What Ephesus and Later Christians Taught on Experience and Practice

Jan 20, 2024 version - unfinished

 

Here are the topics of what four or more Pre-Nicene writers said, and none contradicted. The content is the writers from the Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) and beyond. You can read the quotes and context of them at www.archive.orghttp://www.ccel.org, and www.tertullian.org.

 


Contents

Adam to Isaac Individiuals. 1

Ai1. Adam... 1

Ai2. Eve. 1

Ai3. Abel 1

Ai4. Cain murdered his brother/Abel 1

Ai5. Seth [son of Adam and Eve] 1

Ai6. Enoch. 1

Ai7. Methuselah. 1

Ai8. Lamech. 1

Ai9. Noah got drunk. 1

Ai10. Ham [son of Noah] 1

Ai11. Shem [son of Noah] 1

Ai12. Japheth [son of Noah] 1

Ai13. Canaan [son of Ham] 1

Ai14. Nimrod/Nimrud. 1

Ai15. Abraham [friend of God] 1

Ai17. Sarai / Sarah. 1

Ai16. Lot or his wife. 1

Ai18. Hagar 1

Ai19. Ishmael 1

Ai20. Isaac. 1

Isaac to Egypt Individiuals. 1

Ie1. Abraham offered Isaac as a sacrifice. 1

Ie2. Rebecca [wife of Isaac] 1

Ie3. Esau. 1

Ie4. Laban [Jacob’s father-in-law] 1

Ie5. Jacob. 1

Ie6. Leah [wife of Jacob] 1

Ie7. Rachel [wife of Jacob] 1

Ie8. Reuben [patriarch] 1

Ie9. Simeon [patriarch] 1

Ie10. Levi (patriarch or tribe) 1

Ie11. Judah (patriarch or tribe) 1

Ie12. Tamar / Thamar 1

Ie13. Dan (patriarch or tribe) 1

Ie14. Naphtali (patriarch or tribe) 1

Ie15. Gad (patriarch or tribe) 1

Ie16. Zebulun/Zebulon (patriarch, tribe, or land) 1

Ie17. Joseph. 1

Ie18. Benjamin (patriarch or tribe) 1

Ie19. Ephraim (patriarch or tribe) 1

Ie20 Manasseh (patriarch or tribe) 1

Ie21. The patriarchs. 1

Ie22. The twelve tribes [of Israel] 1

Ie23. Job and his sufferings/patience. 1

Exodus to Solomon Individuals. 1

Es1. Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt 1

Es2. Miriam [sister of Moses] 1

Es3. Aaron [brother of Moses] 1

Es4. Pharaoh during the Exodus. 1

Es5. Korah. 1

Es6. Balaam or his donkey. 1

Es6.5. Caleb [son of Jephunneh] 1

Es7. Joshua conquered Canaan. 1

Es8. Rahab [of Jericho] 1

Es9. Jephthah [the judge] 1

Es10. Gideon. 1

Es11. Samson. 1

Es12. Eli [priest and mentor of Samuel] 1

Es13. Samuel 1

Es14. Saul [son of Kish] 1

Es15. David. 1

Es16. [King] Saul persecuted David. 1

Es17. Nathan [the prophet, not the son of David] 1

Es18. Uriah [the Hittite] 1

Es20. King Solomon. 1

Es21. Hannah, mother of Samuel 1

Es22. Jesse [father of David] 1

Es23. Dathan and Abiram... 1

Es24. Hiram [king of Tyre] 1

Es25. Deborah [godly judge] 1

DIVIDED KINGDOM ON OT Individuals. 1

Dk1. Jeroboam... 1

Dk2. Ahab. 1

Dk3. Elijah was a godly prophet 1

Dk4. Hezekiah [godly king] 1

Dk5. Elisha. 1

Dk6. Naaman [the Syrian leper] 1

Dk7. Jonah in the fish or warned Ninevites. 1

Dk8. Sennacherib. 1

Dk9. Josiah [the godly king] 1

Dk10. Jeconiah/Jechoniah. 1

Dk11. Nebuchadnezzar [King of Babylon] 1

Dk12. Zedekiah. 1

Dk13. Ezekiel 1

Dk14. Daniel 1

Dk15. The Three Youths in Daniel 1

Dk16. Cyrus [King of Persia] 1

Dk17. Darius [King of Persia] 1

Dk18. Artaxerxes/Ahasuerus [King of Persia] 1

Dk19. Ezra the scribe/prophet 1

Dk20. Zerubbabel 1

Dk21. Joshua the high priest (in Zechariah) 1

Dk22. Antiochus [Epiphanes] of Syria. 1

Dk23. Rehoboam... 1

Dk24. The prophets are holy. 1

GOSPEL Individuals. 1

Go1. Mary mother of Jesus was blessed. 1

Go2. Elizabeth [mother of John the Baptist] 1

Go3. Zechariah, husband of Elizabeth. 1

Go4. John the Baptist lept in Elizabeth’s womb. 1

Go5. Shepherds at Jesus’ birth. 1

Go6. The Magi / wise men came to Christ 1

Go7. Simeon [at Jesus’ dedication] 1

Go8. Anna [at Jesus’ decidation] 1

Go9. Herod’s slaughter in Bethlehem... 1

Go10. John the Baptist 1

Go11. Andrew the disciple/apostle. 1

Go12. Peter the disciple/apostle. 1

Go13. Philip the disciple/apostle. 1

Go14. Thomas the disciple/apostle. 1

Go15. James son of Zebedee the disciple/apostle. 1

Go16. [Samaritan] Woman at the well 1

Go17. Mary Magdalene. 1

Go18. Jesus’ 70/72 disciples. 1

Go19. Martha. 1

Go20. Zacchaeus. 1

Go21. Judas betrayed Jesus. 1

Go22. High Priest Caiaphas/Herod tried Jesus. 1

Go23. Herod tried Jesus. 1

Go24. Pontius Pilate sentenced Jesus. 1

Go25. Barabbas. 1

Go26. John the Baptist was beheaded. 1

Go27. Annas the former high priest 1

Go28. John the Baptist ate locusts and wild honey. 1

Go29. Judas hanged himself. 1

Go30. Jesus’ twelve disciples. 1

Individuals AFTER THE GOSPELS. 1

N1. Matthias. 1

N2. James the Lord’s brother 1

N3. The Ethiopian eunuch. 1

N4. Stephen [the martyr] 1

N5. Cornelius the centurion. 1

N6. Saul of Tarsus persecuted the church. 1

N7. Paul was a godly apostle. 1

N8. Barnabas, companion of Paul 1

N9. Silas, companion of Paul 1

N10. Apollos. 1

N11. Paul was in prison/bonds. 1

N12. Paul was persecuted besides prison. 1

N13. Timothy the individual (not just the book) 1

N14. James [the disciple] was beheaded / slain. 1

N15. Peter was in Rome. 1

Experiencing God.. 1

X1. Our bodies are God’s temple/temples. 1

X2. God/Christ lives inside of Christians. 1

X3. Christians escape corruption. 1

X4. Believers are set free. 1

X5. God renews us. 1

X6. We are children of light 1

X7. God strengthens us. 1

X8. We are friends of Christ 1

X9. Pure in heart will see God. 1

X10. None shall separate us from God’s love. 1

X11. The Lord disciplines or corrects us. 1

X13. Please the Lord. 1

X14. Glory in the Lord. 1

X15. Seek wisdom from God or His word. 1

X16. Be peaceful, kind, or good. 1

X17. Be strong/strengthened. 1

X18. God’s people mourn. 1

X19. Fear of the Lord/God. 1

X20. We adore/glory in the cross. 1

X21. God’s holy people. 1

X22. Speaking of shame. 1

X23. Put unrighteousness/adversary to shame. 1

X24. Do not be ashamed of the cross/Christ 1

X25. Flesh and spirit war against each other 1

X26. Seek the Lord. 1

X27. Blessed are the poor in spirit 1

X28. There is sin unto death. 1

NOT OF THIS WORLD.. 1

n1. We need to repent and come to God. 1

n2. Love God / the Lord. 1

n3. Obey God. 1

n4. Follow Jesus or His example. 1

n5. Bear/Take up the cross, and follow Christ 1

n6. Struggle to live a victorious life. 1

n7. Put on the armor of God/righteousness. 1

n8. Faithful Christians still get sick. 1

n9. Suffer persecution or martyrdom... 1

n10. No sorcery, witchcraft, or magic. 1

n11. Exorcism or casting out devils. 1

n12. Live a worthy life. 1

n13. Mortify earthly nature/deeds of the body. 1

n14. Be clothed with/in Christ 1

n15. You cannot serve two masters. 1

n16. Martyrs are blessed. 1

n17. Losing your life and finding it 1

n18. Believers are servants of God. 1

n19. We must persevere. 1

n20. We are the light of the world. 1

n21. We wrestle against the devil or sin. 1

n22. Keep away from works of darkness. 1

n23. We are aliens awaiting our eternal home. 1

n24. Don’t be bitter 1

n25. Believers are transformed [now] 1

n26. The Kingdom of God is within you. 1

n27. Walk in newness of life. 1

n28. Some are worthy of martyrdom... 1

PRAYER AND FASTING.. 1

Pr1. Prayer to God is important 1

Pr2. Pray to the Father 1

Pr3. Pray to Jesus. 1

Pr4. Pray at all times or in any place. 1

Pr5. Pray daily. 1

Pr6. Praise God. 1

Pr7. Thankfulness/gratitude to God. 1

Pr8. Confess to God. 1

Pr9. Forgive us as we forgive others. 1

Pr10. Not into temptation. 1

Pr11. Deliver us from evil 1

Pr12. The Lord’s Prayer 1

Pr13. Lift up hands to God. 1

Pr14. Bless or pray for those who persecute you. 1

Pr15. Pray for rulers and those in authority. 1

Pr16. Incense of the prayers of the saints. 1

Pr17. Pray for God’s kingdom to come. 1

Pr18. Pray for others / intercessory prayer 1

Pr19. Pray for God’s mercy for us. 1

Pr20. Fasting to God is good. 1

Pr21. Pray in secret 1

Pr22. Pray together (two or three) 1

Pr23. Persist/persevere in prayer 1

Individual Practice. 1

I1. Be godly. 1

I2. Keep the commandments of Christ/God. 1

I3. Worship God in spirit and truth. 1

I4. Depart from evil 1

I5. Do not provoke God. 1

I6. Do not worship any images or idols. 1

I7. Do not worship other gods. 1

I8. Do not make/invent idols. 1

I9. Stars have no influence on people. 1

I10. Do not get drunk. 1

I11. Eating meat is fine. 1

I12. Do not be a glutton or slave of your belly. 1

I13. Vanity, or avoid vain things. 1

I14. Virtue of prudence. 1

I15. Work hard, don’t be lazy. 1

I16. It’s bad to be a hypocrite. 1

I17. Rule of faith / truth. 1

I18. Submit to God. 1

I19. Have self-control 1

Loving Others. 1

L1. Love all / your neighbor as yourself. 1

L2. Forgive others/enemies. 1

L3. Do to others as you would them do to you. 1

L4. Do not get revenge. 1

L5. Do not hold a grudge. 1

L6. Do not murder 1

L7. Abortion is evil/murder 1

L8. Care for the sick. 1

L9. Practice hospitality. 1

L10. Love covers a multitude of sins. 1

L11. Show mercy to others. 1

L14. Cruelty is bad. 1

L15. Visit those in prison. 1

L17. Love your enemies. 1

L18. Turn the other cheek. 1

L19. Must not poison others. 1

Speech.. 1

Sp1. Have pure speech. 1

Sp2. No filthy talk. 1

Sp3. If we deny Christ He will deny us. 1

Sp4. Forsake lies. 1

Sp6. Do not swear oaths. 1

Sp7. Don’t use flattery (on others) 1

Sp8. Slandering people is bad. 1

Sp9. Do not be a gossip or chatterer 1

Sp10. Confess your sins to others. 1

Sp8. Don’t swear false oaths / swear falsely. 1

Sp11. Don’t boast about yourself. 1

Sp12. Don’t be a reviler 1

Sp13. Bless those who revile/curse you. 1

Sp14. Do not murmur 1

Sp15. Do not grumble. 1

PEACE AND CONTENTMENT. 1

Pc1. Have peace. 1

Pc2. The peace of God. 1

Pc3. God is the God of peace. 1

Pc4. Don’t worry about tomorrow / lilies of the field. 1

Pc5. Lose your life for My sake to find it 1

Pc6. We should be peacemakers or bring/seek peace. 1

Pc7. We rejoice when afflicted. 1

Pc8. We rejoice – besides being afflicted. 1

Pc9. Be content with what you have. 1

Pc10. No selfish ambition. 1

Pc11. Do not envy or be jealous. 1

Pc12. No rivalry. 1

Pc13. No strife / striving in the flesh. 1

Pc14. Do not covet 1

Pc15. Be humble or not proud. 1

Pc16. Don’t be wise in your own eye. 1

Pc17. We should be conceited. 1

Pc18. We should be patient 1

Pc19. Don’t let the sun go down on your anger 1

Pc20. Be gentle or meek. 1

Pc22. We’ll have tribulation, but Jesus has overcome. 1

MONEY.. 1

Mo1. Heavenly treasure; don’t fear earthly loss. 1

Mo2. Offering money/possessions to God. 1

Mo3. Freely you have received, so freely give. 1

Mo4. Give in secret 1

Mo5. Cannot serve both God and Mammon. 1

Mo6. Do not love money. 1

Mo7. Love of money root of all evils. 1

Mo8. God’s house not a den of robbers / thieves. 1

Mo10. Strive for godliness, not gain. 1

Mo11. No stealing. 1

Mo12. Don’t rob others. 1

Mo13. Don’t cheat/defraud others. 1

Mo14. No bribes. 1

Mo15. No usury / lending to needy with interest 1

Mo16. Hoarding is bad. 1

THE POOR.. 1

Po1. Help the poor 1

Po2. Don’t oppress the poor or afflicted. 1

Po3. Feed the hungry. 1

Po4. Invite the poor to eat with us. 1

Po5. Blessed are the poor / poor in spirit 1

Po6. Help widows. 1

Po7. Help orphans / fatherless. 1

Po8. Clothe the naked. 1

Assembling Together.. 1

Ca1. Calling ourselves Christians. 1

Ca2. Church(es) of God. 1

Ca3. Church(es) of Christ 1

Ca4. The Church is the body of Christ 1

Ca5. We are the flock of Christ 1

Ca6. Learn from prior church writers/councils. 1

Ca7. Christians met together on Sunday. 1

Ca8. Practice water baptism... 1

Ca9. Baptize in the name of the Father, Son, Holy Spirit 1

Ca10. The Lord’s Supper 1

Ca11. Calling the Lord’s Supper the Eucharist 1

Ca12. Mention of Easter/Pascha[l] 1

Ca13. Footwashing. 1

Ca14. Sing hymns to God, the Father, or Jesus. 1

Ca15. Musical choir 1

Ca16. Cheer up/encourage other believers. 1

Ca17. Correct other believers. 1

Ca18. Shun alleged believers persisting in sin. 1

Ca19. Holy church(es) 1

Ca20. Catechumens (members in training) 1

Ca20. No need to burn incense in the church. 1

Church Leadership. 1

C1. Christ the head of the Church. 1

C2. Concept of one universal church. 1

C3. Tradition of the apostles or the church. 1

C4. Priesthood of all believers. 1

C5. The Church/Christians should have unity. 1

C6. Excommunicate or separate from heretics. 1

C7. Churches should greet other churches. 1

C8. Church leaders should accept each other 1

C9. Must be worthy of being a bishop/priest 1

C10. Remove leaders fallen in gross sin/heresy. 1

C11. Obey authority of godly church leaders. 1

C12. Reject unchristian church leader authority. 1

C13. Church leaders are shepherds. 1

C14. Ordination [of elders/bishops] 1

C15. Bishop(s) 1

C16. The episcopate [office of bishop] 1

C17. Elders/presbyters. 1

C18. Deacons. 1

C19. Teachers [in the church] 1

C20. A gospel preacher is worthy of his wages. 1

C21. Priests [in the church] 1

C22. Sub-deacons. 1

Family and Marriage.. 1

fm1. Honor marriage, no extra-marital relations. 1

fm2. No divorce, except for unfaithfulness. 1

fm3. Remarriage OK after death of spouse. 1

fm4. No homosexuality. 1

fm5. No incestual relations. 1

fm6. Do not lust (sexually) 1

fm7. We should be pure. 1

fm8. We should be modest 1

fm9. Do not watch lewd shows. 1

fm10. Do not watch violent shows. 1

fm11. Do not kill/expose infants. 1

fm12. Cherish and nurture our family. 1

fm13. Having kids is fine within marriage. 1

fm14. Train your kids in the Lord. 1

fm15. We should honor our parents. 1

fm16. Do not love family more than Jesus. 1

fm17. Celibacy is better than marriage. 1

fm18. Don’t betray others in family. 1

fm19. Eve was Adam’s bone and flesh. 1

fm20. Two become one flesh. 1

Government and LAws. 1

Gv1. Honor the king or government 1

Gv2. Obey government [when not against God] 1

Gv3. Do not aid in persecuting Christians. 1

Gv4. Pay taxes. 1

Gv5. Citizens of Heaven. 1

Gv6. Christians should not be in lawsuits. 1

Gv7. Officials ought to be just 1

Gv8. Disobey or change unjust laws. 1

Gv9. Providence, or God governing the world. 1

Gv10. Christ is king, or kingdom of Christ 1

Gv11. The Kingdom of Heaven. 1

KERYGMATIC AND IRENIC EVANGELISM... 1

Ke1. Preach the gospel to others. 1

Ke2. Bold proclamation of truth. 1

Ke3. Quoting God’s word to unbelievers. 1

Ke4. Sharing personal testimonies. 1

Ke5. Creative allegories or metaphors. 1

Ke6. Quoting poetry to share truth. 1

Ke7. Promises of heaven or God’s love. 1

Ke8. Threats of Hell or God’s wrath. 1

Ke9. Mortal life is fleeting/short 1

Ke10. Martyrs blood is a testimony. 1

Ke11. Use of Catena of 3 or more verses. 1

Ke12. Cross / Christ a stumbling block to Jews. 1

Ke13. We want non-believers to get saved. 1

Ke14 Make disciples. 1

PARABLEs. 1

Pa1. Christ speaking in parables. 1

Pa2. Parable of the sheep and the goats. 1

Pa3. Parable of the prodigal son. 1

Pa4. Parable of the wheat and tares. 1

Pa5. Faith/kingdom of Heaven as a mustard seed. 1

Pa6. Parable of the persistent/importune widow.. 1

Pa7. Parable of the barren fig tree. 1

Pa8. Parable of the Good Samaritan. 1

Pa9. Parable of the lost sheep. 1

Pa10. Parable of the lost coin. 1

Pa11. Lazarus and the rich man. 1

APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM... 1

Ap1. Answering questions of others. 1

Ap2. Answering alleged contradictions. 1

Ap3. Answering false moral accusations. 1

Ap4. Using questions. 1

Ap5. Nature witnesses to God. 1

Ap6. Appeal to science. 1

Ap7. First Cause (cosmological argument) 1

Ap8. Only One is supreme. 1

Ap9. Appeal to historians. 1

Ap10. Using chronology in apologetics. 1

Ap11. Moses is older than Homer 1

POLEMIC EVANGELISM... 1

Pm1. Be on guard against error 1

Pm2. Debate and argument in witnessing. 1

Pm3. Showing misconceptions/contradictions. 1

Pm4. Morality vs. evil in other religions. 1

Pm5. Do not judge/condemn others. 1

Pm6. Do not throw pearls before swine. 1

Pm7. Don’t give what is holy to the dogs. 1

Pm8. Beware of wolves/ false prophets. 1

Pm9. Calling other beliefs delusion(s) 1

Pm10. Humor or wit in witnessing. 1

Pm11. Harsh rebuke in witnessing. 1

Pm12. Calling people names. 1

Pm13. Ridicule or sarcasm... 1

Pm14. Calling other beliefs fables. 1

Pm15. Calling other beliefs superstition. 1

Pm16. False teaching of heresy is poison. 1

Refute GNOSTIC-TYPE TEACHING.. 1

Gn1. The Creator is good. 1

Gn2. Do not call matter evil 1

Gn3. Avoid Docetic belief – not suffer in flesh. 1

Gn4. The heretic Cerinthus. 1

Gn5. Nicolaitans. 1

Gn6. Simon Magus and his heresy/error 1

Gn7. Against Carpocrates (from Simon) 1

Gn8. Against Menander, Simon Magus’ disciple. 1

Gn9. Against Marcion. 1

Gn10. Dispute against Valentinian Gnostics. 1

Gn11. Against the Valentinian Heracleon. 1

Gn12. Against Sethian/Ophite Gnostics. 1

Gn13. Against the Gnostic heretic Apelles. 1

Gn14. Heretic Basilides. 1

Gn15. Against Encratite Gnostics. 1

Gn16. Against Saturninus/Saturnilus [the Encratite] 1

Gn17. Dispute against other Gnostics. 1

Gn18. The [Gnostic] Demiurge is false. 1

Gn19. The [Gnostic] Ogdoad is false. 1

Gn20. The [Gnostic] Pleroma is false. 1

AGAINST PAGAN RELIGIONS. 1

Pg1. Speaking against human sacrifice. 1

Pg2. Dispute against the Magi / Zoroastrians. 1

Pg3. Against Mithras / a sun-god. 1

Pg4. Dispute Druid or other European myths. 1

Pg5. Dispute against Indian Bra[c]hmans. 1

Pg6. Dispute Chaldean/Babylonian religion. 1

Pg7. Against Egyptian religion. 1

Pg8. Against the religion of Scythians. 1

Pg9. Against Syrian religion. 1

Pg10. Against Arabian religion. 1

Pg11. Against [Phrygian] Great Mother 1

Pg12. Against Greco-Roman paganism... 1

Pg13. Pointing out adulteries of Greek gods. 1

Pg14. Incest of Zeus/Jupiter 1

Pg15. Apologetic use of the tomb of Jupiter/Zeus. 1

Pg16. Thyestean [cannibalistic banquet] 1

Pg17. Mention of Oedipus. 1

Pg18. Cannibalism of Kronos/Saturn. 1

Pg19. Against bloodthirsty Mars, or pest/bane of mortals. 1

Pg20. Against Bacchus [the Greek/Roman/Arabian/Ethiopian idol] 1

On Other RELIGIONS. 1

Or1. Religion can be bad. 1

Or2. No mixing Christ and other religions. 1

Or3. Dispute against Judaism... 1

Or4. Against the Pharisees. 1

Or5. Errors of the Sadducees. 1

Or6. Sadducees were wrong to deny resurrection. 1

Or7. Dispute against Sabellians/Oneness. 1

Or8. Dispute with Ebionites (Judaizers) 1

Or9. No spiritism or the occult 1

Dispute On PHILOSOPHY THAT DENIES ONE GOd   1

Ph1. Dispute philosophy that denies one God. 1

Ph2. Apologetic use of Plato’s Timaeus. 1

Ph3. Against Pythagoras. 1

Ph4. Errors of Aristotle. 1

Ph5. Against Stoics. 1

Ph6. Dispute against Epicureans. 1

Ph7. Against Cynic philosophy. 1

Ph8. Against Pyrrho the philosopher 1

Ph9. Socrates even said he had a demon. 1

Ph10. We are not ruled by fate. 1

Ph11. [Stoic] Chrysippus was wrong on some points. 1

MANY Christians would Agree.. 1

ma1. God is timeless or before/ beyond time. 1

ma2. Jesus appeared on earth prior to His birth. 1

ma3. Mention of the laity or clergy. 1

ma4. The Church can be called the city of God. 1

ma5. People have free will / choice. 1

ma6. Babylon refers to Rome. 1

ma7. There are greater/mortal and lesser sins. 1

ma8. Christians can lose their salvation. 1

ma9. God knows all things in the future. 1

ma10. Jesus preached to the dead. 1

ma11. Religion is/can be good. 1

ma12. Drinking wine is OK.. 1

ma13. No food sacrificed to idols. 1

ma14. Christ died for all people. 1

Disputed PArts. 1

di1. Prophets proclaimed two advents of Christ 1

di2. Seventy Septuagint translators. 1

di3. God is simple, or not composite. 1

di4. God is impassable (without passion) 1

di5. Some fallen angels sinned with women. 1

di6. Against jewelry or false/dyed hair 1

di7. Christians must fast on certain days. 1

di8. No drinking or eating blood. 1

di9. No worshipping true God with images. 1

di10. Miracle healings in post-Acts church. 1

di11. Prophesy in church after Acts. 1

di12. Godly authority besides the Bible. 1

di13. Tread on serpents and scorpions. 1

di14. God is ineffable or indescribable. 1

di15. Number of nations according to angels. 1

di16. People can have worthiness related to salvation. 1

di17. Multiple Archangels. 1

di18. The angel Raphael 1

di19. Susannah. 1

di20. Tobias. 1

ERRORS. 1

er1. Incorrect references to Bible verses. 1

er2. Misquoted or unknown Bible verses. 1

er3. Over-allegorical Bible interpretation. 1

er4. Four elements make up the world. 1

er5. Atoms do not really exist 1

er6. Errors on the hyena, phoenix, or other animals. 1

er7. Errors on geography or tribes. 1

er8. Collective guilt of the Jews. 1

er9. Errors on people. 1

er10. Other errors on science. 1

 


 

Adam to Isaac Individiuals

 

Ai1. Adam

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ai2. Eve

 

Genesis 3:20; 4:1; 2 Corinthians 11:3; 1 Timothy 2:13

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ai3. Abel

 

Matthew 23:35; Luke 11:51 (Abel’s blood but no mention of Cain)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ai4. Cain murdered his brother/Abel

 

Genesis 4:1-16

1 John 3:12

(partial) Jude 11; (partial) Hebrews 11:4; (partial) Hebrews 12:24

(partial) Matthew 23:35; Luke 11:51 (Abel’s blood but no mention of Cain)

(partial) Hebrews 11:4

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

From Muslim conquests to present

Abu’l Faraj ‘Abdulla ibn-at-Tayyib (died Oct. 1043) (partial) mentions Cain and Jonah.

 

Ai5. Seth [son of Adam and Eve]

 

Genesis 4:25; 5:3-6

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ai6. Enoch

 

Hebrews 11:5; Genesis 5:18-21

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ai7. Methuselah

 

Genesis 5:22,25-27

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ai8. Lamech

 

Genesis 5:26-28

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ai9. Noah got drunk

 

Genesis 9:20-23

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ai10. Ham [son of Noah]

 

Genesis 6:10; 7:13; 9:18

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) “And in the ark, Noah and his two sons who were saved alive, they were blessed; but Ham, his other son, was not blessed, but his seed was cursed; [Gen 9.25] and the animals that went in, animals they came forth.”

 

Ai11. Shem [son of Noah]

 

Genesis 6:10; 7:13; 9:18

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ai12. Japheth [son of Noah]

 

Genesis 6:10; 7:13; 9:18

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ai13. Canaan [son of Ham]

 

Genesis 9:18,22,25

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.6 “And in the ark, Noah and his two sons who were saved alive, they were blessed; but Ham, his other son, was not (p. 17) blessed, but his seed was cursed; [Gen 9.25] and the animals that went in, animals they came forth.

 

Ai14. Nimrod/Nimrud

 

Genesis 10:8-14

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ai15. Abraham [friend of God]

 

2 Chronicles 20:7; Isaiah 41:8; James 2:23

Hebrews 11:8 (partial, only mentions Abraham)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.13 p.374 mentions Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

 

Ai17. Sarai / Sarah

 

Genesis 11:29-31; 16:1-6; 18:6-15

Hebrews 11:11

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) mentions Sarah calling her husband Abraham Lord. Colloquies of Erasmus p.244

 

Ai16. Lot or his wife

 

Genesis 19:15-26

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ai18. Hagar

 

Genesis 16

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ai19. Ishmael

 

Genesis 16:11,15; 17:18,20,23-26

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ai20. Isaac

 

Genesis 24:62-66

Romans 9:6 “It is not as though God’s word had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel. Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham’s children. On the contrary, ‘It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned.”

Hebrews 11:9

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) “Lord God of my fathers, the God of Abraham and of Isaac and of Jacob”

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.13 p.374 mentions Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

 

 

Isaac to Egypt Individiuals

 

Ie1. Abraham offered Isaac as a sacrifice

 

Genesis 22; James 2:21

(partial) John 8:33,38; Hebrews 11:2

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (partial) John 8:33

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ie2. Rebecca [wife of Isaac]

 

Genesis 25:20-21

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ie3. Esau

 

Genesis 25:25-34; 26:34; 27:1-42; 28:5-9; 32:3-19; 33:1-16; 35:1,29; 36:1-43; Deuteronomy 2:4-8,12,22,29; Joshua 24:4; 1 Chronicles 1:34-35; Jeremiah 49:8,10; Obadiah 6-21; Malachi 1:2-3; Romans 9:13; Hebrews 11:20; 12:16

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ie4. Laban [Jacob’s father-in-law]

 

Genesis 25:20

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Agapius of Hierapolis (c.934 A.D.) “In year 84 of his life, Jacob married Leah, the daughter of Laban, his uncle, and fathered by her Ruben, Simeon, and at the age of 89 years he also fathered Levi, in whose name the chronology of the world was regulated. Then after Levi he fathered Judah, after him Issachar, then Zabulon. Jacob married Rachel, sister of Leah, and fathered by her Joseph and Benjamin. He also fathered (two sons) by Bilhah, the maidservant of Rachel, who gave to Jacob Gad and Asher, and (two sons) by Zelphah, the maidservant of Leah, who gave to Jacob Dan and Nephthali They gave rise to the twelve tribes of the Israelites.” Universal History no.114

 

Ie5. Jacob

 

Genesis 25:28; Genesis 27-33; Hebrews 11:9

 

Sinaiticus (Genesis 25:289; 27-33)

Alexandrinus (Hebrews 11:9)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Agapius of Hierapolis (c.934 A.D.) “In year 84 of his life, Jacob married Leah, the daughter of Laban, his uncle, and fathered by her Ruben, Simeon, and at the age of 89 years he also fathered Levi, in whose name the chronology of the world was regulated. Then after Levi he fathered Judah, after him Issachar, then Zabulon. Jacob married Rachel, sister of Leah, and fathered by her Joseph and Benjamin. He also fathered (two sons) by Bilhah, the maidservant of Rachel, who gave to Jacob Gad and Asher, and (two sons) by Zelphah, the maidservant of Leah, who gave to Jacob Dan and Nephthali They gave rise to the twelve tribes of the Israelites.” Universal History no.114

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.13 p.374 mentions Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

 

Ie6. Leah [wife of Jacob]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Agapius of Hierapolis (c.934 A.D.) “In year 84 of his life, Jacob married Leah, the daughter of Laban, his uncle, and fathered by her Ruben, Simeon, and at the age of 89 years he also fathered Levi, in whose name the chronology of the world was regulated. Then after Levi he fathered Judah, after him Issachar, then Zabulon. Jacob married Rachel, sister of Leah, and fathered by her Joseph and Benjamin. He also fathered (two sons) by Bilhah, the maidservant of Rachel, who gave to Jacob Gad and Asher, and (two sons) by Zelphah, the maidservant of Leah, who gave to Jacob Dan and Nephthali They gave rise to the twelve tribes of the Israelites.” Universal History no.114

 

Ie7. Rachel [wife of Jacob]

 

Genesis 29:6,9-31; 30:1-25; 31:4,14,19,32-34; 33:1,2,7; 35:16,19-25; 46:19,22,25; 48:7; Ruth 4:11; Matthew 2:18

1 Samuel 10:2 (Rachel’s sepulchre)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Agapius of Hierapolis (c.934 A.D.) “In year 84 of his life, Jacob married Leah, the daughter of Laban, his uncle, and fathered by her Ruben, Simeon, and at the age of 89 years he also fathered Levi, in whose name the chronology of the world was regulated. Then after Levi he fathered Judah, after him Issachar, then Zabulon. Jacob married Rachel, sister of Leah, and fathered by her Joseph and Benjamin. He also fathered (two sons) by Bilhah, the maidservant of Rachel, who gave to Jacob Gad and Asher, and (two sons) by Zelphah, the maidservant of Leah, who gave to Jacob Dan and Nephthali They gave rise to the twelve tribes of the Israelites.” Universal History no.114

 

Ie8. Reuben [patriarch]

 

Genesis 37:21-22; 49:3-4

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ie9. Simeon [patriarch]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Agapius of Hierapolis (c.934 A.D.) “In year 84 of his life, Jacob married Leah, the daughter of Laban, his uncle, and fathered by her Ruben, Simeon, and at the age of 89 years he also fathered Levi, in whose name the chronology of the world was regulated. Then after Levi he fathered Judah, after him Issachar, then Zabulon. Jacob married Rachel, sister of Leah, and fathered by her Joseph and Benjamin. He also fathered (two sons) by Bilhah, the maidservant of Rachel, who gave to Jacob Gad and Asher, and (two sons) by Zelphah, the maidservant of Leah, who gave to Jacob Dan and Nephthali They gave rise to the twelve tribes of the Israelites.” Universal History no.114

 

Ie10. Levi (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 29:34; Hebrews 7:10

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Agapius of Hierapolis (c.934 A.D.) “In year 84 of his life, Jacob married Leah, the daughter of Laban, his uncle, and fathered by her Ruben, Simeon, and at the age of 89 years he also fathered Levi, in whose name the chronology of the world was regulated. Then after Levi he fathered Judah, after him Issachar, then Zabulon. Jacob married Rachel, sister of Leah, and fathered by her Joseph and Benjamin. He also fathered (two sons) by Bilhah, the maidservant of Rachel, who gave to Jacob Gad and Asher, and (two sons) by Zelphah, the maidservant of Leah, who gave to Jacob Dan and Nephthali They gave rise to the twelve tribes of the Israelites.” Universal History no.114

 

Ie11. Judah (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 29:35; Mathew 1:2

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) “your God, and circumcise the foreskin of your heart, ye men of Judah

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Agapius of Hierapolis (c.934 A.D.) “In year 84 of his life, Jacob married Leah, the daughter of Laban, his uncle, and fathered by her Ruben, Simeon, and at the age of 89 years he also fathered Levi, in whose name the chronology of the world was regulated. Then after Levi he fathered Judah, after him Issachar, then Zabulon. Jacob married Rachel, sister of Leah, and fathered by her Joseph and Benjamin. He also fathered (two sons) by Bilhah, the maidservant of Rachel, who gave to Jacob Gad and Asher, and (two sons) by Zelphah, the maidservant of Leah, who gave to Jacob Dan and Nephthali They gave rise to the twelve tribes of the Israelites.” Universal History no.114

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.13 p.374 says that Jesus is of the tribe of Judah.

 

Ie12. Tamar / Thamar

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ie13. Dan (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 30:6; 35:25; 46:23; 49:16-17; Exodus 1:4; 31:6; 35:34; Ezekiel 48:1-2,32

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Agapius of Hierapolis (c.934 A.D.) “In year 84 of his life, Jacob married Leah, the daughter of Laban, his uncle, and fathered by her Ruben, Simeon, and at the age of 89 years he also fathered Levi, in whose name the chronology of the world was regulated. Then after Levi he fathered Judah, after him Issachar, then Zabulon. Jacob married Rachel, sister of Leah, and fathered by her Joseph and Benjamin. He also fathered (two sons) by Bilhah, the maidservant of Rachel, who gave to Jacob Gad and Asher, and (two sons) by Zelphah, the maidservant of Leah, who gave to Jacob Dan and Nephthali They gave rise to the twelve tribes of the Israelites.” Universal History no.114

 

Ie14. Naphtali (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 30:8

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.91 “He speaks otherwise of them by Isaiah the prophet: ‘Land of Zebulun, land of Naphtali, the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the nations, a people that sitteth in darkness: ye have seen a great light; and they that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, light is risen upon them’” [Isa 9.1-2; Mt 4.15-16]

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Agapius of Hierapolis (c.934 A.D.) “In year 84 of his life, Jacob married Leah, the daughter of Laban, his uncle, and fathered by her Ruben, Simeon, and at the age of 89 years he also fathered Levi, in whose name the chronology of the world was regulated. Then after Levi he fathered Judah, after him Issachar, then Zabulon. Jacob married Rachel, sister of Leah, and fathered by her Joseph and Benjamin. He also fathered (two sons) by Bilhah, the maidservant of Rachel, who gave to Jacob Gad and Asher, and (two sons) by Zelphah, the maidservant of Leah, who gave to Jacob Dan and Nephthali They gave rise to the twelve tribes of the Israelites.” Universal History no.114

 

Ie15. Gad (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 49:19; Numbers 10:20; Joshua 22:1,25

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ie16. Zebulun/Zebulon (patriarch, tribe, or land)

 

Genesis 30:20

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.91 “He speaks otherwise of them by Isaiah the prophet: ‘Land of Zebulun, land of Naphtali, the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the nations, a people that sitteth in darkness: ye have seen a great light; and they that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, light is risen upon them’” [Isa 9.1-2; Mt 4.15-16]

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Agapius of Hierapolis (c.934 A.D.) “In year 84 of his life, Jacob married Leah, the daughter of Laban, his uncle, and fathered by her Ruben, Simeon, and at the age of 89 years he also fathered Levi, in whose name the chronology of the world was regulated. Then after Levi he fathered Judah, after him Issachar, then Zabulon. Jacob married Rachel, sister of Leah, and fathered by her Joseph and Benjamin. He also fathered (two sons) by Bilhah, the maidservant of Rachel, who gave to Jacob Gad and Asher, and (two sons) by Zelphah, the maidservant of Leah, who gave to Jacob Dan and Nephthali They gave rise to the twelve tribes of the Israelites.” Universal History no.114

 

Ie17. Joseph


Genesis 30:24; 37-47

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Agapius of Hierapolis (c.934 A.D.) “In year 84 of his life, Jacob married Leah, the daughter of Laban, his uncle, and fathered by her Ruben, Simeon, and at the age of 89 years he also fathered Levi, in whose name the chronology of the world was regulated. Then after Levi he fathered Judah, after him Issachar, then Zabulon. Jacob married Rachel, sister of Leah, and fathered by her Joseph and Benjamin. He also fathered (two sons) by Bilhah, the maidservant of Rachel, who gave to Jacob Gad and Asher, and (two sons) by Zelphah, the maidservant of Leah, who gave to Jacob Dan and Nephthali They gave rise to the twelve tribes of the Israelites.” Universal History no.114

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) refers to Joseph in Genesis 37:7,9; 41:17-24. Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.327

 

Ie18. Benjamin (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 35:18,24; 42:4,36; 43:14-16,29; 45:12,14,22; 46:19,21; 49:27; Exodus 1:3,36-39; 2:2; 7:60; 10:24; 13:9; 26:31,41; 34:21; Numbers 1:11; Deuteronomy 27:12; 33:12; Joshua 13:11,20-21,28; 21:4,17; Judges 1:21; 5:14; 10:9; 19:14; 20; 21:1-23; 1 Samuel 4:12; 9:1; Esther 2:5; Acts 13:21; Romans 11:1; Philippians 3:5; Revelation 7:8

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Agapius of Hierapolis (c.934 A.D.) “In year 84 of his life, Jacob married Leah, the daughter of Laban, his uncle, and fathered by her Ruben, Simeon, and at the age of 89 years he also fathered Levi, in whose name the chronology of the world was regulated. Then after Levi he fathered Judah, after him Issachar, then Zabulon. Jacob married Rachel, sister of Leah, and fathered by her Joseph and Benjamin. He also fathered (two sons) by Bilhah, the maidservant of Rachel, who gave to Jacob Gad and Asher, and (two sons) by Zelphah, the maidservant of Leah, who gave to Jacob Dan and Nephthali They gave rise to the twelve tribes of the Israelites.” Universal History no.114

 

Ie19. Ephraim (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 48:20

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ie20 Manasseh (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 48:20

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ie21. The patriarchs

 

Romans 9:5

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Peter Lombard (1142-1160) mentions “the Faith of the Patriarchs, Prophets, and Apostles” Sentences of Peter Lombard First Book distinction 3 ch.4 p.21 (p.66)

 

Ie22. The twelve tribes [of Israel]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Agapius of Hierapolis (c.934 A.D.) “In year 84 of his life, Jacob married Leah, the daughter of Laban, his uncle, and fathered by her Ruben, Simeon, and at the age of 89 years he also fathered Levi, in whose name the chronology of the world was regulated. Then after Levi he fathered Judah, after him Issachar, then Zabulon. Jacob married Rachel, sister of Leah, and fathered by her Joseph and Benjamin. He also fathered (two sons) by Bilhah, the maidservant of Rachel, who gave to Jacob Gad and Asher, and (two sons) by Zelphah, the maidservant of Leah, who gave to Jacob Dan and Nephthali They gave rise to the twelve tribes of the Israelites.” Universal History no.114

 

Ie23. Job and his sufferings/patience

 

Job

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

Exodus to Solomon Individuals

 

Es1. Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt

 

Exodus 12-14; Hebrews 3:16

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among heretics

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (partial) Mention of Moses. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 (b) p.204

 

Es2. Miriam [sister of Moses]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es3. Aaron [brother of Moses]

 

Exodus 4:14,27,28-30; 5:1,4,20; 6:13,20,23,26-27; 7:1-2,6-10,19-20; 8:5-6,8,12,16-17,25; 9:8,27, etc.

Luke 1:5; Acts 7:40; Hebrews 5:4; 7:11

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

Es4. Pharaoh during the Exodus

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es5. Korah

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) primacy and dare to make a schism, he shall inherit the place of Korah

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) of Korah were Levites, and ministered in the tabernacle of witness;

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) there rose up two hundred and fifty men, and they (Korah, &c.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) swallowed up Korah and Dathan and Abiram, and their tents and their

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) making schisms. For the adherents of Korah, Dathan and Abiram were

 

Es6. Balaam or his donkey

 

Numbers 22:5-41; 23:1-30; 24:1-25; 31:8,16; Deuteronomy 23:4-5; Joshua 13:22; 24:9; Micah 6:5; 2 Peter 2:15 (partial), Jude 11 (partial), Revelation 2:14 (partial) Balaam’s teaching

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es6.5. Caleb [son of Jephunneh]

 

Judges 1:12,14-15

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

&&&

 

Es7. Joshua conquered Canaan

 

Joshua 1-14; 23-24

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es8. Rahab [of Jericho]

 

Joshua 2:1-21; Hebrews 11:31

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es9. Jephthah [the judge]

 

Judges 11:1-12:7; Hebrews 11:32

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es10. Gideon

 

Judges 6-8:35; Hebrews 11:32

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es11. Samson

 

Judges 13:14-16:30; Hebrews 11:32

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es12. Eli [priest and mentor of Samuel]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es13. Samuel

 

1 Samuel 1:20; 2:18-26; 3-4; 7-16, 19, 25:1; 28:3-20; 1 Chronicles 6:28; 9:22; 11:3; 26:28-29; 2 Chronicles 35:18; Psalm 99:6; Jeremiah 15:1; Acts 3:24; 13:20; Hebrews 11:32

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es14. Saul [son of Kish]

 

1 Samuel 9:2-27; 10:11-26; 11:4-15; 13-24; 25:44; 26-29, 31:2-12; 2 Samuel 1-9, 12:7; 16:5,8; 19:17,24; 21:1-14; 22:1; 1 Chronicles 5:10; 8:33; 9:39; 10:2-13; 11:2; 12:1-2,19,25,29; 13:3; 15:29; 26:28; Psalm 18:title; 52:title; 54:title; 57:title; 59:title; Isa 10:29

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es15. David

 

2 Samuel 7

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

&&&

 

Es16. [King] Saul persecuted David

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es17. Nathan [the prophet, not the son of David]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es18. Uriah [the Hittite]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es20. King Solomon

 

1 Kings 3

Matthew 6:29 (Solomon in his spendor)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es21. Hannah, mother of Samuel

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

Es22. Jesse [father of David]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es23. Dathan and Abiram

 

Numbers 16:1-27; 26:9; Deuteronomy 11:6; Psalm 106:17

 

Abiram who died when Jericho was rebuilt is a different person.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) &&&

 

Es24. Hiram [king of Tyre]

 

1 Kings 5:1

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Es25. Deborah [godly judge]

 

Rebecca’s nurse, also named Deborah, is a different person.

 

Judges 4:4-10;5:1

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

DIVIDED KINGDOM ON OT Individuals

 

Dk1. Jeroboam

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk2. Ahab

 

1 Kings 16-22; 2 Kings 3:1,5’; 2 Chronicles 18,21,22; Jeremiah 29:21-22; Micah 6:16

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk3. Elijah was a godly prophet

 

1 Kings 18-20; Luke 9:33

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.7 p.371 mentions the prophet Elijah.

 

Dk4. Hezekiah [godly king]

 

Isaiah 38:5-39:7

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk5. Elisha

 

1 Kings 19:17,19; 2 Kings 2-9; 13:14-21

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk6. Naaman [the Syrian leper]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk7. Jonah in the fish or warned Ninevites

 

Jonah; Matthew 12:39-41; (partial) Luke 11:29-32

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

From Muslim conquests to present

Abu’l Faraj ‘Abdulla ibn-at-Tayyib (died Oct. 1043) mentions Cain and Jonah.

 

Dk8. Sennacherib

 

2 Kings 18:13; 19:9-36; 2 Chronicles 32; Isaiah 36:1; 37:9-37

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk9. Josiah [the godly king]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk10. Jeconiah/Jechoniah

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk11. Nebuchadnezzar [King of Babylon]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk12. Zedekiah

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk13. Ezekiel

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Photius (9th century) “And, when Origen allegorises that which is said by the prophet Ezekiel concerning the resurrection of the dead, and perverts it to the return of the Israelites from their captivity in Babylon,” Bibliotheca vol.6 p.380

 

Dk14. Daniel

 

Ezekiel 14:14,20; book of Daniel, Matthew 24:15; Mark 13:14

Ezekiel 28:3 (Daniel, probably not the Ugaritic Danel, who was not particularly wise)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk15. The Three Youths in Daniel

 

Daniel 3:16-18

 

See also, W30: Chirst with the three youths in Daniel.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk16. Cyrus [King of Persia]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Thomas Aquinas (1248-1274 A.D.) Reboam [Rehoboam] Cyrus, Judas Maccabeus. Thomas Aquinas’ Commentary on Romans ch.2 lecture 4.225 p.79

 

Dk17. Darius [King of Persia]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk18. Artaxerxes/Ahasuerus [King of Persia]

 

Nehemiah 2:1

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk19. Ezra the scribe/prophet

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Vision of Ezra (before 700 A.D.) p.587 mentions Ezra

 

Dk20. Zerubbabel

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk21. Joshua the high priest (in Zechariah)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk22. Antiochus [Epiphanes] of Syria

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Dk23. Rehoboam

 

Matthew 1:7

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Thomas Aquinas (1248-1274 A.D.) Reboam [Rehoboam] Cyrus, Judas Maccabeus. Thomas Aquinas’ Commentary on Romans ch.2 lecture 4.225 p.79

 

Dk24. The prophets are holy

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

GOSPEL Individuals

 

Go1. Mary mother of Jesus was blessed

 

Luke 1:48b

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) &&&

 

Among heretics

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) &&&

 

Go2. Elizabeth [mother of John the Baptist]

 

Luke 1:5,7,13,24,40-45,57

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Go3. Zechariah, husband of Elizabeth

 

Luke 1:5-25

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Go4. John the Baptist lept in Elizabeth’s womb

 

Luke 1:44

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Go5. Shepherds at Jesus’ birth

 

Luke 2:8-20

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Go6. The Magi / wise men came to Christ

 

Matthew 2:1-12

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.16 p.375 says the Magi came after Christ’s birth.

 

Go7. Simeon [at Jesus’ dedication]

 

Luke 2:25-35

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.15 p.375 mentions Anna and Symeon adored Christ at Jesus’ dedication.

 

Go8. Anna [at Jesus’ decidation]

 

Luke 2:36-38

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.21-23 p.369-370 mentions Anna at Jesus’ dedication.

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.15 p.375 mentions Anna and Symeon adored Christ at Jesus’ dedication.

 

Go9. Herod’s slaughter in Bethlehem

 

Matthew 2:16

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 2:16

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) (partial) alludes to Herod trying to kill the infant. Sermon 34.2 p.148

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Vision of Ezra (before 700 A.D.) p.589 King Herod was punished for slaying the infants in Bethlehem of Judea

 

Go10. John the Baptist

 

Matthew 3:1-15; Mark 1:4-8; 14; Luke 3:1-20; John 1:15,19-35

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among heretics

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus accepted the baptism of John the Baptist. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71 p.64

 

Waldenses (1176-) “The Vaudois remained all day at Bobbi, …and the latter preached on the sixteenth chapter of ST. Luke, ‘The law and the prophets were until John, since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man preseth into it.’’” p.322-323 Authentic Details of the Valdenses in Piemont and Other Countries p.108. Published by John Hatchard and Son, Piccadilly 1827.

 

Go11. Andrew the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 4:18; John 1:40

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Go12. Peter the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 4:18; 10:2; Mark 3:16; Luke 6:14; Acts 1:13; John 1:42; Matthew 16:13-20; k 8:27-30; Luke 9:18-27; Matthew 17:1-8; Mark 9:2-8; Luke 9:28-36; 2 Peter 1:16-18; Matthew 17:24-27; Matthew 26:31-35; Mark 14:27-31; Luke 22:31-34; John 13:31-38; Matthew 26:69-75; Mark 14:66-72; Luke 22:54-62; John 18:15-27; Acts 10; Acts 11; 15; Acts 12; Ga; 2:11-21; Acts 15

 

(Peter being a disciple before the resurrection is not counted here)

 

Acts 8:14; 10:6-16; 12:13-18; John 21:7-19

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) session 2 p.259 speaks of Peter.

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) speaks of the blessed apostle Peter in Sermon 25.6 p.136

 

Go13. Philip the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14; John 1:43-48; 14:8; Acts 1:13

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Go14. Thomas the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; John 11:16; 14:5; 20:24-29; 21:2; Acts 1:13

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Moses of Chorene (474 A.D.) “After the ascension of our Saviour, the Apostle Thomas, one of the twelve, sent one of the seventy-six disciples, Thaddæus, to the city of Edessa to heal Abgar and to preach the Gospel, according to the word of the Lord.History of Armenia p.&&&

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions Thomas seeing Jesus after the resurrection and saying to Christ My Lord and My God” The Capitula of the Council canon 12 p.315. See also Capitula of the Council canon 12 p.311

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.323 (553 A.D.) mentions Thomas the Apostle.

 

Go15. James son of Zebedee the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 4:21-22

James the Lord’s brother is a different person. James son of Alphaeus is a different person.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Go16. [Samaritan] Woman at the well

 

John 4

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Go17. Mary Magdalene

 

Matthew 27:56,61; 28:1; Mark 15:40,47; 16:1,9; Luke 8:2; 24:10

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) &&&

 

Go18. Jesus’ 70/72 disciples

 

Luke 10:1-17

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Moses of Chorene (474 A.D.) (partial, 76, not 72) “After the ascension of our Saviour, the Apostle Thomas, one of the twelve, sent one of the seventy-six disciples, Thaddæus, to the city of Edessa to heal Abgar and to preach the Gospel, according to the word of the Lord.History of Armenia p.&&&

 

Go19. Martha

 

Luke 10:38-42

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Go20. Zacchaeus

 

Luke 19:1-9

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.)

 

Go21. Judas betrayed Jesus

 

Matthew 26:47-48; 27:3; Mark 14:43-44; Luke 22:47-48; John 18:2-3; Acts 1:16

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Cyril of Alexandria (444 A.D.) mentions that Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss. Lecture 6.20 p.39

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says that Judas was criminal and unhappy in Sermon 54.3 p.155

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) (partial) refers to the virgin birth, Christ’s death on a dreadful cross, pretended kisses of a client/disciple, Pilate p.327

 

Go22. High Priest Caiaphas/Herod tried Jesus

 

Matthew 26:57-67; Acts 4:27

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Go23. Herod tried Jesus

 

Matthew 26:57-67; Acts 4:27

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Go24. Pontius Pilate sentenced Jesus

 

Luke 23:4-25; John 18:28-19:26

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Theodoret of Cyrus (423-458 A.D.) mentions Pontius Pilate in quoting from Irenaeus in Dialogues p.175

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) mentions that Jesus was sentenced by Pontius Pilate in Sermon 55.6 p.166

 

Go25. Barabbas

 

Mt 27:16-20; Mk 15:7-11

Luke 23:18-19

(partial) Acts 3:14

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Go26. John the Baptist was beheaded

 

Matthew 14:1-12; Mark 6:14-29; Luke 9:7-9

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

Start of  Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (634 A.D.-1215 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) “From that time John the Baptist became known to men, and Herod, toparcha of the [124] Trachonitis region beheaded him in the city of Sebaste, on the eighth day of the kalends of June, Flaccus and Ruffinus being consuls. King Herod, Philip’s son, in grief at this event, left Judea. A rich woman, Berenice by name, who was also living at Paneada, sought him out wishing as she had been cured by Jesus, to erect a monument to Him. Not daring to do it without the king’s consent, she presented a petition to King Herod, asking to be allowed to erect a golden monument in that city to our Lord. The petition ran thus:On the Holy Images ch.212

 

Go27. Annas the former high priest

 

John 18:13,24 Annas was high priest from 6 to 15 A.D.

Annas in Acts 23:2; 24:1 was a different person. He was high priest from 47-59 A.D.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Cyril of Alexandria (444 A. D.) &&&

 

Go28. John the Baptist ate locusts and wild honey

 

Matthew 3:4; Mark 1:6

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Cyril of Alexandria (444 A.D.) “For he dwelt in the deserts, clad in poor and rough clothing, and scarcely allaying the necessities of the body with locusts and wild honey.” Commentary on Luke Sermon 39 p.&&&

 

Go29. Judas hanged himself

 

Matthew 27:5-6; Acts 1

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Go30. Jesus’ twelve disciples

 

Cyril of Alexandria (444 A.D.)

 

 

Individuals AFTER THE GOSPELS

 

N1. Matthias

 

Acts 1:20

(partial) Psalm 109:8

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

N2. James the Lord’s brother

 

Acts 15:13-18; 1 Corinthians 15:7

 

Note that no mention is made of James never drinking alcohol or having his hair cut from birth except in Eusebius quoting what Hegesippus wrote.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) &&&

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) (implied) &&&

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) refers to “the blessed James in the Acts of the Holy Apostles” Commentary on Amos ch.9 p.172

 

N3. The Ethiopian eunuch

 

Acts 8:26-40

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

N4. Stephen [the martyr]

 

Acts 7:59-60

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) mentions God’s Martyr Stephen. Colloquies of Erasmus p.331

 

N5. Cornelius the centurion

 

Acts 10:24-48

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

N6. Saul of Tarsus persecuted the church

 

Acts 9:1-3

Paul wrote about this with regret in Galatians 1:13; 1 Corinthians 15:9; Philippians 3:6; and 1 Timothy 1:13.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

N7. Paul was a godly apostle

 

Acts 15:22; Galatians 1:1; 2 Peter 3:15-16

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) mentions the apostles Peter and Paul in Sermon 82.4 p.195

 

Start of  Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (634 A.D.-1215 A.D.)

Council of Quinisext (Trullo) (692 A.D.) “The great and divine Apostle Paul calls man created in the image of God, the body and temple of Christ.” Council of Quinisext Canon 110 p.407

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) (implied) “In this I converse with Paul, with Isaiah, and the rest of the Prophets.” Colloquies of Erasmus p.264

 

N8. Barnabas, companion of Paul

 

Acts 13:2; 14:1-3; 15:22; Galatians 2:1

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) &&&

 

N9. Silas, companion of Paul

 

Acts 15:22,27-34,40; 16:19,25,29; 17:4,10,14,15; 18:5; 2 Corinthians 1:19; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1; 1 Peter 5:12

Note Silas is called Silvanus in the KJV outside of Acts

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) mentions Silas. &&&

 

N10. Apollos

 

Acts 18:24-28; 19:1; 1 Corinthians 1:12; 3:4-6; 4:6; 16:12; Tt 3:13

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

N11. Paul was in prison/bonds

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

N12. Paul was persecuted besides prison

 

Acts 13:50; 14:19; 16:22-23; 17:5

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

666

 

N13. Timothy the individual (not just the book)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

N14. James [the disciple] was beheaded / slain

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

N15. Peter was in Rome

 

1 Peter 5:13 (implied)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Experiencing God

 

X1. Our bodies are God’s temple/temples

 

1 Corinthians 6:19 (individual)

(partial) Hebrews 3:6 we are God’s house

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of  Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (634 A.D.-1215 A.D.)

Council of Quinisext (Trullo) (692 A.D.) “The great and divine Apostle Paul calls man created in the image of God, the body and temple of Christ.” Council of Quinisext Canon 110 p.407

 

X2. God/Christ lives inside of Christians

 

John 14:23; 1 John 4:12,15

Romans 9:10-18 Spirit of Christ lives in us; Christ lives in us.

(implied Holy Spirit dwells in us) 1 Corinthians 6:19

(implied, because accept all believers) Romans 8:9-11

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among heretics

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God dwells in people. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.59 p.56

 

X3. Christians escape corruption

 

2 Peter 2:20; 1 Corinthians 15:53

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X4. Believers are set free

 

Psalm 118:5; 119:32; 146:7; Luke 4:18; John 8:32,36; Romans 6:18; 8:2; 2 Corinthians 3:17; Galatians 5:1; James 1:25

1 Peter 2:16 (implied)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X5. God renews us

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X6. We are children of light

 

Ephesians 5:8-13; Philippians 2:15-16; 1 Thessalonians 5:5-7; 1 John 2:9-10

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X7. God strengthens us

 

(Not referring to marriage or strengthened by reading the word)

 

Ephesians 3:16

2 Thessalonians 2:17 Father and Son strengthen us

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Cyril of Alexandria (444 A.D.) “For as He because He is by Nature Wisdom and Light and Power, makes wise the things recipient of wisdom, enlightens those that lack light and strengthens those that want strength; so because He is God of God, and the Genuine and Free Fruit of the Essence That reigns over all, He bestows freedom on whomsoever He will. For no one can become truly free at his hands who has it not of nature. But when the Son Himself wills to free any, infusing His own Good, they are called <i>free indeed, </i>receiving the Dignity from Him who hath the Authority and not from any of those who have been lent it from Another and been ennobled with so to say foreign graces.” P.631-632

 

X8. We are friends of Christ

 

John 15:15

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X9. Pure in heart will see God

 

Matthew 5:8

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 2 ch.1 p.396 Matthew 5:8

 

X10. None shall separate us from God’s love

 

Romans 8:35a

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X11. The Lord disciplines or corrects us

 

Isaiah 26:16; Hebrews 12:5-11

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X13. Please the Lord

 

1 Corinthians 7:32; 2 Corinthians 5:9; 12:1; 14:18; Galatians 1:10; 6:8; Ephesians 5:10; Philippians 4:18; 1 Colossians 1:10; 3:2; Thessalonians 2:4; 4:1; Hebrews 11:5-6

(implied) Romans 8:8

Isaiah 56:4 “To the eunuchs who keep my Sabbaths, who choose what pleases me...”

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X14. Glory in the Lord

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X15. Seek wisdom from God or His word

 

Proverbs 9:1-6; 10:1; 13:1; Ephesians 1:17; James 1:5

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X16. Be peaceful, kind, or good

 

Matthew 5 (peacemakers)

Ephesians 4:31-32; Philippians 4:8; Hebrews 12:14; 1 Peter 3:11

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X17. Be strong/strengthened

 

Joshua 1:6,9

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Cyril of Alexandria (444 A.D.) “Therefore He will not be conceived of as less on account of being sent, but being God of God by Nature and verily, since Himself is the Wisdom and Power of the Father, He is sent to us as from the sun the light which is spread abroad from it, in order that He might make wise that which lacks wisdom, and that thus at length that which was weak might be lifted up through Him and strengthened unto the knowledge of God the Father and recovered unto all virtue. For all things most fair beamed on the human race through only Christ. There is therefore nothing at all of servile kind in Christ, but it belongs only to the form of the flesh: but God-befitting is His Authority and Power even all, even though the language meetly conformed to the measure of lowliness take human fashion.” Commentary on John p.646

 

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) “May this people, free from stain, be strengthened” Poem on Easter p.330

 

X18. God’s people mourn

 

2 Corinthians 7:9,11

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X19. Fear of the Lord/God

 

The fear of the Lord is Wisdom. Job 28:28; Psalm 111:10a; Proverbs 1:7; 9:10

Leviticus 19:14,32; 25:!7,36,43; Deuteronomy 4:10; 5:29; 6:2,13,24; 8:6; 10:12,20; 13:4; 4:23; 17:19; 28:58; 31:12, 31:13; Joshua 4:24; 24:14; 1 Samuel 12:14; 12:242 Samuel 23:3; 1 Kings 18:12; 2 Kings 4:1; 17:28; 17:32-41; 1 Chronicles 16:25; 16:30; 2 Chronicles 19:7,9; Nehemiah 1:11; 5:9; 5:15; 7:2; Psalm 2:11; 5:7; 15:4; 19:9; 22:23; 22:25; 25:14; 33:8; 33;18; 34:7; 34:9; 34:11; 40:3; 52:6; 66:16; 67:7; 89:7; 96:4; 96:9; 102:15; 103:11; 103:13; 103:17; 111:5; 112:1; 115:11; 115:13; 118:4; 128:1; 128:4; 130:4; 135:20; 145:19; Proverbs 1:29; 2:5; 3:7; 8:13; 22:4; 23:17; 24:21; Ecclesiastes 3:14; 5:7; 8:12; 12:13; Isaiah 29:23; 33:6; 50:10a; Jeremiah 32:39; 32:40; Hosea 3:5; Jonah 1:9; Haggai 1:12; Malachi 1:6; 3:5; 4:2; Matthew 10:28; Luke 1:50; 12:5; Acts 10:35; 13:16; 13:26; 2 Corinthians 7:1; 7:117:15; Ephesians 5:21; 6:5; 1 Peter 2:17; Revelation 11:18; 14:7; 15:4

(Implied) Genesis 22:12; Deuteronomy 25:18; Job 1:1; 1:8; 2:3; Psalm 25:12; 36:1 55:19; 76:8; 85:9; 86:11; 119:74; 119:120; 119:63; 119:74; 147:11; Proverbs 10:27; 14:2; 14:16; 28:14; 31:30; 14:26; 14:27; 15:16; 15:33; 16:6; 19:23; Ecclesiasates 7:18; Isaiah 41:5; 50:10; 57:11; Jeremiah 5:22; Jonah 1:16; Malachi 2:5; 3:16; Luke 18:4; 23:40; Acts 9:31; 10:22; 19:17; Romans 3:18; Philippians 2:12

(Implied) Exodus 20:20; 1 Samuel 11:7 2 Chronicles 14:14; 17:10; 20:29; Job 6:14; Psalm 114:7; Proverbs 13:13; Isaiah 2:10; 2:19; 2:21

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X20. We adore/glory in the cross

 

Galatians 6:14

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X21. God’s holy people

 

1 Peter 2:9

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X22. Speaking of shame

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X23. Put unrighteousness/adversary to shame

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X24. Do not be ashamed of the cross/Christ

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X25. Flesh and spirit war against each other

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X26. Seek the Lord

 

1 Chronicles 28:9; Deuteronomy 4:29

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X27. Blessed are the poor in spirit

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

X28. There is sin unto death

 

1 John 5:16b

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Cyril of Alexandria (444 A.D.) “But since I am the human-loving Framer of all things, I deemed intolerable the loss of My creation, I beheld man going away to utter destruction, I viewed him falling from sin unto death, I must needs reach forth an helping Hand to him as he lay, I must needs in every way aid him overcome and falling.” Commetnary on John p.582

 

 

NOT OF THIS WORLD

 

n1. We need to repent and come to God

 

Ezekiel 18:23;32

Matthew 3:2; 3:8,11; 4:17; 11:20; 21:32

Mark 1:4,15; 6:12

Luke 3:3,5,8; 5:32; 15:7,10; 16:30; 24:37

Acts 2:38; 3:19; 5:31; 8:22; 11:18; 13:24; 17:30; 19:4; 20:21; 26:20

Romans 2:4

2 Corinthians 7:9,10

2 Timothy 2:25

Hebrews 6:1,6

2 Peter 3:9

Revelation 2:5,16; 2:21,22; 3:3; 3:19; 9:20,21; 16:9,11

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n2. Love God / the Lord

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n3. Obey God

 

Luke 10:27; John 1:15,23; 1 John 2:15,17

Do what Jesus says Luke 6:46-49

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n4. Follow Jesus or His example

 

John 10:4-5; 1 John 2:6

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n5. Bear/Take up the cross, and follow Christ

 

Matthew 10:38; 16:24; Mark 8:34; 10:21; Luke 9:23; 14:27

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n6. Struggle to live a victorious life

 

1 Corinthians 15:57; 1 John 5:4; Revelation 2:7,11,17,26; 3:5,12,21;15:2

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n7. Put on the armor of God/righteousness

 

Ephesians 6:11-18

2 Corinthians 6:7 (implied) weapons of righteousness

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n8. Faithful Christians still get sick

 

Galatians 4:13; Philippians 2:25-27; 1 Timothy 5:23

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n9. Suffer persecution or martyrdom

 

Mk 8:35; John 12:25&&&; 16:2; Romans 8:36-37; 12:14; 1 Thessalonians 3:2-4; Hebrews 10:32-33; 1 Peter 1:6; 5:9-10; Revelation 9:20-11:3; 11:5-16:15

All who want to live a godly life will be persecuted. 2 Timothy 3:12

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n10. No sorcery, witchcraft, or magic

 

Leviticus 19:26,31;20:6-8;27; Deuteronomy 18:9-14; Jeremiah 27:9; Ezekiel 13:18; Micah 5:12; Revelation 9:21

(implied) Acts 19:19

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n11. Exorcism or casting out devils

 

Luke 8:28-33; Acts 16:18

Matthew 9:33; 11:18; 17:14-20; 4:24; 8:16,28,33; 9:32; 12:22; 7:22; 8:31; 9:34; 10:8; 12:24,27,28; Mark 1:32,34,39; 3:15,22; 5:12,16,18; 6:13; 7:26,29,30; 9:38; 16:9,17; Luke 4:33,35,41; 7:33; 8:2,27,29-30,32,33,35-36,38; 9:1,42,49; 10:17; 11:14-15,18,19,20; 13:32; John 8:48-49,52; 10:21; 7:20; 10:20;

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n12. Live a worthy life

 

Note that taking the Lord’s supper unworthily (1 Corinthians 11:27-32) is a separate topic not included here.

Worthily can also mean acknowledging the proper worth of something, and that is not included here.

 

Ephesians 4:1; Philippians 1:27; Colossians 1:10

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n13. Mortify earthly nature/deeds of the body

 

Colossians 3:5; Galatians 5:24; Ephesians 4:22

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n14. Be clothed with/in Christ

 

Romans 13:14; Galatians 3:27

Revelation 3:18 (partial) (does not say Christ)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) (partial, Holy Spirit, not Christ) “ even one that is spiritually clothed with the Holy Spirit of God

 

n15. You cannot serve two masters

 

Matthew 6:24b; Luke 16:13b

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n16. Martyrs are blessed

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) (implied) “most holy and victorious martyrs” Eophenia to Dioscorus p.260

 

n17. Losing your life and finding it

 

Matthew 16:25

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.19 p.&&& “And again you find it written: ‘Every one that loveth his father or his mother more than me, is not worthy of me and everyone that loveth his son or his daughter more than me, is not worthy of me; and every one that taketh not up his cross rejoicing and glad and cometh after me, is not worthy of life; and every one that shall lose his life for my sake, shall find it; and every one that shall save his life, by denying, shall lose it.’”

 

n18. Believers are servants of God

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) (implied) “And you shall not admit a [[110]] testimony from the heathen against any of our own people; for through the heathen the Enemy contrives against the servants of God.

Cyril of Alexandria(444 A.D.) “for they were men, and according to the same measure as ourselves, the true servants of GodCommentary on the Gospel of Luke p.&&&

 

n19. We must persevere

 

1 Thessalonians 1:3; 2 Thessalonians 3:5; James 1:3-4; Revelation 2:3; 3:10

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) “Wherefore, assist those who are young, that they may persevere in chastity unto God. And do thou accordingly, O bishop, bestow care upon these.

 

n20. We are the light of the world

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n21. We wrestle against the devil or sin

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Zechariah Rhetor of Mytilene (487-536 A.D.) “But it is plain and manifest that these men do not struggle with their bodies, nor yet do they wrestle with Satan; but for the sake of vain glory they exercise themselves in the tricks of their evil devices, and not in the afflictions of asceticism.” Syriac Chronicle &&&

The Philocalia (14th to 15th centuries) ch.23.10 p.&&& “and the result is that because we do not wrestle against sin we soon become subject to it.

 

n22. Keep away from works of darkness

 

Ephesians 5:11a

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n23. We are aliens awaiting our eternal home

 

(implied) John 15:19; Philippians 3:20; Hebrews 11:13; 13:13-14; 1 Peter 1:17; 2:11

(partial) Philippians 3:14

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n24. Don’t be bitter

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n25. Believers are transformed [now]

 

Future physical transformation is not counted here.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^6

 

n26. The Kingdom of God is within you

 

Luke 17:21

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

n27. Walk in newness of life

 

Romans 6:1-4,14

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Thomas Aquinas (1248-1274 A.D.) Walk in newness of life. Thomas Aquinas’ Commentary on 2 Corinthians ch.5 lecture 3.186 p.479

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) “and being buried together riwth him by Baptism, should by his Grace be raised up again to the Newness of Life.” Colloquies of Erasmus p.330

 

The Mennonite Pamphlet Mennonites: What Do They Believe by Christian Lighthouse Publishers, says they believe the Father, Godhead, Holy Spirit is personal and divine, the Son of God was born of a virgin, God created all, saved by the blood of Jesus, obedience, walking in newness of life, bishops and deacons, baptism, communion is a symbol, foot washing, women should be veiled in the service, Christ will return, eternal heaven or damnation in the Lake of Fire.

 

n28. Some are worthy of martyrdom

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

PRAYER AND FASTING

 

Pr1. Prayer to God is important

 

Matthew 6:9-13; Mark 11:25; 1 Thessalonians 5:25; James 5:13,17,18

(partial) Matthew 26:26 (Jesus prayed in Gethsemane)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Vision of Ezra (before 700 A.D.) p.587 (partial) mentions prayer

 

Pr2. Pray to the Father

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pr3. Pray to Jesus

 

Acts 7:59; Revelation 22:20

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pr4. Pray at all times or in any place

 

1 Thessalonians 5:17; Hebrews 13:15; Psalm 86:3b

Example:s Acts 1:14; 16:25; Romans 1:10; Ephesians 6:18; Colossians 1:9; 4:12; 2 Timothy 1:3

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) (partial) mentions “holy Scriptures, to frequent Prayer, and Sobriety of Life,” Colloquies of Erasmus p.299

 

Pr5. Pray daily

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pr6. Praise God

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) “The light, the heaven, the fields, and the sea duly praise the God ascending above the stars, having crushed the laws of hell. Behold, He who was crucified reigns as God over all things, and all created objects offer prayer to their Creator.Poem on Easter p.&&&

 

Pr7. Thankfulness/gratitude to God

 

2 Chr 5:13; 7:3,6; 20:21; 32:2; Psalm 95:2; 100:4-5

John 6:11; Acts 27:35; Romans 1:21; 14:6; 16:4; 1 Corinthians 10:30; 11:24; 15:57; 16:4-8,34-41; 2 Corinthians 2:14; 9:15; Philippians 1:3; 4:6; Colossians 3:15; 1 Thessalonians 3:9; 5:18; 2 Thessalonians 1:3; Hebrews 12:28

(implied) 1 Thessalonians 4:3

 

Come before God with thanksgiving Psalm 95:2; 110:4

Thanks God when times are tough. Dan 2:23;

Always give thanks Ephesians 5:20; 1 Thessalonians 5:18

Thank God every day 1 Chr 23:30 (Levites)

Give thanks before eating Matthew 14:19; 15:36; 26:26-27; Mark 6:41; 8:6; 14:22-23; Luke 9:16; 22:17,19; 24:30; John 6:11,23; 1 Corinthians 11:24; 1 Timothy 4:3-4

 

Offer God a sacrifice of thanksgiving Leviticus 7:12-15; 7:12; 22:29; Psalm 50:14,23; 56:12; 107:22; 116:17

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pr8. Confess to God

 

1 John 1:9; James 5:16; Psalms 32:5; 38:18

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pr9. Forgive us as we forgive others

 

Matthew 6:12a

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pr10. Not into temptation

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pr11. Deliver us from evil

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pr12. The Lord’s Prayer

 

Matthew 6:9-13; Luke 11:2-4

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pr13. Lift up hands to God

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Cyril of Alexandria (444 A.D.) “Having taken therefore Christ as our pattern, let us draw near to the grace of holy baptism, that so we may gain boldness to pray constantly, and lift up holy hands to God the Father, that He may open the heavens also unto us, and send down upon us too the Holy Ghost, to receive us as sons. For He spake unto Christ at the time of holy baptism, as though having by Him and in Him accepted man upon earth to the sonship, ‘This is My beloved Son, in Whom I am well pleased.’ For He Who is the Son by nature and in truth, and the Only-begotten, when He became like unto us, is specially declared to be the Son of God, not as receiving this for Himself:” Sermon 11 p.&&&

 

Pr14. Bless or pray for those who persecute you

 

Bless those who persecute you. Romans 12:14

Repay evil with blessing. 1 Peter 3:9

Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you. Matthew 5:44

Love your enemies, bless those who curse you; pray for those who mistreat you. Luke 6:27-28

Example of Stephen: Acts 7:60

Example of Jesus: Luke 23:34

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pr15. Pray for rulers and those in authority

 

1 Timothy 2:1-3

(partial) Pray for Christian leaders (like Paul) 1 Thessalonians 5:25

(partial) Pray for each other. James 5:16

(partial) Pray for a brother who is committing a sin that does not lead to death. 1 John 5:16

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pr16. Incense of the prayers of the saints

 

Revelation 5:8; 8:3-4

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pr17. Pray for God’s kingdom to come

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pr18. Pray for others / intercessory prayer

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) “And she cannot please God, nor is she obedient to His ministry, so as to be constantly praying and making intercession, because her mind is quite taken captive by the greed of avarice.

Epitaph of Pectorius (300-500 A.D.) (implied) stanza 8 “May my mother rest peacefully, I beseech thee, Light of the dead.

 

Pr19. Pray for God’s mercy for us

 

Asking Jesus on earth for mercy is not counted here.

 

Psalm 41:4; 4:1; Luke 18:1

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pr20. Fasting to God is good

 

Matthew 6:16; Acts 13:2; 14:23

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pr21. Pray in secret

 

Matthew 6:6

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pr22. Pray together (two or three)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) speaks of praying as two or three. Sentences of the Synod p.307

 

Pr23. Persist/persevere in prayer

 

Luke 18:1-8

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Individual Practice

 

I1. Be godly

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

I2. Keep the commandments of Christ/God

 

(Only times after the resurrection are counted, not times before that.)

 

1 John 3:22-24

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (503-532/533 A.D.) says to keep the commandments. On Forgiveness ch.3.7.1-2 p.156

 

I3. Worship God in spirit and truth

 

John 4:24b

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

I4. Depart from evil

 

(Departing from evil people is not included here.)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

I5. Do not provoke God

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

I6. Do not worship any images or idols

 

Exodus 20:4; Deuteronomy 5:8; 27:15; Psalm 31:6; Psalm 97:7; Jon 2:8 (implied); Acts 14:15

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) “Holding fast to worship of Him [God]… and completely abstain from devotion to the idols. Commentary on Hosea ch.12 p.91

 

I7. Do not worship other gods

 

Deuteronomy 4:24; 27:15; Psalm 97:7

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of  Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (634 A.D.-1215 A.D.)

Peter Lombard (1142-1160) “thoug shalt not have other gods besides Me.” Sentences of Peter Lombard First Book distinction 2 ch.4 p.6

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) (implied) “…detesting Satan, and all Idolatry, and magic Arts. I worship him alone, preferring nothing before him, nor equlaling nothing with him, neither Angel, nor my Parents, nor Children, nor Wife, nor Prince, nor Riches, nor Honours, nor Pleasures,; being ready to lay down my Life if he call for it,” Colloquies of Erasmus p.326

 

I8. Do not make/invent idols

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.7 (implied) “For I have done evil before thee, and provoked thy wrath, and have set up idols and multiplied abominations.” (The repentant Manasseh is speaking)

 

I9. Stars have no influence on people

 

(implied) Isaiah 47:13; Jeremiah 10:2

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

I10. Do not get drunk

 

Ephesians 5:18; Titus 1:7

(implied) Titus 2:3

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

I11. Eating meat is fine

 

Matthew 14:17-21; 15:29-38; Mark 7:15-23; John 21:10-13; Acts 10:12-13; Romans 14:14

Colossians 2:21 (implied)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^6

 

I12. Do not be a glutton or slave of your belly

 

Philippians 3:19a; Proverbs 28:7

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

I13. Vanity, or avoid vain things

 

Ecclesiastes; Jeremian 2:5; Ephesians 4:17; 2 Peter 2:18

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

I14. Virtue of prudence

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

I15. Work hard, don’t be lazy

 

Prov 6:6-11; 12:11,24,27; 15:19; 18:9; 21:25; Ecc 11:6; Colossians 3:23; 1 Thessalonians 5:14; 2 Thessalonians 3:6-12; Tt 3:14

Implied Proverbs 31:17

Partial Proverbs 22:29

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

I16. It’s bad to be a hypocrite

 

Matthew 15:3 “you hypocrites!”;

Jesus likewise called the Pharisees snakes and a brood of vipers condemned to Hell in Matthew 23:33; hypocrites (Matthew 23:29)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) beam that is in thine own eye? Thou hypocrite, cast out first the

 

Start of  Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (634 A.D.-1215 A.D.)

Anastasius Bibliothecarius (858-878 A.D.) freely translating Peter of Alexandria Arius, in the meanwhile, having as yet been endowed only with the dignity of a Levite, and fearing lest, after the death of so great a father, he should noways be able to get reconciled to the Church, came to those who held the chief place amongst the clergy, and, hypocrite that he was, by his sorrowful entreaties and plausible discourse, endeavoured to persuade the holy archbishop to extend to him his compassion, and to release him from the ban of excommunication. But what is more deceptive than a feigned heart?Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria

 

I17. Rule of faith / truth

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

I18. Submit to God

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

I19. Have self-control

 

1 Corinthians 5:10-11; Titus 1:8; 2:5,6; 1 Peter 1:13; 4:7; 5:8; 2 Peter 1:6

(implied) 1 Corinthians 7:37

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

Loving Others

 

L1. Love all / your neighbor as yourself

 

Leviticus 19:18b; Mark 12:31; Luke 10:27a

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

L2. Forgive others/enemies

 

Matthew 5:44; Luke 6:27-30,35; Colossians 3:13

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

L3. Do to others as you would them do to you

 

Matthew 7:12; Luke 6:31

Partial Leviticus 19:33-34

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

L4. Do not get revenge

 

Romans 12:19; Leviticus 19:18; 1 Peter 3:19

(implied) Matthew 5:38-46; Luke 3:27-36

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

L5. Do not hold a grudge

 

Simply using the word “grudge” is not counted here.

 

1 Corinthians 13:5b

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

L6. Do not murder

 

Matthew 5:21; Mark 10:19; Exodus 20:13; Deuteronomy 5:17

(implied) Matthew 30:30-32;37

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

L7. Abortion is evil/murder

 

Exodus 21:22-23

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Apostolic Constitutions (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) Book 7 section 1 ch.3 p.466 “You shall not slay your child by causing abortion, nor kill the baby that is born. For ‘everything that is shaped and has received a soul from God, if it is slain, shall be avenged, as being unjustly destroyed’” (quoted form Ezek 21:23 Septuagint) (quoted from A Dictionary of Early Christian Beliefs. David W. Bercot, ed. p.3)

 

L8. Care for the sick

 

Matthew 25:36,39,43,44

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

L9. Practice hospitality

 

Matthew 25:38,40; Romans 12:13; 16:23; Hebrews 13:1-2; 1 Peter 4:9; 3 John 8,10

Bishops are to be hospitable in 1 Timothy 3:2 and Titus 1:8.

Widows were commended for being hospitable in 1 Timothy 5:10.

Preparing the guest room for Paul Philemon 22

Publius of Malta was very hospitable toward Paul in Acts 28:7.

Entertaining angels unawares Hebrews 13:2

Abraham entertained angels in Genesis 18:1-15 and Lot in Genesis 19.

Job 31:32; Ezekiel 16:39 not showing hospitality to a stranger is a sin.

But no hospitality to heretics in 2 John 10-11.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

L10. Love covers a multitude of sins

 

James 5:20b; 1 Peter 4:8

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

L11. Show mercy to others

 

Luke 6:36

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) show mercy to others. On Forgiveness book 3 ch.6.2-3 p.154-155

 

L14. Cruelty is bad

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

L15. Visit those in prison

 

Matthew 25:36,39,43-44, Hebrews 13:3

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.19 p.77-78 “For let us learn how our Lord said in the Gospel: Come unto me, all ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom which was prepared for you from before the foundations of the world. For I was hungry, and ye gave me to eat; and I was thirsty, and ye gave me to drink. I was a stranger, and ye gathered me; and I was naked, and ye covered me." I was sick, and ye visited me; and I was in prison, and ye came unto me. Then will the righteous answer and say:" Our Lord, when saw we thee hungry, and gave thee to eat? or thirsty, and gave thee to drink? or naked, and covered thee? or sick, and did visit thee?  or a stranger, and gathered thee?  or in prison, and came unto thee?" And he will answer and say to them:" All that ye did to one of these little and mean [humble, little] ones, ye did it to me [Mt 25.34-40]. And then shall they go into life everlasting

 

L17. Love your enemies

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

L18. Turn the other cheek

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

L19. Must not poison others

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

Speech

 

Sp1. Have pure speech

 

Partial Matthew

Proverbs 4:24; 15:2; Luke 6:45; 1 Corinthians 5:10-11; Ephesians 4:29; James 3:2-12

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Sp2. No filthy talk

 

Ephesians 4:29

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Sp3. If we deny Christ He will deny us

 

2 Timothy 2:12b; Matthew 32-33

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

 

Sp4. Forsake lies

 

Ephesians 4:25; Proverbs 12:19-20

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Sp6. Do not swear oaths

 

Matthew 5:34-37; James 5:12

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Sp7. Don’t use flattery (on others)

 

1 Thessalonians 2:5,6,7

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Sp8. Slandering people is bad

 

Leviticus 19:16; Psalm 15:3; 31:13; 38:20; 41:6; Proverbs 10:18; 30:10; Jeremiah 6:28; Ezekiel 36:3; Matthew 15:19; Mark 7:22; 2 Corinthians 12:31; Ephesians 4:31; Colossians 3:8; Titus 3:2; James 4:11; 1 Peter 2:1

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) quarrels, slanders, murmurings, contentions, controversies, accusations,

 

Sp9. Do not be a gossip or chatterer

 

Note that while slander and backbiting are forms of gossip, they alone are not counted here; this refers to all gossip.

 

Proverbs 11:13; 16:28; 18:8; 20:19; 26:20,22; 2 Corinthians 12:20; 3John 10; Romans 1:29; 1 Timothy 5:13

(partial) 1 Peter 2:1; 3:16

(partial) Matthew 12:36

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Sp10. Confess your sins to others

 

James 5:16

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Vision of Ezra (before 700 A.D.) p.588 some good for making confession before God and the holy priests

 

Theodore Balsamon (c.1170 A.D.) (in Peter of Alexandria) “For we know that many have obtained the goodness and compassion of God by the prayers of others. Therefore we will pray for them that remission of their sins be granted them by God; and with the others who have lapsed, and have afterwards recanted their error, and confessed godliness, we will communicate, being mindful of those contests which before their fall they sustained for God’s sake, and also of their subsequent worthy repentance, and that they testify that on account of their sin they have been as it were aliens from their city; and we will not only communicate with them, but pray also for their reconciliation, together with other things that are convenient, either with the good works which ought to be done by them-fasting, for instance, almsgiving, and penance; by which things He who is our Advocate makes the Father propitious towards us. Then he makes use of a passage of Holy Scripture, and this is taken from the first catholic epistle of the holy apostle and evangelist John.

 

Sp8. Don’t swear false oaths / swear falsely

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) Lecture 15 ch.13 p.111

 

Sp11. Don’t boast about yourself

 

Jeremiah 9:23; 1 Corinthians 1:31; 2 Corinthians 10:17; Galatians 6:14; Ephesians 2:9; James 4:13-14

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

&&&

 

Sp12. Don’t be a reviler

 

Bless when reviled is not counted here.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Sp13. Bless those who revile/curse you

 

Matthew 5:44; Luke 6:28; Romans 12:14

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Sp14. Do not murmur

 

Ex 15:24; 16:2; 16:7-9; 16:12; 17:3 (all implied)

Num 14:2; 17:5; Jn 6:43; Jde 1:16

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Sp15. Do not grumble

 

James 5:9 Do not grumble against one another.

 

 

PEACE AND CONTENTMENT

 

Pc1. Have peace

 

John 14:27

1 Peter 3:11 Let him seek peace and pursue it.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc2. The peace of God

 

Philippians 4:7

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc3. God is the God of peace

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc4. Don’t worry about tomorrow / lilies of the field

 

Matthew 6:25-34

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc5. Lose your life for My sake to find it

 

Matthew 10:39

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc6. We should be peacemakers or bring/seek peace

 

Having peace and praying for peace are not included here.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc7. We rejoice when afflicted

 

Matthew 5:11-12; Luke 6:22-23; Colossians 1:24; Hebrews 10:34; James 1:2-4; 1 Peter 4:13

Rejoice in suffering the Philippian Jailer

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc8. We rejoice – besides being afflicted

 

Luke 10:20; John 16:22,24; 17:13; Acts 16:34; Philippians 3:1; 1 Thessalonians 5:16; 2 Corinthians 2:3

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc9. Be content with what you have

 

Hebrews 13:5

(implied) Matthew 6:25-34

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc10. No selfish ambition

 

Galatians 5:26; Philippians 2:3; James 3:14-16

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc11. Do not envy or be jealous

 

Matthew 20:9-16

Luke 15:25-31

James 3:14-16

Timothy 6:4

Do not be conceited, envying or gloating over others. Galatians 5:20-26; Mark 7:22; Romans 1:29b; 1 Corinthians 13:4; Titus 3:3; 1 Peter 2:1; Proverbs 3:31; 23:17; 24:1,17. Envy is unhealthy. Proverbs 14:30; Job 5:2.

No dissensions, jealousy, or quarreling. Romans 13:13; 1 Corinthians 3:3; 2 Corinthians 12:20

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc12. No rivalry

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc13. No strife / striving in the flesh

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (444 A.D.) “And there was also a strife among them, Which of them seems to be the most important. And He said to them, The kings of the Gentiles are their lords: and they who rule over them are called benefactors. But with you it is not so; but he who is great among you, let him be as the youngest’ ‘and let him who governs be as he that serves. For which is the chief he that reclines at table, or he that serves? Is not he that reclines? But I am in the midst of you as he that serves. But you are they who have remained with Me in My temptations: and I will make a covenant with you, as My Father has appointed for Me a kingdom, that you shall eat and drink at My table in My kingdom: and you shall sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’” Sermon 143 p.655

 

Pc14. Do not covet

 

Exodus 20:17; Deuteronomy 5:21; Proverbs 28:16; Micah 2:2; Lk 12:15; Romans 7:7; 13:9; 1 Corinthians 6:10; Ephesians 5:3; Colossians 3:5; Hebrews 13:5; James 4:2; 2 Peter 2:14

(implied) Jeremiah 22:17; Acts 20:33

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc15. Be humble or not proud

 

Matthew 20:24-28; Luke 14:8-10; Romans 12:10; 1 Corinthians 13:4; James 4:6; 1 Peter 3:8; 5:5-6; Prov 3:34

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc16. Don’t be wise in your own eye

 

Proverbs 3:7; 26:5,12; 28:11; Isaiah 5:21

(implied) Proverbs 3:5

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc17. We should be conceited

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc18. We should be patient

 

1 Corinthians 5:10-11; Titus 1:8; 2:5,6; 1 Peter 1:13; 4:7; 5:8; 2 Peter 1:6

(implied) 1 Corinthians 7:37

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc19. Don’t let the sun go down on your anger

 

Ephesians 4:26

Partial Matthew 5:22

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc20. Be gentle or meek

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pc22. We’ll have tribulation, but Jesus has overcome

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

MONEY

 

Mo1. Heavenly treasure; don’t fear earthly loss

 

Treasure in heaven. Matthew 6:19-21,24; 19:23; Luke 12:15-21; 1 Timothy 6:19; Revelation 3:11

(implied) Romans 8:18

Do not be afraid to lose your earthly treasures for God. Hebrews 10:34; Matthew 6:19-21; Luke 2:15-18,33-34; Acts 4:32-37.

p13 (Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17) (225-250 A.D.) (partial) Hebrews 11:35

 

Crown of righteousness 2 Timothy 4:8

crown of life James 1:12; Revelation 2:10b

Paul’s crown is people saved through Him 1 Thessalonians 2:19; Philippians 4:1

But crowns can be lost or taken away Revelation 3:11

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Mo2. Offering money/possessions to God

 

(implied) John 12:5-8; Romans 12:8; 2 Corinthians 8:2-15; 9:2-5

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) &&& has offering to the Jewish Temple.

 

Mo3. Freely you have received, so freely give

 

Matthew 10:8

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Thomas Aquinas (1248-1274) Freely you have received so freely give. (Matthew 10:8) Thomas Aquinas’ Commentary on 1 Corinthians ch.9 lecture 3.487 p.182

 

Mo4. Give in secret

 

Matthew 6:1-4

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Mo5. Cannot serve both God and Mammon

 

Matthew 6:24b; Luke 16:13b

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Mo6. Do not love money

 

Matthew 6:19-21,24; (partial) Luke 9:3; (partial) Luke 10:4; Hebrews 13:5; 1 Timothy 6:10; 1 Peter 5:2

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Mo7. Love of money root of all evils

 

1 Timothy 6:10

 

Mo8. God’s house not a den of robbers / thieves

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) “For when there are found many that sin, evil waxes strong; and whereas they that sin are not corrected and reproved that they should repent, this becomes to all an inducement to sin: and that which is said is fulfilled: ‘My house is called a house of prayer, but ye have made it a den of thieves.’” [Matthew 21.13; Luke 19.46]

 

Mo10. Strive for godliness, not gain

 

Mark 8:36; Luke 9:25; 1 Timothy 6:5

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) (partial) session 3 p.269 says not to be greedy or lust for gain.

 

Mo11. No stealing

 

1 Corinthians 5:10-11; Ephesians 4:28; Tt 1:7,11; 1 Peter 4:15

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Mo12. Don’t rob others

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Mo13. Don’t cheat/defraud others

 

Leviticus 19:13; 1 Samuel 12:3; Psalm 10:7; Mark 10:19; 1 Corinthians 6:7-8; 2 Corinthians 7:2; 1 Thessalonians 4:6; James 5:4

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Mo14. No bribes

 

We should hate receiving bribes (Proverbs 15:27; 17:23; Psalm 15:5; Exodus 23:8; Deuteronomy 16:19; Ecclesiastes 7:7; 1 Samuel 12:3; Isaiah 1:23; Amos 5:12; 2 Chronicles 19:7), because they can corrupt our hearts (Deuteronomy 16:19; Proverbs 15:27; 28:16; Psalm 15:5; Ecclesiastes 7:7; Isaiah 5:13; 1 Samuel 4:3-4)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) (partial) session 2 p.266 says a bishop forfeits his role if he was ordained for money.

 

Mo15. No usury / lending to needy with interest

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Mo16. Hoarding is bad

 

Matthew 6:19-20; Luke 12:18

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

THE POOR

 

Po1. Help the poor

 

Prov 21:13; 22:9; 31:9,20; Luke 14:13; Acts 9:36; 10:4; 24:17; Romans 15:26; Galatians 2:10; James 2:15-16; 1 John 3:17

(implied) 1 Corinthians 13:3

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) &&&

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.)

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.13 p.374 (implied) gives an example of helping the needy.

 

Start of  Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (634 A.D.-1215 A.D.)

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Vision of Ezra (before 700 A.D.) p.587 some ascended to heaven because they gave alms generously and clothed the naked

 

 

Po2. Don’t oppress the poor or afflicted

 

Psalm 146:7; Proverbs 14:31; 21:16; 28:3; Isaiah 1:17

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Po3. Feed the hungry

 

Isaiah 58:7; Ezekiel 18:7,16; Matthew 25:35-44

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Po4. Invite the poor to eat with us

 

Luke 14:12

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Po5. Blessed are the poor / poor in spirit

 

Matthew 5:3

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Po6. Help widows

 

Leviticus 24:22; Deuteronomy 24:17,19-21; 14:29; 26:12-13; 27:19; Jer 22:3; 7:6; Zech 7:10

Psalm 94:6; 146:9; Mal 3:5

Evil people do not belp orphans and widows Isa 1:23

1 Timothy 5:3; James 1:27

(partial) Exodus 22:21-22

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

Po7. Help orphans / fatherless

 

Deuteronomy 24:17; 1 Timothy 5:3; James 1:27

Evil people do not help orphans and widows. Isa 1:23

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Po8. Clothe the naked

 

Isaiah 58:7; Matthew 25:35-44Deuteronomy 24:17; 1 Timothy 5:3; James 1:27

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) &&&

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Vision of Ezra (before 700 A.D.) p.587 some ascended to heaven because they gave alms generously and clothed the naked

 

 

Assembling Together

 

Ca1. Calling ourselves Christians

 

Acts 11:26b; 1 Peter 4:16; Acts 26:27-29

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) speaks of us as Christians. The Sentence of the Synod p.307

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Pope Agatho of Rome (Nov. 15, 680 A.D.) (implied) mentions the Christian faith. Letter p.329

Liturgy of Mark (ms. 1100-1200 A.D.) p.556 mentions Christians.

Peter Lombard (1142-1160) “it is enough for the Christian, to believe the cause of created things, visible and insibile, is not but the goodness of the Creator, who is the One and True God.” Sentences of Peter Lombard First Book distinction 4 ch.2 p.4

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) “Au. Thou believest indeed like a good Christian.” Colloquies of Erasmus p.331

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) (implied) “(Cart.) “What do you think is more unhappy Way of living, for a poor Pay, to murder a Fellow Christian, who never did you Harm, and to run yourself Body and Soul into eternal Damnation?” Colloquies of Erasmus p.265

 

Ca2. Church(es) of God

 

Church of God Acts 20:28; 1 Corinthians 1:2; 10:32; 11:22; 2 Corinthians 1:1; Galatians 1:13; 1 Timothy 3:5;

Church of the Living God 1 Timothy 3:15

Churches of God 1 Corinthians 11:16; 1 Thessalonians 2:!4; 2 Thessalonians 1:4

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.321 (553 A.D.) mentions the church of God.

 

Ca3. Church(es) of Christ

 

Church of Christ Romans 16:16 (no other verses)

(implied) Matthew 16:18 (Jesus spoke of my church)

(implied) Christ is the head of the church Ephesians 5:23

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ca4. The Church is the body of Christ

 

1 Corinthians 12:27; Ephesians 4:12; 5:23

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) A Commonitory ch.20.48 p.146

 

Start of  Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (634 A.D.-1215 A.D.)

Council of Quinisext (Trullo) (692 A.D.) “The great and divine Apostle Paul calls man created in the image of God, the body and temple of Christ.” Council of Quinisext Canon 110 p.407

 

Ca5. We are the flock of Christ

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of  Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (634 A.D.-1215 A.D.)

Anastasius Bibliothecarius (858-878 A.D.) freely translating Peter of Alexandria “I commend also to thy glorious patronage the flock of Christ’s worshippers which was committed to my pastoral care;” Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria p.&&&

 

Ca6. Learn from prior church writers/councils

 

Acts 15

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) speaks approvingly of Gregory, Basil, Athanasius, Hilary, Ambrose, and Cyril. Session 1 p.248

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Mention of Ambrose. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.217

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Theophilus of Alexandria. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.231

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) 318 bishops at Nicea. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.87

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Speaks well of Gregory the Divine and Athanasius of Alexandria. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.200

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.321 (553 A.D.) mentions the church of God.

 

Start of  Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (634 A.D.-1215 A.D.)

Peter Lombard (1142-1160) quotes or paraphrases “Augustine in the first book On the Trinity” Sentences of Peter Lombard First Book distinction 4 ch.2 p.3

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) “Here the most sweet Chrysostom converses with me, and Basil, and Austin, and Jerome, and Cyprian, and the rest of the Doctors that are both learned and eloquent.”” Colloquies of Erasmus p.264

 

&&&Philocalia, Canons of Anastasius, Photius, Theodoret all refer to Adamantius, accoding to notes on Adamantius.

 

Third Council of Constantinople (680-681 A.D.) “Our Lord Jesus Christ, according as the Prophets of old have taught us and as our Lord Jesus Christ himself hath instructed us, and the Creed of the holy Fathers hath delivered to us; defining all this we likewise declare that in him are two natural wills and tow natural operations indivisibly, inconvertibly, inseparably, inconfusedly, according to the teaching of the holy Fathers.” The Definition of Faith of the Third Council of Constantinople p.345.

 

Ca7. Christians met together on Sunday

 

1 Corinthians 16:2 – collection on the first day

Acts 20:7 - met to break bread and hear Paul’s preaching

partial (Lord’s day) Revelation 1:10. Christians needed no other explanation to know which day that was.

 

There has been a false claim by Seventh Day Adventists that Christians did not worship on Sunday until a decree of Constantine. This false claim was in the pamphlet Authorized Questions on the Sabbath and Sunday and the radio program Voice of Prophets.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

From the start of Muslim Conquests to the Fourth Laterna Countil (635-1215 A.D.)

Council of Quinisext (692 A.D.) “It behooves those who preside over the churches, every day but especially on Lord’s days, to teach all the clergy and people words of piety and of right religion, gathering out of holy Scripture meditations and determinations of the truth, and not going beyond the limits now fixed, nor varying from the tradition of the God-bearing fathers.” Canon 19 p.374

Council of Quinisext (692 A.D.) canons 88, 89, 90 p.403 mentions that the Sabbath was made for man. Christians ought to fast until midnight of the Great Sabbath. Canon 90 says “that in honour of Christ’s resurrection, we are not to kneel on Sundays.”. It mentions going to the Altar for Vespers on Saturdays. No one shall kneel in prayer until the evening of Sunday.

 

Ca8. Practice water baptism

 

Mark 16:16; Luke 3:21; John 3:22; 4:1; Acts 2:38; 10:47-48; 1 Peter 3:21

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) speaks of water baptism. Session 2 p.249

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.322 (553 A.D.) mentions baptizing in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

 

Ca9. Baptize in the name of the Father, Son, Holy Spirit

 

Matthew 28:19

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

Bezae Cantabrigiensis (5th century)

Italic (4th to 7th centuries)

Freer Gospels (c.500 A.D.)

Syriac

Sahidic Coptic

Bohairic Coptic

 

Ca10. The Lord’s Supper

 

Matthew 26:20-30; Mark 14:12-26; Luke 22:1-23; John 13:1-30; 1 Corinthians 11:17-34

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

The Mennonite Pamphlet Mennonites: What Do They Believe by Christian Lighthouse Publishers, says they believe the Father, Godhead, Holy Spirit is personal and divine, the Son of God was born of a virgin, God created all, saved by the blood of Jesus, obedience, walking in newness of life, bishops and deacons, baptism, communion is a symbol, foot washing, women should be veiled in the service, Christ will return, eternal heaven or damnation in the Lake of Fire.

 

Ca11. Calling the Lord’s Supper the Eucharist

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ca12. Mention of Easter/Pascha[l]

 

From Wikipedia: The word for Easter in almost all languages comes from the Greek word Pascha, which comes from the Hebrew Pesach, meaning Passover. The main exceptions are the Slavic languages and English. Slavic languages call this festival the “Great Night” or “Great Day”. The English word Easter came from the month of the German calendar called Eostre-monath. The name for the month came from the Anglo-Saxon goddess Eostre, similar to how the names January, March, and June came from Roman deities.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) wrote a poem on Easter

 

Ca13. Footwashing

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

&&& Church at Milan (c.380 A.D.), Council of Elvira, Aguaustine.

Sometimes by Waldenses, Mennonites, Catholics, Protestants, Charismatics

 

Ca14. Sing hymns to God, the Father, or Jesus

 

(implied) Matthew 26:30; (implied) Mark 14:26

Acts 16:25; Revelation 5:9-10

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ca15. Musical choir

 

Nehemiah 12:31-42

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ca16. Cheer up/encourage other believers

 

 Philippians 2:19; 1 Thessalonians 5:11,14; Hebrews 3:13

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ca17. Correct other believers

 

1 Corinthians 14:20; 1 Thessalonians 5:14

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ca18. Shun alleged believers persisting in sin

 

Matthew 18:17 (partial)

1 Corinthians 5:5-13

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ca19. Holy church(es)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Cassiodorus (c.560-580 A.D.) translating Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “It was written to a Babylonian lady, by name Electa, and indicates the election of the holy Church.” [Latin translation] Comments on 2 John p.576

 

Ca20. Catechumens (members in training)

 

-

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ca20. No need to burn incense in the church

 

See http://archive.churchsociety.org/churchman/documents/Cman_117_3_Brattston.pdf

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Church Leadership

 

C1. Christ the head of the Church

 

Ephesians 5:23

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

C2. Concept of one universal church

 

Ephesians 4:3-5; 1 Corinthians 12:13

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Pope Celestine to the Synod of Ephesus Letter 18 (432 A.D.) p.221 speaks of the “security of the whole church.”

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) speaks of what “the Holy Church has taught from the beginning.” The Capitula of the Council ch.9 p.314. See also Sentences of the Synod p.306

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.321 (553 A.D.) mentions the church of God.

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) “them away, He [Christ] guards the fold of God. Those whom guilty Eve had before infected, He now restores, fed with abundant milk at the bosom of the Church.” Poem On Easter p.330

 

C3. Tradition of the apostles or the church

 

Ephesians 2:20

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Pope Celestine to the Synod of Ephesus Letter 18 (431 A.D.) p.220 “We must strive therefore in common to keep the faith which has come down to us to-day, through the Apostolic Succession.”

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) “Examples there are without number: but to be brief, we will take one, and that, in preference to others, from the Apostolic See, so that it may be clearer than day to every one with how great energy, with how great zeal, with how great earnestness, the blessed successors of the blessed apostles have constantly defended the integrity of the religion which they have once received.” Vincent of Lerins, Commonitory for the Antiquity and Universality of the Catholic Faith 6:15 (A.D. 434).

“Moreover, with respect to a certain bishop who, as the aforesaid magnificent men have told us, is prevented by infirmity of the head from administering his office, we have written to our brother and fellow-bishop Etherius, that if he should have intervals of freedom from this infirmity, he should make petition, declaring that he is not competent to fill his own place, and requesting that another be ordained to his Church. For during the life of a bishop, whom not his own fault but sickness, withdraws from the administration of his office, the sacred canons by no means allow another to be ordained in his place. But, if he at no time recovers the exercise of a sound mind, a person should be sought adorned with good life and conversation, who may be able both to take charge of souls, and look with salutary control after the causes and interests of the same church; and he should be such as may succeed to the bishop’s place in case of his surviving him. But, if there are any to be promoted to a sacred order, or to any clerical ministry, we have ordained that the matter is to be reserved and announced to our aforesaid most reverend brother Etherius, provided it belong to his diocese, so that, enquiry having then been made, if the persons are subject to no fault which the sacred canons denounce, he himself may ordain them. Pope Gregory the Great [regn. A.D. 590-604], Epistle 6 (A.D. 602

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions the holy fathers Athanasius of Alexandria, Basil, Gregory Theologian [of Nazianzen], Gregory of Nyssa, Ambrose, Theophilus, John (Chrysostom), Cyril, Augustine, Proclus, Leo. It says Theodore of Mopsuestia and Nestorius are heretics. Session 1 p.303. It mentions the 318 holy Fathers at the Nice [Nicea] Sentence of the Synod p.307

Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) session 1 p.247 speaks of earlier Christian writers.

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) lists early Christian writers as authorities. Session 1 p.302

 

C4. Priesthood of all believers

 

1 Peter 2:9; Exodus 19:6; Revelation 1:6; 5:10

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Apostolic Constitutions (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 7 p.495 &&&(partial) “Let him who teaches, teach. This is true even if he is one of the laity – if he is skillful in the Word and serious in his living.”

 

C5. The Church/Christians should have unity

 

John 17:3; 20-21,23; 1 Corinthians 3:1-10; 12:12-29; Ephesians 4:3-5

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) session 6 p.292 says the church should have unity.

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) speaks of divine unity. Session 1 p.302

 

Peter Lombard (1142-1160) the unity of the spirit in the chain of peace.” Sentences of Peter Lombard First Book distinction 10 ch.2 p.7

 

C6. Excommunicate or separate from heretics

 

2 Timothy 3:1-5

No hospitality to heretics 2 John 10-11

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) excommunicates those who deny that Christ was one person, fully God and fully man. The Capitula of the Council ch.8 p.313-314

Cassiodorus (c.560-580 A.D.) translating Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) refers to 2 John 10-11 as the “second Epistle of John” and says not to even let people in your house who bring ungodly doctrine. Fragments from Cassiodorus ch.3 p.577

 

C7. Churches should greet other churches

 

Romans 16:16

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

C8. Church leaders should accept each other

 

(implied) John 13:20; (implied) Romans 15:7; 2 John 9-10

(implied, because accept all believers) Romans 15:7

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among heretics

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Cyril wrote to other bishops. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.131-132

 

C9. Must be worthy of being a bishop/priest

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

C10. Remove leaders fallen in gross sin/heresy

 

(implied, if remove any Christian from the church that includes leaders) 1 Corinthians 5:9-11; 2 John 9-11 (implied)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

C11. Obey authority of godly church leaders

 

1 Thessalonians 5:12-23; Hebrews 13:7,17; (partial) 1 Peter 5:2-3

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

C12. Reject unchristian church leader authority

 

1 Timothy 6:3-5; 2 Timothy 3:1-5; Titus 1:14; 2 John 9-11 (implied)

(partial) 1 Timothy 4:1-4

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

C13. Church leaders are shepherds

 

John 21:15-17; 1 Peter 5:2

allusion Ezekiel 34:16-22

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) p.24-25 “Hear, then, ye bishops, and hear, ye laymen, how the Lord saith: ‘I will judge between ram and ram, and between ewe and ewe’; that is, between bishop and bishop, and between layman and layman:" whether layman loves layman, [ii. 20 ] and whether again the layman loves the bishop and honours and fears him as father and lord, and (as) God after God Almighty; for to the bishop it was said through the apostles: ‘Everyone that heareth you, heareth me; and everyone that rejecteth you rejecteth me, and him that sent me:’ and again, whether the bishop loves the laity as his children, and cherishes and keeps them warm with loving care, as eggs from which young birds are to come; or broods over them and cherishes them as young birds, for the rearing up of winged fowl. Teach, then, and admonish all; and them that deserve rebuke, rebuke and afflict:" but unto conversion and not unto destruction; and admonish unto repentance and correct them, so that thou make their ways straight and fair, and order well the conduct of their life in the world. That which is whole preserve that is, him that is established in the faith guard watchfully; and shepherd the whole people in peace.

 

C14. Ordination [of elders/bishops]

 

Ordaining of Christ, Old Testament priests, or ordaining in the sense of commanding are not included here. Ordaining of deacons or ordination of all things is not included here either.

 

Titus 1:5

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

C15. Bishop(s)

 

Acts 20:28; Philippians 1:1

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions bishops. Session 1 p.303. Session 7 p.305. See also session 1 p.302.

 

The Mennonite Pamphlet Mennonites: What Do They Believe by Christian Lighthouse Publishers, says they believe the Father, Godhead, Holy Spirit is personal and divine, the Son of God was born of a virgin, God created all, saved by the blood of Jesus, obedience, walking in newness of life, bishops and deacons, baptism, communion is a symbol, foot washing, women should be veiled in the service, Christ will return, eternal heaven or damnation in the Lake of Fire.

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Pope Agatho of Rome (Nov. 15, 680 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit. Letter p.329

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 2 ch.1 p.396 mentions the bishop.

 

C16. The episcopate [office of bishop]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

John Zonaras (1120 A.D.) “from his See more than six months, unless some one of the causes there enumerated shall have intervened, has both fallen from the episcopate and the” Commentary on Peter of Alexandria’s Canonical Epistle canon 10 p.275

 

Among heretics

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) “When they heard these things, they said: ‘Before God has our inquiry been solved.’ And many praised and gave glory and went away from me and  remained in  agreement until they fell into the snare of those who were seeking for the episcopate.Bazaar of Heracleides p.99-100.

 

C17. Elders/presbyters

 

Acts 11:30; 14:23; 15:2; 20:17; 1 Timothy 3:1-3; 3:8; Titus 1:5; James 5:14; 1 Peter 5:1

 

Old Testament, Jewish or non-Christian elders are not included here.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) session 6 p.271 mentions presbyters and deacons.

 

Start of Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (635-1215 A.D.)

Pope Agatho of Rome (Nov. 15, 680 A.D.) (implied) mentions the Christian faith. Letter p.329

 

C18. Deacons

 

Acts 6:2-6; 1 Timothy 3:1-2; 1 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:5; Philippians 1:1; 1 Peter 5:4

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) session 6 p.271 mentions presbyters and deacons.

 

The Mennonite Pamphlet Mennonites: What Do They Believe by Christian Lighthouse Publishers, says they believe the Father, Godhead, Holy Spirit is personal and divine, the Son of God was born of a virgin, God created all, saved by the blood of Jesus, obedience, walking in newness of life, bishops and deacons, baptism, communion is a symbol, foot washing, women should be veiled in the service, Christ will return, eternal heaven or damnation in the Lake of Fire.

 

C19. Teachers [in the church]

 

Pasters or elders who also teach are not counted here. Old Testament teachers are also not counted here. Evil teachers are not counted here.

 

Acts 13:1; 1 Corinthians 12:28-29; Ephesians 4:11; Titus 2:3; Hebrews 5:12

James 3:1 (implied)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

C20. A gospel preacher is worthy of his wages

 

Thomas Aquinas (1248-1274) Those who preach the gospel should make their living from the gospel. A laborer is worthy of his hire. (Matthew 10:10; Luke 10:7) Thomas Aquinas’ Commentary on 1 Corinthians ch.9 lecture 2.471 p.176

 

C21. Priests [in the church]

 

Pagan priests, Old Testament priests, Jesus our High Priest, and the priesthood of all believers are not included here. Only Christian clergy are counted here.

 

No Bible verses

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Vision of Ezra (before 700 A.D.) p.588 some good for making confession before God and the holy priests

 

C22. Sub-deacons

 

-

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

Family and Marriage

 

fm1. Honor marriage, no extra-marital relations

 

Matthew 5:27-28; Romans 13:9; Hebrews 12:16; 13:4; James 2:11

Matthew 5:31-32; 19:9; Mark 10:11-12; Luke 16:18; (Divorce)

(implied) Revelation 17:2 (kings of the earth committed adultery with Babylon)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) (implied) “But they say Chastity is very well pleasing to God. (Pa) And for that Reason I would marry a chaste Maid, that I may life chastly with her.” Colloquies of Erasmus p.220.

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) “In that Book, Paul, that can’t lie, told me, that neither whores nor whore-mongers shall obtain the Kingdom of Heaven.” Colloquies of Erasmus p.298

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Vision of Ezra (before 700 A.D.) p.587 punishment for those who lived with married women not their wives, and wives who adorned themselves for men not their husbands

Vision of Ezra (before 700 A.D.) p.589 punishment for women who violated their virginity before marriage

 

fm2. No divorce, except for unfaithfulness

 

Matthew 5:31-32; 19:9; Mark 10:11-12; Luke 16:18; Romans 7:2,3; 1 Corinthians 7:10,11

(partial) 1 Corinthians 7:10-11; 39

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) taught that divorce was not an option, to the very last day of life. Colloquies of Erasmus p.245

 

fm3. Remarriage OK after death of spouse

 

Romans 7:1-3; 1 Corinthians 7:39

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

&&&

 

fm4. No homosexuality

 

Romans 1:26-27; 1 Corinthians 6:9-11; Leviticus 20:13

 

Note that if only boys are mentioned, this is counted as Partial, because while teens could be of marriageable age, they could be younger too.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

fm5. No incestual relations

 

Leviticus 20:17-19

1 Cor 5:1-3 (implied)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Vision of Ezra (before 700 A.D.) p.588 (implied, partial) some punished for living (i.e. committing incest) with their mothers

 

fm6. Do not lust (sexually)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

fm7. We should be pure

 

Ephesians 5:3-4; Matthew 5:28

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

fm8. We should be modest

 

(Modesty explicitly referring to only humbleness is not included here.)

 

Ephesians 5:3-4; Matthew 5:28

Job 31:1 Job made a covenant with his eyes not to look lustfully at a girl

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

fm9. Do not watch lewd shows

 

From the Council of Nicea I until the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

&&&John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.)

 

fm10. Do not watch violent shows

 

(implied) Job 31:1; Prov 6:25; Matthew 5:28; 2 Peter 2:14

 Philippians 4:8-9

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

fm11. Do not kill/expose infants

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Salvian (440-450 A.D.) “Even the origins of our religion were thought to spring from two great crimes, the first being murder and the second incest, which is worse than murder. Nor were these mere murder and incest, but a more wicked thing than the bare commission of either of these crimes, the incest of holy mothers, and the murder of innocent infants, whom, they thought, the Christians not only murdered, but ---- which is more abominable ---- devoured.On the Government of God ch.18 p.128

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Apostolic Constitutions (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 7 section 1 ch.3 p.466”You shall not slay your child by causing abortion, nor kill the baby that is born. For ‘everything that is shaped and has received a soul from God, if it is slain, shall be avenged, as being unjustly destroyed.’”

 

Start of  Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (634 A.D.-1215 A.D.)

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Vision of Ezra (before 700 A.D.) p.589 (partial) some punished for having sons by adultery and killing them.

 

fm12. Cherish and nurture our family

 

1 Corinthians 7:33-34; Titus 2:4

(implied) Ephesians 6:1-4

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

fm13. Having kids is fine within marriage

 

(implied) Ephesians 6:1-4; Titus 2:4

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

fm14. Train your kids in the Lord

 

Deuteronomy 6:4-9; Psalm 78:4; Proverbs 22:6; Ephesians 6:4

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

fm15. We should honor our parents

 

Exodus 20:12; Deuteronomy 5:16

Mark 7:10-12 (Corban)

(implied) Ephesians 6:1-2

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) (partial) “but answer me this one Thing. I beseech you, do any Laws discharge you from your Duty to your Parents? (Ca) No.” Colloquies of Erasmus p.233

 

fm16. Do not love family more than Jesus

 

(implied) Matthew 10:21

Luke 8:20-21

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Cyril of Alexandria to Nestorius at the Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) (implied) [Christ said,] “For I am come to set a man a variance against his father, and the daughter against for mother.”

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) (implied) “…detesting Satan, and all Idolatry, and magic Arts. I worship him alone, preferring nothing before him, nor equlaling nothing with him, neither Angel, nor my Parents, nor Children, nor Wife, nor Prince, nor  Riches, nor Honours, nor Pleasures,; being ready to lay down my Life if he call for it,” Colloquies of Erasmus p.326

 

fm17. Celibacy is better than marriage

 

1 Corinthians 7:1-9; 25-35

 

From the Council of Nicea I until the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 7:1-9; 25-35

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 4 ch.23 p.106 (c.400-439 A.D.) mentions what Paul wrote in Corinthians about the advantages of chastity vs. marriage.

 

fm18. Don’t betray others in family

 

Matthew 10:21 (implied); Mk 13:12 (implied)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

fm19. Eve was Adam’s bone and flesh

 

Genesis 2:23a

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

fm20. Two become one flesh

 

Genesis 2:23; Matthew 19:5; Ephesians 5:31

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

Government and LAws

 

Gv1. Honor the king or government

 

Matthew 22:17-21; Luke 20:22-25; Romans 13:1-5; 1 Peter 2:17

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gv2. Obey government [when not against God]

 

Romans 13:1-5; 1 Peter 2:17

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gv3. Do not aid in persecuting Christians

 

1 Corinthians 13:7 (always protects)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gv4. Pay taxes

 

Mk 12:14-17; Luke 20:22-25; Romans 13:6-7

(implied) Matthew 17:24-27 (Temple tax)

We pay taxes. Romans 13:6-7; Matthew 17:24-27;22:15-21; Mark 12:13-17; Luke 20:22-25

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gv5. Citizens of Heaven

 

Philippians 3:20

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gv6. Christians should not be in lawsuits

 

1 Corinthians 6:1-8

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) (partial) session 7 p.274 says Christians should not sue clergy

 

Gv7. Officials ought to be just

 

Leviticus 19:15; Romans 13:3-4

(partial) 1 Peter 3:13

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gv8. Disobey or change unjust laws

 

Leviticus 19:15 (implied); Acts 4:19; 5:29

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gv9. Providence, or God governing the world

 

Isaiah 46:10

(partial) Luke 12:24

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) mentions Divine Providence. A Commonitory ch.10 p.138 ahd ch.12 p.139.

 

Peter Lombard (1142-1160) discusses God’s “governance” Sentences of Peter Lombard First Book distinction 3 ch.1 p.4

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) “But since Providence saw it meet it should be otherwise,” Colloquies of Erasmus p.344

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Providence of God. Commentary on Malachi ch.2 p.409

 

Gv10. Christ is king, or kingdom of Christ

 

John 1:49; 18:36; Revelation 11:15

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among heretics

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) King of Kings and Lord of Lords. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.221

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.9 p.373 refers to Christ as king.

 

Peter Lombard (1142-1160) “He has transferred us into the kingdom of the Son of His charity.” Sentences of Peter Lombard First Book distinction 10 ch.3 p.8

 

Gv11. The Kingdom of Heaven

 

Matthew 5:20

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.2.35 “it behoves you to know the word of the Lord, who said: ‘Except your righteousness abound more than that of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shalt not enter into the kingdom of heaven.’" [Matthew 5:20]

Patrick of Ireland (&&&) “You  will take possession of an eternal kingdom, as He Himself testifies, saying: "They shall come from the east and from the west, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven."” Letter to COroticus ch.19

Nestorius (451 A.D.) &&& The Bazaar of Heracleides ch.&&&

 

Start of  Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (634 A.D.-1215 A.D.)

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Vision of Ezra (before 700 A.D.) p.590 mentions the kingdom of Heaven

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) “In that Book, Paul, that can’t lie, told me, that neither whores nor whore-mongers shall obtain the Kingdom of Heaven.” Colloquies of Erasmus p.298

 

 

KERYGMATIC AND IRENIC EVANGELISM

 

Ke1. Preach the gospel to others

 

(Mentioning the Preacher, the author of Ecclesiastes, is not counted.)

 

Luke 7:22; 8:1; 9:6,60; 2 Timothy 4:2

The word “preach” is used 118 times in the New Testament

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Acts of Paul and Thecla (150-200 A.D.) p.487,488 Paul preached the gospel boldly.

 

Among heretics

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says there were many things that hindered Jesus from preaching the gospel. Bazaar of Heracleides ch.74 p.68

 

Ke2. Bold proclamation of truth

 

Jeremiah 7; Luke 3:18-19; John 6:53-60; 8:54-56; Acts 4:8-13; 4:29,31; 9:27,28; 13:46; 14:3; 28:31; Galatians 2:14-15; (implied) 1 Peter 4:11a

 

From the Council of Nicea I until the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 6:53-60; 8:54-56; Acts 4:8-13; 4:29,31; 9:27,28; 14:3; Galatians 2:14-15

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 3:18-19; John 6:53-60; 8:54-56

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) proclaims the truth against Arians. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 3 ch.7 p.397

 

Ke3. Quoting God’s word to unbelievers

 

(While Satan can be considered an unbeliever, quoting God’s word to Satan is not counted.)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ke4. Sharing personal testimonies

 

Acts 15:12-13; 26:2-29; Hebrews 11

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ke5. Creative allegories or metaphors

 

James 3:4-6; 2 Timothy 2:20-21

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) says that the herbs smile in the blossoms at the resurrection of Christ. Poem on Easter p.329.

 

Ke6. Quoting poetry to share truth

 

Quoting poetry in the Bible, and merely mentioning non-Biblical poets is not counted here. Rather, this refers to quoting non-Biblical poetry to show truth.

 

Acts 17:28

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-550 A.D.) refers to the virgin birth, Christ’s death on a dreadful cross, pretended kisses of a client/disciple, Pilate p.327

Venantius (lived c.530-609 A.D.) wrote a Poem on Easter p.329-330

 

Ke7. Promises of heaven or God’s love

 

Philippians 3:14

Luke 10:20; John 3:16b; 1 Corinthians 2:9; Revelation 19-21

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ke8. Threats of Hell or God’s wrath

 

Matthew 3:10,12; 25:41-44; Luke 10:15; John 8:23-24; 15:6; Romans 1:18; 9:22; Revelation 19-21

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ke9. Mortal life is fleeting/short

 

Job 14:1-2; Psalm 62:9; 103:13-16; Isaiah 40:6,7; (partial 1 Corinthians 7:31); James 1:10-11; 1 Peter 1:23-24

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ke10. Martyrs blood is a testimony

 

Hebrews 10:36-39; Revelation 6:10-11

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ke11. Use of Catena of 3 or more verses

 

Hebrews 1:5-13; Romans 3:10-18

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ke12. Cross / Christ a stumbling block to Jews

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ke13. We want non-believers to get saved

 

Romans 10:1

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ke14 Make disciples

 

Matthew 18:19

 

 

PARABLEs

 

Pa1. Christ speaking in parables

 

Jesus spoke 39 parables.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions Christ’s parables. The Sentence of the Synod p.306

 

Pa2. Parable of the sheep and the goats

 

Luke 10:15

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pa3. Parable of the prodigal son

 

Luke 15:11-32

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pa4. Parable of the wheat and tares

 

Matthew 13:24-30

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pa5. Faith/kingdom of Heaven as a mustard seed

 

Matthew 17:19-21; Luke 17:5-6

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) &&&

 

Pa6. Parable of the persistent/importune widow

 

Luke 18:1-8

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Cyril of Alexandria (444 A.D.) “For if the constant coining of the oppressed widow prevailed upon the unjust judge, who feared not God, neither had any shame at men, so that even against his will he granted her redress, how shall not He Who loves mercy, and hates iniquity, and Who ever gives His helping hand to them that love Him, accept those who draw near to Him day and night, and avenge them as being His elect?” Commentary on Luke Sermon 119 p.552-553

 

Pa7. Parable of the barren fig tree

 

Luke 13:6-9

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pa8. Parable of the Good Samaritan

 

Luke 10:25-37

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pa9. Parable of the lost sheep

 

Luke 15:1-7; Matthew 15:13

 

Just referring to the lost sheep of Israel is not included here.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pa10. Parable of the lost coin

 

Luke 15:8-13

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pa11. Lazarus and the rich man

 

Luke 16:19-31

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM

 

Ap1. Answering questions of others

 

Mark 10:17-21; Luke 12:14-17; John 3:4-15; 9:1; Acts 8:34-35; 1 Corinthians 7

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) &&&

 

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) &&&

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) &&&

 

Ap2. Answering alleged contradictions

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ap3. Answering false moral accusations

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Salvian (440-450 A.D.) “Even the origins of our religion were thought to spring from two great crimes, the first being murder and the second incest, which is worse than murder. Nor were these mere murder and incest, but a more wicked thing than the bare commission of either of these crimes, the incest of holy mothers, and the murder of innocent infants, whom, they thought, the Christians not only murdered, but ---- which is more abominable ---- devoured.On the Government of God ch.18 p.128

 

Ap4. Using questions

 

Haggai 1:4,5,9; 2:11-13; Malachi 3:7,8

Matthew 15:3-6; Mark 12:35-37; Luke 6:33-34,38,41,42,46; 13:3-5; John 10:34; 11:9

Romans 3:1,9,27; 4:1; 6:1,15; 7:1, 13; 9:19,20,22; 10:14,19; 11:1,7,11

 

Rhetorical questions, where no answer was expected. Luke 17:17; John 8:10

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) &&&

 

^^^

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Vision of Ezra (before 700 A.D.) p.587 uses a lot of questions.

 

Ap5. Nature witnesses to God

 

Psalm 19; Romans 1:18-20

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) says that the plants with their flowers express their approval of Christ rising from the dead. Poem on Easter p.329

 

Ap6. Appeal to science

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ap7. First Cause (cosmological argument)

 

See also the related topic that God created everything.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ap8. Only One is supreme

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ap9. Appeal to historians

 

Jasher (Upright one)   Joshua 10:13; 2 Samuel 1:18

Wars of the Lord         Numbers 21:14

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ap10. Using chronology in apologetics

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ap11. Moses is older than Homer

 

The prophets are older than the majority of Greek writers, and Moses (1445 B.C.) is older than Homer, about 1000 B.C. But some of the prophets were younger than Homer.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

POLEMIC EVANGELISM

 

Pm1. Be on guard against error

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pm2. Debate and argument in witnessing

 

John 8:13-19; 10:34-39; Acts 15:2; Romans 7:1-4; 9:19-22

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pm3. Showing misconceptions/contradictions

 

(Not just saying it is wrong, but proving it is wrong, following the ramifications, appeal to others, etc.)

 

Luke 6:2-5; John 10:34-38; Galatians 2:14

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pm4. Morality vs. evil in other religions

 

Leviticus 20:2-5

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pm5. Do not judge/condemn others

 

Matthew 7:1-5; Luke 6:37; Romans 2:1; 14:4,7,13; 1 Corinthians 4:3

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pm6. Do not throw pearls before swine

 

Matthew 7:6

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pm7. Don’t give what is holy to the dogs

 

Matthew 7:6

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 3 ch.5 p.427 quotes Matthew 7:6.

 

Pm8. Beware of wolves/ false prophets

 

Matthew 7:15-16; 24:24

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) A Commonitory ch.25.66 p.150

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 14 p.456 quotes Matthew 7:15 and 24:24.

 

Pm9. Calling other beliefs delusion(s)

 

2 Thessalonians 2:11; Isaiah 66:4

Romans 1:25 (partial) lie

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pm10. Humor or wit in witnessing

 

Acts 26:29

 

(Dark humor, puns, etc.)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pm11. Harsh rebuke in witnessing

 

(Satanic, evil, going to Hell, etc.)

 

Matthew 3:8-10; Luke 6:24-26; John 8:44,55; 9:41; Galatians 1:6-9; Philippians 3:2

 

Jesus and Paul commanded us to rebuke people in Luke 17:3; 1 Timothy 5:20; Titus 1:13; 2:15

2 Timothy 4:2 says, “Preach the Word; be prepared in season and out of season; correct, rebuke and encourage – with great patience and careful instruction.” (NIV)

John the Baptist called some of the people who came out to see him a “brood of vipers” in Luke 3:7.

Jesus likewise called the Pharisees snakes and a brood of vipers condemned to Hell in Matthew 23:33; hypocrites (Matthew 23:29)

Paul harshly rebuked Elymas, who was opposing the Gospel, in Acts 13:10-12.

Paul spoke harshly about Judaizers, even calling them dogs, in Philippians 3:2

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pm12. Calling people names

 

Amos 4:1 cows of Bashan

Psalm 22:12-13

Matthew 15:3 “you hypocrites!”;

Matthew 23:25,33; Luke 3:7; 11:40

Philippians 3:2 dogs

John 8:55; 1 John 5:10; Revelation 3:9 “liar”

 

Partial Ezekiel 36:18 (The Expositor’s Bible Commentary volume 6 p.921 says this word, gillulim, is a favorite word of Ezekiel’s for idols. It might be derived from the word gel, for dung, and thus Ezekiel is calling the idols “dung-things”.)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pm13. Ridicule or sarcasm

 

1 Kings 18:27; Galatians 5:12

2 Corinthians 11:21

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pm14. Calling other beliefs fables

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pm15. Calling other beliefs superstition

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pm16. False teaching of heresy is poison

 

The poison of envy and the poison of licentiousness are not included here.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of  Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (634 A.D.-1215 A.D.)

Anastasius Bibliothecarius (858-878 A.D.) translating the Genuine Acts of Peter of AlexandriaNearly about the same time Arius, armed with a viper’s craft, as if deserting the party of Meletius, fled for refuge to Peter, who at the request of the bishops raised him to the honours of the diaconate, being ignorant of his exceeding hypocrisy. For he was even as a snake suffused with deadly poison.

 

 

Refute GNOSTIC-TYPE TEACHING

 

Gn1. The Creator is good

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn2. Do not call matter evil

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn3. Avoid Docetic belief – not suffer in flesh

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn4. The heretic Cerinthus

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn5. Nicolaitans

 

Revelation 2:15

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn6. Simon Magus and his heresy/error

 

(partial) Acts 8:9-23, 18-24 (Does not say whether or not he persisted though)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn7. Against Carpocrates (from Simon)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

Gn8. Against Menander, Simon Magus’ disciple

 

A Greek comic poet named Menander is a different person, not included here.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn9. Against Marcion

 

(partial) 1 John 4:2; 2 John 7 (Does not specifically mention Marcion or Gnostics though)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) (partial, does not mention multiple heresies) mentions heretics such as the Manichaeans, Epicureans, and Marcionites.

 

Gn10. Dispute against Valentinian Gnostics

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn11. Against the Valentinian Heracleon

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn12. Against Sethian/Ophite Gnostics

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn13. Against the Gnostic heretic Apelles

 

There was also a Greek painter named Apelles, who was a different person.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn14. Heretic Basilides

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn15. Against Encratite Gnostics

 

(partial) 1 Timothy 4:3

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn16. Against Saturninus/Saturnilus [the Encratite]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn17. Dispute against other Gnostics

 

(partial) 1 John 4:7

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn18. The [Gnostic] Demiurge is false

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn19. The [Gnostic] Ogdoad is false

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Gn20. The [Gnostic] Pleroma is false

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

AGAINST PAGAN RELIGIONS

 

Pg1. Speaking against human sacrifice

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg2. Dispute against the Magi / Zoroastrians

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg3. Against Mithras / a sun-god

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg4. Dispute Druid or other European myths

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg5. Dispute against Indian Bra[c]hmans

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg6. Dispute Chaldean/Babylonian religion

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg7. Against Egyptian religion

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg8. Against the religion of Scythians

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg9. Against Syrian religion

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg10. Against Arabian religion

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg11. Against [Phrygian] Great Mother

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg12. Against Greco-Roman paganism

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg13. Pointing out adulteries of Greek gods

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg14. Incest of Zeus/Jupiter

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg15. Apologetic use of the tomb of Jupiter/Zeus

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg16. Thyestean [cannibalistic banquet]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg17. Mention of Oedipus

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg18. Cannibalism of Kronos/Saturn

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Pg19. Against bloodthirsty Mars, or pest/bane of mortals

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) “Because just as Mars makes a sport of killing Men, so do you; saving that you do it the more cruelly of the two, because you kill one that loves you.” Colloquies of Erasmus p.210.

 

Pg20. Against Bacchus [the Greek/Roman/Arabian/Ethiopian idol]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

On Other RELIGIONS

 

Or1. Religion can be bad

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Or2. No mixing Christ and other religions

 

1 John 4:3; Galatians 1:8-9

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Or3. Dispute against Judaism

 

John 6:45; 8:24; 12:47-48; Acts 3:23; 13:45-46+48; 20:21; Romans 9:1-2; 10:1-3; 11:23

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among heretics

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) was against Judaism. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.2 p.376

 

Or4. Against the Pharisees

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Or5. Errors of the Sadducees

 

The Sadducees were only mentioned 14 times in scripture, while the Pharisees were mentioned over 100 times. See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.8 p.735 for more info.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Or6. Sadducees were wrong to deny resurrection

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Or7. Dispute against Sabellians/Oneness

 

Matthew 3:16-17; Luke 3:21-22; John 1:1;6:38;14:31;15:26;16:28;17:5; Acts 5:31-32; Hebrews 5:7-8

1 Corinthians 11:3; 15:25-28; Matthew 12:18; Ephesians 1:17; John 1:33; 14:16,26,28; 20:17; Romans 8:26-27; 1 Peter 1:3-4

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) lists as heretics Novatian, Sabellius, Donatus, Arius, Eunomius, Macedonius, Photinus, Apollinaris, Priscillian, Iovinian, Pelagius, Celestius, and Nestorius. A Commonitory ch.2 p.132.

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says the divine Trinity is to be honored and worshipped in Letter 37 p.50

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says that the Trinity has no division. Sermon 68.1 p.180

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost in a consubstantial Trinity, one Godhead to be worshipped in three substances. The Capitula of the Council canon 1 p.312

 

Among heretics

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) wrote against the Sabellians in The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.52 p.43-44

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Father, Son, and Spirit are distinct. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71 p.64-65

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) spoke of the incarnation and the Trinity. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1fs ch.1.34 p.25

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (partial) “God the Word is unchangeable and immortal and He is continuously that where He is in the eternity of the Father. … there was not when he was not.” The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.82

 

Peter Lombard (1142-1160) contrasts truth with “as the Sabellians thought” Sentences of Peter Lombard First Book distinction 8 part 2 ch.8 p.11 (p.149)

 

Or8. Dispute with Ebionites (Judaizers)

 

(partial) Colossians 2:16-17 (Does not mention Ebionites or Judaizers by name).

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Or9. No spiritism or the occult

 

Deuteronomy 18:10-12; Galatians 5:19-21; Revelation 21:8

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

Dispute On PHILOSOPHY THAT DENIES ONE GOd

 

Ph1. Dispute philosophy that denies one God

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ph2. Apologetic use of Plato’s Timaeus

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ph3. Against Pythagoras

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ph4. Errors of Aristotle

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ph5. Against Stoics

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ph6. Dispute against Epicureans

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions heretics such as the Manichaeans, Epicureans, and Marcionites.

 

Ph7. Against Cynic philosophy

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ph8. Against Pyrrho the philosopher

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ph9. Socrates even said he had a demon

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ph10. We are not ruled by fate

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Ph11. [Stoic] Chrysippus was wrong on some points

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

MANY Christians would Agree

 

ma1. God is timeless or before/ beyond time

 

[References saying that God is eternal, or always existed are not included here, if they do not specifically say God is outside of time.]

 

Titus 1:2 (before the beginning of time)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) (implied) If Jesus was begotten without time, that implies God is beyond time.) It says that the Word of God had two nativities: one from all eternity of the Father, without time and body, and the other in the flesh from Mary, Mother of God. The Capitula of the Council canon 2 p.312

 

From the Start of Muslim Conquests to the Fourth Lateran Council (634-1215 A.D.)

Peter Lombard (1142-1160) “the One whole everywhere without place [loc], the One Semipiternal without time,” Sentences of Peter Lombard First Book distinction 8 part 1 ch.2 p.7-8

 

John Wesley (1831 A.D.) “There is no such thing as either foreknowledge or afterknowledge in God. All time, or rather all eternity (for time is only a small fragment of eternity which is allotted to the children of men), being present to God at once, He does not know one thing before another, or one thing after another; but sees all things in one point of view, from everlasting to everlasting. As all time, with every thing that exists therein, is present with Him at once, so he sees as once whatever was, is or will be to the end of time.” Sermons on Several Occasions, 1831, p.39.

 

 

ma2. Jesus appeared on earth prior to His birth

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

ma3. Mention of the laity or clergy

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Anastasius Bibliothecarius (858-878 A.D.) “And because in such a conflict they were not only of the clergy but of the laity also the standard-bearers and preceptors, I on this account greatly feared lest they should be found wanting under their long affliction, and lest their defection, which is terrible to speak of, should be to many an occasion of stumbling and of denying the faith, for there were more than six hundred and sixty confined along with them within the precincts of a dungeon.Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria p.&&&

 

Roman Catholic Church

Greek Orthodox Church

 

ma4. The Church can be called the city of God

 

Hebrews 11:10; 12:22-23

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

ma5. People have free will / choice

 

Luke 7:30; Joshua 24:14-22; Jonah 2:8

Isaiah 66:4 They chose what God did not delight in.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

ma6. Babylon refers to Rome

 

1 Peter 5:13

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Roman Catholic Cardinal Thomas Cajetan (1494-1534) an opponent of Martin Luther, believed Babylon would be the Catholic Church in the future.

Roman Catholic Cardinal James Gibbons in his book, Faith of our Fathers in the 1917 edition on page 106 says, “The penetration of the religion of Babylon became so general and well known that Rome was called the New Babylon.” http://www.666man.net/BabylonSymbolForRomel Nov 2007

The Catholic Encyclopedia equates Rome with Babylon. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11744a (nov 2007) “St. Peter’s First Epistle was written almost undoubtedly from Rome, since the salutation at the end reads: “The church that is in Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you: and so doth my son Mark“ (5:13). Babylon must here be identified with the Roman capital; since Babylon on the Euphrates, which lay in ruins, or New Babylon (Seleucia) on the Tigris, or the Egyptian Babylon near Memphis, or Jerusalem cannot be meant, the reference must be to Rome, the only city which is called Babylon elsewhere in ancient Christian literature (Revelation 17:5; 18:10; “Oracula Sibyl.”, V, verses 143 and 159, ed. Geffcken, Leipzig, 1902, 111)”

 

ma7. There are greater/mortal and lesser sins

 

Matthew 11:21-24 - more toleable on the day of judgment for some

John 19:11b; 1 John 5:16b-17; Ezekiel 8:6,13,15

Matthew 12:31; Mark 3:28-29 Blasphemy against the Holy spirit

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

ma8. Christians can lose their salvation

 

Note that most Baptists, Bible church people, Reformed, and Calvinists believe that genuine Christians cannot lose their salvation. Most conservative Lutherans, Christian & Missionary Alliance, Church of God Anderson, Calvary Chapel, Assembly of God and other Charismatics, Church of Christ, Nazarenes, conservative Methodists, and Christians who are Catholic, Orthodox, and Coptic believe a person can, and they are the numerical majority.

 

(partial) Hebrews 6:4-6; 10:26-31; 2 Peter 2:20-22

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

ma9. God knows all things in the future

 

Psalm 139:16

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

ma10. Jesus preached to the dead

 

1 Peter 3:19; 4:6

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

ma11. Religion is/can be good

 

James 1:27

 

Sinaiticus

Alexandrinus

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Ephesus (June-Sept. 431 A.D.) &&&

Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) (implied) session 2 p.248 says people should be taught all truth pertaining to religion.

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) &&&

 

Theodore Beza (&&&) They (the Vaudois/Waldenses) “these are the people who have always preserved the true religion.” Authentic Details of the Valdenses in Piemont and Other Countries p.119. Published by John Hatchard and Son, Piccadilly 1827.

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1460-1536) (implied) “The great Point of our Religion lies in our Baptism:” Colloquies of Erasmus p.234

 

Among heretics

Liberal Protestant / Episcopalian (&&&)

Rev. Moon (1954 A.D. -) &&& The Divine Principle ch.&&&

 

ma12. Drinking wine is OK

 

1 Timothy 5:23; Titus 2:3

1 Corinthians 11:21 (implied)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Many modern Evangelicals

Roman Catholic

Eastern Orthodox

Messianic Jews

 

Among heretics

X Mormons (1830 A.D.-)

X Jehovah’s Witnesses (1872 A.D. -)

 

ma13. No food sacrificed to idols

 

Acts 15:29; 21:25

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

ma14. Christ died for all people

 

1 Timothy 2:5-6

1 Timothy 4:9-10

Hebrews 2:9-10 “… he [Jesus] suffered death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone. I bringing many sons to glory, it was fitting that God, for whom and through whom everything exists, should make the author of their salvation perfect through suffering.”

1 John 2:2

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

Disputed PArts

 

di1. Prophets proclaimed two advents of Christ

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

di2. Seventy Septuagint translators

 

Seventy Septuagint translators (6) Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Hippolytus, Theonas of Alexandria, Anatolius of Laodicea

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

di3. God is simple, or not composite

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

di4. God is impassable (without passion)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Among heretics

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says that God is impassible. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.45

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (implied) “What after all is the nature in this natural union which you predicate? Is it that of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, an impassible nature, immortal, eternal, and without needs? Of is it [a nature] mortal and passible and with needs, which came into being yesterday and to-day and which belongs neither to men nor to God nor to any other nature, but is mixed from two natures for the completion fo one nature? Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.46

 

di5. Some fallen angels sinned with women

 

(partial) Genesis 6:2-5

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

di6. Against jewelry or false/dyed hair

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

di7. Christians must fast on certain days

 

- no Bible verses

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

di8. No drinking or eating blood

 

Acts 15:29; 21:25

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says we are abstain from blood. Sentences of the Council p.307

 

di9. No worshipping true God with images

 

Deuteronomy 4:15-19; (implied) Deuteronomy 27:15

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

di10. Miracle healings in post-Acts church

 

[Healing of transgressions, of Christ healing while on earth are not included here.]

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

di11. Prophesy in church after Acts

 

From the Council of Nicea I until the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

 

di12. Godly authority besides the Bible

 

Authority of God, Father, Jesus, the Holy Spirit, or every believer is not included here.

Authority of the prophets and apostles is not included here.

Authority to preach the gospel is not included here.

Authorityof parents over children, a husband over a wife, or a boss over a laborer are not included here

Authority of a governing authority or master over a slave are not included here

Secular authorities over secular facts are not included here either.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

di13. Tread on serpents and scorpions

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

di14. God is ineffable or indescribable

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Peter Lombard (1142-1160) “ineffable and inaccessible light of the Deity” Sentences of Peter Lombard First Book distinction 2 ch.1 p.2

John F. Walvood (1983) (implied, of Christ) “Written on Him is a name that no one but He Himself knows, subbesting that Christ is the ineffable, indescribable One. But actual titles are given for Him.” The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.977

 

di15. Number of nations according to angels

 

Deuteronomy 32:8-9 (Septuagint)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

di16. People can have worthiness related to salvation

 

Revelation 3:4f

(partial) Acts 10:30-31,35 (no mention of worthy though)

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

di17. Multiple Archangels

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

After the Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.)

In 845 A.D. Pope Zachary at the Council of Rome said that Michael, Gabriel and Raphael could be venerated, but no others, including Uriel.

The Eastern Orthodox Church still has a festival of the “Synaxis of the archangel Michael and other bodiless powers on November 21st.

 

 

di18. The angel Raphael

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholics, some Anglicans, and some Lutherans believe in Raphael.

John Milton mentioned Raphael in Paradise Lost.

 

In other writings

In the apocryphal Book of Tobit Raphael is mentioned.

 

In other religions

In the Jewish Talmud Raphael is mentioned.

In the Muslim hadiths, Raphael is called Israfel/Israfil, the “burning one”. An unnamed angel in the Qur’an sura 39 ch.68 is thought by Muslims to be Israfil.

In Sufi Islam Raphael is mentioned.

Raphael is mentioned in Mormonism.

 

di19. Susannah

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

&&&The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.)

 

di20. Tobias

 

In the apocryphal Book of Tobit

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

 

ERRORS

 

er1. Incorrect references to Bible verses

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

er2. Misquoted or unknown Bible verses

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

er3. Over-allegorical Bible interpretation

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of  Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (634 A.D.-1215 A.D.)

X Photius (9th century) “And, when Origen allegorises that which is said by the prophet Ezekiel concerning the resurrection of the dead, and perverts it to the return of the Israelites from their captivity in Babylon,” Bibliotheca vol.6 p.380

 

er4. Four elements make up the world

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

Start of  Muslim conquests until the Fourth Lateran Council (634 A.D.-1215 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) “Now there are, it should be know, four elements: earth... water... air ... file.” Exposition of the Orthodox Faith ch.12 p.31

 

er5. Atoms do not really exist

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

er6. Errors on the hyena, phoenix, or other animals

 

The Greek historian Herodotus in his History book 2 ch.73 p.64 reports the story of the phoenix, though Herodotus did not necessarily believe it. Herodotus does not say the phoenix burned itself to death, but that the young phoenix brought the bones of its parent to a temple in Egypt every 500 years.

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Syriac Didascalia (after 452 A.D.) ch.170 p.&&& mentions the phoenix.

The Phoenix (400-600 A.D.) There is a whole 3-page poem on the Phoenix dying and rising again, as a type of Christ. The Phoenix was attributed to the pre-Nicene church writer Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.), but it was probably written after his time.

 

er7. Errors on geography or tribes

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

er8. Collective guilt of the Jews

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) (partial) prays for the annihilation of the Jewish people, according to the English translation of On Pascha p.27

 

er9. Errors on people

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

^^^

 

er10. Other errors on science

 

From the Council of Ephesus until the Start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

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For further Reading

 

Most of these references were taken from the following.

 

 

Writers Not Included and Reasons:

We do not know when the first edition of Didascalia was written. It was probably written in Greek, but we do not have the Greek version, only Latin and Syriac translations. The Syriac translation references not marrying Nestorians, so I have assigned it a date after 431 A.D.

 

Wrong Teaching

 

Here are historical examples, that all Christians today should agree are wrong. The point of bringing this up is not to look down on people who have said these errors, but to make sure we don’t make other mistakes for the same reason.

Restricting beyond what scripture says: The Anabaptist Conrad Grebel (1498-1526 A.D.) believed that no singing was allowed in church. Colossians 3:16 says “...sing psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs with gratitude in your hearts to God.” However, Conrad interpreted “in your hearts” to mean you were not supposed to sing out loud.

Equating your views with Scripture: Cyprian of Carthage (c.248-256 A.D.) (Letters of Cyprian Letter 58.2 p.353), Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.), Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.), and Prosper of Aquitaine (c.390-455) (On Forgiveness of Sin 5:25,26-28-29, and Baptism ch.26-30, 33-35) all taught that baptized babies who die definitely go to heaven, and unbaptized babies who die definitely go to Hell.

Extrapolating from what scripture modestly states: Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) taught that Jeremiah and John the Baptist were born with no sinful nature. “Many for instance have been made holy and clean from all sin; nay, Jeremiah was hallowed even from the womb, and John, while yet in the womb, leapt for joy at the voice of Mary Bearer of god; nevertheless ‘death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam’s transgression; …” Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 33 ch.33 p.411

Adding your spiritual views into Scripture: Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) believed in the pre-existence of souls in de Principiis. (He did not believe in reincarnation though.)

Putting your prejudices in God’s Word: John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) was anti-Semitic; he wrote an entire work against the Jews. It was not just critical of the Jewish religion, but against the Jews themselves.

Lack of Forgiveness: Novatian (250/254-256/257 A.D.) started a schism within the church. Novatianists believed just like other Christians, except that if a person ever denied the faith, even under duress, Novatianists taught that they had lost their salvation forever and could never get it back.

Adding superstition to God’s word: The Lutheran Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560) believed in the usefulness of astrology and palm-reading. (Luther rejected those things though.)

Lack of Charity: Martin Luther believed that all Anabaptists should be killed. (He changed his view in the last sermon he gave though.). Augustine supported the torture of heretics, such as Priscillian.

  But genuine Christians can still have errors of the same magnitude as above. We need to have right doctrine as well as be in tune with the Spirit. As one modern Christian writer quipped: “If you have doctrine without the Spirit you dry up, if you have the Spirit without doctrine you blow up, and if you have both you grow up.”

The Syriac Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) prays for the annihilation of the Jewish people, according to the English translation of On Pascha p.27

 

Furius Dionysius Philocalus (354 A.D.) wrote the Philocalian Chronology (=Liberion Catalogue) which is a list of Roman bishops (This is NOT the Philocalia.)

 

Page Counting

Philostorgius 35,583 words / 848 = 42 pages

Passion of St. Saturninus (410-450 A.D.) 2545 / 848 = 3 pages

Possidius (425-533 A.D.) Life of Augustine 17631 words / 848 = 20.0 pages

William J. Sparrow Roman Catholic Oppisition to Papal Infallibility. 105009 words in 362 pages. At 105,009 / 848 = 123.75 equivalent pages

 

pseudo-Zephyrinus of Rome (9th century). Zephyrinus of Rome lived 199-217 A.D. and there are two letters purportedly by him. However, these are thought now to be ninth century frauds.

 

Furius Dionysius Philocalus (354 A.D.) wrote the Philocalian Chronology (=Liberion Catalogue) which is a list of Roman bishops

 

Rejected the apocrypha? Cyril of Jerusalem

 

 

by Steven M. Morrison, PhD.