-honour to Him.Catechetical Lecture 16 ch.3 p.115

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says God, the Word was in the Beginning. He says the Son is Only-Begotten. He is the way, truth, life, and light. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.17 p.307

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says the Son of God is “God the Word”. Against Eunomius book 5 ch.1 p.172

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions Peter saying that Jesus was crucified (Acts 2:36) and that Jesus was the uncreated Word. (Panarion 69, as quoted in Concordia Triglotta, p.1125)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) discusses John 1:1 and Jesus being the Word of God. vol.14 Commentary on John homily 2 p.7. See also Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.214

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) quotes John 1:1 as by John the evangelist. On the Creation of the World ch.2 p.2. She says John 1:1 is spoken of the Savior in On the Creationof the World ch.3 p.2.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) calls Jesus the Son of God, the word, and quotes John 1:12-14. On the Trinity book 13 ch.9 p.174

 

pseudo-Justin Martyr (&&& A.D.) says Jesus is the Word of God. Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.38 p.289

 

Among heretics

Creed of Eunomius (extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) “We believe … one only-begotten Son of God, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things…” Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

 

T5. The Son existed from ages past

 

John 1:1; 17:5; Hebrews 7:3

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:1; 17:5

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) John 1:1; 17:5

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 17:5

 

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 “one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made…”

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) “We believe in one God, the Father Almighty; And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages,” in Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.26  NPNF second series vol.2 p.28-29.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) says that Christ is the Son of God, the Mediator, and the Image of God from eternity past Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.45

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (356-362 A.D.) ch.69 p.214 “the Son of God was not a created being, neither had He come into being from non-existence, but that He was the Eternal Word and Wisdom of the Essence with the Father.”

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) The Son did not have a beginning of being. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.57 p.379

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) says that Jesus was unoriginate. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.8 p.155

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) “as Paul in another place calls him ‘first-born of all creation’ (Colossians 1:15). But by calling him First-born, He shews that He is not a Creature, but Offspring of the Father. For it would be inconsistent with his deity for Him to be called a creature. For all things were created by the Father through the Son, but the Son alone was eternally begotten from the Father, whence God the Word is ‘first-born of all creation,’ unchangeable from unchangeable. However, the body which He wore for our sakes is a creature.” Statement of Faith ch.3 p.85. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (356-360 A.D.) discourse 1 ch.39 p.329

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) (implied) says that there was never a time when God was not a Father. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.15 p.182

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Jesus existed before He came to earth. question 91 p.356-357,360

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that God the Word was before all ages. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.7 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.20

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) has a long discussion on “the Son’s eternity” in On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.8.54-56 p.209

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says “There never was a time when He [the Father] was not. And the same thing is true of the Son and the Holy Ghost.” On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.13 p.301

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) “and there will be then no danger in pronouncing Him Eternal and yet not Ungenerate. On the one hand, because the existence of the Son is not marked by any intervals of time, and the infinite of His life flows back before the ages and onward beyod them in an all-pervading tide, He [Jesus] is properly addressed with the title of Eternal,” Against Eunomius book 1 ch.37 p.100

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) “The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…” homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) &&&

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.) &&&

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ Jesus is the “only-begotten Son, God co-eternal with Himself, to become man”. He says that Jesus is the Mediator of God and men. On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.174

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 5 section 1 p.441 “the divine Scripture testifies that God said to Christ, His only-begotten, ‘Let us make man after our image, and after our likeness. And God made man: after the image of God made He him; male and female made He them.’”

 

Among heretics

The mild Arian Creed of Antioch (c.341/344) “his only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, who was begotten of the Father before all ages; God of God…” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

Eunomius and extreme Arians (c.360-c.377 A.D.) (implied) believed Jesus was from ages past, but there was a time when Jesus did not exist. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

 

T6. All things were created through Christ / the Son of God

 

John 1:3,10; Colossians 1:16-17; Hebrews 1:2

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:3,10

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) John 1:3,10

 

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 “one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made…”

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) “We believe in one God, the Father Almighty; And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages, the Divine Logos, through whom all things were made, both those in the heavens and those on the earth;” in Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.26  NPNF second series vol.2 p.28-29.

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) quotes John 1:3 that all things were made through the Word.

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) says all thigs were created through the Word. Theophania book 1 ch.43 p.6

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) “through whom [Jesus] all things in the heavens and upon the earth, both visible and invisible, were made; who is the Word, and Wisdom, and Power, and Life, and true Light;” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.45

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. says that all things were made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that all things were created through the Son. On the Trinity book 5 ch.9 p.87

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says that all things were made through Christ. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.2 p.88

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) “as Paul in another place calls him ‘first-born of all creation’ (Colossians 1:15). But by calling him First-born, He shews that He is not a Creature, but Offspring of the Father. For it would be inconsistent with his deity for Him to be called a creature. For all things were created by the Father through the Son, but the Son alone was eternally begotten from the Father, whence God the Word is ‘first-born of all creation,’ unchangeable from unchangeable. However, the body which He wore for our sakes is a creature.” Statement of Faith ch.3 p.85

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) (partial) says that even the sea creatures were made throughChrist in ch.5 p.209.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says all things were created through Christ. On the Spirit ch.5.7 p.6

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus created all things for the Father. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.7 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.21

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) speaks of “the Only-begotten God, the Maker of all the creation, whether He always was, or whether He came into being afterwards as an addition to His Father?” Against Eunomius book 8 ch.5 p.208. See also ibid book 6 ch.1 p.182.

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says the Father made all things through Christ. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.48 p.208

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions the Only-begotten of God, through whom all things were made.” in Origen’s de Principiis book 2 ch.6.3 p.282

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes John 1:1,14 and 2:3 and says all things were made through Christ. On the Trinity book 1 ch.6.9 p.21

 

Among heretics

The mild Arian Creed of Antioch (c.341/344) “his only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, who was begotten of the Father before all ages; God of God… through whom all; things in the heavens and upon the earth, both visible and invisible, were made;” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

Creed of Eunomius (extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) “We believe … one only-begotten Son of God, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things…” Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

 

T7. Jesus obedient or subject to the Father

 

Philippians 2:8

(implied) 1 Corinthians 11:3; 1 Corinthians 15:28

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (implied) says Jesus was obedient. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29 p.409

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) “”But when all things shall be subdued unto Him [Christ], then shall the Son also Himself be subject uto Him that put all things under Him.”m. Letter 8 ch.8 p.120

X Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) &&&

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.)speaks of every knee bowing to Jesus, and then immediately says, “For when this takes place, the mighty wisdom of Paul affirms that the Son, Who is in all, is subject to the Father by virtue of the subjection of those I whom He is.”. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.14 p.130. See also ibid book 2 ch.11 p.122.

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says that Jesus is obedient not only on the cross, but also at the end of the word, referring to 1 Corinthians 15:28. “He became obedient to the Father, not only to the death of the cross, but also, in the end of the world, embracing in Himself all whom He subjects to the Father, and who by Him come to salvation, He Himself, along with them, and in them, is said also to be subject to the Father; all things subsisting in Him, and He Himself being the Head of all things, and in Him being the salvation and the fullness of those who obtain salvation. And this consequently is what the apostle says of Him: “And when all things shall be subjected to Him, then shall the Son also Himself be subject to Him that put all things under Him, that God may be all in all.” de Principiis book 3 ch.5.6 p.343

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that Jesus emptied Himself, was obedient to the Father, and subject to the Father. Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.213

 

T8. Worship, praise, or glorify Jesus

 

Matthew 21:15-16; Hebrews 13:21; 2 Peter 3:18

 

Mathew 2:2,11 (The Magi worshipped Jesus)

(partial) Matthew 8:2 (A leper knelt before Jesus)

(partial) Matthew 9:18 (A ruler knelt before Jesus)

Matthew 14:33 (the disciples worshipped Jesus)

(partial) Matthew 15:25 (A woman knelt before Jesus)

John 9:38 (formerly blind man worshipped Jesus)

Matthew 28:9 (women at the tomb clasped Jesus’ feet and worshiped Him)

Matthew 28:17 (the eleven disciples worshipped Jesus)

Hebrews 1:6 (Angels worship Jesus)

Revelation 5:12 (in heaven they give praise, glory, and honor to Jesus)

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 2:11-12; 21:15-16; John 9:38

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 2:11-12; 21:15-16; John 9:38

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 2:11-12;

 

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (356-362 A.D.) ch.94 p.221 says to glorify Jesus.

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says to worship and honor Jesus. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 17.8 p.389

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) “while the Church rejoices in Jesus Christ our Lord, to Whom be glory for ever and even. Amen.” On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.4

Athanasius of Alexandria (after 347 A.D.) says we “worship” Christ. Defense Against the Arians ch.5 p.102.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says that we worship “the Lord of Creation, Incarnate, the Word of God.” And that the leper “worshipped God in the Body”. Letter 60 ch.3 p.575

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that even the angels worship Jesus and quotes Hebrews 1:6. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.16.23 p.361. See also discourse 1 ch.42 p.330

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) says that we “adore” Jesus. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.11 p.157

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says to worship the Father and the Son. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.6 p.397

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) discusses worshipping Jesus Nisibine Hymns hymn 38 no.5 p.199. See also Nativity Hymns hymn 2 p.228

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) (implied) “for men taught by the Lord himself that ‘He that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father’ to refuse to worship and glorif wit the Father him who in nature, in glory, and in dignity is conjoined with him?” On the Spirit ch.6.15 p.10

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) “without doubt the Holy Spirit also is to be adored, since He Who according to the flesh was born of the Holy Spirit is adored. (80) And let no one divert this to the Virgin Mary; Mary was the temple of God, not the God of the temple. And therefore He alone is to be worshipped Who was working in His temple.” Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.11 no.79f-80. See also On the Christian Faith book 5 ch.4 p.291 where he discusses that Mary worshipped Jesus and we should worship Him as God too. See also On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.9.61 p.211

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Christ crucified is worshipped. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.13 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.22

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that we are to honor and worship the Son, but not in a secondary sense. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.14 p.306

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says the Magi worshipped Jesus. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.19 p.308

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions angels glorifying Jesus. Oration on Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Gregory Nazianzen (380/381 A.D.) “of Christ. Who does not worship Him that is from the beginning? Who doth not glory in Him that is the Last?” Oration 38 On the Theophany ch.1 p.345

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says we are to worship Jesus. Against Eunomius book 3 ch.6 p.147. All should worship Jesus in Against Eunomius book 4 ch.9 p.171 and book 5 ch.1 p.172. See also ibid book 5 ch.3 p.176.

Gregory of Nyssa says that angels worship Jesus in Hebrews. Against Eunomius book 4 ch.3 p.157.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) quotes Hebrews 1:6 “Let all God’s angels worship him.” referring to Jesus. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.8 p.112

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) the father, Son, and Holy Spirit to have glory, power, and honor. Commentary on Philippians homily 1 verse 7 p.188

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) says to glrify and praise Jesus. Commentary on Acts ch.1 p.10

Severian of Gabala/Jableh (398-408 A.D.) “in Christ our Lord, thorugh whom and with whom be glory to the Father and the Holy Spirit in the ages of ages. Amen.” On the Creation of the World ch.7 p.6

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.10 p.266 (370/380-425 A.D.) a Christian slave woman taught the barbarians that they should worship the Son of God.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that they should not suppose that three gods are worshipped by Christians because there is only One God. On Faith and the Creed ch.9.16 p.327

 

T9. Inseparable/Father in Son or Son in Father

 

John 10:38; 14:10

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 10:38; 14:10

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) John 10:38; 14:10

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 10:38; 14:10

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says that the Father is in Jesus and Jesus is in the Father.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says the Father in the Son and the Son in the Father. On the Trinity book 8 ch.10 p.140; book 8 ch.15 p.141; book 8 ch.41 p.149

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (partial) says that Jesus and the Father are one. On the Trinity book 8 ch.36 p.145

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says Jesus is in the Father and the Father in Jesus. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89. See also To the Bishops of Egypt ch.2.13 p.230

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) discusses “the inseparable union” between the Father and the Son. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.4 p.89. He says Jesus and the Father are as indivisible as the brightness from the light. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.8 p.179. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (356-360 A.D.) discourse 2 ch.15.12 p.355. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (356-360 A.D.) discourse 2 ch.15.22 p.360, discourse 2 ch.18.33 p.366 and discourse 4 ch.15 p.438.

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus said, “I and the Father are one” [John 10:30] Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus said, “I am in the Father and the Father is in me. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.61

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Jesus is in the Father. On the Spirit ch.45 p.28

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) The Father is in the Son and the Son is in the Father. Against Eunomius book 8 ch.1 p.208

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) “…being incapable of separation from Him and in Whom He is.” Against Eunomius book 2 ch.15 p.133

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “The Father is in Me, and I in the Father.” de Principiis book 1 ch.2.8 vol.4 p.249

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (c.240 A.D.) speaks of the Father in Jesus and Jesus in the Father. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 1 ch.4 p.77

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) discusses John 10 and how Jesus is in the Father and the Father is in Jesus. vol.14 Commentary on John homily 61 p.224.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity, only one God, distinction between the three but the same substance in indivisible equality. Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.4.7 p.20

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) Jesus is in the Father and the Father is in Jesus. Candidus’ First Letter ch.4 p.55-56

 

T10. Christ at right hand of God/the Father

 

Matthew 22:44; 26:64; Mark 13:26; 14:62; 16:19; Luke 20:42; 22:69; Acts 2:34; 7:56; Romans 8:34; Ephesians 1:20; Hebrews 1:3; 10:12; 1 Peter 3:22

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 22:44; 26:64; Mark 13:26; 14:62; Luke 20:42; 22:69

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says that after the resurrection Jesus is seated at the right hand of the Father.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) see note 1 p.163-164.

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.)Moses ascended the mountain and died there; and Jesus ascended into heaven and took his seat at the right hand of His Father. Select Demonstrations ch.21.10 p.397

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) mentions that the blessed Stephen saw the Lord standing on [God’s] right hand. Letters of Athanasius of Alexandria Letter 60 ch.5 p.576

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says the Son sits at the right hand of the Father. On the Spirit ch.6.15 p.10

Second Council of Constantinople (381/382 A.D.) says that Jesus now sits at the right hand of the Father. Holy Creed ch.1 p.163

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that the Son is at the right hand of the Father. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.6 p.107

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) says that Jesus is at the right hand of the Father. Commentary on Acts ch.17 p.112

 

Among heretics

The mild Arian Creed of Antioch (c.341/344) says “Christ was crucifed, and died; was buried, arose agains from the dead on the third day, ascended into the heavens, is seated at the right hand of the Father” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

 

T11. No one knows the Father except the Son and those revealed

 

Matthew 11:27b; Luke 10:22b

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 11:27b; Lke 10:22b

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “we are to look for our Lord Jesus Christ as the perfect one, who is the only one that knows the Father, with the sole exception of him to whom He has chosen also to reveal Him, as I am able to demonstrate from His own words.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.37 p.211

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) quotes Matthew 11:27b in On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.1 p.87. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (356-360 A.D.) discourse 2 ch.16.22 p.360 and discourse 4 ch.23 p.442. See also To the Bishops of Egypt ch.16 p.231

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) quotes Matthew 11:27b. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.12 p.158

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says no one knows the Father except the Son. On the Spirit ch.47 p.29

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes that no onese knows the Son except the Father, and those to whom He reveals Him. question 125 p.338 and question 1 p.344

Gregory of Nyssa (378-397 A.D.) quotes Matthew 11:27 that no one knows the Father except the Son… Against Eunomius book 1 ch.32 p.77

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “We must understand, therefore, that as the Son, who alone knows the Father, reveals Him to whom He will, so the Holy Spirit, who alone searches the deep things of God, reveals God to whom He will: “For the Spirit bloweth where He listeth.” de Principiis book 1 ch.3.3 p.252

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) says that no one knows the Father except the Son. Commentary on Acts ch.1.2 p.12

 

T12. Father and Son are distinct

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (implied) quotes Philippians 2:9 Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.48 p.224

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) discusses how the Father and Son are distinct. If not, then God would be His own Father and Son. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.6 p.434-435

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says the Father , Son, and Spirit are distinct. On the Spirit ch.6.13 p.8

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) tells how the Only-Begotten is distinct from the Father. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.61

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) shows that the Father and Son are distinct. question 9 p.400

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) (implied) shows that the Father and Son are distinct (i.e. not the same) Homilies on Ephesians homily3 p.60

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity, only one God, distinction between the three but the same substance in indivisible equality. Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.4.7 p.20

 

Among heretics

The mild Arian Creed of Antioch (c.341/344) (implied) says Jesus “is seated at the right hand of the Father” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

 

T13. The Word was distinct from the Father at Creation

 

John 1:1; Hebrews 11:3

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the son was distinct in speaking against the Arians. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.5 p.308

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) (implied) says the word was in the beginning and before the world. Against Eunomius book 5 ch.5 p.180 and ibid

 

T14. Son in the bosom of the Father

 

John 1:23

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “Furthermore, there is but one only inconvertible substance, the divine substance, eternal and invisible, as is known to all, and as is also borne out by this scripture: ‘No man hath seen God at any time, save the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father.’” (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.205

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) says Jesus was in the bosom of the Father. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.11 p.157

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says the Son is in the bosom of the Father. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.7 p.109

 

T15. An Equality of the Father and Son

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes John 5:16,18. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 2 ch.12 p.354-355

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) (implied) show san equality of the Father and Son. On the Spirit ch.6.13 p.9

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says the Holy Spirit shows there is a “predicated equality” among the Three. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.15 p.132

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) &&&. Commentary on Acts ch.1.3 p.18

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) mentions an equality between the Father and Son. Homilies on Acts homily1.1 p.2

 

T16. God the Son

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) “In truth, dead men were raised, lame walked, blind saw afresh, lepers were cleansed, and the water became wine, and five loaves satisfied five thousand, and all wondered and worshipped the Lord, confessing that in Him were fulfilled the prophecies, and that He was God the Son of God;Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.1 p.150

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) speaks of “God the Son”. On the Spirit ch.2.4 p.3

 

T17. Specifically “Jesus” is the Only-Begotten / Son / Word / son of man

 

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus is the only Begotten Son of God. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.60

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) (partial) calls Christ “Only-Begotten; for He alone was begotten of the Father”. On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.3

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Only-begotten Son of God in On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (partial) “to His [Christ] being the Only-begotten Word.” Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 374

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) often emphasizes Jesus as the “Only-Begotten”. For example, he speaks of “the Only-begotten God, the Maker of all the creation, whether He always was, or whether He came into being afterwards as an addition to His Father?” Against Eunomius book 8 ch.5 p.208. See also Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.61

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) discusses how Jesus is the only-begotten of God. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.14.89 p.216. See also Letter 22 no.6 p.437

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) “Believe also in the Son of God, the one and only, our Lord Jesus Christ, who is God begotten of God, who is life begotten of life, who is light begotten of light, who is in all things like unto the begetter, and who did not come to exist in time but was before all the ages, eternally and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father. He is the Wisdom of God” First Catechetical Lectures lecture 4 ch.7 p.20.

 

T18. Specifically “Jesus Christ” is the Only-Begotten / Son

 

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 “One God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things… one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father…”

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) “He [Asterius] wrote that he believes in the Father, the Almighty God, and in his Son, the only-begotten God, our Lord Jesus Christ, and in the Holy Spirit. Furthermore, he says that he learned this manner of godliness from the Divine Scriptures. And when he says this, I accept what he says entirely, for this manner of godliness of believing in the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit is common to all of us.”

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) calls Jesus Christ” the only begotten Son. Address to Constantius ch.11 p.242

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) says that Jesus is the “only-begotten Son of God” Homilies on Acts homily5 p.36

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 section 1 p.441 “the divine Scripture testifies that God said to Christ, His only-begotten, ‘Let us make man after our image, and after our likeness. And God made man: after the image of God made He him; male and female made He them.’”

 

T19. Specifically “Christ” is the Only-Begotten / Son / Son of man

 

You are the Christ, the Son of the Living God

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (&&& A.D.) says that Christ Son is the only-begotten Son of God. Address to Constantine ch.17 p.244

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says “Christ” is the “Only-Begotten”. On the Spirit ch.7.16 p.10

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) (partial, does not say “Christ”) mentions the “Only-Begotten Son” Answer to Eunomius’ Second Book p.271

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) (partial, does not say Jesus here) “Only-Begotten Son” Homilies on Acts homily5 p.36

 

T20. Specifically the Son is God

 

“Jesus is God” and “the Son of God” are not included here

 

Hebrews 1:8-9 “But to the Son He says: Your throne, O God, is forever and ever;... Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You” (NKJV)

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 1:35

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (implied) says that Jesus is God. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.5 p.309

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says “the Son God”. Letter 8 ch.2 p.116

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) “inasmuch as no difference of nature is introduced by the use of the title “God” and by the significance of the term “Son”. For how could HE wWho is truly the Son ofGod and Himself God be conceived as somethingelse differing from the nature of the Father.?” Against Eunomius book 2 ch.7 p.112

 

T21. The head of Christ is God

 

1 Corinthians 11:3

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (359-361 A.D.) (partial, recording a creed) “But we acknowledge that the Father who alone is unbegun and Ingenerate, hath generated inconceivably and incomprehensibly to all: and that the Son hath been generated before ages, and in no wise to be ingenerate Himself like the Father, but to have the Father who generated Him as His beginning; for ‘the Head of Christ is God.’” [1 Corinthians 11:3] Of the Synods ch.26 p.463

Rufinus translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “‘The head of Christ is God; ‘de Principiis (Latin) book 2 ch.6 1 p.281

 

T22. Christ had the Spirit of wisdom and understanding

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) “And as the Apostle writes to Thessalonians, 'the will of God is in Christ Jesus.’ The Son of God then, He is the 'Word' and the 'Wisdom;' He the 'Understanding’ and the Living 'Counsel;’” Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.365 p.&&&

 

T23. Jesus and the Father are One

 

Just the phrase “One Lord” is not included here.

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) Jesus said, “I and the Father are One.” Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1.5 p.347

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says Jesus and the Father ar eOne.

&&&Athanasius of Alexandria (&&& A.D.) says the the Father and Jesus are One. Mt Sep&&& ch.17 p.182

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) “to Him who sas said, ‘I and the Father are One.’” The Hexaemeron homily 9 ch.9 p.106

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says Jesus and the Father are One. Catechical Lectures Lecture 11 ch.16 p.68

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says the the Father and Son are One. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.4 p.105

 

T24. Jesus [Ad]ministered His Father’s will

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) “then it is said, that He took flesh and became man, and in that flesh He suffered for us (as Peter says, 'Christ therefore having suffered for us in the flesh,’ that it might be shewn, and that all might believe, that whereas He was ever God, and hallowed those to whom He came, and ordered all things according to the Father’s will, afterwards for our sakes He became man, and 'bodily,’ as the Apostle says, the Godhead dwelt in the flesh; as much as to say, 'Being God, He had His own body, and using this as an instrument, He became man for our sakes.’ And on account of this, the properties of the flesh are said to be His, since He was in it, such as to hunger, to thirst, to suffer, to weary, and the like, of which the flesh is capable; while on the other hand the works proper to the Word Himself, such as to raise the dead, to restore sight to the blind, and to cure the woman with an issue of blood, He did through His own body. And the Word bore the infirmities of the flesh, as His own, for His was the flesh; and the flesh ministered to the works of the Godhead, because the Godhead was in it, for the body was God’s.Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.26 (no.31) p.410

 

T25. Jesus anointed with the oil of gladness/joy

 

Hebrews 1:9b

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Jesus having the oil of gladness. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.7 (no.47) p.334

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says that Jesus was anointed with the oil of gladnes (Psalm 44:8) in ch.4 p.196.

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) loosely translation Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) &&& de Principiis book 4 ch.30 p.&&&

&&&Cyril of Jerusalem (&&&) &&&

 

T26. Jesus called the Son before coming to earth

 

Being called the Word, Jesus, or Christ is not included here.

 

Hegemonius (c.351 A.D.) quoting Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) “[Peter] said to Jesus, ‘Be it far from Thee, Lord: this shall not be unto Thee.’ This he said after Jesus had announced to him that the Son of man must go up to Jerusalem, and be killed, and rise again the third day.” (Archelaus is speaking) Disputation with Manes ch.46 p.224

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) “For when Scripture says, ‘In the beginningwas the Word,’ we understand the Only-Begotten to be meant, and when it adds ‘theWord wasmade flesh’ wethereboy receivein our minds the idea of the first-born…” Against Eunomius book 2 ch.8 p.113

 

 

Jesus Before ministry

 

Jb1. Virgin birth of Christ

 

Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:18,23; Luke 1:34-35

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 1:18; Luke 1:34-35

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 1:18; Luke 1:34-35

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 1:18,23

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says that Jesus was born of the virgin.

Eustathius of Antioch (323-337 A.D.) ins speaking of Jesus says, “But as being born of the Virgin He is said to have been made man of the woman,” Dialogues From His work on Psalm 24 p.203

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) “was born of the holy virgin” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Aphrahat (337-344 A.D.) mentions Christ body came from the virgin’s. Select Demonstrations book 21 ch.9 p.396

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) refers to the virgin birth, Christ’s death on a dreadful cross, pretended kisses of a client/disciple, Pilate p.327

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says that Christ was born of the Virgin Mary. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.47 p.223. See also Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.207.

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) says that Christ had “a body out of the Virgin,” On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.3

Athanasius of Alexandria (328 A.D.) mentions the Virgin birth. Statement of Faith p.84.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) mentions the virgin conceived and the Lord became man. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.9 p.179

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things, flesh through the Virgin Mary, suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) mentions the Virgin Mary in many places, including Hymns on the Nativity hymn 6 p.239

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says Jesus was born of a virgin. Against Eunomius book 3 ch.4 p.145

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Jesus was born of a virgin. question 51 p.205; question 8 p.88-89; question 144 p.67

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) discusses the virgin birth of Christ. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.7 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.21

Ambrose of Milan (372-381 A.D.) “without doubt the Holy Spirit also is to be adored, since He Who according to the flesh was born of the Holy Spirit is adored. (80) And let no one divert this to the Virgin Mary; Mary was the temple of God, not the God of the temple. And therefore He alone is to be worshipped Who was working in His temple.” Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.11 no.79f-80

First Council of Constantinople (381/382 A.D.) Mentions CVhrist’s virgin birth. Creed ch.1 p.163

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) mentions the virgin birth of Christ. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.19 p.308. See also On Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 7:14-15 as referring to Christ and His virgin birth. On Baptism ch.3(2) p.87

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Virgin, Father. Commentary on Zechariah 8 p.197

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) discusses Mary and the virgin birth of Christ in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 5.3-5 p.32-33.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ was born of a virgin. City of God book 2 ch.18 p.33

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity, only one God, distinction between the three but the same substance in indivisible equality. Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.4.7 p.20

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) speaks of Jesus being born of a virgin. 12 Books book 3.4 p.214

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

The Vision of Paul (c.388 A.D. – after Nicea) ch.46 p.164 Mary was a Virgin

 

Among heretics

The mild Arian Creed of Antioch (c.341/344) says Christ was born of a virgin. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

Mandaeans (>350?) said that Christ was born of a Virgin. It also said He was a Nazorean. Ginza p.549

 

Jb2. Incarnation of the Word/Jesus

 

John 1:14; Philippians 2:7; Hebrews 2:17; Revelation 19:13

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:14

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) John 1:14

 

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things, flesh through the Virgin Mary, suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) discusses how the Word was made flesh in On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.2 p.87.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) mentions the incarnation On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.9 p.179

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) mentions the incarnation. On the Spirit ch.24.57 p.36

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says many passages are prophecies of the Incarnation. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.15.99 p.217

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) discusses Jesus’ incarnation. question 69 p.174 and question 109 p.75

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) “but that we might be convinced that that God has truly been manifested in the flesh,” Against Eunomius book 2 ch.1 p.101

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Incarnation of the Savior. Commentary on Zechariah 10 p.233

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Excerpts “[Peter said] This same Jesus whom ye crucified [Acts 2:36], in order that the holy incarnate dispensation might not be left by the impassible and uncreated Word, but might be united above to the uncreated Word. On this account God made that which was conceived of Mary and united to deity both Lord and Christ.” (Panarion 69, as quoted in Concordia Triglotta, p.1125)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Excerpts “The Father gives to the Son, and the Son, who is not inferior to the Father, receives from the Father, particularly in two ways. First, that we might be led to one union with the Deity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, in contradistinction to a multitude of gods. And second, that we might also be led to the transfiguration, to the glory of the incarnation, and to the union with the Deity. For in the transfiguration His face, even in the flesh, since His deity was still present, shone like the sun, that is, the flesh which came from Mary and from our human race was transfigured to heavenly glory, so that it acquired, in addition to its own natural powers, the glory, honor, and perfection of the Godhead, the flesh receiving the heavenly glory here in communion with the divine Logos, which it did not have from the beginning. We must also understand in this sense the passage, He has given all judgment to the Son [John 5:22], and also the passage, He gave Him power, so that He gives life to whom He wishes [John 5:21], that in the first place ... the one deity of the Trinity is indicated ... and in the second place, that by the incarnation of the deity He assumed the gift of dignity, power, and perfection which have been given by the Father to the Son for the one spiritual union of the deity.” Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that Jesus took Flesh. Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.214. He says the Word became flesh in Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.213

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says that Jesus was incarnated through God. de Principiis book 1 ch.4 p.240

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) “the Incarnation of Christ the Lord” Commentary on Jonah preface p.185

 

Jb3. Christ emptied Himself

 

Philippians 2:7

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Philippians 2:7

 

Aphrates the Syrian (337-345) Select Demonstrations Demonstration &&&

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) discusses Philippians 2:5-11 in detail. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.11.37-39 p.327-329

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)

Gregory Nanzianzen (330-391 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) refers to Philippians 2:8 that Christ emptied Himself and took the form of a servant. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.3 p.104

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says that Christ emptied himself. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 1 ch.4 p.83

 

No Juvencus, Synod of Antioch Encaiensis, p25, p62, p120, p8, p10, p71, Apostoloic canons, 1st Council of Sirmium, Synod of Seleucia in Isauria, Life of Antony, Ephraim Syrus, Basil of Cappadocia, Synod of Laodicia, Council of Gangra, Council of Constantinople, Cyril of Jerusalem, Council of Constantinople II, Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople,

 

Jb4. Jesus took the form of a servant

 

Philippians 2:7

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (3rd century) “But it is not thus that ‘He humbled Himself, and took the form of a servant;’ and I say this of Him who was made man of Mary. For what? Might not we, too, have set forth things like those with which you have been dealing, and that, too, all the more easily and the more broadly? But far be it from us to swerve one jot or one tittle from the truth.” (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus’ Disputation with Manes ch.50 p.&&&

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) said that Jesus took a servant’s form. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.47 p.334

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Philippians 2:5-11. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.40 p.329.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) refers to Philippians 2:8 that Christ emptied Himself and took the form of a servant. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.3 p.104

 

Jb5. Word was made/became flesh

 

John 1:14

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says “the Word became flesh” Select Demonstrations Demonstration 8.15 p.380

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that the Word became flesh. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.8 p.179

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Philippians 2:5-11. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.40 p.329.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that the Word became flesh. Against Eunomius book 3 ch.2 p.140

 

Among heretics

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) “We believe in one God, the Father Almighty; And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages, the Divine Logos, through whom all things were made, both those in the heavens and those on the earth; who came down and was made flesh; and suffered;” in Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.26  NPNF second series vol.2 p.28-29.

 

Jb6. Jesus humbled Himself

 

Philippians 2:8

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says that Christ was born of the Virgin Mary. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.47 p.223. See also Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.207. See also ch.50 p.228

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) discusses Philippians 2:5-11 in detail. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.11.37-39 p.327-329

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Philippians 2:5-11. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.40 p.329.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) (partial) says that Jesus was humbled to death. Against Eunomius book 5 ch.2 p.175

 

Jb7. Jesus Christ was a real, sinless man

 

John 8:46 “Which or you convicts me of sin?” (Jesus is speaking) NKJV

2 Corinthians 5:21a “He made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us,…” NKJV

Hebrews 2:14,17 shows Jesus’ humanity

Hebrews 4:15 “But [our High Priest] was in all points tempted as we are, yet without sin.” NKJV

1 Peter 1:19 (implied) “But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot.” NKJV

1 Peter 2:22 “Who committed no sin, nor was deceit found in His mouth” NKJV

1 John 3:5 “…and in Him there is no sin.” NKJV

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 8:36

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) John 8:46

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 8:46

 

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 “one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made… was made man He suffered … rose again, and ascended into heaven. And he shall come again to judge both the quick and the dead. … Holy Ghost.”

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says that Jesus was made man. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.8-9 p.179

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Philippians 2:5-11. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.40 p.329.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. (partial, does not say sinless) says the Jesus, the only begotten Son, was a man, the word made flesh. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Jesus was fully God and fully man. Nisibine Hymns hymn 36 no.16 p.197; See also Nisibine Hymns hymn 38 no.10 p.200.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that Jesus was fully human, but without sin in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.1 p.101. See also Against Eunomius book 6 ch.1 p.183

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus was made man, not in appearance only but in truth. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.9 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.20

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) (partial) discusses Jesus’ manhood and says that Jesus suffered as a man for us. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.14.91 p.216

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus was sinless. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.23 p.210

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) discusses Jesus’ manhood. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.19-20 p.308-309

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) says Christ took on the nature of man. On Baptism ch.3(4) p.89

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) says Christ committed no sin, no guile found in his mouth. On Baptism ch.4(1) p.90

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that Jesus “received a true and complete human nature,” and that Jesus was without sin. (Panarion, as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.358)

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) Jesus was “sinless”. Homilies on Acts homily19 p.121

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that Jesus in taking the form of man actually was a man. Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.213

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ Jesus became man, putting on a human soul and flesh. On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.174. See also On the Gospel of John Tractate 124 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.449.

Augustine of Hippo (400-420 A.D.) “quotes Hebrews 4:14-15. On Forgiveness of Sins, and Baptism book 1 ch.50 p.34

 

Among heretics

The Vision of Paul (c.388 A.D. – after Nicea) ch.41 p.162 “Who are these, Sir, who are put into this well? And he said to me: They are whoever shall not confess that Christ has come in the flesh and that the Virgin Mary brought him forth, and whoever says that the bread and cup of the Eucharist of blessing are not this body and blood of Christ.”

 

Jb8. Jesus of the tribe of Judah

 

Luke 3:33

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 3:33

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) “Thus, for example, the Patriarch Jacob was favoured in his flight with many, even divine visions, and remaining quiet himself, he had the Lord on his side, rebuking Laban, and hindering the designs of Esau; and afterwards he became the Father of Judah, of whom sprang the Lord according to the flesh; and he dispensed the blessings to the Patriarchs.In Defense of His Flight ch.20 p.&&&

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says that Jesus was fro Judah. question 44 p.67

 

Jb9. Jesus was born in Bethlehem [of Judea]

 

Matthew 2:1,5; Luke 2:4-6,15

Implied Micah 5:2

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 2:1; Luke 2:4-6

 

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says the Jesus was born in Bethlehem. Nativity Hymns hymn 5 p.237

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says that Jesus was born in Bethlehemm. question 44 p.67

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says Jesus was born in Bethlehem. Catechical Lectures Lecture 11 ch.20 p.69

 

Jb10. Jesus brought up by Joseph

 

Matthew 2:13-14,19-23; Luke 2:39-40

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “Hence our Lord Jesus Christ Himself is said to have a variety of fathers: for David was called His father, and Joseph was reckoned to be His father, while neither of these two was His father in respect of the actuality of nature. For David is called His father as touching the prerogative of time and age, and Joseph is designated His father as concerning the law of upbringing; but God Himself is His only Father by nature, who was pleased to make all things manifest in short space to us by His word.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.207

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) said that Jesus was raised by Joseph. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.27 p.408

 

Jb11. Jesus’ earthly father was a carpenter

 

Matthew 13:53-57

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) said that Joseph was a carpenter. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.1.50 p.335-336

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) calls Jesus “the caprenter’s son” Letter 8 ch.5 p.118

 

Jb12. Jesus [and His family] went to Egypt

 

Matthew 2:13-15

 

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) p.327 (implied) says of Jesus “I passed my earliest years in the Pharian [Pharoahic] regions, beign an exile in the reign of Herod.”

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “our Lord Jesus Christ, after His birth by Mary His mother, was sent off in flight into Egypt through the instrumentality of an angel.Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) said that Mary and Joseph took Jesus to Egypt. In Defence of His Fight ch.12 p.259

 

Jb13. Jesus from Galilee

 

Matthew 2:22-23; 4:12-13; Luke 2:39; 4:14-16

 

Jesus preaching in Galilee, passing through Galilee, or going to Galilee after his resurrection are not included here.

 

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “He had wrought so many miracles, and never were they thus amazed at Him; but when they saw a multitude running together, then they marvel. "For all the city was moved, saying, Who is this? But the multitudes said, This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee. [Mt 21:10,11].Commentary on Matthew homily66 ch.3 p.40

 

Jb14. Jesus on earth was plain-looking

 

Isaiah 53:2a

 

Gregory Nanziansus (330-391 A.D.) “He was laid in a manger—but He was glorified by Angels, and proclaimed by a star, and worshipped by the Magi. Why are you offended by that which is presented to your sight, because you will not look at that which is presented to your mind? He was driven into exile into Egypt—but He drove away the Egyptian idols. He had no form nor comeliness in the eyes of the Jews [Isa 53:2] —but to David He is fairer than the children of men. [Ps 45:2]” &&& book 29 ch.19 p.&&&

 

Jb15. Christ, the Logos, the Son was obedient or learned obedience

 

Hebrews 5:5,7-8 “So also Christ ... 7 who, in the days of His flesh, when He had offered up prayers and supplications, with vehement cries and tears to Him who was able to save Him from death, was heard because of His godly fear, though He was a Son, yet he learned obedience by the things which He suffered.”

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says Jesus was obedient unto death. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.38 p.328

 

Jb16. Jesus was baptized

 

Matthew 3:13-16; Mark 1:9-11; Luke 3:21-22;

(partial, Jesus came to John, but did not say baptized) John 1:29

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 3:13-16; (partial) Luke 3:21-22; partial John 1:29

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “Wherefore tell me this too, O Manichaeus: If you say that Christ was not born of Mary, but that He only appeared like a man, while yet He was not really a man, the appearance being effected and produced by the power that is in Him, tell me, I repeat, on whom then was it that the Spirit descended like a dove? Who is this that was baptized by John? If He was perfect, if He was the Son,” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.49 p.226

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says that Jesus was baptized in ch.4 p.197.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says that Jesus was baptized. question 45 p.167 and question 54 p.167

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions Jesus being from the virgin, the angels glorifying Jesus, and calls Jesus the Lamb and the Shepherd. The star led the Magi to worship and offer gifts. Jesus was baptized, and fasted, and was tempted. Devils were cast out and diseases healed. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.24 p.210

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.) says that Jesus was baptized. Letter 120.`0 p.267

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Alexander of Alexandria (after 326 A.D.) “Who compelled God to come down to earth, to take flesh of the holy Virgin, to be wrapped in swaddling clothes and laid in a manger, to be nourished with milk, to be baptized in the Jordan, to be mocked of the people, to be nailed to the tree, to be buried in the bosom of the earth, and the third day to rise again from the dead; in the cause of redemption to give life for life, blood for blood, to undergo death for death? For Christ, by dying, hath discharged the debt of death to which man was obnoxious.” Appendix to the Codex

 

Jb17. Jesus fasted for 40 days

 

Matthew 4:3; Mark 1:12-13; Luke 4:1-2

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) (partial, does not say faster) Jesus wwent out for 40 days. Theophania book 3 ch.55 p.7

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “There, Moses when he was tried was set upon the mountain and fasted forty days; and here, my Lord Jesus was led by the Spirit into the wilderness when He was tempted of the devil, and fasted in like manner forty days.” (Archelaus is speakig) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Jesus fasted and hungered for 40 days. question 9 p.170

 

Jb18. Jesus hungered

 

Matthew 4:2; Luke 4:2

 

Jesus being hungry in the parable of the sheep and the goats is not included here.

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says Jesus hungered when he went into the wilderness. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 6.9 p.369

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Jesus fasted and hungered for 40 days. question 9 p.170

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “For this reason, just as He [Jesus] hungered, as He slept, as He felt fatigue, as He ate and drank, so also did He deprecate death, thereby manifesting his humanity, and that infirmity of human nature which does not submit without pain to be torn from this present life.Commentary on Matthew homily 26 ch.38 p.&&&

 

Jb19. Baby Jesus presented at the Temple

 

Luke 2:22-24

 

Eustathius of Antioch (323-337 A.D.) “His parents zealously urged His circumcision, when He was a child eight days old, as relates the evangelist Luke, afterwards, ‘they broguth Him to present Him to the Lord,’ ‘bringing the offerings of purification’. Dialogues From His work on Psalm 24 p.203

Athanasius of Alexandria (372 A.D.) in speaking of Jesus says, “And He was offered as a sacrifice, in that He Who was born had opened the womb. Now all these things are proofs that the Virgin brought forth. And Gabriel preached the Gospel to her without uncertainty” Then he mentions Symeon [Simeon]. Letters of Athanasius letter 59 ch.5 p.572

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.) discusses Jesus being presented at the temple. The Perpetual Virginity of the Blessed Mary ch.12 p.339

 

 

Jesus’ ministry

 

Jm1. Jesus went to Capernaum

 

Mark 1:21-27; 2:1; Luke 4:31-37; John 2:12

 

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) Lessons on the Gospels &&&

 

Jm2. Jesus found/called Nathanael

 

John 1:43-50

 

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) Lessons on the Gospels &&&

 

Jm3. Jesus ministered in Galilee

 

Jesus being from Galilee, and going to Galilee after His resurrection, are not included here. Jesus specifically ministering in the Galileen towns of Capernaum, Nazareth, or Cana are not included here either.

 

Luke 4:14; John 4:23

 

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) says that Jesus began His ministry in Galilee. Commentary on Acts homily 18 p.150-151

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) Lessons on the Gospels &&&

 

Jm4. Jesus called/chose the Twelve

 

Matthew 4:18-22; Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:12-19

 

Juvencus the Spaniard (329/330 A.D.) says Jesus gathered in a group of twelvethe strong souls he selected from the crowd and sent them to preach. Four Books of the Gospels book 2 stanza 430 p.64

 

Jm5. Jesus went through Samaria/Samaritan woman

 

Mentioning a parable of a Samaritan is not counted here.

 

John 4:7-39

 

Juvencus the Spaniard (329/330 A.D.) tells of Jesus going through Samaria nad talking with the Samaritan woman. Four Books of the Gospels book 2 stanzas 250 p.60

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&&

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) says that Jesus sais, “The cup which My father had given Me, shall I not drink it?” Then in verse 12,13 He was taken. Homilies on John homily 83 verse 11 p.308. See also Homilies on John homily31 John 3:6-8 p.108, which tells of the “Woman of Samaria”.

 

Jm6. Jesus said destroy the temple in 3 days…

 

John 2:19-21

 

Juvencus the Spaniard (329/330 A.D.) paraphrasing Jesus saying HE will rebuild the temple of His body in three days. Four Books of the Gospels book 2 stanzas 167-175 p.58

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) discusses Jesus’ sayin, “Destroy this Temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” Homilies on John homily 23 John 2:19 p.81.

 

Jm7. Jesus’ answer to John

 

Matthew 11:1-6; Luke 7:22-23

 

Juvencus the Spaniard (329/330 A.D.) tells of Jesus answering John when John was in prison. Four Books of the Gospels book 2 stanzas 510-525 p.66

 

Jm8. The Transfiguration

 

Matthew 17:1-9

 

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) mentions the “Transfiguration” Answer to Eunomius’ Second Book p.275

Jerome of Stridon (393 A.D.) teaches on the transfiguration with Moses and Elijah. Against Jovinianus book 2 ch.15 p.399

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) Lessons on the Gospels &&&

 

Jm9. Jesus rode into Jerusalem on a donkey

 

Matthew 21:2-7; Mark 11:2-10; Luke 19:30-36; John 12:14

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says Jesus rode into Jerusalem on a colt. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 6.9 p.369

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) quotes Matthew 21:2 and describes Jesus riding into Jerualem on a donkey and her colt. Homilies on John homily 66 John 12:8 p.245

 

Jm10. Christ drove out the money-changers

 

Matthew 21:12-13; Mark 11:15-17; Luke 19:45-46; John 2:14-17

 

Juvencus the Spaniard (329/330 A.D.) tells of Jesus driving out the money-changers. Four Books of the Gospels book 2 stanzas 165-169 p.58.

 

Jm11. Jesus was questioned

 

Matthew 11:27-33; Luke 20:1-8

 

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) says that Jesus was questioned by Caiaphas. Homilies on John homily 83 John 18:25 p.310

 

Jm12. The Last Supper

 

Matthew 26:20-46; Mark 14:12-31; Luke 22:14-23; John 13

 

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) describes the Last Supper and Jesus washing His disciples’ feet. Homilies on John homily 75 John 13:1 p.257-258

 

Jm13. Christ prayed that this cup would pass

 

Matthew 26:36-46; Mark 14:32-43; Luke 22:19-43

 

Juvencus the Spaniard (329/330 A.D.) says how Jesus prayed that this cup would pass. Four Books of the Gospels book 4 stanzas 485-505 p.104-105

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) said that Jesus prayed that this cup would pass from Him.

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) (partial) says that Jesus said, “The cup which My father had given Me, shall I not drink it?” Then in verse 12,13 He was taken. Homilies on John homily 83 verse 11 p.308.

 

Jm14. Jesus arrested / seized

 

Matthew 26:47-56; Mark 14:43-52; Luke 22:54-65; John 18:1-12

 

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) says that Jesus sais, “The cup which My father had given Me, shall I not drink it?” Then in verse 12,13 He was taken. Homilies on John homily 83 verse 11 p.308.

 

Jm15. Jesus washed His disciples’ feet

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (371 A.D.) says that Jesus washed His disciples’ feet. Festal Letter 61 ch.2 p.578

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says that Jesus washed His disciples’ feet in ch.5 p.213.

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) describes the Last Supper and Jesus washing His disciples’ feet. Homilies on John homily 75 John 13:1 p.257-258

Jerome of Stridon (373-420 A.D.) says that Jesus washs His disciples’ feet. Letter 12 p.14

 

Jm16. Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss

 

Matthew 26:48-49; Mark 14:44-45;

Luke 22:47-48 (partial, drew near to kiss, did not say kiss)

 

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss. Commentary on Matthew homily83 ch.2 p.498

 

Jm17. Christ a High Priest after the Order of Melchizedek

 

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that Christ was a Hig priest afte the Order of Melchizedek. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.2 p.184.

 

 

Jesus’ Passion and Beyond

 

Jp1. Some despised Christ

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus was despised. Catechical Lectures Lecture 4 ch.10 p.21

 

Jp2. Jesus was mocked

 

Matthew 26:68; 27:27-29; Mark 15:20; Luke 22:63; John 19:1-3

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says the Phariseesmocked Jesus. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 6.20 p.375

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says Jesus was shamed at the cross. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 6.9 p.369

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) p.327 (partial) “and moreover, the blows, and tongues prepared for accusations.”

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) (partial) Jesus was insulted. question 94 p.191

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus was mocked. Catechical Lectures Lecture 13 ch.30 p.90

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) says speaks of the mockery of Jesus. Homilies on John homily 84 John 18:39,40 p.313-314

 

Jp3. Jesus was crucified or died on the cross

 

Matthew 27:32-56; Mark 15:21-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:16-30; 1 Corinthians 15:3; Philippians 2:8

(partial) Philippians 3:10 (death of Christ)

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 27:32-56; Mark 15:21-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:16-30

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 27:32-56; Mark 15:21-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:16-30

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 27:32-56; Mark 15:21-41; Luke 23:46-49

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) mentions the crucifixon and resurrection of Jesus, after three days. Theophania book 3 ch.61 p.9

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) “was born of the holy virgin; who was crucified, and died, and was buried, and rose again from the dead on the third day, and ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of the Father,” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes Galatians 4:4, “…before whose eyes Jesus Christ was evidently set forth, crucified” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.49 p.226. See also ibid ch.34 p.208.

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) p.327 says that Jesus carred His cross and then died.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. “If any one hearing that the only-begotten Son of God was crucified, should say that his divinity underwent any corruption, or suffering, or change, or diminution, or destruction, let him be anathema.”. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.57

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (356-362 A.D.) ch.78 p.216 says that Jesus was crucified.

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) “He is on the Cross, for thy sake, O sinner,” On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.1

Athanasius of Alexandria (328 A.D.) mentions that Jesus was crucified, died, rose from the dead, and taken up into heaven. Statement of Faith p.84.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says the Crucified was God. The Son of God was in the body, while it suffered. Letter 59 ch.10 p.574

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) refers to the virgin birth, Christ’s death on a dreadful cross, pretended kisses of a client/disciple, Pilate p.327

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 14 no.6 p.182

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that Jesus was crucified. Letter 42 ch.5 p.146

First Council of Constantinople (381/382 A.D.) sasys that Christ was “crucified” Creed ch.1 p.163

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) said that Jesus was crucified in Against Eunomius book 5 ch.2 p.174. Jesus bored the cross in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.3 p.176.

Gregory of Nyssa says that Peter said the Christ was crucified. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.4 p.187

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Christ crucified is worshipped. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.13 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.22

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus was nailed to the tree and the robber was crucified with Him. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309.

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that Christ was crucified. (Panarion 2.2:69, as quoted in Loci Theologici, p.106)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) “Strange about Tatian, when he knows – as I too have found in the literature – that our Lord Jesus Christ was crucified on Golgotha, the very place where Adam’s body lay buried. For after leaving Paradise, living opposite it for a long while and growing old, Adam later came and died in this place, I mean Jerusalem, and was buried there, on the site of Golgotha. This is likely how the place, which translates, ‘place of the Skull,’ got the name – since the shape of the place shows no likeness to the name.” The Panarion section 3 ch.46 p.351

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) says that Jesus did on the cross. Commentary on Acts homily 1.1 p.6

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) mentions Jesus’ death on the cross Defense Against the Pelagians ch.16 p.135

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Philo of Carpasia (365-425 A.D.) “that he would have become priest of the high God inside Salem. Whith this knowledge he was crucified there in Kranio, where our father Adam was buried, and there appoint Malki Sedeq that he may praise, sing, incense and do priestly ministry.””

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity, only one God, distinction between the three but the same substance in indivisible equality. Christ was born of the virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.4.7 p.21

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the darkness that occurred when Jesus was crucified. City of God book 3 ch.15 p.51

 

Among heretics

The mild Arian Creed of Antioch (c.341/344) says “Christ was crucifed, and died; was buried, arose agains from the dead on the third day, ascended into the heavens, is seated at the right hand of the Father” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

Mandaeans (>350?) said that Christ of Rome was crucified. Ginza p.551

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) mentions the crucifixion. Commentary on Joel ch.2 p.120

 

Jp4. Cross’s shape or outstretched arms

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says Jesus’ arms were stretched out on the cross. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 21.10 p.397

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “There, Moses, when he was assailed, stretched forth his hands and fought against Amalek; and here, the Lord Jesus, … stretched forth His hands upon the cross, and gave us salvation.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) “On that day Adam put forth his hand for evil; and Jesus spread His holy arms for our good.” On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.2

Athanasius of Alexandria (310-311 A.D.) mentions the shape. Festal Letter 22 p.549.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) “…and once again, stretching out His hands upon the Cross, He overthrew the prince of the power of the air, that now works in the sons of disobedience, and made the way clear for us into the heavens.” Letter 60 ch.7 p.577

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) discusses in detail the two beams of the cross Nisibine Hymns hymn 58 no.17-19 p.212.

 

Jp5. Jesus was hung on a tree [the cross]

 

Acts 5:30; Galatians 3:13; 1 Peter 2:24

(partial) Deuteronomy 21:23

 

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) “Jesus went forth out of the city, bearing Himself the Tree of His own Cross; like another Isaac carrying the wood for the sacrifice. … Jesus who is blessed by them that are condemned, was hanged on the Tree as one accursed.” On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.2

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) says the first tree, of the knowledge of good and evil, brought death, but the second tree, the cross, brought life. Nisibine Hymns hymn 14 no.6 p.182

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) said that Jesus was hung on a tree. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.31 p.411. See also Letter 61 ch.1 p.578.

Athanasius of Alexandria (372 A.D.) “while Paul writes, ‘Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, and to-day, and for ever.” Then says the Body ate and drank, was weary, was nailed on the tree and suffered, but was the impassible and incorporeal Word of God.” He also mentions “to preach, as Peter says, also to the spirits in prison.” Letters of Athanasius letter 59 ch.5 p.572

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) says that Jesus was hung on a tree. Homilies on Galatians homily 3 verse 13 p.27. See also Commentary on Acts homily 13 p.82

 

Jp6. The wood of the cross

 

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) p.327 “Bend your knee, and with lamentation adore the venerable wood of the cross, and with lowly countenance stooping to the earth, which is wet with innocent blood, sprinkle it with rising tears, and at times bear me and my admonitions in your devoted heart.”

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) “and as Peter has written, ‘has borne them in the body on the wood’” Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 374

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions the wood upon which Jesus was killed. Nativity Hymns hymn 2 p.227

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) mentions the wood of the cross. question 116 p.89

 

Jp7. Sign of the cross

 

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (356-362 A.D.) ch.13 p.199 and ch.35 p.205 mention the sign of the cross.

Jerome of Stridon (390 A.D.) saysHilarion made th esaign of the cross. The Life of St. Hilarion ch.6 p.304

Palladius of Auxerre (419-420 A.D.) mentions the sign of the cross. Four Desert Fathers &&& p.489.

 

Jp8. Calling the crucifixion the Passion

 

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) “shall we not tell of His Passion?” On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.1

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372 A.D.) “that the Lord through His betrayal entered on His Passion, by which He should redeem us and by the which He triumphed gloriously.Athanasius on Psalms

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) called the crucifixion the “passion” in ch.3 p.157.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) mentions the Passion. Letter 8 ch.3 p.117

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) discusses the “passion” of Christ. question 104 p.217 and question 105 p.211 and question 44 p.67

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) speaks of Christ’ “passion”. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.11 p.122

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) calls the crucifixon the “Passion”. Homilies on Acts homily1 p.2

Jerome of Stridon (393 A.D.) speaks of Jesus’ passion. Against Jovinianus book 2 ch.15 p.399

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions Noah getting drunk. On Christian Doctrine book 4 ch.21.45 NPNF first series vol.2 p.590

 

Jp9. Christ’s crown of thorns

 

Matthew 27:29; Mark 15:17; John 19:2

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 27:29; Mark 15:17

 

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) p.327 (partial) “and my head drained with cruel thorns”

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) He [Christ] is crowned with thorns” On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.3

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) &&&

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) “X And when He had lived among men for thirty years, He was baptized by John, really and not in appearance; and when He had preached the Gospel three years, and done X signs and wonders, He who was Himself the Judge was judged by the Jews, falsely so called, and by Pilate the governor; was scourged, X was smitten on the cheek, was spit upon; He wore a crown of thorns and a purple robe; He was condemned: He was crucified in reality, X and not in appearance, not in imagination, not in deceit.Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians (Latin version) ch.10 p.71

 

Jp10. Jesus was beaten/scourged/whipped

 

Matthew 26:67; 27:30; Mark 15:17-19; Luke 22:63-64; John 19:2

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that Jesus was given stripes. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 6.9 p.369

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) p.327 “and moreover, the blows, and tongues prepared for accusations.”

Athanasius of Alexandria (338 A.D.) “says that Jesus was smitten [beaten]. Letter 10 ch.7 p.530

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) says that Jesus was scourged. Homilies on John homily 84 John 18:39,40 p.313

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) “And when He had lived among men for thirty years, He was baptized by John, really and not in appearance; and when He had preached the Gospel three years, and done signs and wonders, He who was Himself the Judge was judged by the Jews, falsely so called, and by Pilate the governor; was scourged, was smitten on the cheek, was spit upon; He wore a crown of thorns and a purple robe; He was condemned: He was crucified in reality, and not in appearance, not in imagination, not in deceit.Letter of Ignatius to the Trallians [Latin version] ch.10 p.71

 

Jp11. They cast lots for Jesus’ clothes

 

Matthew 27:35; Mark 15:24; John 19:23-24

 

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “He did not say they ‘shall pierce’ but ‘they pierced’ ‘they counted all my bones.’ And not only does he say this, but he also describes the things which were done by the soldiers. ‘They parted my garments among themselves, and upon my vesture did they cast lots.’ And not only this but he also relates they gave Him gall to eat, and vinegar to drink. For he says ‘they gave me gall for my food, and for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.’ And again another one says that they smote him with a spear, for ‘they shall look on Him whom they pierced.’” homilyon Matthew 26:19 ch.1 p.&&&

 

Jp12. Jesus given vinegar and gall to drink

 

Matthew 27:48; Mark 15:36; Luke 23:36; John 19:29

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says Jesus was given gall to eat. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 6.9 p.369

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) p.327 “see my parched tongue poisoned with gall, and my countenance pale with death.”

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) “Jesus tasted of vinegar mingled with bitter gall.” On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.2

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “‘They parted my garments among themselves, and upon my vesture did they cast lots.’ And not only this but he also relates they gave Him gall to eat, and vinegar to drink. For he says ‘they gave me gall for my food, and for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.’ And again another one says that they smote him with a spear, for ‘they shall look on Him whom they pierced.’ Esaias again in another fashion predicting the cross said ‘He was led as a sheep to the slaughter, and as a lamb before his shearer is dumb, so openeth he not his mouth.’ ‘In his humiliation his judgment was taken away.’” homilyon Matthew 26:19 ch.1 p.&&&

 

Jp13. Thief/robber on the cross in Paradise

 

Luke 23:39-43

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 23:39-43

 

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) discusses the thief “”and I will not withhold My grace; today shalt though be with Me in PAradiose.” On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.3

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says that Paradise was opened to the robber. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.2 p.88

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions the thief on the cross who was admitted to paradise in Catechetical Lectures lecture 13 ch.3 p.83

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that Jesus promised the thief on the cross that he would be with Jesusin Paradise. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.11 p.122

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) mentions the two robbers on the cross, and that Simon of Cyrene carried Jesus’ cross On the Paralytic ch.3 p.214

 

Jp14. Jesus asked God why God had forsaken Him

 

Matthew 27:46; Mark 15:34

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 27:46; Mark 15:34

 

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) tells of Jesus asking why God forsook Him. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.26 p.408

 

Jp15. Darkness or earthquake at Jesus’ death

 

Matthew 27:45-51; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44-45

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 27:45-51; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44-45

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 27:35-51; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44-45

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 27:45-51; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44-45

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says there was darkness at Jesus’ death. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1.11 p.349; Demonstration 21.18 p.395.

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) mentions “a brilliant star in the East” at Jesus’ birth, and “withholding the light of the sun” when Christ was on the cross. On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.3

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) “And the bosom and bars of the earth were torn asunder in order ot receive Him Who was free among the dead.” On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.3

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (partial) “Creation is set free by the mediation of this Sin-offering; the very rocks lose their solidity and strength.” On the Trinity book 3 ch.11 p.65

Athanasius of Alexandria (c.371 A.D.) says “the sun withdrew his beams and the earth trembled and the rocks were rent,…” Personal Letter 61 (To Maximus) ch.2 p.578

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions that the veil was rent, the sun was hidden, the rocks torn asunder, and the dead in graves rose. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29 p.424

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says there was darkness and earthquake when Jesus’ died. Nativity Hymns hymn 3 p.273

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) mentions the darkness over the land when Jesus died.  question 105 p.211

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) mentioned that the sun ran backward in Hezekiah’s time, and the sun was eclipsed for Christ. (First Catechetical Lecture 2 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.12)

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says the sun grew dark during the crucifixion. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.10 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.21 and the rocks were asunder. Lecture 4 ch.11 p.22

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) in discussing Jesus’ crucifixion says “He wrapped the visible world in darkness” and “…for the mysterious doors of Heaven are opened; the rocks are cleft, the dead arise. He dies, but He gives life, and by His death destroys death.” On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “The darkness took possession of the earth, and night appeared at midday, then death was brought to nought, and his tyranny was destroyed: many bodies at least of the saints which slept arose. These things the patriarch declaring beforehand, and demonstrating that, even when crucified, Christ would be terrible, said ‘thou didst lie down and slumber as a lion.’ He did not say thou shalt slumber but thou didst slumber, because it would certainly come to pass. For it is the custom of the prophets in many places to predict things to come as if they were already past. For just as it is impossible that things which have happened should not have happened, so is it impossible that this should not happen, although it be future. On this account they predict things to come under the semblance of past time, indicating by this means the impossibility of their failure, the certainty of their coming to pass. So also spake David, signifying the cross; ‘They pierced my hands and my feet.’ He did not say they ‘shall pierce’ but ‘they pierced’ ‘they counted all my bones.’” homilyon Matthew 26:19 ch.1 p.&&&

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) mentions darkness at Jesus’ death. Homilies on Acts homily1 ch.9 p.126

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the darkness that occurred when Jesus was crucified. City of God book 3 ch.15 p.51

 

pseudo-Justin Martyr (168-200 A.D.) mentions Thallus, writing about the darkness over the land at that time. Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.9 p.277

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Says the sun and moon were actually darkened in Christ’s time. He also mentions “the saving blood of Christ the Lord” Commentary on Joel ch.2 p.119

 

Jp16. Temple veil torn when Jesus died

 

Matthew 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the veil was torn when Jesus died. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.56 p.424

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “For as the lion is terrible not only when he is awake but even when he is sleeping, so Christ also not only before the cross but also on the cross itself and in the very moment of death was terrible, and wrought at that time great miracles, turning back the light of the sun, cleaving the rocks, shaking the earth, rending the veil, alarming the wife of Pilate, convicting Judas of sin, for then he said ‘I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood;’ and the wife of Pilate declared ‘Have nothing to do with that just man, for I have suffered many things in a dream because of Him.’” homilyon Matthew 26:19 ch.1 p.&&&

 

Jp17. Jesus’ bones were not broken

 

John 19:33-37

 

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) quotes “A bone of Him shall not be broken [Exodus 12:46; Numbers 9:12] and says it refers to Jesus. Homilies on John homily 85 verse 36 p.319.

 

 

Jp18. Jesus rose from the dead

 

Matthew 28; Mark 16:1-6; Luke 9:22; 24:1-8; John 20; 1 Corinthians 15:3,4,14,17,18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 28, Mark 16:1-6; Luke 9:22; 24:1-8; John 20

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 28, Mark 16:1-6; Luke 9:22; 24:1-8, John 20

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 28; Mark 16:1-6; Luke 9:22; 24:1-8; John 20

 

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 “one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made… was made man He suffered … rose again, and ascended into heaven. And he shall come again to judge both the quick and the dead.”

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) “And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages, the Divine Logos, through whom all things were made, both those in the heavens and those on the earth; who came down and was made flesh; and suffered; and rose again; and ascended to the heavens;” in Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.26  NPNF second series vol.2 p.28-29.

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) mentions the crucifixon and resurrection of Jesus, after three days. Theophania book 3 ch.61 p.9

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) “was born of the holy virgin; who was crucified, and died, and was buried, and rose again from the dead on the third day, and ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of the Father,” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) “But if your allegation is true, that He was not born, then it will follow undoubtedly that He did not suffer; for it is not possible for one to suffer who was not also born. But if He did not suffer, then the name of the cross is done away with. And if the cross was not endured, then Jesus did not rise from the dead. And if Jesus rose not from the dead, then no other person will rise again.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.49 p.225. See also ibid ch.34 p.208

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) says that Peter was a “witness of the Lord’s resurrection” On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.1

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) “He [Jesus] was the first to rise, as man, for our sakes raising His own Body.” Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.61 p.381

Athanasius of Alexandria (328 A.D.) mentions that Jesus was crucified, died, rose from the dead, and taken up into heaven. Statement of Faith p.84.

Athanasius of Alexandria (330 A.D.) says that Jesus rose from the dead. Easter Letter 2 ch.7 p.512. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (356-360 A.D.) discourse 1 ch.44 p.332 and discourse 4 ch.33 p.441 form Him rising bodily.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) says that Christ suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says that the Lord rose from the dead in ch.1 p.2.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions the resurrection of Jesus. Nisibine Hymns hymn 3 no.6 p.171

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Jesus rose from the dead. Letter 8 ch.3 p.117

First Council of Constantinople (381/382 A.D.) says Christ rose from the dead. Creed ch.1 p.163

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) said that Jesus was resurrected. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.4 p.189

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Jesus rose from the dead. question 107 p.23

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) teaches that Jesus rose from the dead. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.9 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.20

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) that Jesus is buried but rises again. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309. See also On Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) says that Christ rose again on the third day. On Baptism ch.4 p.91

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Christ rose from the dead. Letter 3 ch.9.3 p.49

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that Jesus rose from the dead and assumed into heaven in the same body. Jesus sits on the right hand of God the Father. (Panarion 1.1, as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.356)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) The savior rose from the dead and ate broiled fish. The virgin shall conceive. The Panarion section 2 ch.30,19,4 p.135

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) says that Jesus was “resurrected” and ascended to heaven. Homilies on Acts homily1 ch.1 p.2

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Jesus rose on the third day. City of God book 1 ch.13 p.10

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) mentions the Lord’s resurrection First Conference of the Abbot Moses ch.14 p.218

 

pseudo-Justin Martyr (168-200 A.D.) speaks of “the resurrection of the Savior” in his work on the resurrection of the dead in general. Justin on the Resurrection ch.6 p.296

 

Among heretics

The mild Arian Creed of Antioch (c.341/344) says “Christ was crucifed, and died; was buried, arose agains from the dead on the third day, ascended into the heavens, is seated at the right hand of the Father” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

The Vision of Paul (c.388 A.D. – after Nicea) ch.41 p.162 punishments for those who said Christ did not rise from the dead and that the flesh will not rise again.

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Discusses Christ’s resurrection. Commentary on Jonah preface p.187

There are probably more besides these too, though Gnostics generally believed Christ only rose spiritually.

 

Jp19. Jesus rose on/after three days

 

&&&Council of Nicea (325 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) mentions the crucifixon and resurrection of Jesus, after three days. Theophania book 3 ch.61 p.9

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) “was born of the holy virgin; who was crucified, and died, and was buried, and rose again from the dead on the third day, and ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of the Father,” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Jesus rose after three days. question 64 p.195

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that Jesus rose “After three days”. On the Resurrection p.481

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Christ died and rose on the third day. The Panarion section 3 scholion 15 and 23 p.327

Nicetas translating Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “And with reference to the body, which by circumscription He consecrated as a hallowed place for Himself upon earth, He said,’ Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up again.” Fragment 12.3 p.585

 

Among heretics

The mild Arian Creed of Antioch (c.341/344) says “Christ was crucifed, and died; was buried, arose agains from the dead on the third day, ascended into the heavens, is seated at the right hand of the Father” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

 

Jp20. Jesus ascended to heaven

 

Matthew 28:16-20; Mark 16:19-20; Luke 24:44-53; Ephesians 4:8; (partial) 1 Peter 3:22; (partial, return only) 2 Thessalonians 4:16

 

Ascended: Luke 24:50-51; Mark 16:19; 1 Peter 3:22; 1 Timothy 3:16b

Visible return in power and glory: Revelation 1:7; Matthew 24:26-27, 30; Luke 21:27

Ascended and will return: Acts 1:9-11

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 28:16-20; Luke 24:44-53

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 28:16-20; Luke 24:44-53

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 24:44-52

 

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 “one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made… was made man He suffered … rose again, and ascended into heaven. And he shall come again to judge both the quick and the dead.”

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) “We believe in one God, the Father Almighty; And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages, the Divine Logos, through whom all things were made, both those in the heavens and those on the earth; who came down and was made flesh; and suffered; and rose again; and ascended to the heavens;” in Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.26  NPNF second series vol.2 p.28-29.

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that Jesus ascended to heaven. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 9.24 p.382; 21.10 p.397

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) “was born of the holy virgin; who was crucified, and died, and was buried, and rose again from the dead on the third day, and ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of the Father,” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Athanasius of Alexandria (328 A.D.) mentions that Jesus was crucified, died, rose from the dead, and taken up into heaven. Statement of Faith p.84.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) says that Christ suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) mentions Jesus’ “assumption into Heaven”. Letter 8 ch.3 p.117

First Council of Constantinople (381/382 A.D.) says that Jesus rose from the dead and ascended to heaven. Creed ch.1 p.163

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) Jesus ascended to heaven. Against Eunomius book 12 ch.1 p.242

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) (implied) implies that Jesus ascended to heaven. question 37 p.267 and question 64 p.195

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions Jesus’ resurrection and ascension. Oration on Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus ascended into heaven. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.13 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.22

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus ascends to Heaven and will return to judge the quick and the dead. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that Jesus rose from the dead and assumed into heaven in the same body. Jesus sits on the right hand of God the Father. (Panarion 1.1, as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.356)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Savior’s ascension The Panarion section 3 ch.44 p.345

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) says that Jesus was “resurrected” and ascended to heaven. Homilies on Acts homily1 ch.1 p.2

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says that the Lord will come. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.13 p.132

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity, only one God, distinction between the three but the same substance in indivisible equality. Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.4.7 p.20

 

Among heretics

The mild Arian Creed of Antioch (c.341/344) says “Christ was crucifed, and died; was buried, arose agains from the dead on the third day, ascended into the heavens, is seated at the right hand of the Father” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

 

 

TIMELESS TitleS of Jesus

 

t1. Jesus is the/our Lord

 

Romans 1:4b; 1 Corinthians 8:6; 12:3b; 2 Corinthians 1:2b; Galatians 1:3; Ephesians 1:2; Philippians 1:2; Colossians 1:3; 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 2 Thessalonians 1:1b; 1 Timothy 1:2b; 2 Timothy 1:2; Philemon 3; James 1:1; 1 Peter 1:3; 2 Peter 1:8; and others

(partial) 1 Corinthians 7:22 (Lord’s freedman and Christ’s slave)

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. ?

 

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) “We believe in one God, the Father Almighty; And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son,” in Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.26  NPNF second series vol.2 p.28-29.

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) mentions “Lord Jesus”

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that Jesus is “our Lord”. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1.2 p.346; 6:18 p.374

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions Jesus as our Lord in his Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.27 p.200.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. “our Lord Jesus Christ”. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.57.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, who is “true God”. On the Trinity book 1 ch.38 p.51

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) “while the Church rejoices in Jesus Christ our Lord, to Whom be glory for ever and even. Amen.” On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.4

Athanasius of Alexandria (337 A.D.) says that Christ is our Lord and Savior. Circular Letter ch3 p.92

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says that “the Lord” rose from the deadin ch.1 p.2.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says “Christ is Lord”. On the Spirit ch.8.17 p.11

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (380 A.D._ book 5 ch.7 p.439 “For the Almighty God Himself will raise us up through our Lord Jesus Christ,…”

First Council of Constantinople (381/382 A.D.) says that Jesus is Lord. Creed ch.1 p.163

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) talks of our “Lord Jesus Christ”. Against Eunomius book 10 ch.4 p.226

Council of Gangra (345-381 A.D.) (partial) says for the “Lord’s sake” but it is unclear whether the Son, Father, or both are intended.

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says that Jesus Christ is Lord. question 110 p.120

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Calls Jesus “Lord” and mentions His Father in heaven. Letter 3 ch.5.1 p.44

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Lord Jesus Memra 9 ch.15 p.100

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) quotes 2 Thessalonians 2:8,9 “…whom the Lord Jesus…” as by the Apostle. Commentary on the Apostles’ Creed ch.34 p.556

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) mentions the father, and Holy ghost along with Jesus our Lord. Commentary on Philippians Introductory discourse p.183

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…” Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

Jerome of Stridon (393 A.D.) speaks of the “Lord Jesus”. Against Jovinianus book 2 ch.16 p.401

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) teaches on Thomas seeing Jesus after Jesus’ resurrection and saying to Jesus, “My Lord and My God.” On the Gospel of John Tractate 121 ch.20.5 vol.7 p.438.

 

Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) says that Christ is Lord. Defnese of the Faith p.269

Patrick of Ireland (420-461 A.D.) “[T]here is no other God, nor has there been heretofore, nor will there be hereafter, except God the Father unbegotten, without beginning, from whom is all beginning, upholding all things, as we say, and his Son Jesus Christ, whom we likewise to confess to have always been with the Father--before the world’s beginning . . . Jesus Christ is the Lord and God in whom we believe . . . and who has poured out on us abundantly the Holy Spirit . . . whom we confess and adore as one God in the Trinity of the Sacred NameConfession of St. Patrick 4

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) (implied) says we are servants of the son. The Sentence of the Synod p.307

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) calls “Christ the Lord” Commentary on Amos ch.9 p.170

 

t2. King of Kings and/or Lord of Lords

 

Revelation 19:16

 

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) calls Jesus the King of Kings. Nisibine Hymns hymn 58 no.10 p.211

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) “O Christ, Lord and true King of kings, Only-begotten Son of God, Word and Wisdom of the Father,Defense before Constantius ch.17 p.244

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) mentions that Jesus is the King of Kings. Commentary on the Song of Songs prologue p.51

Pope Celestine to the Synod of Ephesus (432 A.D.) p.221 (partial) mentions the King of Kings, but does not explicitly say it is Jesus.

 

t3. Jesus is the Alpha and Omega

 

Revelation 1:8

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes “John in the Apocalypse” saying Jesus is the Alpha and Omega. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.28 p.444

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. (partial) calls Jesus the first and last. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

 

t4. Jesus is the Door or Gate

 

John 10:7

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 10:7

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Door. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 17.2 p.387

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) “For in It the Lord becomes our guide to the Kingdom of Heaven and to His own Father, saying, ‘I am the way’ and ‘the door,’ and ‘through me all must enter.’” Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.61 p.381

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Christ is Shepherd, King, Physician, Bridegroom, Way, Door, Fountain, Bread, Axe, and Rock.. On the Spirit ch.8.17 p.11

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Door and the Shepherd. First Catechetical Lecture 10 ch.3 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.57

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) calls Jesus the door. Against Eunomius book 10 ch.1 p.220

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Jesus is the door. question 34 p.248

Gregory Nanzianzen (330-391 A.D.) says that Jesus is word, door, lamb, shepherd, high priest, first born. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.98 p.224

Gregory Nanzianzen (330-391 A.D.) (partial) says that the mysterious doors of Heaven are opened; the rocks are cleft, the dead arise.” (Jesus opens the door, but does not say Jesus is the door though.) On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…” Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that no doors bring escape except the One that says “I am the door” [John 10:9]. The City of God book 7 ch.8 p.127

 

t5. Christ is the Image of God

 

Colossians 1:15, (implied) Colossians 2:9; Hebrews 1:3

 

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) says that Christ is the Son of God, the Mediator, and the Image of God from eternity past Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.45

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that the Son is the image of the Father. Of the Synods ch.18 p.8

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that Jesus is in the image of God. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.18.49 p.375

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Christ is the image of God. On the Spirit book 6 ch.13 p.9

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says Jesus is the image of God On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.48 p.208. See also Concerning Repentance (c.384 A.D.) book 1 ch.9 no.41 p.336

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Jesus it he image of God. question 109 p.76

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…” Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

 

t6. Jesus is the/our Rock/Stone/Cornerstone

 

Acts 4:10-11; 1 Corinthians 10:4; Ephesians 2:20; 1 Peter 2:4,6-7

~Matthew 21:42: ~Mark 12:10; ~Luke 20:17-19

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Stone. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1.1 p.345-346

Athanasius of Alexandria (339 A.D.) says, “they [believers] are founded upon a rock; which is Christ.” Easter Letter 11 ch.4 p.534

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Stone and the Cornerstone in ch.3 p.166.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Christ is Shepherd, King, Physician, Bridegroom, Way, Door, Fountain, Bread, Axe, and Rock.. On the Spirit ch.8.17 p.11

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says that Jesus is the stone. question 20 p.139

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) says, “Christ is the cornerstone” Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.10.111 p.129

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Jesus is the cornerstone. Letter 3 ch.13.1 p.54

Gregory of Nyssa (378-397 A.D.) says that the rok is Christ. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.1 p.36

John Chrysostom (400-401 A.D.) says Jesus is our Rock. Homilies on Acts homily13 p.84

 

t7. Jesus is the Light or Light of Light

 

John 1:4-9; 8:12; 9:5

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 8:12; 8:5

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) sayJesus is the Light. Theophania book 4 ch.7 p.2

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Light. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1.10 p.345-348

The Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) says Jesus is “Light of Light” On the Councils (=de Synodis) part 1 ch.26 p.462-464

First Council of Sirmium (351 A.D.) says Jesus is “Light of Light” On the Councils (=de Synodis) part 1 ch.26 p.464

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) calls Jesus the Light Hymns on the Nativity hymn 3 p.235

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says Jesus is the Light Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.54 p.377

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) calls Jesus God, the Word of God, Life, and Light in Against Eunomius book 10 ch.4 p.225

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) “Believe also in the Son of God, the one and only, our Lord Jesus Christ, who is God begotten of God, who is life begotten of life, who is light begotten of light, who is in all things like unto the begetter, and who did not come to exist in time but was before all the ages, eternally and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father. He is the Wisdom of God” First Catechetical Lectures lecture 4 ch.7 p.20.

 

t8. Jesus is our Shepherd

 

Matthew 2:6; 26:31; Mark 14:27; John 10:11,14; Hebrews 13:20; 1 Peter 2:25; 5:4; Revelation 7:17

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 2:6; 26:31; Mark 14:17; John 10:11,14

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) says Jesus is the Shepherd. Theophania book 2 ch.83 p.11

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that Jesus is our Shepherd. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 17.2 p.387

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that Jesus is our Shepherd. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.12 p.313

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) calls Jesus “the Shepherd of all” Hymns on the Nativity Hymn 3 p.232.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Christ is Shepherd, King, Physician, Bridegroom, Way, Door, Fountain, Bread, Axe, and Rock.. On the Spirit ch.8.17 p.11

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions Jesus being from the virgin, the angels glorifying Jesus, and calls Jesus the Lamb and the Shepherd. The star led the Magi to worship and offer gifts. Jesus was baptized, and fasted, and was tempted. Devils were cast out and diseases healed. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.24 p.210

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus is word, door, lamb, shepherd, high priest, first born. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.98 p.224

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Christ is the bishop and shepherd of our souls. Letter 1 ch.7.2 p.26

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that Christ is our Shepherd. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.11 p.119 and p.120.

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) (implied) says “that He [Jesus] might gather the Church into one flock, is Himself the true Ecclesiast; for an ecclesiast takes his title from his function of assembling the ecclesia.” … Christ becomes our Ecclesiast too,” Commentary on the Song of Songs prologue p.51-52

Niceta of Remesianus (366-415 A.D.) taught that Jesus was the Good Shepherd. Instructions for Candidates for Baptism ch.6 p.204

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) says that Jesus is the good Shepherd, who laid down His own life for His sheep” See also On the Gospel of John Tractate 123 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.447.

 

t9. Jesus Christ is the Lamb of God

 

John 1:29; Revelation 5:5

1 Peter 1:19 (lamb without blemish or defect)

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 1:29

 

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) (partial) paraphrases Isaiah 53:7f “He was brought as a Lamb to the slaughter” as “the prophecy of Esias” [Isaiah] On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.1

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) mentions Jesus as the sheep and lamb. His sacrifice was purified by His precious blood. Easter Letter 1 ch.9 p.509

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) teaches that Jesus is the Lamb of God. Nativity Hymns hymn 2 p.228

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) calls Jesus the “Lamb of God” question 14 p.181

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Lamb of God. Catechical Lectures Lecture 13 ch.2 p.82

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) mentions that Jesus is the Lamb as well as God. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309. See also where he calls Jesus the Lamb in Orations on the Holy Lights ch.16 p.358

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions Jesus being from the virgin, the angels glorifying Jesus, and calls Jesus the Lamb and the Shepherd. The star led the Magi to worship and offer gifts. Jesus was baptized, and fasted, and was tempted. Devils were cast out and diseases healed. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.24 p.210

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus is word, door, lamb, shepherd, high priest, first born. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.98 p.224

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) Christ is the lamb. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.15 p.134

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) speaks of the lamb that takes away the sin of the world. On the Trinity book 15 ch.24.43 p.223

 

t10. Jesus is a Lion / as a lion’s whelp

 

Revelation 5:5

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus was as a lion. Catechical Lectures Lecture 10 ch.3 p.57-58

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that a title for Jesus was a lion’s whelpl [cub]  Answer to Eunomius’ Second Book p.280

 

t11. Son/Jesus was/was begotten before the morning star

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) (mixed) Said Jesus was before th emorning star. However, he interprets the morning star was the star of Bethlehem, and says that Jesus was incarnated in the womb prior to that.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) “But that the Son has no beginning of being, but before He ws made man was ever with the Father, John makes clear in his first Epistle,” and quotes 1 John 1:1-2. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.26 p.443.. See also ibid discourse 4 ch.24 p.442.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) Jesus was “before the morning star” Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.27 and 28 p.444.

 

t12. Jesus/the cross the wisdom and power of God

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) says that Jesus is the power and wisdom of God. Theophania book 1 ch.32 p.4

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) (partial) “through whom [Jesus] all things in the heavens and upon the earth, both visible and invisible, were made; who is the Word, and Wisdom, and Power, and Life, and true Light;” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.45

Athanasius of Alexandria (c.371 A.D.) “the crucified Christ is at once Lord of Glory, and the Power of God and Wisdom of God.” Letter 61 ch.1 p.578

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that we preach that “Crhist is the power of God and the wisdom of God, always changeless, always imperishable…” Letters of Gregory of Nyssa Letter 17 p.544.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Christ is the wisdom and power of God. On the Spirit ch.6.13 p.9

 

Among heretics

The Mild Arian Creed of Antioch Creed (c.341/344 A.D.) (partial) “through whom [Jesus] all things in the heavens and upon the earth, both visible and invisible, were made; who is the Word, and Wisdom, and Power, and Life, and true Light;” Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 p.46 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

 

t13. Christ is the Holy One of God

 

p88 Mark 2:1-16 (350 A.D.) (implied, the demon is speaking) Mark 2:24

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) “We know Thee, who Thou art, the holy God,’” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.48 p.225

 

t14. Jesus / the Son is the Logos

 

John 1:1 (partial, does not say Jesus or the Son here)

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says the Son is the Logos in John 1.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Logos. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.22 p.442

 

t15. [Christ] the King/Lord of glory

 

1 Corinthians 2:6-8

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says Christ is the Lord of glory. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.38 p.328

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) (implied) “He ‘Christ’ is separated from His authority [in Eunomius’ view], where can heresy possibly discern the subordinationto authority of the King of glory?” Against Eunomius book 2 ch.11 p.122

 

 

INCARNATE TitleS of Jesus

 

i1. Jesus is the first-born (not just of Mary)

 

Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:15; 1:18; Hebrews 1:6; 12:23; Revelation 1:5

 

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.336 & 340 A.D.) says Jesus was the first born if Creation, having been incarnated and resurrected. Even though Lazarus was raised before Him, Jesus was firstborn in importance.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) “as Paul in another place calls him ‘first-born of all creation’ (Colossians 1:15). But by calling him First-born, He shews that He is not a Creature, but Offspring of the Father. For it would be inconsistent with his deity for Him to be called a creature. For all things were created by the Father through the Son, but the Son alone was eternally begotten from the Father, whence God the Word is ‘first-born of all creation,’ unchangeable from unchangeable. However, the body which He wore for our sakes is a creature.” Statement of Faith ch.3 p.85. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (356-360 A.D.) discourse 2 ch.61 p.381

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) “Lo! The First-born has opened unto us His feast as a treasure-house.” Hymns on the Nativity Hymn 4 p.235. See also Nisibine Hymns hymn 38 no.7 p.200.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) calls Jesus the firstborn. Against Eunomius

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) calls Jesus “the first-begotten of all creation.” On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.48 p.208

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) has an extensive discussion of how Christ is the first born. After differentiating being Christ being called firstborn” but not “first created”, says one meaning is “firstborn from the dead” (Colossians 1:18; Romans 8:29) refers to the first resurrected [he forgot to say in a glorified body]. “So also the word ‘firstborn,’ in the sense of a foundation. But this doth not show the creatures to be consubstantial with Him; but that all things are through Him, and in Him are upheld.” Homilies on Colossians homily 3 p.270-271

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) says that Christ is the firstborn of all creation. Commentary on the Song of Songs ch.1 p.59

 

i2. Christ is the Second/Last Adam

 

Romans 5:14-16

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Second Adam. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 6.18 p.374

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) calls Jesus the second Adam. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.51 p.336

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (implied) “This He joined to His Spirit and made His own. And this is the marriage of the Lord, joined together to one flesh, that according to that 'great sacrament, 'might be these 'two in one flesh, Christ and the Church. 'From this marriage is born the Christian people, the Spirit of the Lord coming from above; and straightway the heavenly seed being poured upon and mingled with the substance of our souls, we grow in the bowels of our mother, and coming forth from her womb are made alive in Christ. Whence the Apostle, 'The first Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening Spirit.' Thus Christ begetteth in the Church by His Priests, as says the same Apostle, 'For in Christ Jesus have I begotten you. 'And so the seed of Christ, that is, the Spirit of God produces, by the hands of the Priests, the new man conceived in the womb of our Mother, and received at the birth of the font, faith presiding over the marriage rite. For neither will he seem to be engrafted into the Church, who hath not believed, nor he to be born again of Christ, who hath not himself received the Spirit. We must believe therefore that we can be born. For so saith Philip, 'If thou believest . . . thou mayest. 'Christ therefore must be received that He may beget, for thus saith the Apostle John, 'As many as received Him, to them gave He power to become the sons of God.'Discourse on Baptism ch.7 p.&&&

 

i3. Jesus called Emmanuel (God with us)

 

Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:23

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 1:23

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) Jesus is called Emmanuel. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.55 p.338

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Christ was called Emmanuel. On Baptism ch.3.1 p.89

 

i4. Jesus is our High Priest

 

Hebrews 2:17; 3:1; 4:14; 8:1

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) discusses Jesus’ high priesthood and godhead in Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.14.10 p.353. See also discourse 2 ch.7 p.351 and discourse 1 ch.8 p.353

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Jesus is the High Priest. Letter 8 ch.8 p.120

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.6 p.439 “believing in the one and the only true God and Father, through Jesus Christ, the great High Priest, and Redeemer of our souls, and rewarder of our sufferings.”

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus is word, door, lamb, shepherd, high priest, first born. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.98 p.224

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that Christ is a High Priest after the Order of Melchizedek. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.2 .184

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says Jesus is out great High Priest. The City of God book 10 ch.6 p.184

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) (partial) discusses how Christ is both King and Priest after the order of Melchizedek. He does not actually say “High Priest” though. The City of God book 17 ch.17 p.355

 

i5. Jesus is our Physician/Doctor

 

Mark 2:17 (Implied)

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) says Jesus is our Physician. Theophania book 2 ch.86 p.11

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) “that the Word Himself might be made Flesh, and by taking the Flesh, restore it wholly. For to Him, as to a physician, man ‘was delivered’ to heal the bite of the serpent; as to life to raise what was dead; as to light, to illumine the darkness…” On Luke 10:22 ch.2 p.87

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Physician. Nativity Hymns hymn 2 p.228

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Christ is Shepherd, King, Physician, Bridegroom, Way, Door, Fountain, Bread, Axe, and Rock.. On the Spirit ch.8.17 p.11

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) teaches that Jesus is our Physician. On the Spirit ch.8.18 p.12

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says that both the Father and the Son are our Physician. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.22 p.119 and p.120

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) calls Jesus the Physician. Commentary on Acts homily 19 p.126

 

i6. Jesus is the Way

 

John 14:6

 

Note that references merely saying Jesus showed us the way are not included here.

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 14:6

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says Jesus is the Way. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 17.2 p.387

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) “For in It the Lord becomes our guide to the Kingdom of Heaven and to His own Father, saying, ‘I am the way’ and ‘the door,’ and ‘through me all must enter.’” Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.61 p.381

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Christ is Shepherd, King, Physician, Bridegroom, Way, Door, Fountain, Bread, Axe, and Rock.. On the Spirit ch.8.17 p.11

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Way. On the Spirit ch.8.18 p.12

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Way. Against Eunomius book 10 ch.1 p.221

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…” Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

 

i7. Jesus is the Truth

 

John 14:6

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 14:6

 

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) &&&

Athanasius ofAlexandria (&&&) &&&

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) quotes John 14:6. question 125 p.341

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) in speaking of the Son says, “Who has said, ‘I am theTruth’” Against Eunomius book 2 ch.6 p.108

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…” Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

 

Among heretics

X Mandaeans (>350?) said that Jesus altered the words of truth. Ginza p.550

 

i8. Jesus is our/the Life

 

John 10:10; 14:6; Colossians 3:3; 1 John 5:11-12

(implied) John 4:14; Galatians 2:20

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; John 14:6

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 14:6-7

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) calls Jesus the Life. Theophania book 3 ch.61 p.8

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) &&&

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says that Jesus is our Life. On the Opinions of Dionysius ch.18-19 p.183

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Jesus is the Life. question 40 p.152

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&&

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) &&&

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) “For life is immortality, and the Lord is that life, Who said, ‘I am the Life.’” Against Eunomius book 2 ch.4 p.107

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…” Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

 

i9. Jesus is the Bread or Bread of Life

 

John 6:35

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 6:35

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (335 A.D.) quotes John 6:35. Easter Letter 7 ch.10 p.527

Aquila in discussing Hippolytus says that Jesus says He is the bread of life. Fragment 1 Genesis 49:16-20 (ANF vol.5) p.166

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Christ is Shepherd, King, Physician, Bridegroom, Way, Door, Fountain, Bread, Axe, and Rock.. On the Spirit ch.8.17 p.11

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says Jesus is our Bread. Answer to Eunomius’ Second Book p.280

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) quotes John 5:41-42 about being the bread of heaven. Homilies on John homily 46 John 6:41-42 p.164

 

i10. Jesus is the Vine

 

John 16:1-7

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 16:1-7

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says Jesus is the vine. On the Opinions of Dionysius ch.10 p.180

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Jesus calls himself the vine (quoting John 15:1-2) Letter 3 ch.16.1 p.57

Gregory of Nyssa (382-397 A.D.) says Jesus is the Vine. Answer to Eunomius’ Second Book p.280

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that Jesus is the vine. Homilies on John homily76 p.278-279

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) “I am the true Vine; His heavenly Father is the Husbandman who makes it in the press.” Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.6 p.186

 

i11. Jesus is the Messiah

 

“Jesus Christ”, “Christ Jesus”, and “the Christ” are not included here

 

Luke 9:20

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 9:20

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372 A.D.) “For the Psalmist, having called Him the Anointed One, that is Messiah or Christ, fortwith declares His human birth by saying, Harken, O daughter, and see; the only difference being that Gabriel addresses Mary by an epithet, because he is of another race from her, while David fitly calls her his own daughter, because it was from him that she should spring.Athanasius on Psalms

 

i12. Jesus a star rising out of Jacob

 

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says that Jesus is the star rising from Jacob. Question 39 p.161 and question 63 p.161

 

i13. Christ is of the root of Jesse

 

Luke 3:32

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Like 3:32

 

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) mentions Jeconias and Christ being the root of Jesse. Basil to Amphilochius Letter 236 ch.3 p.277

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 11:1 “of which it was well prophesied: ‘A rod shall go forth from the root of Jesse, and a flower shall rise from his root. The root of Jesses the patriarch is the family of the Jews, Mary is the rod, Christ the flower of Mary, Who, about to spread the good odour of faith throughout the whole world, budded forth from a virgin womb, …” On the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.38 p.119

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “as a young child, as a root in a dry ground;' [Isa 53:2] and by the dry ground he means the virgin’s womb. And again 'unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given,'[Isa 9:6] and again 'there shall come forth a rod out of the root of Jesse, and a flower shall spring out of his root.' [Isa 11:1]Against Marcionites and Manichaeans ch.3 p.&&&

 

i14. Jesus is the descendent/seed of David

 

(The phrase “Son of David” does not specify biological or adopted, so that is not counted here.)

 

Luke 2 Romans 1:3; 2 Timothy 2:8 (implied Luke 3:21-31)

(partial) Matthew 1:6; Luke 1:69 is legal, not biological

(partial) Luke 1:32 (not specified if father/son is biological or legal)

Revelation 22:16

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 2; John 7:42

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (implied) “Nay, He does not deign even to hear it said that He is David’s son.” Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.3 p.207.

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) calls Jesus the Son of David. Hymns on the Nativity Hymn 4 p.235

Athanasius of Alexandria (339 A.D.) says that Jesus was the seed of David. Easter Letter 11 ch.4 p.533

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) says Jesus is from the root of David. question 44 p.271 and question 45 p.167 and question 54 p.167

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.) question  p.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) call Christ the “seed of David of Judah” On the Psalms Psalm 76.1 p.355

 

i15. Jesus of Nazareth

 

Matthew 2:23-23; 4:12-13; 26:71

Mark 1:24; 10:27

Luke 2:39; 4:14-16; 4:34; 18:37; 24:19

John 1:45; 18:5; 18:7; 19:19

Acts 2:22; 3:6; 4:10; 6:14; 10:38; 22:8; 26:9

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 26:71; Mark 1:24; 10:27; Luke 4:34; 18:37; 24:19; John 1:45; 18:7

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.324-c.337 A.D.) says that Jesus was from Nazareth.. Onomasticon p.7

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) at the Garden of Gethsemene they sought “Jesus of Nazareth” On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord p.1

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) refers to “Jesus of Nazareth”. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.7 p.178

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) mentions “Jesus of Nazareth”. On the Spirit ch.12.28 p.18

John Chrysostom (400/401 A.D.) refers to Jesus of Nazareth. Commentary on Acts homily 18 p.149. See also Commentary on Acts homily 5 p.33; homily 15 p.95.

 

i16. Jesus is the first fruits

 

&&&Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) “and He who was the 'First-born of creation’ should become 'first-born’ of the 'brethren,’ and again should rise 'first-fruits of the dead.’ This Paul the blessed Apostle teaches in his writings;Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.21.75 p.&&&

 

i17. Jesus is the son of Abraham

 

Matthew 1:1,18

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 1:1,18

 

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that Jesus is the seed of Abraham. Homilies on Galatians homily 3 verse 14 p.17

 

i18. The sign of Jonah/Jonas refers to Jesus

 

Matthew 12:39-41; Luke 11:29-32

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 12:39-41; Luke 11:29-32

 

&&&John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) “Wherefore He [Jesus] will not give them a sign; and before, when they came and asked Him, He made them the same answer, 'A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas.' [Mt 16:4] Only then the answer was clear, now it is more ambiguous. This He doth on account of their extreme insensibility; for He who prevented them without their asking, and gave them signs, would never when they asked have turned away from them, had He not seen that  their minds were wicked and false, and their intention treacherous. Think how full of wickedness the question itself was at the outset. When they ought to have applauded Him for His earnestness and zeal, when they ought to have been astonished that He cared so greatly for the House, they reproach Him, saying, that it was lawful to traffic, and unlawful for any to stop their traffic, except he should show them a sign. What saith Christ? [Jn 2:19] 'Destroy this Temple, and in three days I will raise it up.'Homilies on John homily23 p.&&&

 

i19. Christ is the/our bridegroom

 

John 3:29 (implied)

Revelation 21:9

Revelation 21:2,17 (implied)

Jeremiah 2:2,32 (partial, the LORD)

Isaiah 61:10 (partial the LORD)

 

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 3:29 (implied)

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Bridegroom. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 6.1 p.362

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) translating Archelaus “And the Lord Jesus Christ Himself gave His testimony to what we affirm, when He said with His heavenly voice, ‘Can ye make the children of the bride-chamber fast so long as the bridegroom is with them?’ And again, He did not actually reject circumcision; but we should rather say that He received in Himself and in our stead the cause of circumcision, relieving us by what He Himself endured, and not permitting us to have to suffer any pain to no purpose.” (Archelaus is speaking) Disputation with Manes ch.42 p.217

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) says that Christ is our bridegroom. History of the Arians book 4 ch.32 p.280

Optatus of Milevis (373-375 A.D.) says that Christ is the bridegroom in book 5 p.243.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says Christ is Shepherd, King, Physician, Bridegroom, Way, Door, Fountain, Bread, Axe, and Rock.. On the Spirit ch.8.17 p.11

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) says that Christ is our “Bridegroom” On the Spirit ch.8.18 p.12

 

 

Purpose Of the Life of Jesus

 

p1. Jesus sent by the Father

 

John 17:18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) John 5:23,36-37

Sinaitic Old Syriac (SyrS) (350-400 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-