What Early Christians Taught on Experience and Practice

July 14, 2024 version - unfinished

 

Let’s ask the following question. What could you prove about early Christianity if you had no Bible, but only the pre-Nicene church writers? Here is a consensus of what four or more writers said, and none contradicted, prior to 325 A.D.. Afterwards are what post-Nicene authors and heretics wrote too. You can read the quotes and context of them at http://www.ccel.org or Tertullian at www.Tertullian.org.

You can see what Christians taught after Nicea at WhatNiceaToEphesusChristiansTaught.doc. The author or work is only in bold if it is the first one that is an implied or a direct reference. Subsequent references and partial references are in normal text.

 


Contents

Adam to Isaac Individuals....................... 1

Ai1. Adam....................................................................................... 1

Ai2. Eve........................................................................................... 1

Ai3. Abel......................................................................................... 1

Ai4. Cain murdered his brother/Abel......................................... 1

Ai5. Seth [son of Adam and Eve]................................................ 1

Ai6. Enoch....................................................................................... 1

Ai7. Methuselah............................................................................. 1

Ai8. Lamech [father of Noah]...................................................... 1

Ai9. Noah got drunk...................................................................... 1

Ai10. Ham [son of Noah]............................................................. 1

Ai11. Shem [son of Noah]............................................................ 1

Ai12. Japheth [son of Noah]........................................................ 1

Ai13. Canaan [son of Ham].......................................................... 1

Ai14. Nimrod/Nimrud................................................................... 1

Ai15. Abraham [friend of God]................................................... 1

Ai16. Lot or his wife...................................................................... 1

Ai17. Sarai / Sarah......................................................................... 1

Ai18. Hagar..................................................................................... 1

Ai19. Ishmael.................................................................................. 1

Ai20. Isaac....................................................................................... 1

Isaac to Egypt Individuals...................... 1

Ie1. Abraham offered Isaac as a sacrifice.................................. 1

Ie2. Rebecca [wife of Isaac]......................................................... 1

Ie3. Laban [Jacob’s father-in-law].............................................. 1

Ie4. Esau.......................................................................................... 1

Ie5. Jacob......................................................................................... 1

Ie6. Leah [wife of Jacob].............................................................. 1

Ie7. Rachel [wife of Jacob]........................................................... 1

Ie8. Reuben [patriarch].................................................................. 1

Ie9. Simeon [patriarch].................................................................. 1

Ie10. Levi (patriarch or tribe)....................................................... 1

Ie11. Judah (patriarch or tribe).................................................... 1

Ie12. Tamar / Thamar.................................................................... 1

Ie13. Dan (patriarch or tribe)....................................................... 1

Ie14. Naphtali (patriarch or tribe)............................................... 1

Ie15. Gad (patriarch or tribe)....................................................... 1

Ie16. Zebulun/Zebulon/Zabulun (patriarch, tribe, or land)..... 1

Ie17. Joseph [son of Jacob].......................................................... 1

Ie18. Benjamin................................................................................ 1

Ie19. Manasseh (patriarch or tribe)............................................. 1

Ie20. Ephraim (patriarch or tribe)............................................... 1

Ie21. Patriarch[s]............................................................................ 1

Ie22. The twelve tribes [of Israel]............................................... 1

Ie23. Job and his sufferings/patience.......................................... 1

Exodus to Solomon Individuals........... 1

Es1. Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt................................. 1

Es2. Miriam [sister of Moses]...................................................... 1

Es3. Aaron [brother of Moses].................................................... 1

Es4. Pharaoh during the Exodus.................................................. 1

Es5. Korah / Kore........................................................................... 1

Es6. Balaam or his donkey........................................................... 1

Es7. Joshua conquered Canaan.................................................... 1

Es8. Rahab of Jericho.................................................................... 1

Es9. Jephthah [the judge].............................................................. 1

Es10. Gideon................................................................................... 1

Es11. Samson.................................................................................. 1

Es12. Eli [priest and mentor of Samuel].................................... 1

Es13. Samuel................................................................................... 1

Es14. Saul [son of Kish]............................................................... 1

Es15. David..................................................................................... 1

Es16. [King] Saul persecuted David........................................... 1

Es17. Nathan [the prophet, not the son of David].................... 1

Es18. Uriah [the Hittite]................................................................ 1

Es20. [King] Solomon................................................................... 1

Es21. Hannah, mother of Samuel................................................ 1

Es22. Jesse [father of David]....................................................... 1

Es23. Dathan and Abiram............................................................. 1

Es24. Hiram [king of Tyre].......................................................... 1

Es25. Deborah [godly judge]....................................................... 1

Es26. Caleb [son of Jephunneh].................................................. 1

DIVIDED KINGDOM ON Individuals.......... 1

Dk1. Jeroboam................................................................................ 1

Dk2. Ahab........................................................................................ 1

Dk3. Elijah was a godly prophet................................................. 1

Dk4. Hezekiah [godly king]......................................................... 1

Dk5. Elisha...................................................................................... 1

Dk6. Naaman [the Syrian leper].................................................. 1

Dk7. Jonah in the fish or warned Ninevites............................... 1

Dk8. Sennacherib........................................................................... 1

Dk9. Josiah [the godly king]........................................................ 1

Dk10. Jeconiah/Jechoniah............................................................ 1

Dk11. Nebuchadnezzar [King of Babylon]............................... 1

Dk12. Zedekiah.............................................................................. 1

Dk13. Ezekiel.................................................................................. 1

Dk14. Daniel................................................................................... 1

Dk15. The three youths in Daniel............................................... 1

Dk16. Cyrus [King of Persia]...................................................... 1

Dk17. Darius [King of Persia]..................................................... 1

Dk18. Artaxerxes/Ahasuerus [King of Persia].......................... 1

Dk19. Ezra the scribe/prophet...................................................... 1

Dk20. Zerubbabel........................................................................... 1

Dk21. Joshua the high priest (in Zechariah).............................. 1

Dk22. Antiochus [Epiphanes] of Syria....................................... 1

Dk23. Rehoboam............................................................................ 1

Dk24. The prophets are holy........................................................ 1

Teachings on O. T. individuals not on the list.......................... 1

GOSPEL Individuals........................................ 1

Go1. Mary mother of Jesus was blessed.................................... 1

Go2. Elizabeth [mother of John the Baptist]............................. 1

Go3. Zechariah, husband of Elizabeth........................................ 1

Go4. John the Baptist leapt in Elizabeth’s womb..................... 1

Go5. Shepherds at Jesus’ birth..................................................... 1

Go6. The Magi came to Christ..................................................... 1

Go7. Simeon [at Jesus’ dedication]............................................. 1

Go8. Anna [at Jesus’ dedication]................................................. 1

Go9. Herod’s slaughter in Bethlehem........................................ 1

Go10. John the Baptist.................................................................. 1

Go11. Andrew the disciple/apostle............................................. 1

Go12. Peter the disciple/apostle.................................................. 1

Go13. Philip the disciple/apostle................................................. 1

Go14. Thomas the disciple/apostle............................................. 1

Go15. James son of Zebedee the disciple/apostle.................... 1

Go16. [Samaritan] Woman at the well....................................... 1

Go17. Mary Magdalene................................................................ 1

Go18. Jesus’ 72/70 disciples........................................................ 1

Go19. Martha.................................................................................. 1

Go20. Zacchaeus............................................................................ 1

Go21. Judas betrayed Jesus.......................................................... 1

Go22. The High Priest Caiaphas tried Jesus.............................. 1

Go23. Herod tried Jesus................................................................ 1

Go24. Pontius Pilate sentenced Jesus......................................... 1

Go25. Barabbas.............................................................................. 1

Go26. John the Baptist was beheaded........................................ 1

Go27. Annas the former high priest............................................ 1

Go28. John the Baptist ate locusts and wild honey.................. 1

Go29. Judas hanged himself......................................................... 1

Go30. Jesus’ twelve disciples...................................................... 1

Individuals AFTER THE GOSPELS.............. 1

N1. Matthias.................................................................................... 1

N2. James the Lord’s brother....................................................... 1

N3. The Ethiopian eunuch............................................................ 1

N4. Stephen the martyr................................................................. 1

N5. Cornelius the centurion who was saved.............................. 1

N6. Saul of Tarsus persecuted the church.................................. 1

N7. Paul was a godly apostle....................................................... 1

N8. Barnabas, companion of Paul............................................... 1

N9. Silas, companion of Paul....................................................... 1

N10. Apollos................................................................................... 1

N11. Paul was in prison/bonds..................................................... 1

N12. Paul was persecuted besides prison................................... 1

N13. Timothy the individual (not just the book)...................... 1

N14. James [the disciple] was beheaded / slain........................ 1

N15. Peter was in Rome................................................................ 1

Teachings on New Testament Individuals not on the list....... 1

Experiencing God........................................... 1

X1. God/Christ lives inside of Christians.................................. 1

X2. Our bodies are God’s temple/temples................................. 1

X3. Christians escape corruption................................................. 1

X4. Believers are set free.............................................................. 1

X5. God renews us......................................................................... 1

X6. We are children of light......................................................... 1

X7. God strengthens us................................................................. 1

X8. We are friends of Christ........................................................ 1

X9. Pure in heart will see God..................................................... 1

X10. None shall separate us from God’s love........................... 1

X11. The Lord disciplines or corrects us................................... 1

X13. Please the Lord..................................................................... 1

X14. Glory in the Lord.................................................................. 1

X15. Seek wisdom from God or His word................................ 1

X16. Be peaceful, kind, or good.................................................. 1

X17. Be strong / strengthened...................................................... 1

X18. God’s people mourn............................................................. 1

X19. Fear/reverence of the Lord/God......................................... 1

X20. We adore/glory in the cross................................................ 1

X21. God’s holy people................................................................ 1

X22. Speaking of shame............................................................... 1

X23. Put unrighteousness/adversary to shame.......................... 1

X24. Do not be ashamed of the cross/Christ............................. 1

X25. Flesh and spirit war against each other............................. 1

X26. Seek the Lord / God............................................................. 1

X28. There is sin unto death......................................................... 1

NOT OF THIS WORLD.......................................... 1

n1. We need to repent and come to God.................................... 1

n2. Love God / the Lord................................................................ 1

n3. Obey God.................................................................................. 1

n4. Follow Jesus or His example................................................. 1

n5. Bear/Take up the cross [and follow Christ]........................ 1

n6. Struggle to live a victorious life............................................ 1

n7. Put on the armor of God/righteousness............................... 1

n8. Faithful Christians still get sick............................................ 1

n9. Suffer persecution or martyrdom.......................................... 1

n10. No sorcery, witchcraft, or magic........................................ 1

n11. Exorcism or casting out devils............................................ 1

n12. Live a worthy life.................................................................. 1

n13. Mortify earthly nature/deeds of the body.......................... 1

n14. Be clothed with/in Christ..................................................... 1

n15. You cannot serve two masters............................................ 1

n16. Martyrs are blessed............................................................... 1

n17. Losing your life and finding it............................................ 1

n18. Believers are servants of God............................................. 1

n19. We must persevere................................................................ 1

n20. We are the light of the world............................................... 1

n21. We wrestle against the devil or sin..................................... 1

n22. Keep away from works of darkness................................... 1

n23. We are aliens awaiting our eternal home.......................... 1

n24. Don’t be bitter........................................................................ 1

n25. Believers are transformed [now]........................................ 1

n26. The Kingdom of God is within you................................... 1

n27. Walk in newness of life........................................................ 1

n28. Some are worthy of martyrdom.......................................... 1

n29. Trust God................................................................................ 1

Teachings on Experience not on the list..................................... 1

PRAYER AND FASTING....................................... 1

Pr1. Prayer to God is important................................................... 1

Pr2. Pray to the Father................................................................... 1

Pr3. Pray to Jesus........................................................................... 1

Pr4. Pray at all times or in any place.......................................... 1

Pr5. Pray daily................................................................................ 1

Pr6. Praise God............................................................................... 1

Pr7. Thankfulness/gratitude to God............................................ 1

Pr8. Confess to God....................................................................... 1

Pr9. Forgive us as we forgive others........................................... 1

Pr10. Not into temptation............................................................. 1

Pr11. Deliver us from evil............................................................ 1

Pr12. The Lord’s Prayer................................................................ 1

Pr13. Lift up hands to God........................................................... 1

Pr14. Bless or pray for your persecutors.................................... 1

Pr15. Pray for rulers and those in authority............................... 1

Pr16. Incense of the prayers of the saints................................... 1

Pr17. Pray that God’s kingdom come......................................... 1

Pr18. Pray for others / intercessory prayer................................ 1

Pr19. Pray for God’s mercy for us.............................................. 1

Pr20. Fasting to God is good........................................................ 1

Pr21. Pray in secret........................................................................ 1

Pr22. Pray together (two or three)............................................... 1

Pr23. Persist/persevere in prayer................................................. 1

Teachings on Prayer not on the list............................................. 1

Individual Practice..................................... 1

In1. Be godly................................................................................... 1

In2. Keep the commandments of Christ/God............................ 1

In3. Submit to God......................................................................... 1

In4. Worship God in spirit and truth........................................... 1

In5. Depart from evil..................................................................... 1

In6. Do not provoke God.............................................................. 1

In7. Do not worship any images or idols................................... 1

In8. Do not worship other gods................................................... 1

In9. Do not make/invent idols/ images to worship................... 1

In10. Stars have no influence on people.................................... 1

In11. Don’t be in/subject to bondage [to sin]............................ 1

In12. Do not get drunk.................................................................. 1

In13. Eating meat is fine............................................................... 1

In14. Do not be a glutton or slave of your belly....................... 1

In15. Vanity, or avoid vain things............................................... 1

In16. Virtue of prudence............................................................... 1

In17. Work hard, don’t be lazy.................................................... 1

In18. It’s bad to be a hypocrite.................................................... 1

In19. Rule of faith / truth.............................................................. 1

In20. Have self-control.................................................................. 1

Teachings on Individual Practice not on the list....................... 1

Loving Others.................................................. 1

Lo1. Love all / your neighbor as yourself.................................. 1

Lo2. Have affection towards others (besides your family)..... 1

Lo3. Forgive others/enemies........................................................ 1

Lo4. Do to others as you would them do to you....................... 1

Lo5. Do not get revenge................................................................ 1

Lo6. Don’t hold a grudge.............................................................. 1

Lo7. Do not murder....................................................................... 1

Lo8. Abortion is evil/murder........................................................ 1

Lo9. Care for the sick.................................................................... 1

Lo10. Practice hospitality............................................................. 1

Lo11. Love covers a multitude of sins....................................... 1

Lo12. Love fulfills the law........................................................... 1

Lo13. Show mercy/pity to others................................................ 1

Lo14. Visit those in prison........................................................... 1

Lo15. Love your enemies............................................................. 1

Lo16. Turn the other cheek.......................................................... 1

Lo17. Don’t be a people pleaser.................................................. 1

Lo18. Don’t show partiality......................................................... 1

Lo19. Cruelty is bad...................................................................... 1

Lo20. Must not poison others...................................................... 1

Speech.................................................................... 1

Sp1. Have pure speech.................................................................. 1

Sp2. No filthy talk.......................................................................... 1

Sp3. If we deny Christ He will deny us...................................... 1

Sp4. Forsake lies............................................................................ 1

Sp5. Don’t swear false oaths / swear falsely............................. 1

Sp6. Do not swear oaths................................................................ 1

Sp7. Don’t use flattery (on others).............................................. 1

Sp8. Slandering people is bad...................................................... 1

Sp9. Do not be a gossip or chatterer........................................... 1

Sp10. Confess your sins to others............................................... 1

Sp11. Don’t boast about yourself................................................ 1

Sp12. Don’t be a reviler................................................................ 1

Sp13. Bless those who revile/curse you..................................... 1

Sp14. Do not murmur.................................................................... 1

Teachings on Practice Not on the List........................................ 1

PEACE AND CONTENTMENT............................ 1

Pc1. Have peace............................................................................. 1

Pc2. The peace of God.................................................................. 1

Pc3. God is the God of peace....................................................... 1

Pc4. Don’t worry about tomorrow / lilies of the field.............. 1

Pc5. Lose your life for My sake to find it.................................. 1

Pc6. be peacemakers or seek peace............................................. 1

Pc7. We rejoice when afflicted.................................................... 1

Pc8. We rejoice – besides being afflicted.................................. 1

Pc9. Be content with what you have........................................... 1

Pc10. No selfish ambition............................................................. 1

Pc11. Do not envy or be jealous.................................................. 1

Pc12. No rivalry............................................................................. 1

Pc13. No strife / striving in the flesh.......................................... 1

Pc14. Do not covet......................................................................... 1

Pc15. Be humble or not proud..................................................... 1

Pc16. Don’t be wise in your own eyes....................................... 1

Pc17. Don’t be conceited.............................................................. 1

Pc18. We should be patient.......................................................... 1

Pc19. Don’t let the sun go down on your anger........................ 1

Pc20. Be gentle or meek............................................................... 1

Pc21. We’ll have tribulation, but Jesus has overcome............ 1

Teachings on peace and contentment not on the list................ 1

MONEY..................................................................... 1

Mo1. Heavenly treasure; don’t fear earthly loss....................... 1

Mo2. Offering money/possessions to God................................ 1

Mo3. Freely you have received, so freely give......................... 1

Mo4. Give in secret........................................................................ 1

Mo5. Cannot serve both God and Mammon............................. 1

Mo6. Do not love money.............................................................. 1

Mo7. Love of money root of all evils......................................... 1

Mo8. God’s house not a den of robbers / thieves..................... 1

Mo9. No profit to gain the world and lose your soul............... 1

Mo10. Strive for godliness, not gain........................................... 1

Mo11. No stealing.......................................................................... 1

Mo12. Don’t rob others................................................................. 1

Mo13. Don’t cheat/defraud others.............................................. 1

Mo14. No bribes............................................................................. 1

Mo15. No usury / lending to needy with interest..................... 1

Mo16. Hoarding is bad.................................................................. 1

Teachings on money not on the list............................................ 1

THE POOR............................................................... 1

Po1. Help the poor......................................................................... 1

Po2. Don’t oppress the poor or afflicted.................................... 1

Po3. Feed the hungry..................................................................... 1

Po4. Invite the poor to eat with us............................................... 1

Po5. Blessed are the poor / poor in Spirit.................................. 1

Po6. Help widows.......................................................................... 1

Po7. Help orphans / fatherless..................................................... 1

Po8. Clothe the naked.................................................................... 1

Teachings on the poor not on the list.......................................... 1

Church Assembling Together............... 1

Ca1. Calling ourselves Christians............................................... 1

Ca2. Church(es) of God................................................................ 1

Ca3. Church(es) of Christ............................................................. 1

Ca4. The Church is the body of Christ....................................... 1

Ca5. We are the flock of Christ................................................... 1

Ca6. Learn from prior church writers/councils......................... 1

Ca7. Christians met together on Sunday.................................... 1

Ca8. Practice water baptism......................................................... 1

Ca9. Baptize in the name of the Father, Son, Holy Spirit....... 1

Ca10. Observe the Lord’s Supper............................................... 1

Ca11. Calling the Lord’s Supper the Eucharist......................... 1

Ca12. Mention of Easter/Pascha[l]............................................. 1

Ca13. Footwashing........................................................................ 1

Ca14. Sing hymns to God, the Father, or Jesus........................ 1

Ca15. Musical choir....................................................................... 1

Ca16. Cheer up/encourage other believers................................ 1

Ca17. Correct other believers....................................................... 1

Ca18. Shun alleged believers persisting in sin.......................... 1

Ca19. Holy church(es)................................................................... 1

Ca20. Catechumens (members in training)............................... 1

Teachings on Church Assembling Together not on the list.... 1

Church Leadership....................................... 1

C1. Christ the head of the church................................................ 1

C2. Concept of one universal church.......................................... 1

C3. Tradition of the apostles or the church................................ 1

C4. Priesthood of all believers..................................................... 1

C5. The Church/Christians should have unity.......................... 1

C6. Excommunicate or separate from heretics......................... 1

C7. Churches should greet other churches................................. 1

C8. Church leaders should accept each other............................ 1

C9. Must be worthy of being a bishop/priest............................ 1

C10. Remove leaders fallen in gross sin/heresy....................... 1

C11. Obey authority of godly church leaders............................ 1

C12. Reject unchristian church leader authority....................... 1

C13. Church leaders are shepherds............................................. 1

C14. Ordination [of elders/bishops]............................................ 1

C15. Bishop(s)................................................................................ 1

C16. The episcopate [office of bishop]...................................... 1

C17. Elders/presbyters.................................................................. 1

C18. Deacons.................................................................................. 1

C19. Teachers [in the church]...................................................... 1

C20. A gospel preacher is worthy of his wages........................ 1

C21. Priests [in the church].......................................................... 1

C22. Sub-deacons........................................................................... 1

C23. Godly authority besides the Bible...................................... 1

Teaching on the church leadership not on the list.................... 1

Family and Marriage.................................. 1

fm1. Honor marriage, no extra-marital relations...................... 1

fm2. No divorce, except for unfaithfulness............................... 1

fm3. Remarriage OK after death of spouse............................... 1

fm4. No homosexuality................................................................. 1

fm5. No incestual relations........................................................... 1

fm6. Do not lust (sexually)........................................................... 1

fm7. We should be pure................................................................ 1

fm8. We should be modest........................................................... 1

fm9. Do not watch lewd shows.................................................... 1

fm10. Do not watch violent shows.............................................. 1

fm11. Do not kill/expose infants................................................. 1

fm12. Cherish and nurture our family........................................ 1

fm13. Having kids is fine within marriage................................ 1

fm14. Train your kids in the Lord............................................... 1

fm15. We should honor our parents............................................ 1

fm16. Do not love family more than Jesus................................ 1

fm17. Celibacy is better than marriage...................................... 1

fm18. Don’t betray others in family........................................... 1

fm19. Eve was Adam’s bone or flesh......................................... 1

fm20. Two become one flesh....................................................... 1

Teachings on Family not on the list............................................ 1

Government and LAws................................ 1

Gv1. Honor the king or government........................................... 1

Gv2. Obey government [when not against God]...................... 1

Gv3. Do not aid in persecuting Christians................................. 1

Gv4. Pay taxes................................................................................ 1

Gv5. Citizens of Heaven............................................................... 1

Gv6. Christians should not be in lawsuits.................................. 1

Gv7. Officials ought to be just..................................................... 1

Gv8. Disobey or change unjust laws........................................... 1

Gv9. Providence, or God governing the world......................... 1

Gv10. Christ is king, or kingdom of Christ............................... 1

Gv11. The Kingdom of heaven.................................................... 1

Teachings on Government not on the list.................................. 1

KERYGMATIC AND IRENIC EVANGELISM.. 1

Ke1. Preach the gospel to others................................................. 1

Ke2. Bold proclamation of truth.................................................. 1

Ke3. Quoting God’s word to unbelievers.................................. 1

Ke4. Sharing personal testimonies.............................................. 1

Ke5. Creative allegories or metaphors....................................... 1

Ke6. Quoting poetry to share truth.............................................. 1

Ke7. Promises of heaven or God’s love..................................... 1

Ke8. Threats of Hell or God’s wrath.......................................... 1

Ke9. Mortal life is fleeting/short................................................. 1

Ke10. Martyrs blood is a testimony............................................ 1

Ke11. Use of Catena of 3 or more verses.................................. 1

Ke12. Cross / Christ a stumbling block to Jews....................... 1

Ke13. We want non-believers to get saved (6+)....................... 1

Ke14. Make disciples.................................................................... 1

PARABLES............................................................... 1

Pa1. Jesus or us speaking in parables......................................... 1

Pa2. Parable of the sheep and the goats...................................... 1

Pa3. Parable of the prodigal son.................................................. 1

Pa4. Parable of the wheat and tares............................................. 1

Pa5. Faith/kingdom of Heaven as a mustard seed.................... 1

Pa6. Parable of the persistent/importune widow...................... 1

Pa7. Parable of the barren fig tree............................................... 1

Pa8. Parable of the Good Samaritan........................................... 1

Pa9. Parable of the lost sheep....................................................... 1

Pa10. Parable of the lost coin....................................................... 1

Pa11. Lazarus and the rich man................................................... 1

Teaching on kerygmatic and irenic evangelism not on the list 1

APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM............................ 1

Ap1. Answering questions of others........................................... 1

Ap2. Answering alleged contradictions..................................... 1

Ap3. Answering false moral accusations................................... 1

Ap4. Using questions..................................................................... 1

Ap5. Nature witnesses to God...................................................... 1

Ap6. Appeal to science................................................................. 1

Ap7. First Cause (cosmological argument)............................... 1

Ap8. Only One is supreme........................................................... 1

Ap9. Appeal to historians............................................................. 1

Ap10. Using chronology in apologetics..................................... 1

Ap11. Moses is older than Homer............................................... 1

POLEMIC EVANGELISM.................................... 1

Pm1. Be on guard against error................................................... 1

Pm2. Debate and argument in witnessing.................................. 1

Pm3. Showing misconceptions/contradictions.......................... 1

Pm4. Morality vs. evil in other religions................................... 1

Pm5. Do not judge/condemn others............................................ 1

Pm6. Do not throw pearls before swine..................................... 1

Pm7. Don’t give what is holy to the dogs.................................. 1

Pm8. Beware of wolves/false prophets...................................... 1

Pm9. Calling other beliefs delusion(s)....................................... 1

Pm10. Humor or wit in witnessing............................................. 1

Pm11. Harsh rebuke in witnessing.............................................. 1

Pm12. Calling people names........................................................ 1

Po13. Ridicule or sarcasm............................................................ 1

Po14. Calling other beliefs fables................................................ 1

Po15. Calling other beliefs superstition..................................... 1

Po16. False teaching or heresy is poison................................... 1

Teachings on Evangelism methods not on the list................... 1

REFUTE GNOSTIC-TYPE TEACHING............. 1

Gn1. The Creator is good.............................................................. 1

Gn2. Do not call matter evil......................................................... 1

Gn3. Avoid Docetic belief – not suffer in flesh........................ 1

Gn4. The heretic Cerinthus........................................................... 1

Gn5. Nicolaitans............................................................................. 1

Gn6. Simon Magus and his heresy/error.................................... 1

Gn7. Against Carpocrates (from Simon)................................... 1

Gn8. Against the Gnostic Menander/Meander, Simon Magus’ disciple              1

Gn9. Against Marcion................................................................... 1

Gn10. Dispute against Valentinian Gnostics............................. 1

Gn11. Against the Valentinian Gnostic Heracleon.................. 1

Gn12. Dispute against Sethian/Ophite Gnostics....................... 1

Gn13. Against the Gnostic heretic Apelles................................ 1

Gn14. Against the Gnostic Heretic Basilides............................ 1

Gn15. Dispute against Encratite Gnostics................................. 1

Gn16. Against the Encratite Saturninus/Saturnilus.................. 1

Gn17. Dispute against other Gnostics........................................ 1

Gn18. The [Gnostic] Demiurge is false...................................... 1

Gn19. The [Gnostic] Ogdoad is false......................................... 1

Gn20. The [Gnostic] Pleroma is false........................................ 1

Against PAGAN RELIGIONS........................... 1

Pg1. Speaking against human sacrifice...................................... 1

Pg2. Dispute against the Magi / Zoroastrians........................... 1

Pg3. Against Mithras / a sun-god................................................ 1

Pg4. Dispute Druid or other European myths........................... 1

Pg5. Dispute against Indian Bra[c]hmans.................................. 1

Pg6. Dispute Chaldean/Babylonian religion............................. 1

Pg7. Against Egyptian religion.................................................... 1

Pg8. Against the religion of Scythians....................................... 1

Pg9. Against Syrian religion........................................................ 1

Pg10. Against Arabian religion................................................... 1

Pg11. Against [Phrygian] Great Mother.................................... 1

Pg12. Dispute against Greco-Roman paganism........................ 1

Pg13. Pointing out adulteries of Greco/Roman gods............... 1

Pg14. Incest of Zeus/Jupiter......................................................... 1

Pg15. Apologetic use of the tomb of Jupiter/Zeus................... 1

Pg16. Thyestean [cannibalistic] banquet.................................... 1

Pg17. Mention of Oedipus............................................................ 1

Pg18. Cannibalism of Kronos/Saturn......................................... 1

Pg19. Against bloodthirsty Mars, or pest/bane of mortals...... 1

Pg20. Against Bacchus [the Greek/Roman/Arabian/Ethiopian idol]   1

DISPUTE AGAINST OTHER RELIGIONS........ 1

Or1. Religion can be bad.............................................................. 1

Or2. No mixing Christ and other religions................................ 1

Or3. Dispute against Judaism....................................................... 1

Or4. Errors of the Pharisees......................................................... 1

Or5. Errors of the Sadducees....................................................... 1

Or6. Sadducees wrong to deny resurrection.............................. 1

Or7. Dispute against Sabellian Oneness.................................... 1

Or8. Dispute with Ebionites / Hebion [from Cerinthus]......... 1

Or9. No spiritism or the occult.................................................... 1

Teachings on Heretical Groups not on the list.......................... 1

On PHILOSOPHY THAT DENIES ONE GOD.. 1

Ph1. Dispute philosophy that denies one God........................... 1

Ph2. Apologetic use of Plato’s Timaeus..................................... 1

Ph3. Against Pythagoras............................................................... 1

Ph4. Errors of Aristotle................................................................. 1

Ph5. Against Stoics........................................................................ 1

Ph6. Dispute against Epicureans................................................. 1

Ph7. Against Cynic philosophy................................................... 1

Ph8. Against Pyrrho the philosopher.......................................... 1

Ph9. Socrates even said he had a demon.................................... 1

Ph10. We are not ruled by fate.................................................... 1

Ph11. [Stoic] Chrysippus was wrong on some points.............. 1

Teachings on refuting other groups not on the list................... 1

MANY Christians would Agree.............. 1

ma1. God is timeless or before/ beyond time............................ 1

ma2. Jesus appeared on earth prior to His birth........................ 1

ma3. Mention of the laity/layman or clergy.............................. 1

ma4. The Church can be called the city of God........................ 1

ma5. People have free will / choice............................................ 1

ma6. Babylon refers to Rome...................................................... 1

ma7. There are greater/mortal and lesser sins........................... 1

ma8. Christians can lose their salvation..................................... 1

ma9. God knows all things in the future.................................... 1

ma10. Jesus preached to the dead................................................ 1

ma11. Religion is/can be good..................................................... 1

ma12. Drinking wine is OK......................................................... 1

ma13. No food sacrificed to idols............................................... 1

ma14. Christ died for all people.................................................. 1

Disputed PArts.................................................. 1

di1. Prophets proclaimed 2 advents of Christ........................... 1

di2. Seventy Septuagint translators............................................. 1

di3. God is simple, or not composite.......................................... 1

di4. God is impassible (without suffering or passion)............. 1

di5. Jesus, the Word of God, was impassible but became passible and suffered               1

di6. Some fallen angels sinned with women............................. 1

di7. Against jewelry or false/dyed hair...................................... 1

di8. Christians must fast on certain days.................................... 1

di9. No drinking or eating blood................................................. 1

di10. No worshipping true God with images............................. 1

di11. Miracle healings in post-Acts church............................... 1

di12. Prophesy in church after Acts............................................ 1

di13. Tread on serpents and scorpions........................................ 1

di14. God is ineffable or indescribable...................................... 1

di15. People can have worthiness related to salvation............. 1

di16. Multiple Archangels............................................................ 1

di17. The angel Raphael................................................................ 1

di18. Susannah................................................................................ 1

di19. Tobias..................................................................................... 1

di20. Wisdom in Proverbs 8 refers to the Word of God.......... 1

ERRORS................................................................... 1

er1. Incorrect references to Bible verses.................................... 1

er2. Misquoted or unknown Bible verses................................... 1

er3. Over-allegorical Bible interpretation.................................. 1

er4. Four elements make up the world....................................... 1

er5. Atoms do not really exist...................................................... 1

er6. Errors on the hyena, phoenix, or other animals................ 1

er7. Errors on geography or tribes............................................... 1

er8. Collective guilt of the Jews.................................................. 1

er9. Errors on people..................................................................... 1

er10. Other errors on science....................................................... 1

er11. Number of nations according to angels............................ 1

Teachings that are errors not on the list..................................... 1

 


Adam to Isaac Individuals

 

Ai1. Adam

 

Genesis 2:7-4:1,25; 5:1-5; Deuteronomy 32:8; 1 Chronicles 1:1; Job 31:33; Luke 3:38; Romans 5:14; 1 Corinthians 15:22,45; 1 Timothy 2:13-14; Jude 14

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) “Envy has alienated wives from their husbands, and changed that saying of our father Adam, ‘This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh.’” 1 Clement ch.6 (ANF vol.1) p.6. See also ch.6 (ANF vol.9 p.231.

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.)  ch.6 p.140 “For man is earth in a suffering state, for the formation of Adam was from the face of the earth.”

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) discusses how Genesis obscurely predicted Adam would live less than 1,000 years after he ate of the tree. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.81 p.239-240

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “just as Eve was made from one of Adam's ribs, and as all living beings were created in the beginning by the word of God.” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.84 p.240

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) mentions Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Twelve Patriarchs, Adam, and Noah. On Pascha stanza 83 p.60

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “For the divine writing itself teaches us that Adam said that he had heard the voice. But what else is this voice but the Word of God, who is also His Son?” Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.22 p.103

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) has a whole chapter on the fall of man. He mentions “Adam and his wife”. To Autolycus book 2 ch.21 p.102-103.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) After Adam’s fall, we inherited the curses. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.21.3-6 p.456-457

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) “And, whilst man dwelt in Paradise, God brought before him all living things and commanded him to give names to them all; and whatsoever Adam called a living soul, that was its name. And He determined also to make a helper for the man: for thus God said, It is not good for the man to be alone: let us make for him a helper meet for him.Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.13

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says that death reigned from Adam to Moses and refers to Romans 5:12-14. Stromata book 3 ch.9 p.393

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) ‘man,’ and ‘for the sake of the man,’ that rib of Adam. On the Veiling of Virgins ch.7 p.31

Tertullian (c.203 A.D.) says that the soul by birth has its nature in Adam until it is born again in Christ. It is unclean while is remains without regeneration. It is sinful. A Treatise on the Soul ch.40 p.220

Tertullian (204/205 A.D.) mentions Adam’s sin. Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.2 p.298

Hippolytus of Portus (222-234/235 A.D.)  “What, then, is meant by the serpent but Antichrist, that deceiver who is mentioned in Genesis,(4) who deceived Eve and supplanted Adam” Treatise on Christ and AntiChrist ch.14 p.205

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) discusses how the fall of Adam took place in paradise. He also mentions how the Son of man [Jesus] will send His angels to gather His elect from the four winds. Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.64 p.218 See also ibid ch.3 p.205

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) says that Adam was the first who fell, and that he conferred on us what he did. Instructions of Commodianus ch.35 p.209

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) mentions Eve being deceived and Adam falling. Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.22 p.308

Origen (233/234 A.D.) “First, in Genesis it says Adam and Eve heard the sound of the Lord God walking at evening in the garden, and both Adam and his wife hid themselves from the Lord God amid the wood of the Garden.” Origen on Prayer ch.23.3 p.78

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) Concerning the Trinity ch.1 p.612 said that evil would arise if man exercised his free will and take of the fruit of the tree. He also says that man is in the image of God. “He [God] laid down a command, in which man was taught that there was no evil in the fruit of the tree; but he was forewarned that evil would arise if perchance he should exercise his free will, in the contempt of the law that was given. For, on the one hand, it had behooved him to be free, lest the image of God should,”

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “For Adam was first formed, then Eve; and Adam was not seduced, but the woman was seduced.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 3 ch.47 p.546

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) discusses Adam falling when he ate the fruit. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 9 ch.11 p.487

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) “With words of deceit that personality deluded Adam; with the words of divinity, then, let the deceiver himself now be deluded.” Commentary on Luke ch.44 p.116

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 307 A.D.) “four generations of people from Adam to Noah, from Noah to Abraham, from Abraham to Moses, from Moses to Christ the Lord, the Son of God;On the Creation of the World ch.1 p.341

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) in Discourse on the Resurrection 1 ch.7 p.370 discusses how Adam and Eve fell and became evil.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “if the Scripture meant nothing higher than what is conveyed by the mere words and the history; for if we are to take the Scripture as a bare representation wholly referring to the union of man and woman, for what reason should the apostle, calling these things to remembrance, and guiding us, as I opine, into the way of the Spirit, allegorize the history of Adam and Eve as having a reference to Christ and the Church?” Banquet of the Ten Virgins ch.1 p.317

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) (partial, never uses the names Adam and Eve) discusses the first man and woman falling when they ate the fruit. Incarnation of the Word ch.3 p.38

Theophilus (318 A.D.) “For the covenants caused a more especial appearance of angels,--that(3) in the case of Adam, that in the case of Noah, that in the case of Abraham, that in the case of Moses.”. Martyrdom of Habib the Deacon ch.51 p.49

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) (partial, does not use the words Adam and Eve) mentions that the man and woman fell. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.13 p.62

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) “’And he drove Adam out, and made him dwell outside the region of paradise.’ Then it adds: ‘Adam lay with his wife Eve, and she conceived and gave birth to Cain.’” Chronicon

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) “It is right, therefore, that we should honour those who have had a part in giving us birth. "Neither is the man without the woman, nor the woman without the man,"(3) except in the case of those who were first formed. For the body of Adam was made out of the four elements, and that of Eve out of the side of Adam.” Letter ot Hero ch.4 p.114

 

Among heretics

Sethians (before 188 A.D.) according to Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “But Ialdabaoth, feeling envious at this, was pleased to form the design of again emptying man by means of woman, and produced a woman from his own enthymesis, whom that Prunicus [above mentioned] laying hold of, imperceptibly emptied her of power. But the others coming and admiring her beauty, named her Eve, and falling in love with her, begat sons by her, whom they also declare to be the angels. But their mother (Sophia) cunningly devised a scheme to seduce Eve and Adam, by means of the serpent, to transgress the command of Ialdabaoth. Eve listened to this as if it had proceeded from a son of God, and yielded an easy belief. She also persuaded Adam to eat of the tree regarding which God had said that they should not eat of it. They then declare that, on their thus eating, they attained to the knowledge of that power which is above all, and departed from those who had created them. When Prunicus perceived that the powers were thus baffled by their own creature, she greatly rejoiced, and again cried out, that since the father was incorruptible, he (Ialdabaoth) who formerly called himself the father was a liar; and that, while Anthropos and the first woman (the Spirit) existed previously, this one (Eve) sinned by committing adultery.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.30.7 p.356

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 2 ch.16 p.231 mentions Adam. See also ibid homily 3 ch.55 p.248 and homily 13 ch.21 p.305.

The Ebionite Protoevangelium of James (145-248 A.D.) ch.13 p.364 mentions Adam and Eve.

The Sethian Gnostic Hypostasis of the Archons ch.91 p.165-166 discusses Adam, Eve, Cain, and Abel. It says Adam and Eve were correct to eat and to follow the advice of “the Instructor” (the serpent)

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 2 ch.47 p.110 mentions Adam and Eve.

 

Ai2. Eve

 

Genesis 3:20; 4:1; 2 Corinthians 11:3; 1 Timothy 2:13

 

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.12 p.145 “For since transgression was committed by Eve through means of the serpent, [the Lord] brought it to pass that every [kind of] serpents bit them, and they died,(6) that He might convince them, that on account of their transgression they were given over to the straits of death.”

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “just as Eve was made from one of Adam's ribs, and as all living beings were created in the beginning by the word of God.” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.84 p.240

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “And Adam having been cast out of Paradise, in this condition knew Eve his wife, whom God had formed into a wife for him out of his rib.”. To Autolycus book 2 ch.28 p.105.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “And on this account does the law term a woman betrothed to a man, the wife of him who had betrothed her, although she was as yet a virgin; thus indicating the back-reference from Mary to Eve, because what is joined together could not otherwise be put asunder than by inversion of the process by which these bonds of union had arisen; so that the former ties be cancelled by the latter, that the latter may set the former again at liberty.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.22.2 p.455

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) “And, whilst man dwelt in Paradise, God brought before him all living things and commanded him to give names to them all; and whatsoever Adam called a living soul, that was its name. And He determined also to make a helper for the man: for thus God said, It is not good for the man to be alone: let us make for him a helper meet for him.Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.13

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) ‘man,’ and ‘for the sake of the man,’ that rib of Adam. On the Veiling of Virgins ch.7 p.31

Tertullian (204/205 A.D.) mentions the curse of Adam and Eve. Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.25 p.317

Hippolytus of Portus (222-234/235 A.D.)  “What, then, is meant by the serpent but Antichrist, that deceiver who is mentioned in Genesis,(4) who deceived Eve and supplanted Adam” Treatise on Christ and AntiChrist ch.14 p.205

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) mentions Eve being deceived and Adam falling. Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.22 p.308

Origen (c.227-250 A.D.) “Adam is the father of all men. And if Eve also is intended by the apostle to refer to the Church, it is not surprising that Cain, who was born of Eve, and all after him, whose descent goes back to Eve, should be types of the Church, inasmuch as in a pre-eminent sense they are all descended from the Church.” de Principiis (Greek) book 4 ch.1.22 p.371

Origen (233/234 A.D.) “First, in Genesis it says Adam and Eve heard the sound of the Lord God walking at evening in the garden, and both Adam and his wife hid themselves from the Lord God amid the wood of the Garden.” Origen on Prayer ch.23.3 p.78

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “For Adam was first formed, then Eve; and Adam was not seduced, but the woman was seduced.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 3 ch.47 p.546

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) in Discourse on the Resurrection 1 ch.7 p.370 discusses how Adam and Eve fell and became evil.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “if the Scripture meant nothing higher than what is conveyed by the mere words and the history; for if we are to take the Scripture as a bare representation wholly referring to the union of man and woman, for what reason should the apostle, calling these things to remembrance, and guiding us, as I opine, into the way of the Spirit, allegorize the history of Adam and Eve as having a reference to Christ and the Church?” Banquet of the Ten Virgins ch.1 p.317

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) (partial, never uses the names Adam and Eve) discusses the first man and woman falling when they ate the fruit. Incarnation of the Word ch.3 p.38

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) (partial, does not use the words Adam and Eve) mentions that the man and woman fell. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.13 p.62

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) “’And he drove Adam out, and made him dwell outside the region of paradise.’ Then it adds: ‘Adam lay with his wife Eve, and she conceived and gave birth to Cain.’” Chronicon

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) “It is right, therefore, that we should honour those who have had a part in giving us birth. "Neither is the man without the woman, nor the woman without the man,"(3) except in the case of those who were first formed. For the body of Adam was made out of the four elements, and that of Eve out of the side of Adam.” Letter ot Hero ch.4 p.114

 

Among heretics

Sethians (before 188 A.D.) according to Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “But Ialdabaoth, feeling envious at this, was pleased to form the design of again emptying man by means of woman, and produced a woman from his own enthymesis, whom that Prunicus [above mentioned] laying hold of, imperceptibly emptied her of power. But the others coming and admiring her beauty, named her Eve, and falling in love with her, begat sons by her, whom they also declare to be the angels. But their mother (Sophia) cunningly devised a scheme to seduce Eve and Adam, by means of the serpent, to transgress the command of Ialdabaoth. Eve listened to this as if it had proceeded from a son of God, and yielded an easy belief. She also persuaded Adam to eat of the tree regarding which God had said that they should not eat of it. They then declare that, on their thus eating, they attained to the knowledge of that power which is above all, and departed from those who had created them. When Prunicus perceived that the powers were thus baffled by their own creature, she greatly rejoiced, and again cried out, that since the father was incorruptible, he (Ialdabaoth) who formerly called himself the father was a liar; and that, while Anthropos and the first woman (the Spirit) existed previously, this one (Eve) sinned by committing adultery.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.30.7 p.356

The Gnostics according to Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) had a Gospel of Perfection and a Gospel of Eve. The Panarion section 2 ch.26 p.84

 

 

Ai3. Abel

 

Matthew 23:35; Luke 11:51 (Abel’s blood but no mention of Cain)

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 11:4

p77 (Matthew 23:30-39) (200 A.D.) (partial) mentions Abel

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) (partial) Hebrews 11:4 mentions Cain and Abel but does not say Cain murdered Abel.

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “For thus it is written: ‘And it came to pass after certain days, that Cain brought of the fruits of the earth a sacrifice unto God; and Abel also brought of the firstlings of his sheep, and of the fat thereof. And God had respect to Abel and to his offerings, but Cain and his sacrifices He did not regard. And Cain was deeply grieved, and his countenance fell. And God said to Cain, Why art thou grieved, and why is try countenance fallen? If thou offerest rightly, but dost not divide rightly, hast thou not sinned? Be at peace: thine offering’” 1 Clement ch.4 (ANF vol.1) p.6. Also ch.4 (ANF vol.9) p.230.

Theophilus to Autolycus (168-181/188 A.D.) book 2 ch.29 p.105-106 discusses Cain murdering Abel.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) discusses Cain and Abel and Cain’s murder or Abel. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.23.4 p.456-457; book 4 ch.18.3 p.484

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) says that Cain committed fratricide and slew his brother Abel. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.17.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) says that Abel was killed. On Pascha ch.59 p.51

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) quotes three-fourths of Romans 2:14, to show that the Gentiles knew of righteousness even between Abel and Noah. He uses this to show that those who practiced righteousness when they died, were preached to after death by Christ, and accepted Christ. Stromata book 2 ch.9 p.357. He also quotes Romans 2:14 in Stromata book 1 ch.19 p.322. See also Stromata book 2 ch.9 p.357.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) mentions Cain and Abel. An Answer to the Jews ch.5 p.156

Tertullian (204-205 A.D.) mentions Abel and Noah. Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.22 p.314

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) mentions Cain murdering Abel. Instructions of Commodianus ch.39 p.210

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) (implied) mention of Cain and Abel. No mention of the murder though. Instructions of Commodianus ch.36 p.210, He mentions the martyrdom of Abel and others in Instructions of Commodianus ch.62 p.215.

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) (partial) mentions the murder of Cain and Abel, except he does not give any names. Instructions of Commodianus ch.26 p.208

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) discusses Cain slaying Abel. Origen’s Commentary On John book 6 ch.7 p.356. Cain plotted against Abel. Origen Against Celsus (225-253/254 A.D.) book 4 ch.43 p.517

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) discusses Abel being murdered by Cain. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 9 ch.10 p.486. See also Epistles of Cyprian letter 54 ch.2 p.339.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Thus, at the very beginning of the world, the righteous Abel was the first to be slain by his brother; and Jacob was driven into exile, and Joseph was sold, and king Saul persecuted the merciful David; and king Ahab endeavoured to oppress Elias, who firmly and bravely asserted the majesty of God.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.11 p.503

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) says Cain committed murder. The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 3 ch.3 p.369. He also says that Abel was killed by his brother in Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 11 ch.2 p.352

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) “Was not Abel born of Adam … Isaac from Abraham …?” Incarnation of the Word ch.35.7 p.55

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) (partial) book 3 ch.61 p.130 mentions Cain and Abel.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 3 ch.42 p.246 says that Cain killed Abel.

 

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Cain and Abel, but nothing about the murder. homily 2 ch.16 p.231

Mani (262-278 A.D.) mentions Abel’s blood. Disputation with Manes ch.28 p.201

The Sethian Gnostic Hypostasis of the Archons ch.91 p.165-166 discusses Adam, Eve, Cain, and Abel. It says Adam and Eve were correct to eat and to follow the advice of “the Instructor” (the serpent)

 

Ai4. Cain murdered his brother/Abel

 

Genesis 4:1-16

1 John 3:12

(partial) Jude 11; (partial) Hebrews 11:4; (partial) Hebrews 12:24

(partial) Hebrews 11:4

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) (partial, only mentions Abel) Hebrews 11:4

p77 (Matthew 23:30-39) (200 A.D.) (partial) mentions Abel

p75 (c.175-225 A.D.) Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) Luke 11:51

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) (partial) Hebrews 11:4 mentions Cain and Abel but does not say Cain murdered Abel.

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. (partial) Mentions unrighteous Cain, but no mention of the murder. Jude 11

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “For thus it is written: ‘And it came to pass after certain days, that Cain brought of the fruits of the earth a sacrifice unto God; and Abel also brought of the firstlings of his sheep, and of the fat thereof. And God had respect to Abel and to his offerings, but Cain and his sacrifices He did not regard. And Cain was deeply grieved, and his countenance fell. And God said to Cain, Why art thou grieved, and why is try countenance fallen? If thou offerest rightly, but dost not divide rightly, hast thou not sinned? Be at peace: thine offering’” 1 Clement ch.4 (ANF vol.1) p.6. Also ch.4 (ANF vol.9) p.230.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (partial, no mention of Cain) says that Abel was killed. On Pascha ch.59 p.51

Theophilus to Autolycus (168-181/188 A.D.) book 2 ch.29 p.105-106 discusses Cain murdering Abel.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) discusses Cain and Abel and Cain’s murder or Abel. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.23.4 p.456-457; book 4 ch.18.3 p.484

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) says that Cain committed fratricide and slew his brother Abel. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.17.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (partial) quotes Hebrews 11:34 about Cain and Abel. Stromata book 2 ch.4 p.350

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) (partial) mentions the blood of Abel, without saying who killed Him. The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.221

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “… if Cain, that first homicide and first fratricide,…” On Patience ch.5 p.710

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) mentions Cain murdering Abel. Instructions of Commodianus ch.39 p.210

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) (implied) mention of Cain and Abel. No mention of the murder though. Instructions of Commodianus ch.36 p.210, He mentions the martyrdom of Abel and others in Instructions of Commodianus ch.62 p.215.

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) (partial) mentions the murder of Cain and Abel, except he does not give any names. Instructions of Commodianus ch.26 p.208

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) discusses Cain slaying Abel. Origen’s Commentary On John book 6 ch.7 p.356. Cain plotted against Abel. Origen Against Celsus (225-253/254 A.D.) book 4 ch.43 p.517

Origen (233/234 A.D.) says that Cain murdered his brother. Origen On Prayer ch.29.18 p.126

Origen (233/234 A.D.) says that Cain murdered his brother. Origen’s Exhortation to Martyrdom ch.6.50 p.195

Origen (c.250 A.D.) (partial) mentions Abel. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 67.1.8 p.154

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) (partial) mentions Abel, Enoch, and Noah. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.16 p.626

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) discusses Abel being murdered by Cain. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 9 ch.10 p.486. See also Epistles of Cyprian letter 54 ch.2 p.339.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Thus, at the very beginning of the world, the righteous Abel was the first to be slain by his brother; and Jacob was driven into exile, and Joseph was sold, and king Saul persecuted the merciful David; and king Ahab endeavoured to oppress Elias, who firmly and bravely asserted the majesty of God.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.11 p.503

Alexander of Lycopolis (301 A.D.) (partial) says in the first a man kills his brother. (Does not mention Cain and Abel by name though.) Of the Manichaeans ch.12 p.246.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) says Cain committed murder. The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 3 ch.3 p.369. He also says that Abel was killed by his brother in Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 11 ch.2 p.352

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) (partial, Abel but not Cain) “Was not Abel born of Adam … Isaac from Abraham …?” Incarnation of the Word ch.35.7 p.55

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) (partial) book 3 ch.61 p.130 mentions Cain and Abel.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 3 ch.42 p.246 says that Cain killed Abel.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) (partial) says that Cain was a murderer. homily 3 ch.25 p.243

Mani (262-278 A.D.) mentions Abel’s blood. Disputation with Manes ch.28 p.201

Mani (262-278 A.D.) (partial) mentions Cain. Disputation with Manes ch.33 p.206

The Sethian Gnostic Hypostasis of the Archons ch.91 p.165-166 discusses Adam, Eve, Cain, and Abel.

Sethians (c.150-4th century) according to Irenaeus (182-188 A.D.) “They also found out food, through the guidance of Sophia; and when they were satisfied, they had carnal knowledge of each other, and begat Cain, whom the serpent, that had been cast down along with his sons, immediately laid hold of and destroyed by filling him with mundane oblivion, and urging into folly and audacity, so that, by slaying his brother Abel, he was the first to bring to light envy and death.Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.30.9 p.356

 

Ai5. Seth [son of Adam and Eve]

 

Genesis 4:25; 5:3-6

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “And his son Seth, 205. And his son Enos, 190. And his son Cainan, 170. And his son Mahaleel, 165. And his son Jared, 162. And his son Enoch, 165. And his son Methuselah, 167. And his son Lamech, 188. And Lamechs son was Noah, of whom we have spoken above, who begat Shem when 500 years old.” Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.24 p.118

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “They [heretics] conceive, then, of three kinds of men, spiritual, material, and animal, represented by Cain, Abel, and Seth. These three natures are no longer found in one person, but constitute various kinds [of men].” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.7.5 p.326

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “‘Cognovit autem Adam Evam uxorem suam; et concepit, et peperit filium, et nominavit nomen ejus Seth: Suscitavit enim mihi Deus aliud semen pro Abel.’” [And Adam knew his wife Eve, and she conceived, and they had a son whose name was Seth, saying ‘God has given me another child instead of Abel’] Stromata book 3 ch.12 p.395

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Cain and Abel, and Seth, who were in a certain sense the sources of the human race, become the fountain-heads of just as many qualities of nature and essential character.” Against the Valentinians ch.29 p.517

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “The Church, then, is the spouse. The queens are those royal souls before the deluge, who became well-pleasing to God, that is, those about Abel and Seth and Enoch.” Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 7 ch.4 p.332

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Seth, Noah, Shem, Japheth, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the Patriarch Job Demonstration of the Gospel book 2.2 p.2

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) &&& Chronicon ch.&&&

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) “And on their first approach, indeed, they happily found the bodies of the fathers, Adam, Seth, Enosh, Kainan, Mahaliel, Jared, Mathusalach, and Lamech.” doubtful fragment Sections II, III p.196

 

Among heretics

The Sethian Gnostic Apocryphon of John (c.150-185 A.D.) ch.9 p.110 mentions Seth, as does ch.25 p.119.

The Sethian Gnostic Zostrianos ch.8 p.405 mentions Seth.

Valentinians (c.150-220 A.D.) Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Cain and Abel, and Seth, who were in a certain sense the sources of the human race, become the fountain-heads of just as many qualities of nature and essential character.” Against the Valentinians ch.29 p.517

 

Ai6. Enoch

 

Hebrews 11:5; Genesis 5:18-21

 

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) Hebrews 11:5

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) says that Enoch was translated. 1 Clement ch.9 vol.1 p.7 (See also vol.9 p.232)

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.4 p.138 “The final stumbling-block (or source of danger) approaches, concerning which it is written, as Enoch says, ‘For this end the Lord has cut short the times and the days, that His Beloved may hasten; and He will come to the inheritance.’”

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “Those who did which was universally, naturally, and eternally good are pleasing to God, they will be saved through Christ in the resurrection equally with the righteous men before them, such as Noah, Enoch, Jacob, and others.” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.45 p.217.

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “And his son Seth, 205. And his son Enos, 190. And his son Cainan, 170. And his son Mahaleel, 165. And his son Jared, 162. And his son Enoch, 165. And his son Methuselah, 167. And his son Lamech, 188. And Lamechs son was Noah, of whom we have spoken above, who begat Shem when 500 years old.” Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.24 p.118

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) mentions that Enoch and Elijah were translated to heaven in the same body. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.5.1 p.530

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) mentions the translation of Enoch. Stromata book 4 ch.17 p.428

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “To these considerations is added the fact that Enoch possesses a testimony in the Apostle Jude.” On the Apparel of Women book 1 ch.3 p.16

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) says that Enoch and Elias [Elijah] have not experienced a resurrection because they have not encountered death. On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.58 p.591

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) The Two witnesses were Enoch and Elijah [Elias] who will prophesy for 1,260 days. Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.43 p.213

Origen (c.250 A.D.) says that Elijah and Enoch were transformed into heaven. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 67 homily 15 ch.28 p.70.

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “He [God] translated Enoch” Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.8 p.617

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Enoch, who pleased God and was translated; and Noah, who, when the world and men” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first part ch.8 p.510

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions the anti-Christ and Elijah the prophet who comes before. Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John p.351

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “The Church, then, is the spouse. The queens are those royal souls before the deluge, who became well-pleasing to God, that is, those about Abel and Seth and Enoch.” Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 7 ch.4 p.332

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) discusses that Elijah and Enoch were translated to some remote place without dying that they might attend Christ when He comes to judge. However, we should not believe that Nero is returning too. Of the Manner in which the Persecutors Died ch.2 p.302.

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions the translation of Enoch, Noah’s Flood, and that God confused people’s languages after Babel. Demonstration of the Gospel book 1.6 p.8

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Enos [Enoch]. Preparation for the Gospel book 7 ch.8 p.6

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) &&& Chronicon ch.&&&

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 4 ch.12 p.137 discusses Enoch being translated. See also ibid book 2 ch.47 p.110.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Enoch. homily 18 ch.13 p.328

 

Ai7. Methuselah

 

Genesis 5:22

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “Adam lived till he begat a son,[4] 230 years. And his son Seth, 205. And his son Enos, 190. And his son Cainan, 170. And his son Mahaleel, 165. And his son Jared, 162. And his son Enoch, 165. And his son Methuselah, 167. And his son Lamech, 188. And Lamech's son was Noah, of whom we have spoken above, who begat Shem when 500 years old.” Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.24 p.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “I am aware that the Scripture of Enoch, which has assigned this order (of action) to angels, is not received by some, because it is not admitted into the Jewish canon either. I suppose they did not think that, having been published before the deluge, it could have safely survived that world-wide calamity, the abolisher of all things. If that is the reason (for rejecting it), let them recall to their memory that Noah, the survivor of the deluge, was the great-grandson of Enoch himself; and he, of course, had heard and remembered, from domestic renown and hereditary tradition, concerning his own great-grandfather’s “grace in the sight of God,” and concerning all his preachings; since Enoch had given no other charge to Methuselah than that he should hand on the knowledge of them to his posterity.” On the Apparel of Women book 1 ch.3 p.15

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “For consider what confidence Seth had towards God, and Abel, and Enos, and Enoch, and Methuselah, and Noah, the first lovers of righteousness,” Banquet of the Ten Virgins ch.6 p.333

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) “Methuselah became the father of Lamech when he was 167 years old, and lived for another 802 years. The number of years assigned to Methuselah [by the Septuagint] suggests that he survived for (?) 22 years after the time of the flood; but we know that in some copies of the text, it is stated that he lived for another 782 years [after the birth of Lamech], and died at the time of the flood.” Chronicon ch.1

 

Ai8. Lamech [father of Noah]

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “And his son Seth, 205. And his son Enos, 190. And his son Cainan, 170. And his son Mahaleel, 165. And his son Jared, 162. And his son Enoch, 165. And his son Methuselah, 167. And his son Lamech, 188. And Lamechs son was Noah, of whom we have spoken above, who begat Shem when 500 years old.” Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.24 p.118

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) mentions Lamech having two wives. On Monogamy ch.4 p.61-62

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Plurality of marriage began with an accursed man. Lamech was the first who, by marrying himself to two women, caused three to be (joined) “into one flesh.’” Exhortation to Chastity ch.5 p.53

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “Perhaps, then, these things also border on an obscurity akin to the words, ‘Hear My voice, ye wives of Lamech,’ etc.” Commentary on Matthew book 14 ch.5 p.496-497

Julius Africanus (232-245 A.D.) “Mathusala, when 187 years old, begot Lamech. Lamech, when 188 years old, begets Noe.” Fragment 3 p.131

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) “Or what woman has sufficed without man for the conception of human kind? Was not Abel born of Adam, Enoch of Jared, Noe of Lamech, and Abraham of Tharra, Isaac of Abraham, Jacob of Isaac? Was not Judas born of Jacob, and Moses and Aaron of Ameram? Was not Samuel born of Elkana, was not David of Jesse, was not Solomon of David, was not Ezechias of Achaz, was not Josias of Amos, was not Esaias of Amos, was not Jeremy of Chelchias, was not Ezechiel of Buzi?Incarnation of the Word ch.35 p.55

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) “Enoch became the father of Methuselah when he was 165 years old, and lived for another 200 years, until he was taken away in the 33rd year of Lamech. Methuselah became the father of Lamech when he was 167 years old, and lived for another 802 years. The number of years assigned to Methuselah [by the Septuagint] suggests that he survived for (?) 22 years after the time of the flood; but we know that in some copies of the text, it is stated that he lived for another 782 years [after the birth of Lamech], and died at the time of the flood.” Chronicon book 1 p.71

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) “And on their first approach, indeed, they happily found the bodies of the fathers, Adam, Seth, Enosh, Kainan, Mahaliel, Jared, Mathusalach, and Lamech.The Law doubtful fragment Sections II, III p.196

 

Ai9. Noah got drunk

 

Genesis 9:20-23

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial) “With respect to those misdeeds for which the Scriptures themselves blame the patriarchs and prophets, we ought not to inveigh against them, nor become like Ham, who ridiculed the shame of his father, and so fell under a curse; but we should [rather] give thanks to God in their behalf, inasmuch as their sins have been forgiven them through the advent of our Lord; for He said that they gave thanks [for us], and gloried in our salvation.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.31.1 p.504

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “Wherefore also Noah’s intoxication was recorded in writing, that, with the clear and written description of his transgression before us, we might guard with all our might against drunkenness.” The Instructor book 2 ch.2 p.246

Origen (233/234 A.D.) Noe [Noah] was drunk on wine. Origen On Prayer ch.29.18 p.126

Cyprian (c.246-258 A.D.) Epistles of Cyprian Epistle 62 ch.11 p.361

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) (implied) “and the vine to the precept given to Noah at the time of the deluge, because, when overpowered by wine, he was mocked.Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 10 ch.2 p.348

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “And when he had first taken the fruit from the vineyard, having become merry, he drank even to intoxication, and lay naked.” The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.14 p.63

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 2 ch.52 p.238 says that Noah got drunk.

 

Ai10. Ham [son of Noah]

 

Genesis 6:10; 7:13; 9:18

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) (implied) “For while Noah gave to the two sons the seed of the third as servants, now on the other hand Christ has come to restore both the free sons and the servants amongst them, conferring the same honour on all of them who keep His commandments; Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew a Jew ch.134 p.267

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “And this Noah had three sons (as we mentioned in the second book), whose names were Shem, and Ham, and Japhet;Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.19 p.116-117

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) With respect to those misdeeds for which the Scriptures themselves blame the patriarchs and prophets, we ought not to inveigh against them, nor become like Ham, who ridiculed the shame of his father, and so fell under a curse; Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.31.1 p.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) “But Shem and Japheth, his brothers, because of their piety towards their father obtained a blessing. Now the curse of Ham, wherewith his father Noah cursed him,”. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.20

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “So great efficacy had that one word that from the three sons of Noah are begotten in the family 72 children,-(viz.,) from Shem, 25; from Japheth, 15; and from Ham, 32. Unto Ham, however, these 32 children are born in accordance with previous declarations. And among Hams children are: Canaan, from whom came the Canaanites; Mizraim, from whom the Egyptians; Cush, from whom the Ethiopians; and Phut, from whom the Libyans.” Refutation of All Heresies book 10 ch.27 p.149

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “Noah had three sons-Shem, Ham, and Japheth. From these the entire family of man was multiplied, and every quarter of the earth owes its inhabitants in the first instance to these.” Refutation of All Heresies book 10 ch.27 p.149

Origen (c.250 A.D.) mentions Ham, Shem, Japheth, cand Canaan son of Ham. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 67 homily 1 ch.8 p.154.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “And when one of his [Noah’s] sons, whose name was Cham [Ham], had seen this, he did not cover his fathers nakedness, but went out and told the circumstance to his brothers also. But they, having taken a garment, entered with their faces turned backwards, and covered their father. And when their father became aware of what had been done he disowned and sent away his son. But he went into exile, and settled in a part of that land which is now called Arabia; and that land was called from him Chanaan [Canaan], and his posterity Chanaanites.” The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.14 p.63

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Hippolytus (after 235/236 A.D.) “When he had made an end, accordingly, of building the ship, Noah, with his sons, Sem, Chain, and Japheth [Shem, Ham, Japheth] , entered the cave of deposits.” Section 2, 3 p.196

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) &&& Chronicon ch.&&&

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 4 ch.27 p.140 mention Ham.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Ham. homily 9 ch.3 p.275

 

Ai11. Shem [son of Noah]

 

Genesis 6:10; 7:13; 9:18

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “Now, in what he said, he foretold that the descendants of Shem would keep in retention the property and dwellings of Canaan: and again that the descendants of Japheth would take possession of the property of which Shems descendants had dispossessed Canaans descendants; and spoil the descendants of Shem, even as they plundered the sons of Canaan.” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.139 p.269

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “And this Noah had three sons (as we mentioned in the second book), whose names were Shem, and Ham, and Japhet;Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.19 p.116-117

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) mentions Nebroth [Nimrod], Asshur, Shem, and Mizraim. Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.31 p.106

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “He, appearing in these last times, the chief cornerstone, has gathered into one, and united those that were far off and those that were near; that is, the circumcision and the uncircumcision, enlarging Japhet, and placing him in the dwelling of Shem.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.5.3 p.418

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) “But Shem and Japheth, his brothers, because of their piety towards their father obtained a blessing. Now the curse of Ham, wherewith his father Noah cursed him,”. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.20

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “From Adam to the deluge are comprised two thousand one hundred and forty-eight years, four days. From Shem to Abraham, a thousand two hundred and fifty years. From Isaac to the division of the land, six hundred and sixteen years.” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.332

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “Noah had three sons-Shem, Ham, and Japheth. From these the entire family of man was multiplied, and every quarter of the earth owes its inhabitants in the first instance to these.” Refutation of All Heresies book 10 ch.27 p.149

Origen (c.250 A.D.) mentions Ham, Shem, Japheth, cand Canaan son of Ham. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 67 homily 1 ch.8 p.154.

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Seth, Noah, Shem, Japheth, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the Patriarch Job Demonstration of the Gospel book 2.2 p.2

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) &&& Chronicon ch.&&&

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Hippolytus (after 235/236 A.D.) “When he had made an end, accordingly, of building the ship, Noah, with his sons, Sem, Chain, and Japheth [Shem, Ham, Japheth] , entered the cave of deposits.” Section 2, 3 p.196

 

Ai12. Japheth [son of Noah]

 

Genesis 6:10; 7:13; 9:18

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “Now, in what he said, he foretold that the descendants of Shem would keep in retention the property and dwellings of Canaan: and again that the descendants of Japheth would take possession of the property of which Shems descendants had dispossessed Canaans descendants; and spoil the descendants of Shem, even as they plundered the sons of Canaan.” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.139 p.269

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “And this Noah had three sons (as we mentioned in the second book), whose names were Shem, and Ham, and Japhet;Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.19 p.118

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “He, appearing in these last times, the chief cornerstone, has gathered into one, and united those that were far off and those that were near; that is, the circumcision and the uncircumcision, enlarging Japhet, and placing him in the dwelling of Shem.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.5.3 p.418

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) “But Shem and Japheth, his brothers, because of their piety towards their father obtained a blessing. Now the curse of Ham, wherewith his father Noah cursed him,”. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.20

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “Noah had three sons-Shem, Ham, and Japheth. From these the entire family of man was multiplied, and every quarter of the earth owes its inhabitants in the first instance to these.” Refutation of All Heresies book 10 ch.27 p.149

Origen (c.250 A.D.) mentions Ham, Shem, Japheth, cand Canaan son of Ham. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 67 homily 1 ch.8 p.154.

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Seth, Noah, Shem, Japheth, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the Patriarch Job Demonstration of the Gospel book 2.2 p.2

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) &&& Chronicon ch.&&&

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Hippolytus (after 235/236 A.D.) “When he had made an end, accordingly, of building the ship, Noah, with his sons, Sem, Chain, and Japheth [Shem, Ham, Japheth] , entered the cave of deposits.” Section 2, 3 p.196

 

Ai13. Canaan [son of Ham]

 

Genesis 9:18,22,25

 

The land of Canaan and the seed of Canaan are not included here

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “Now, in what he said, he foretold that the descendants of Shem would keep in retention the property and dwellings of Canaan: and again that the descendants of Japheth would take possession of the property of which Shem’s descendants had dispossessed Canaan’s descendants; and spoil the descendants of Shem, even as they plundered the sons of Canaan.Dialogue with Trypho a Jew ch.139 p.269

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) (partial) “For while Noah gave to the two sons the seed of the third as servants, now on the other hand Christ has come to restore both the free sons and the servants amongst them, conferring the same honour on all of them who keep His commandments; Dialogue with Trypho a Jew ch.134 p.267

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) (partial, no mention of the individual Canaan per se) “But Shem and Japheth, his brothers, because of their piety towards their father obtained a blessing. Now the curse of Ham, wherewith his father Noah cursed him, is this: Cursed be Ham the child; a servant shall he be to his brethren. This having come upon his race, … For the Canaanites and Hittites and Peresites [Perizzites] and Hivites and Amorites, and Jebusites and Gergasites and Sodomites, the Arabians also and the dwellers in Phoenicia, all the Egyptians and Libyans, are the posterity of Ham, who have fallen under the curse;”. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.20

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “So great efficacy had that one word that from the three sons of Noah are begotten in the family 72 children,-(viz.,) from Shem, 25; from Japheth, 15; and from Ham, 32. Unto Ham, however, these 32 children are born in accordance with previous declarations. And among Ham’s children are: Canaan, from whom came the Canaanites; Mizraim, from whom the Egyptians; Cush, from whom the Ethiopians; and Phut, from whom the Libyans.” Refutation of All Heresies book 10 ch.27 p.149

Origen (239-242 A.D.) Noah cursed Canaan. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 11 ch.4.1 p.143-144

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (partial) and another will rend in pieces him of the seed of Chanaan, and not of Judah, whom beauty had deceived, and whose heart lust had perverted. Letter to Africanus ch.7 p.388

Origen (c.250 A.D.) mentions Ham, Shem, Japheth, cand Canaan son of Ham. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 67 homily 1 ch.8 p.154.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “And when one of his [Noah’s] sons, whose name was Cham [Ham], had seen this, he did not cover his father’s nakedness, but went out and told the circumstance to his brothers also. But they, having taken a garment, entered with their faces turned backwards, and covered their father. And when their father became aware of what had been done he disowned and sent away his son. But he went into exile, and settled in a part of that land which is now called Arabia; and that land was called from him Chanaan [Canaan], and his posterity Chanaanites.” The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.14 p.63

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) “just as contrariwise it calls the Jews, when they sin, by names that suit their ways, Canaanites, and seed of Canaan not Judah, Rulers of Sodom, and people of Gomorrah.” Demonstration of the Gospel

 

Ai14. Nimrod/Nimrud

 

Genesis 10:8-14

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “in the land of Shinar. And their king was called Nebroth [Nimrod]. From these came Asshur, from whom also the Assyrians receive their name. And Nimrod built…”. He also mentions Shem and Mirzaim. Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.31 p.106

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) “And there are, he says, many who closely imitate this (Nimrod): as numerous are they as the gnawing (serpents) which were seen in the wilderness by the children of Israel,” Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.11 p.63

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 312 A.D.) “and they shall encircle Assur,' that is, Antichrist, 'in the trench of Nimrod,' that is, in the nation of the devil, by the spirit of the Church. Similarly whenCommentary on the Apocalypse from the seventh chapter p.352

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) &&&

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Nebrod [Nimrod]. homily 9 ch.4 p.271

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement book 4 ch.29 p.141 mentions Ninus [Nimrod]

 

Ai15. Abraham [friend of God]

 

Genesis 18:17; 2 Chronicles 20:7; Isaiah 41:8; John 15:15; James 2:23

Hebrews 11:8

 

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) (partial, only mentions Abraham) Hebrews 11:8

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Abraham was specially honoured, and was called the friend of God; yet he, earnestly regarding the glory of God, humbly declared, “I am but dust and ashes.” 1 Clement vol.1 ch.17 p.9

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Abraham, styled ‘the friend,’ was found faithful, inasmuch as he rendered obedience to the words of God.” 1 Clement vol.1 ch.10 p.7

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) mentions Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Twelve Patriarchs, Adam, and Noah. On Pascha stanza 83 p.60

&&&Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section &&&

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “But when He [our Lord] terms His disciples ‘the friends of God,’ He plainly declares Himself to be the Word of God, whom Abraham also followed voluntarily and under no compulsion (sine vinculis), because of the noble nature of his faith, and so became ‘the friend of God.’ But the Word of God did not accept of the friendship of Abraham, as though He stood in need of it, for He was perfect from the beginning (‘Before Abraham was,’ He says, ‘I am’), but that He in His goodness might bestow eternal life upon Abraham himself, inasmuch as the friendship of God imparts immortality to those who embrace it.Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.13.4 p.478

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “‘The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob.’ For the first is found to have been expressly called ‘friend;’ Stromata book 2 ch.5 p.351. See also Stromata book 4 ch.17 p.428

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “In short, before the Law of Moses, written in stone-tables, I contend that there was a law unwritten, which was habitually understood naturally, and by the fathers was habitually kept. For whence was Noah ‘found righteous,’ if in his case the righteousness of a natural law had not preceded? Whence was Abraham accounted ‘a friend of God,’ if not on the ground of equity and righteousness, (in the observance) of a natural law? Whence was Melchizedek named ‘priest of the most high God,’ if, before the priesthood of the Levitical law, there were not Levites who were wont to offer sacrifices to God?An Answer to the Jews ch.2 p.152-153

Tertullian (213 A.D.) mentions Abraham. On Monogamy ch.6 p.63

Origen (c.250 A.D.) mentions Abraham Homilies on Psalms Psalm 15 homily 1 ch.1 p.39

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “He [God] translated Enoch: He elected Abraham into the society of his friendship; He protected Isaac: He increased Jacob; He gave Moses for a leader unto the people; He delivered the groaning children of Israel from the yoke of slavery; He wrote the law;” Concerning the Trinity ch.8 p.617

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Let us imitate Abraham, the friend of God, who did not delay to offer his son as a victim with his own hands, obeying God with a faith of devotion.Epistles of Cyprian letter 55 ch.5 p.348

Theophilus (318 A.D.) “For the covenants caused a more especial appearance of angels,--that(3) in the case of Adam, that in the case of Noah, that in the case of Abraham, that in the case of Moses.”. Martyrdom of Habib the Deacon ch.51 p.49

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) “for Abraham died, ending his life on a bed; Isaac and Jacob also died with their feet raised on a bed; Moses and Aaron died on the mountain;…” Incarnation of the Word ch.37.1 p.56

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) (partial) “Was not Abel born of Adam … Isaac from Abraham …?” Incarnation of the Word ch.35.7 p.55

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Seth, Noah, Shem, Japheth, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the Patriarch Job Demonstration of the Gospel book 2.2 p.2

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Abraham, Isaac, and Joseph Demonstration of the Gospel book 1.6 p.8

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Abraham in Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.17 p.14

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Abraham. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2 p.83

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) &&& Chronicon ch.&&&

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Protoevangelium of James (145-248 A.D.) ch.20 p.365 mentions Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.32-33 p.86 mentions Abraham and Sarah.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Abraham. homily 18 ch.13 p.328

 

Ai16. Lot or his wife

 

Genesis 19:15-26

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “For Lot’s wife, who went forth with him, being of a different mind from himself and not continuing in agreement with him1 Clement ch.11 p.8

Justin Martyr (138-165 A.D.) “Lot, being uncircumcised, was saved from Sodom, the angels themselves and the Lord sending him out.” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.19 p.204

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 42 p.109 “Remember Lot’s wife.”

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “Then, again, Lot, without circumcision, was brought out from Sodom, receiving” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.16.2 p.481

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “For God has respect to the very thought, since Lot’s wife, who had merely voluntarily turned towards worldly wickedness,” Stromata book 2 ch.14 p.361

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Lot, withal, the brother of Abraham, proves that it was for the merits of righteousness, without observance of the law, that he was freed from the conflagration of the Sodomites.An Answer to the Jews ch.2 p.153

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “Now, in this discussion of yours, when you suppose that we are to be met with the case of the Creator’s angels, as if they held intercourse with Abraham and Lot in a phantom state, that of merely putative flesh, and yet did truly converse, and eat, and work, as they had been commissioned to do, you will not, to begin with, be permitted to use as examples the acts of that God whom you are destroying.Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.9 p.328

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “are the children born to Lot by his daughters, and their race survives even now.” Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.51 p.215

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) discusses Lot’s wife. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 13 ch.3 p.134

Origen (c.250 A.D.) discusses Lot’s wife. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 36 homily 4 ch.2 p.125-126

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.13 p.674 “if by chance he has excluded himself there from by his own fault; even as that wife of Lot, who in a similar manner in time of trouble only, contrary to the angel’s command, looked behind her, and she became a pillar of salt.”

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “And again: ‘And let him that is in the field not return back. Remember Lots wife.’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.7 p.500

 

Ai17. Sarai / Sarah

 

Genesis 11:29-31; 16:1-6; 18:6-15

Rom 9:9

Hebrews 11:11

 

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) Hebrews 11:11

 

Justin Martyr (135-168 A.D.) “And I said, “Do you think that Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Noah, and Job, and all the rest before or after them equally righteous, also Sarah the wife of Abraham, Rebekah the wife of Isaac, Rachel the wife of Jacob, and Leah, and all the rest of them, until the mother of Moses the faithful servant, who observed none of these [statutes], will be saved? ‘ And Trypho answered, ‘Were not Abraham and his descendants circumcised?’” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.46 p.217-218

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “And upon the death of Sarah his wife, when the Hittites were willing to bestow upon him a place where he might bury her, he declined it as a gift, but bought the burying-place (giving for it four hundred talents of silver) from Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.32.2 p.561

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) mentions Isaac, from Sarah, as well as “of Isaac Jacob was born”. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.24

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Sarah was at one time barren, being Abraham’s wife. Sarah having no child,” Stromata book 1 ch.5 p.306

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “requested of the sons of Heth [the Hittites] a spot to bury Sarah in, he said to them,” On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.18 p.558

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “inasmuch as the Creator also altered the names of Abram, and Sarai, and Oshea, by calling the latter Joshua, and adding a syllable to each of the former.” Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.13 p.365

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “let any one read the accounts of Abraham and Sarah, to whom at an advanced age was born Isaac, the father of the whole Jewish nation: and there are other instances of the same thing.” Origen Against Celsus book 8 ch.46 p.656

Origen (c.250 A.D.) mentions Sarah and Hagar. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 76 homily 2 ch.3 p.257.

Novatian (250-258 A.D.) “And after this he [Abraham] hears also that he should be a father, and learns that Sarah his wife should bring forth a son by him;Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.18 p.628

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions Sarah, the wife of Abraham in discussing how Isaac was a type of Christ. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first part ch.20 p.512

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Protoevangelium of James (145-248 A.D.) ch.2 p.361 mentions Sarah and Isaac.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.34-35 p.86 mentions Abraham and Sarah.

 

Ai18. Hagar

 

Genesis 16

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “But that you may clearly discern what I say, listen to the words expressly employed by Moses; they are these: ‘And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian bond-woman, whom she bore to Abraham, sporting with Isaac her son, and said to Abraham, Cast out this bond-woman and her son; for the son of this bond-woman shall not share the inheritance of my son Isaac. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.56 p.223

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “The arrangement also made by Sarah when, after ten years, she gave her handmaid Hagar to him, that by her he might have a son, showed the same thing.” (Irenaeus is explaining how the Marcosians twist scripture.) Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.18.3 p.343

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Wherefore also, when Sarah was jealous at Hagar being preferred to her,” Stromata book 1 ch.5 p.\306

Origen (c.250 A.D.) mentions Sarah and Hagar. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 76 homily 2 ch.3 p.257.

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “Hagar, Sarah’s maid, driven from her home as well as turned away, near the” Concerning the Trinity ch.18 p.628

 

Among Heretics

Marcosians according to Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “The arrangement also made by Sarah when, after ten years, she gave her handmaid Hagar to him, that by her he might have a son, showed the same thing.” (Irenaeus is explaining how the Marcosians twist scripture.) Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.18.3 p.343

 

Ai19. Ishmael

 

Genesis 16:11,15; 17:18,20,23-26

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “Arabians, or Egyptians, or Idumaeans, since Ishmael became the father of a Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.119 p.259

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) (implied) discusses the allegory of Isaac and Ishmael in Galatians “the two narratives of the sons of Abraham had an allegorical meaning in their course;”. Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.5 p.324. See also Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.9 p.357.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “the father of Ishmael, who underwent the rite of circumcision along with his” Against Celsus book 5 ch.48 p.564

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “womb there should be a numerous seed, and that she should have Ishmael to be Concerning the Trinity ch.18 p.628

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.33 p.86 mentions Ishmael.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Isaac, Ishmael, Jacob, and Esau. homily 2 ch.16 p.231

 

Ai20. Isaac

 

Genesis 24:62-66

Romans 9:6 “It is not as though God’s word had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel. Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham’s children. On the contrary, ‘It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned.”

Hebrews 11:9

 

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) Hebrews 11:9

p1 (225-275 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-9, 12, 14-20 (17 verses) Matthew 1:2

 

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) mentions by name Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph but does not say anything about Joseph’s brothers. Letter of Ignatius to the Philadelphians ch.5 p.82

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.6 p.140 “Enter into the good land which the Lord sware [to give] to Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and inherit ye it, a land flowing with milk and honey.”

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.13 p.145 tells of various Old Testament saints, including Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Ephraim.

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) “From the writings of Moses also this will be manifest; for thus it is written in them, ‘And the Angel of God spake to Moses, in a flame of fire out of the bush, and said, I am that I am, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob, the God of thy fathers; go down into Egypt, and bring forth My people.’” [Exodus 3:6] First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.63 p.184

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) says that Isaac almost being sacrificed was a type of Christ. “not shrinking form shedding the blood of his son.” From the Catena on Genesis ch.5 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.759

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) mentions Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Twelve Patriarchs, Adam, and Noah. On Pascha stanza 83 p.60

Theophilus of Antioch (168-182/188 A.D.) “the righteous seed of godly and holy men-Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob.” Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.9 p.114

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “whom invoking, he exclaimed, ‘LORD God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, hear me to-day, and let all this people know that Thou art the God of Israel.’” [1 Kings 18:36] Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.6.5 p.419

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) mentions Isaac, from Sarah, as well as “of Isaac Jacob was born”. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.24

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says that Isaac is a type of Christ Stromata book 1 ch.4 p.306

Tertullian (213 A.D.) discusses Isaac and the meaning of his name. On Monogamy ch.6 p.63; ch.11 p.68.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) discusses the allegory of Isaac and Ishmael in Galatians: “the two narratives of the sons of Abraham had an allegorical meaning in their course;”. Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.5 p.324. See also Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.9 p.357 and book 3 ch.18 p.336.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “From the circumstance, then, (of this migration) is traceable the beginning of an increase (of population) in Judea, which obtained its name from Judah, fourth son of Jacob, whose name was also called Israel, from the fact that a race of kings would be descended from him. Abraham removes from Mesopotamia (when 75 years , and) when 100 years old he begat Isaac. But Isaac, when 60 years of age, begat Jacob. And Jacob, when 86 years old, begat Levi; and Levi,Refutation of All Heresies book 10 ch.26 p.148-149

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “And whatsoever the Egyptians possess is given over to the fire, but Abraham’s substance is given to Isaac.” On Psalm 77 or 87 no.48 p.171

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) “Be thou such as Abel was, or such as Isaac himself, or Stephen, who chose for himself on the way the righteous life.” Instructions of Commodianus ch.62 p.215

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) in discussing Abraham and Isaac, “Or rather do you think of those well-known words, and say that it is impossible for him who promised to lie; be that as it may, the promise shall remain?” Homilies on Genesis homily 8 ch.1 p.137. See also Origen Against Celsus ch.4 p.575.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) mentions Isaac, Jacob, and Esau. Origen’s Commentary on John book 10 ch.4 p.383

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Isaac, Rebecca, and Jacob. Origen On Prayer ch.3.1 p.22

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “He [God] preserved the most righteous Noe [Noah] from the perils of the deluge, for the merit of His innocence and faith; He translated Enoch: He elected Abraham into the society of his friendship; He protected Isaac: He increased Jacob; He gave Moses for a leader unto the people;Concerning the Trinity ch.8 p.617

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) Thus also to Abraham, when his former son was born of a bond-woman, Sarah remained long barren; and late in old age bare her son Isaac, of promise, who was the type of Christ.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first part ch.20 p.512-513

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) “However, when Isaac was about to give Esau his blessing at a time when Rebecca had been told: ‘The elder shall server the younger’” Dialogue on the True Faith part 1 ch.20 p.63

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “He may make us to lie down in the bosom of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob.” Banquet of the Ten Virgins Discourse 5 ch.3 p.326

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) “Was not Abel born of Adam … Isaac from Abraham, Jacob of Isaac?” Incarnation of the Word ch.35.7 p.55

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Seth, Noah, Shem, Japheth, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the Patriarch Job Demonstration of the Gospel book 2.2 p.2

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Abraham, Isaac, and Joseph Demonstration of the Gospel book 1.6 p.8

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Isaac in Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.21 p.17

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.13 p.83

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) &&& Chronicon ch.&&&

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Megethius (c.300 A.D.) says that the Old Testament God let Isaac be partially blind. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.20 p.62

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) “with authority, the God of Abraham, the Protector of Isaac, the Holy One of Israel, the Instructor of Moses” Oration of Simeon and Anna ch.6 p.387

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (70-135 A.D.) book 7 ch.7 p.26 mentions Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Protoevangelium of James (145-248 A.D.) ch.2 p.361 mentions Sarah and Isaac.

The Ebionite Protoevangelium of James (145-248 A.D.) ch.20 p.365 mentions Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.34-35 p.86 mentions Isaac.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Isaac, Ishmael, Jacob, and Esau. homily 2 ch.16 p.231

 

 

Isaac to Egypt Individuals

 

Ie1. Abraham offered Isaac as a sacrifice

 

Genesis 22; James 2:21

(partial) John 8:33,38; Hebrews 11:2

 

p52 (=John Rylands 457) John 18:31-35, 37-38 (c.117-138 A.D.) (partial) mentions Abraham, but nothing of Isaac or a sacrifice in John 18:33,38

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 11:7

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) (partial) Hebrews 11:2 mentions Abraham, but not the sacrifice

p20 - James 2:19-3:2 (6 out of 96 letters of 3:3; 3:4-9 (3rd century A.D.) Abraham offered his son but does not say which one or a type of Christ. James 2:21

p40 – Romans 1:24-27; 1:31-2:3; 3:21-4:8; 6:2-5,16; 9:17,27 (3rd century A.D.) (partial) mentions Abraham in Romans 3:31-4:3

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “For what reason was our father Abraham blessed? was it not because he wrought righteousness and truth through faith? Isaac, with perfect confidence, as if knowing what was to happen, cheerfully yielded himself as a sacrifice” 1 Clement ch.31 vol.1 p.13 (See also vol.9 p.238)

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) says that the Son of God came in the flesh ch.5 p.140 , He was to be manifested in the flesh ch.6 p.141; and the judge of the living and the dead suffered ch.7 p.141. He was to offer in sacrifice for our sins, as the type established in Isaac when he was offered on the alter. ch.7 p.141

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) “The slaughter of this animal redeemed Isaac from death. In like manner, the Lord, being slain, saved us; being bound, He loosed us; being sacrificed, He redeemed us… For the Lord was a lamb, like the ram which Abraham saw caught in the bush Sabec [thicket]. … For a new mystery was presented to view, a son led by his father to a mountain to be slain, whose feet he bound together, and laid him on the wood of the sacrifice, preparing with care whatever was necessary for his immolation. Isaac on his part is silent, bound like a ram, not opening his mouth, nor uttering a sound with his voice. For, not fearing the knife, nor quailing before the fire, nor troubled by the prospect of suffering, he sustained bravely the character of the type of the Lord. According there lies Isaac before us, with his feet bound like a ram, his father standing by, with the knife all bare in his hand, not shrinking form shedding the blood of his son.” Catena on Genesis ch.5 (ANF vol.8) p.759

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) says that Isaac almost being sacrificed was a type of Christ. “not shrinking form shedding the blood of his son.” From the Catena on Genesis ch.5 (Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8) p.759

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) Righteously also do we, possessing the same faith as Abraham, and taking up the cross as Isaac did the wood follow Him. For in Abraham man had learned beforehand, and had been accustomed to follow the Word of God. For Abraham, according to his faith, followed the command of the Word of God, and with a ready mind delivered up, as a sacrifice to God, his only-begotten and beloved son, in order that God also might be pleased to offer up for all his seed His own beloved and only-begotten Son, as a sacrifice for our redemption. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.5.4 p.467

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) Christ was born of a virgin, and suffered on the cross; was raised also from the dead, and taken up to heaven; that He was glorified, and reigns for ever. He is Himself termed the Perfect Intellect, the Word of God. He is the First-begotten, after a transcendent manner, the Creator of man; All in all; Patriarch among the patriarchs; Law in the law; the Priest among priests; among kings Prime Leader; the Prophet among the prophets; the Angel among angels; the Man among men; Son in the Father; God in God; King to all eternity. He was sold with Joseph, and He guided Abraham; was bound along with Isaac, and wandered with Jacob; with Moses He was Leader, and, respecting the people, Legislator. He preached in the prophets; was incarnate of a virgin; born in Bethlehem; received by John, and baptized in Jordan; was tempted in the desert, and proved to be the Lord. He gathered the apostles together, and preached the kingdom of heaven; gave light to the blind, and raised the dead; was seen in the temple, but was not held by the people as worthy of credit; was arrested by the priests, conducted before Herod, and condemned in the presence of Pilate; He manifested Himself in the body, was suspended upon a beam of wood, and raised from the dead; shown to the apostles, and, having been carried up to heaven, sitteth on the right hand of the Father, and has been glorified by Him as the Resurrection of the dead.” Fragment 54 p.577

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “‘The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob.’ For the first is found to have been expressly called ‘friend;’ and the second is shown to have received a new name, signifying ‘he that sees God;’ while Isaac, God in a figure selected for Himself as a consecrated sacrifice, to be a type to us of the economy of salvation.” Stromata book 2 ch.5 p.351. See also The Instructor ch.5 p.215.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “This ‘wood,’ again, Isaac the son of Abraham personally carried for his own sacrifice, when God had enjoined that he should be made a victim to Himself. But, because these had been mysteries which were being kept for perfect fulfilment in the times of Christ, Isaac, on the one hand, with his “wood,” was reserved, the ram being offered which was caught by the horns in the bramble” An Answer to the Jews ch.13 p.170

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “First, then, Isaac, when he was given up by his father as an offering, himself carried the wood for his own death. By this act he even then was setting forth the death of Christ, who was destined by His Father as a sacrifice, and carried the cross whereon He suffered. Joseph likewise was a type of Christ” Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.18 p.336

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) discusses Abraham almost sacrificing Isaac in Homilies on Genesis . homily 8 ch.7-9 p.141-147

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) discusses Isaac prepared to be sacrificed by Abraham. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 9 ch.10 p.486

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) In Genesis : “And God, tempted Abraham, and said to him, Take thy only son whom thou lovest, Isaac, and go into the high land, and offer him there as a burnt-offering on one of the mountains of which I will tell thee.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 third book ch.15 p.537

Alexander of Lycopolis (301 A.D.) (partial) Abraham’s [unnamed] son was prepared as a sacrifice. Of the Manichaeans ch.24 p.251

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Abraham offering Isaac in Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.19 p.16

 

Ie2. Rebecca [wife of Isaac]

 

Genesis 25:20-21

 

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.13 p.145 “Hear ye now what the Scripture saith concerning the people. Isaac prayed for Rebecca his wife, because she was barren; and she conceived.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “patriarchs, but also that the children brought forth by Rebecca were a” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.21.2 p.493

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) And Rebecca, interpreted, means ‘glory of God; ‘and the glory of God is immortality.Stromata book 4 ch.25 p.439

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Abraham, greatly feared in regard of his own wife’s grace; and Isaac, by falsely representing Rebecca as his sister, purchased safety by insult!On the Apparel of Women book 2 ch.2 p.19-20.

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) mentions Rebecca, the wife of Isaac. Tertullian on Modesty ch.9 p.82

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “and keep the true Sabbath. Rebecca is full of the Holy Spirit, as understanding” Quoted in Jerome Epistle 36 ad Damasum, Numbers 18 (from Galland) p.169

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) “Consider what was abundantly said of Rebecca from heaven; whence, imitating the alien, ye may believe in Christ.” Instructions of Commodianus ch.39 p.210

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “I suppose he means the conduct of Rebecca, who contrived that the” Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.43 p.517

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Isaac, Rebecca, and Jacob. Origen On Prayer ch.3.1 p.22

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Also in Genesis , Abraham sends his servant to take from his seed Rebecca, for” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 3 ch.62 p.62

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) “However, when Isaac was about to give Esau his blessing at a time when Rebecca had been told: ‘The elder shall server the younger’” Dialogue on the True Faith part 1 ch.20 p.63

 

Ie3. Laban [Jacob’s father-in-law]

 

Genesis 25:20

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Isaac, with perfect confidence, as if knowing what was to happen, cheerfully yielded himself as a sacrifice Jacob, through reason of his brother, went forth with humility from his own land, and came to Laban and served him; 1 Clement ch.31 p.13 See also vol.9)

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) “Jacob served Laban for speckled and many-spotted sheep; and Christ served, even to the slavery of the cross, for the various and many-formed races of mankind, acquiring them by the blood and mystery of the cross.” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.134 p.267

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “For not only did not the nations in this life serve this Jacob; but even after he had received the blessing, he himself going forth [from his home], served his uncle Laban the Syrian for twenty years;Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.33.3 p.562

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “She who emulates Sarah is not ashamed of that highest of ministries, helping wayfarers. For Abraham said to her, ‘Haste, and knead three measures of meal, and make cakes.’ ‘And Rachel, the daughter of Laban, came,’ it is said, ‘with her father’s sheep. Nor was this enough; but to teach humility it is added, ‘for she fed her father’s sheep.’” The Instructor book 3 ch.10 p.283

Hippolytus of Portus (222-234/235 A.D.) “Wherefore Rebecca-that is, patience-told her husband of the brother’s plot: who, summoning Jacob, bade him go to Mesopotamia and thence take a wife of the family of Laban the Syrian, his mother’s brother.” Fragment 3 quoted in Jerome Epistle 36 to Damasus Numbers 18 p.169.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “living with Laban, not understanding to what these words refer: “And those which” Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.43 p.517

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Laban, Jacob’s father-in-law. Origen On Prayer ch.29.3 p.14

Novatian (250-258 A.D.) “all that Laban hath done to thee. I am God, who appeared to thee in the place of” Concerning the Trinity ch.19 p.630

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Laban. Demonstration of the Gospel book 1.5 p.7

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) &&& Chronicon ch.&&&

 

Ie4. Esau

 

Genesis 25:25-34; 26:34; 27:1-42; 28:5-9; 32:3-19; 33:1-16; 35:1,29; 36:1-43; Deuteronomy 2:4-8,12,22,29; Joshua 24:4; 1 Chronicles 1:34-35; Jeremiah 49:8,10; Obadiah 6-21; Malachi 1:2-3; Romans 9:13; Hebrews 11:20; 12:16

 

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) Hebrews 12:16

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Romans 9:13

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Through envy, also, our father Jacob fled from the face of Esau his brother.” 1 Clement ch.4 p.6. See also ch.4 (ANF vol.9) p.230.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “words which narrate how He who is both Angel and God and Lord, and who appeared as a man to Abraham, and who wrestled in human form with Jacob, was seen by him when he fled from his brother Esau.Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.58 p.226

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “Our God, one and the same, is also their [the patriarchs’] God, who knows hidden things, who knoweth all things before they can come to pass; and for this reason has He said, ‘Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated.’” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.21.2 p.493

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “But rather, he says, “Follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord: looking diligently, lest there be any fornicator or profane person, as Esau, who for one morsel surrendered his birth-right; and lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you, and thereby many be defiled.” Stromata book 4 ch.20 p.432

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “always do I recognise the savour of Esau, the hunter of wild beasts: so unlimitedly studious are you of catching fieldfares, so do you come from ‘the field’ of your most lax discipline, so faint are you in spirit.On Fasting ch.17 p.113

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “But to Esau the blessing promised is an earthly one, which he supplements with a heavenly, after the fatness of the earth, saying, ‘Thy dwelling shall be also of the dew of heaven.’Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.25 p.343

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “Those of Edom are the sons of Esau, who inhabit Mount Seir.Interpretation of Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar ch.40 p.184

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) mentions Isaac, Jacob, and Esau. Origen’s Commentary on John book 10 ch.4 p.383

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “or, in addition, to that of Esau against Jacob;” Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.43 p.517

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Esau. Origen On Prayer ch.3.1 p.22. See also ibid ch.5.4 p.29.

Cyprian of Carthage (256 A.D.) “But how dangerous it is in divine matters, that any one should depart from his right and power, Holy Scripture declares when, in Genesis , Esau thence lost his birthright, nor was able afterwards to regain that which he had once given up.” Epistles of Cyprian Letter 72 ch.26 p.386

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) mentions how the younger Jacob was blessed instead of the older, Esau. Dialogue on the True Faith part 1 ch.20 p.63

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “Wherefore I dare to ask you to listen to me with ears free from all envy, without imitating the jealousy of Cain, or persecuting your brother, like Esau, or approving the brethren of Joseph, because they, hated their brother on account of his words; but differing far from all these, insomuch that each of you is used to speak the mind of his neighbour.Concerning Free Will p.356

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Esau in Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.21 p.17.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 3 ch.61 p.130 mentions Esau.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Isaac, Ishmael, Jacob, and Esau. homily 2 ch.16 p.231

 

Ie5. Jacob

 

Genesis 25:28; Genesis 27-33; Malachi 2:12; John 4:5,12; Acts 3:23; 7:8-46; Romans 9:13; 11:26; Hebrews 11:9,20-21

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Romans 9:13

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 4:5,12

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) Hebrews 11:9

p1 (225-275 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-9, 12, 14-20 (17 verses) Matthew 1:2

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Through envy, also, our father Jacob fled from the face of Esau his brother.” 1 Clement ch.4 p.6. See also ch.4 (ANF vol.9) p.230.

Ignatius of Antioch (c.100-117 A.D.) “He is the door of the Father, by which enter in Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the prophets, and the apostles, and the Church. All these have for their object the attaining to the unity of God.Letter of Ignatius to the Philadelphians ch.9 p.84

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.6 p.140 “Enter into the good land which the Lord sware [to give] to Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and inherit ye it, a land flowing with milk and honey.”

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.13 p.145 tells of various Old Testament saints, including Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Ephraim.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “words which narrate how He who is both Angel and God and Lord, and who appeared as a man to Abraham, and who wrestled in human form with Jacob, was seen by him when he fled from his brother Esau.Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.58 p.226

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) mentions Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Twelve Patriarchs, Adam, and Noah. On Pascha stanza 83 p.60

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) “from Abraham to Isaac and Jacob and the twelve patriarchs” On Pascha Stanza 85 p.60

Theophilus of Antioch (168-182/188 A.D.) “the righteous seed of godly and holy men-Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob.” Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.9 p.114

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “-He who formed the world (for the world is of all), -He who fashioned man,-He [who] is the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, above whom there is no other God, nor initial principle, nor power, nor pleroma,-He is the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, as we shall prove.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.22.1 p.347

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) mentions Isaac, from Sarah, as well as “of Isaac Jacob was born”. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.24

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Noah preached repentance; Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob gave many clear utterances respecting future and present things. Contemporaneous with the law, Moses and Aaron; and after these prophesied Jesus the son of Nave, Samuel, Gad, Nathan, Achias, Samaeas, Jehu, Elias, Michaeas, Abdiu, Elisaeus, Abbadonai, Amos, Esaias, Osee, Jonas, Joel, Jeremias, Sophonias the son of Buzi, Ezekiel, Urias, Ambacum, Naum, Daniel, Misael, who wrote the syllogisms, Aggai, Zacharias, and the angel [Malachi] among the twelve. These are, in all, five-and-thirty prophets. And of women (for these too prophesied), Sara, and Rebecca, and Mariam, and Debbora, and Olda, i.e., Huldah.” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.331

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “‘all nations have ‘to ascend to the mount of the Lord and to the house of the God of Jacob,’ who demands of His saints in martyrdom that death which He exacted even of His Christ.Treatise on the Soul ch.50 p.227

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “‘Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach us His way, and we will walk in it: for out of Sion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.’” Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.21 p.339

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “And that the case stands thus, we see also from the words of Jacob: ‘Let Dan be a serpent, lying upon the ground, biting the horse’s heel.’Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.14 p.207

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) mentions Jacob. Instructions of Commodianus ch.39 p.210

Julius Africanus (232-245 A.D.) mentions Jacob the father of Joseph. He also mentions Juda (Judah), Levi, David, Nathan, Solomon. Genealogy in the Holy Gospels (=Epistle to Aristides) ch.1 p.125

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “And the same remark applies to Isaac, and Jacob, and Israel; which names, although confessedly Hebrew, are frequently introduced by those Egyptians who profess to produce some wonderful result by means of their knowledge.” Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.22 p.405. See also Origen Against Celsus ch.4 p.575.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) mentions Isaac, Jacob, and Esau. Origen’s Commentary on John book 10 ch.4 p.383

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Isaac, Rebecca, and Jacob. Origen On Prayer ch.3.1 p.22

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “‘For,’ it says, ‘Jacob remained alone; and there wrestled with him a man even till daybreak.’” Concerning the Trinity ch.19 p.630

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Thus, at the very beginning of the world, the righteous Abel was the first to be slain by his brother; and Jacob was driven into exile, and Joseph was sold, and king Saul persecuted the merciful David; and king Ahab endeavoured to oppress Elias, who firmly and bravely asserted the majesty of God.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.11 p.503

Pierius (275 A.D.) “And, again, he indulges in some obscure speculations, after the manner of the nonsense of Origen, on the subject of the ‘pre-existence of souls.’ And also in the book on the Passover (Easter) and on Hosea, he treats both of the cherubim made by Moses, and of the pillar of Jacob, in which passages he [Pierius] admits the actual construction of those things, but propounds the foolish theory that they were given economically, and that they were in no respect like other things which are made; inasmuch as they bore the likeness of no other form, but had only, as he foolishly says, the appearance of wings.” Fragment p.157

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) mentions how the younger Jacob was blessed instead of the older, Esau. Dialogue on the True Faith ch.21 p.63

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) “‘Lo, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the root of David, hath prevailed.’] We read in Genesis that this lion of the tribe of Judah hath conquered, when the patriarch Jacob says, ‘Judah, thy brethren shall praise thee; thou hast lain down and slept, and hast risen up again as a lion, and as a lion’s whelp.’” Commentary on the Apocalypse from the fifth chapter verse 5 p.350

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) “Also the account of the famine and the buying of corn, and the mutual recognition of the sons of Jacob, and of the birth of Moses and the appearance of God to Moses, which took place at Mount Sinai.An Exposition of Acts section h p.166

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “He may make us to lie down in the bosom of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob.” Banquet of the Ten Virgins Discourse 5 ch.3 p.326

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions Jacob’s prophesy in Genesis 49:10 as referring to Christ Incarnation of the Word ch.40 p.57

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) “Was not Abel born of Adam … Isaac from Abraham, Jacob of Isaac?” Incarnation of the Word ch.35.7 p.55

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “But Moses also, in Numbers, thus speaks: ‘There shall arise a star out of Jacob, and a man shall spring forth from Israel.’” The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.13 p.112

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Jacob in Preparation for the Gospel book 6 ch.10 p.41 and book 9 ch.21 p.17,

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Seth, Noah, Shem, Japheth, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the Patriarch Job Demonstration of the Gospel book 2.2 p.2

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Jacob. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.0 p.82

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.13 p.83

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) &&& Chronicon ch.&&&

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) “For I pray that, being found worthy of God, I may be found at their feet in the kingdom, as at the feet of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob; as of Joseph, and Isaiah, and the rest of the prophets; as of Peter, and Paul, and the rest of the apostles, that were married men.Letter of Ignatius to the Philadelphians ch.4 p.81 (Latin)

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (70-135 A.D.) book 7 ch.7 p.26 mentions Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph.

 

Among heretics

A Naasene Sermon (188-235 A.D.) says Jacob went through a gate in Genesis 28:17, and this is why Jesus says, “I am the true gate”. TGB p.487

The Ebionite Protoevangelium of James (145-248 A.D.) ch.20 p.365 mentions Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.34-35 p.86 and book 1 ch.49 p.90 mentions Jacob.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Isaac, Ishmael, Jacob, and Esau. homily 2 ch.16 p.231.See also ibid homily 2 ch.52 p.238.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) says that Jacob wrestled with an angel. homily 20 ch.7 p.341

 

Ie6. Leah [wife of Jacob]

 

Genesis 29:16-32; 30:9-20; 33:1-7; 34:1; 35:23; 46:15,18; 49:31; Ruth 4:11

 

Justin Martyr (135-168 A.D.) “And I said, “Do you think that Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Noah, and Job, and all the rest before or after them equally righteous, also Sarah the wife of Abraham, Rebekah the wife of Isaac, Rachel the wife of Jacob, and Leah, and all the rest of them, until the mother of Moses the faithful servant, who observed none of these [statutes], will be saved? ‘ And Trypho answered, ‘Were not Abraham and his descendants circumcised?’” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.46 p.217-218

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) (implied) “And it was foretold what each should be according to rank and according to fore-knowledge. Jacob served Laban for speckled and many-spotted sheep; and Christ served, even to the slavery of the cross, for the various and many-formed races of mankind, acquiring them by the blood and mystery of the cross. Leah was weak-eyed; for the eyes of your souls are excessively weak. Rachel stole the gods of Laban, and has hid them to this day; and we have lost our paternal and material gods. Jacob was hated for all time by his brother; and we now, and our Lord Himself, are hated by you and by all men, though we are brothers by nature. Jacob was called Israel; and Israel has been demonstrated to be the Christ, who is, and is called, Jesus.” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.134 p.267

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) “Look upon Leah, that was a type of the synagogue, which Jacob received as a sign,” Instructions of Commodianus ch.39 p.210

Novatian (250-258 A.D.) “For when, to his wives Leah and Rachel, Jacob complained of the injustice of their father, and when he told them that he desired now to go and return into his own land, he moreover inter posed the authority of his dream; and at this time he says that the angel of God had said to him in a dream,” Concerning the Trinity ch.19 p.629

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Thus also Jacob received two wives: the elder Leah, with weak eyes, a type of the synagogue; the younger the beautiful Rachel, a type of the Church, who also remained long barren, and afterwards brought forth Joseph, who also was himself a type of Christ. … and Samuel being born, was a type of Christ.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first part ch.20 p.512-513

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Rachel and Leah  in Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.21 p.17.

 

Ie7. Rachel [wife of Jacob]

 

Genesis 29:6,9-31; 30:1-25; 31:4,14,19,32-34; 33:1,2,7; 35:16,19-25; 46:19,22,25; 48:7; Ruth 4:11; Matthew 2:18

1 Samuel 10:2 (Rachel’s sepulchre)

 

Justin Martyr (135-168 A.D.) “And I said, “Do you think that Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Noah, and Job, and all the rest before or after them equally righteous, also Sarah the wife of Abraham, Rebekah the wife of Isaac, Rachel the wife of Jacob, and Leah, and all the rest of them, until the mother of Moses the faithful servant, who observed none of these [statutes], will be saved? ‘ And Trypho answered, ‘Were not Abraham and his descendants circumcised?’” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.46 p.217-218

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “But he (Jacob) did all things for the sake of the younger, she who had the handsome eyes, Rachel, who prefigured the Church, for which Christ endured patiently; who at that time, indeed, by means of His patriarchs and prophets, was prefiguring and declaring beforehand future things, fulfilling His part by anticipation in the dispensations of God, and accustoming His inheritance to obey God, and to pass through the world as in a state of pilgrimage, to follow His word, and to indicate beforehand things to come. For with God there is nothing without purpose or due signification.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.21.3 p.493

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “She who emulates Sarah is not ashamed of that highest of ministries, helping wayfarers. For Abraham said to her, ‘Haste, and knead three measures of meal, and make cakes.’ ‘And Rachel, the daughter of Laban, came,’ it is said, ‘with her father’s sheep. Nor was this enough; but to teach humility it is added, ‘for she fed her father’s sheep.’” The Instructor book 3 ch.10 p.283

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “whereas things carnal, he says, are all corruptible, even though very many things (of this type) are produced. For this reason, he says, ‘Rachel wept for her children, and would not,’ says (the prophet), ‘be comforted; sorrowing for them, for she knew,’ says he, ‘that they are not.’ But Jeremiah likewise utters lamentation for Jerusalem below, not the city in Phoenicia, but the corruptible generation below.” Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.3 p.55

Origen (c.250 A.D.) mentions Rachel. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 15 homily 1 ch.1 p.39

Novatian (250-258 A.D.) “For when, to his wives Leah and Rachel, Jacob complained of the injustice of their father, and when he told them that he desired now to go and return into his own land, he moreover inter posed the authority of his dream; and at this time he says that the angel of God had said to him in a dream,” Concerning the Trinity ch.19 p.629

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Thus also to Abraham, when his former son was born of a bond-woman, Sarah remained long barren; and late in old age bare her son Isaac, of promise, who was the type of Christ. Thus also Jacob received two wives: the elder Leah, with weak eyes, a type of the synagogue; the younger the beautiful Rachel, a type of the Church, who also remained long barren, and afterwards brought forth Joseph, who also was himself a type of Christ. And in the first of Kings it is said that Elkanah had two wives: Peninnah, with her sons; and Hannah, barren, from whom is born Samuel, not according to the order of generation, but according to the mercy and promise of God,” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 book 1 ch.20 p.512-513

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Rachel and Leah in Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.21 p.17.

 

Among heretics

A Naasene Sermon (188-235 A.D.) mentions Jeremiah and Rachel weeping for her children. TGB p.490-491

 

Ie8. Reuben [patriarch]

 

Genesis 37:21-22; 49:3-4

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “And to Jacob: ‘And in thee and in thy seed shall all families of the earth be blessed.’ He says that neither to Esau nor to Reuben, nor to any other; only to those of whom the Christ should arise, according to the dispensation, through the Virgin Mary.Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.120 p.259

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “Reuben, my first-born, thou art my strength, and the first of my children; hard to bear with, and hard and self-willed: thou hast waxed wanton as water; boil not over.” Genesis 49:3 p.163

Origen (227-240 A.D.) “‘And I heard the number of them that were sealed, a hundred and forty-four thousand who were sealed, out of every tribe of the children of Israel; of the tribe of Juda [Judah] were sealed twelve thousand, of the tribe of Roubem [Reuben] twelve thousand.’ And he mentioned each of the tribes singly, with the exception of Dan.” Commentary on John book 1 ch.1 p.297

Origen (c.250 A.D.) mentions Reuben, Manasses, and Gad in Homilies on Psalms Psalm 15 homily 1 ch.6 p.46

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) “For why was not the nation called after the eldest of the twelve, I mean (c) Reuben, according to the divine law of primogeniture? Why not from Levi, who was greater than Judah in order of birth, and also in receiving the priesthood? Why not, even more, was the race and the country not called after Joseph, from his acquiring rule not only over the whole of Egypt, but over his own relations, and because his descendants, long years after, were to rule as many as nine tribes of the nation, on  hose account it was far more probable that the whole race and the country would have been named after their ancestor? And who would not agree (d) that they might reasonably have been called from Benjamin, since their famous mother-city and the all-holy Temple of  God was in the portion of his tribe?  But yet, in spite of all, the name of the Lord and of the whole nation was drawn from none of them but Judah, as the prophecy foretold.” Demonstration of the Gospel ch.1

 

Ie9. Simeon [patriarch]

 

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “When Jacob pronounced a blessing on Simeon and Levi, he prophesies of the scribes and Pharisees; for from them is derived their origin.An Answer to the Jews ch.10 p.&&&

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “Gen. XLIX. 5. Simeon and Levi, brethren. Since from Simeon sprang the scribes, and from Levi the priests.” Fragment 1 p.163

Julius Africanus (235-245 A.D.) mentions Jacob, Symeon [Simeon] and Levi. Chronology fragments p.132

Origen (239-242 A.D.) mentions Israel, Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 4 ch.4 p.71

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.318-325 A.D.) “10  And they shall look on me, whom they pierced, because they have mocked me, and shall make lamentation for him as for a beloved, and grief as for a firstborn son. 11. In that day the lamentation of Jerusalem shall be increased, as the mourning for Roon cut down in the plain. 12. And the land shall mourn according to families. The family of the house of David by itself, and its women by themselves; the family of the house of Nathan by itself, and its women by themselves; the family of the house of Levi by itself, and its women by themselves; the family of the house of Simeon by itself, and its women by themselves. 14. All the families that are left, each family by itself and their wives by themselves.'” Demonstration of the Gospel book 8 ch.4

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.318-325 A.D.) mentions Reuben, Symeon, Levi, Judah, Nephthalim [Napthali], Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zabulun [Zebulun], Dinah, Joseph, Benjamin, Rachel. Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.20 p.18.

 

Ie10. Levi (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 29:34; Hebrews 7:10

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “By these Christ was typified, and acknowledged, and brought into the world; for He was prefigured in Joseph: then from Levi and Judah…” fragment 17 p.571

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Demetrius, in his book, On the Kings in Judaea, says that the tribes of Juda, Benjamin, and Levi were not taken captive by Sennacherib; but that they were from this captivity to the last, which Nabuchodonosor made out of Jerusalem,” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.332

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “When Jacob pronounced a blessing on Simeon and Levi, he prophesies of the scribes and Pharisees; for from them is derived their origin.An Answer to the Jews ch.10 p.165

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “Like Simeon and Levi, they consummated their wickedness by their heresy, with which they persecuted Christ. ‘Into their counsel let not my soul enter; to their assembly let not my heart be united: for in their anger they slew men,’ that is, the prophets; ‘and in their self-will they hacked the sinews of a bullock,’ that is, of Christ.Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.18 p.336

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “But Isaac, when 60 years of age, begat Jacob. And Jacob, when 86 years old, begat Levi; and Levi, at 40 years of age, begat;Refutation of All Heresies book 10 ch.26 p.149

Julius Africanus (235-245 A.D.) “For the priestly tribe of Levi, too, was allied with the kingly tribe of Juda, through the circumstance that Aaron married Elizabeth the sister of Naasson,On the Genealogy in the Gospels (Letter to Aristides) p.125

Origen (239-242 A.D.) mentions Levi in discussing Hebrews 7:10. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 1 ch.3.2 p.29

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) Also in Malachi: ‘My covenant of life and peace was with Levi; and I gave him fear, that he should fear me, that he should go from the face of my name. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 2 ch.5 p.517

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Levi in Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.21 p.17.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Hippolytus (after 236 A.D.) “Moses the son of Amram, the son of Kohath, of the sons of Levi.Doubtful fragments on the Pentateuch p.194

 

Ie11. Judah (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 29:35; Mathew 1:2

 

p1 (225-275 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-9, 12, 14-20 (17 verses) Matthew 1:2

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “From him [arose] kings, princes, and rulers of the race of Judah.1 Clement ch.32 p.13

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “In talking about the circumcision, the Sabbath, sacrifices and offerings and feasts, “…that they should have an end in Him who was born of a virgin, of the family of Abraham and the tribe of Judah, and of David, in Christ the Son of God.” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.43 p.216

Hegesippus (170-180 A.D.) “the children of Israel, held by those who were opposed to the tribe of Judah and” Concerning His Journey to Rome p.765

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “by [the history of] Thamar, Judahs daughter-in-law.Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.25.2 p.496

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “By these Christ was typified, and acknowledged, and brought into the world; for He was prefigured in Joseph: then from Levi and Judah…” fragment 17 p.571

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “of Juda, Benjamin, and Levi were not taken captive by Sennacherib;” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.332

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Now it behooved Him to be born in Bethlehem of Judah. For thus it is written in the prophet: ‘And thou, Bethlehem, are not the least in the leaders of Judah: for out of thee shall issue a Leader who shall feed my People Israel.’ But if hitherto he has not been born, what ‘leader’ was it who was thus announced as to proceed from the tribe of Judah, out of Bethlehem? For it behooves him to proceed from the tribe of Judah and from Bethlehem.” An Answer to the Jews ch.13 p.169

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “From the circumstance, then, (of this migration) is traceable the beginning of an increase (of population) in Judea, which obtained its name from Judah, fourth son of Jacob, whose name was also called Israel, from the fact that a race of kings would be descended from him. Abraham removes from Mesopotamia (when 75 years , and) when 100 years old he begat Isaac. But Isaac, when 60 years of age, begat Jacob. And Jacob, when 86 years old, begat Levi; and Levi,Refutation of All Heresies book 10 ch.26 p.148-149

Julius Africanus (235-245 A.D.) mentions Juda (Judah) Genealogy in the Holy Gospels (=Epistle to Aristides) ch.1 p.125

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “And if we should ask for a second prophecy, which may appear to us to have a clear reference to Jesus, we would quote that which was written by Moses very many years before the advent of Christ, when he makes Jacob, on his departure from this life, to have uttered predictions regarding each of his sons, and to have said of Judah along with the others: ‘The ruler will not fail from Judah, and the governor from his loins, until that which is reserved for him come.’” Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.53 p.419

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “He [Jesus Christ] is spoken of when it shows how a man wrestled with Jacob; He too, when it says: ‘There shall not fail a prince from Judah, nor a leader from between his thighs, until He shall come to whom it has been promised; and He shall be the expectation of the nations.’Concerning the Trinity ch.9 p.618

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.8 p.671 “For that our Lord was born, and that He was the Christ, appeared by many reasons to be believed, not unjustly, by His disciples, because He had been born of the tribe of Judah, of the family of David, and in the city of Bethlehem;”

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “and that He Himself is the Lion of the tribe of Judah, and should couch sleepingEpistles of Cyprian letter 62 ch.6 p.360

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) “‘Lo, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the root of David, hath prevailed.’] We read in Genesis that this lion of the tribe of Judah hath conquered, when the patriarch Jacob says, ‘Judah, thy brethren shall praise thee; thou hast lain down and slept, and hast risen up again as a lion, and as a lion’s whelp.’” Commentary on the Apocalypse from the fifth chapter verse 5 p.350

Methodius (c.270-312 A.D.) “O seed of the shameless Canaan, and not of Judah the devout!” Oration on Psalms ch.3 p.395

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “to the house of Israel and the house of Judah, not according to the testament” The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.20 p.123

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Judah in Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.21 p.17.

 

Ie12. Tamar / Thamar

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “by [the history of] Thamar, Judahs daughter-in-law.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.25.2 p.513

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “You may have also another image of what has been said, in Thamar sitting by the way” Stromata book 1 ch.5 p.306

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) It was the fact that Thamar ‘had painted out and adorned herself’ that led Judah to regard her as a harlot, On the Apparel of Women book 2 ch.12 p.24

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) mentions Tamar. Instructions of Commodianus ch.39 p.210

Origen (233-244 A.D.) mentions Tamar. Homilies on Luke homily 28 ch.2 p.115

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Also in Genesis : ‘Thamar covered herself with a cloak, and adorned herself;” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 book ch.36 p.544

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Pseudo-Clement Two Epistles on Virginity (3rd century A.D.) (partial) Letter 2 ch11 p.64 tells how David committed adultery with Bathsheba, and had her [unnamed] husband killed.

 

Ie13. Dan (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 30:6; 35:25; 46:23; 49:16-17; Exodus 1:4; 31:6; 35:34; Ezekiel 48:1-2,32

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “his swift horses from Dan; the whole earth shall be moved by the voice of theIrenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.30.2 p.559

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “they were led by Samson, of the tribe of Dan, who conquered the foreigners in battle. He ruled twenty years.Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.326

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “For if Solomon ‘reigned,’ why, it was within the confines of Judea merely: ‘from Beersheba unto Dan’ the boundaries of his kingdom are marked.An Answer to the Jews ch.7 p.158

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “And that the case stands thus, we see also from the words of Jacob: ‘Let Dan be a serpent, lying upon the ground, biting the horse’s heel.’Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.14 p.207

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “But some one may say that this refers to Samson, who sprang from the tribe of Dan, and judged the people twenty years.Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.15 p.207

Origen (227-240 A.D.) “There are some also who say that Samson was predicted by Jacob, when he said, ‘Dan shall judge his own people, he is as one tribe in Israel,’ for Samson who judged Israel was of the tribe of Dan.Commentary on John book 6 ch.12 p.361

Origen (227-240 A.D.) “‘And I heard the number of them that were sealed, a hundred and forty-four thousand who were sealed, out of every tribe of the children of Israel; of the tribe of Juda [Judah] were sealed twelve thousand, of the tribe of Roubem [Reuben] twelve thousand.’ And he mentioned each of the tribes singly, with the exception of Dan.” Origin’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.1 p.297

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) “But of the fathers also who should judge, says the patriarch Jacob, ‘Dan also himself shall judge his people among his brethren, even as one of the tribes in Israel.’Commentary on the Apocalypse from the fourth chapter verse 8 p.349

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Daniel in Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.21 p.17.

 

Ie14. Naphtali (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 30:8

 

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “At her instance Barak the son of Bener [Ahinoam], of the tribe of Naphtali, commanding the army, having joined battle with Sisera,Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.326

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235.236 A.D.) And he (Naphtali) is adopted as a figure of things pertaining to us, as the Gospel shows: ‘The land of Zabulun, and the land of Nephthalim, by the way of the sea, beyond Jordan,’ etc.; and, ‘To them that sat in darkness light has arisen.’Commentary on Genesis ch.49 p.167

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) of Zebulun and Naphtali, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Isaiah the prophet, saying, The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali; ‘and afterCommentary on John book 10 ch.1 p.381

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) In the same again: ‘The land of Zebulon, and the land of Nephtalim, by the way of the sea, and ye others who inhabit the maritime places, and beyond Jordan of the nations. People that walk in darkness, behold yea great light; ye who dwell in the region of the shadow of death, the light shall shine upon you.’ Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first part ch.21 p.514

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.318-325 A.D.) mentions Reuben, Symeon, Levi, Judah, Nephthalim [Naphtali], Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zabulun [Zebulun], Dinah, Joseph, Benjamin, Rachel. Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.21 p.18.

 

Ie15. Gad (patriarch or tribe)

 

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Noah preached repentance; Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob gave many clear utterances respecting future and present things. Contemporaneous with the law, Moses and Aaron; and after these prophesied Jesus the son of Nave, Samuel, Gad, Nathan, Achias, Samaeas, Jehu, Elias, Michaeas, Abdiu, Elisaeus, Abbadonai, Amos, Esaias, Osee, Jonas, Joel, Jeremias, Sophonias the son of Buzi, Ezekiel, Urias, Ambacum, Naum, Daniel, Misael, who wrote the syllogisms, Aggai, Zacharias, and the angel [Malachi] among the twelve. These are, in all, five-and-thirty prophets. And of women (for these too prophesied), Sara, and Rebecca, and Mariam, and Debbora, and Olda, i.e., Huldah.” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.331

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) mentions Gad. Commentary on Genesis Gen. 49:16-20 p.165

Origen (c.250 A.D.) mentions Reuben, Manasses, and Gad in Homilies on Psalms Psalm 15 homily 1 ch.6 p.46

Athanasius (c.318A.D.) mentions Gad. The Incarnation 40 p.57

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.318-325 A.D.) mentions Reuben, Symeon, Levi, Judah, Nephthalim [Napthali], Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zabulun [Zebulun], Dinah, Joseph, Benjamin, Rachel. Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.20 p.18.

 

Ie16. Zebulun/Zebulon/Zabulun (patriarch, tribe, or land)

 

Genesis 30:20

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “By these Christ was typified, and acknowledged, and brought into the world; for He was prefigured in Joseph: then from Levi and Judah He was descended according to the flesh, as King and Priest; and He was acknowledged by Simeon in the temple: through Zebulon He was believed in among the Gentiles, as says the prophet, ‘the land of Zabulon;’ and through Benjamin [that is, Paul] He was glorified, by being preached throughout all the world.” fragment 17 p.571

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “After whom, Abatthan of Bethlehem, of the tribe of Juda, ruled seven years. Then Ebron the Zebulonite, eight years.Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.326

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235.236 A.D.) mentions Zabulun [Zebulon]. Commentary on Genesis Gen 49:15 p.165.

Origen (c.227-c.240 A.D.) “But when He heard that John was delivered up, He departed into Galilee, and leaving Nazareth He came and dwelt at Capernaum on the seashore in the borders of Zebulun and Naphtali, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Isaiah the prophet, saying, The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali; ‘and after the quotation from Isaiah:Commentary on John book 10 ch.1 p.381

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “In the same again: ‘The land of Zebulon, and the land of Nephtalim, by the way of the sea, and ye others who inhabit the maritime places, and beyond Jordan of the nations. People that walk in darkness, behold yea great light; ye who dwell in the region of the shadow of death, the light shall shine upon you.’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 1 ch.21 p.514

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Zebulun in Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.21 p.18. Also ibid ch.20.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Hippolytus (after 235 A.D.) “And Ephran delivered it to Elul of the tribe Zebulon.Doubtful fragments on the Pentateuch p.195

 

Ie17. Joseph [son of Jacob]


Genesis 30:24; 37-47

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 11:21-22

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Envy made Joseph be persecuted unto death, and to come into bondage.1 Clement ch.4 p.6

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) mentions by name Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph but does not say anything about Joseph’s brothers. Letter of Ignatius to the Philadelphians ch.5 p.82

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.13 p.145 tells of various Old Testament saints, including Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Ephraim.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) mentions Joseph and his brothers. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.91 p.245

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) “For this is He [the word] who was pilot to Noah; He who was guide to Abraham; He who was bound with Isaac; He who was in exile with Jacob; He who was sold with Joseph; He who was captain of the host with Moses; He who was the divider of the inheritance with Jesus the son of Nun;” Extracts from the Law and the Prophets p.757

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) mentions in Egypt “Joseph the Just” On Pascha stanza 87 p.61

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “By these Christ was typified, and acknowledged, and brought into the world; for He was prefigured in Joseph: then from Levi and Judah…” fragment 17 p.571

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) (implied) And Jacob begat twelve sons, from whom the twelve tribes of Israel are named.. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.24

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) discusses Joseph and the envy of his brothers. Stromata book 5 ch.8 p.457

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Joseph, again, himself was made a figure of Christ in this point alone (to name no more, not to delay my own course), that he suffered persecution at the hands of his brethren, and was sold into Egypt, on account of the favour of God;” Answer to the Jews ch.10 p.165

Tertullian (213 A.D.) mentions Joseph. On Monogamy ch.6 p.63

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) mentions Joseph. To the Nations 2.8 p.136-137

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) says that Isaac and Joseph are types of the death of Christ. Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.18 p.336-337

Hippolytus of Portus Fragment 1 mentions Joseph being the head of his brothers. Fragment on Genesis 49:21-26 p.166.

Julius Africanus (232-245 A.D.) “And for this reason the one traced the pedigree of Jacob the father of Joseph from David through Solomon;” Epistle to Aristides p.125

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions Joseph, after being sold as a slave, was put in prison and interpreted the dreams of the baker and chief butler. Later he showed himself to his brothers. Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.47 p.519

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Joseph. Origen On Prayer ch.27.18 p.126

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “For when this very Jacob was about to bless Manasseh and Ephraim, the sons of Joseph,” Treatise on the Trinity ch.19 p.631

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) discusses Joseph being sold by his brothers in Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 9 ch.10 p.487. See also letter 54.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Thus, at the very beginning of the world, the righteous Abel was the first to be slain by his brother; and Jacob was driven into exile, and Joseph was sold, and king Saul persecuted the merciful David; and king Ahab endeavoured to oppress Elias, who firmly and bravely asserted the majesty of God.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.11 p.503

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) “After he had been deprived of his cloak by his brothers, Joseph not only parted with his tunic (in harmony with what is written it the Gospel), but also provided corn, and, in time of famine, food and a very large sum of money.” Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.e18 p.61.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “Thy valiant son Joseph, O Word, won the greatest prize of virginity, when a woman heated with desire forcibly drew him to an unlawful bed; but he giving no heed to her fled stripped, and crying aloud:” Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 11 ch.12 p.352

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Abraham, Isaac, and Joseph Demonstration of the Gospel book 1.6 p.8

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Joseph in Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.19 p.15.

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Joseph. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.6 p.90; book 1 ch.7 p.94; book 1 ch.10 p.97

 

Among heretics

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (70-135 A.D.) book 7 ch.7 p.26 mentions Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Joseph. homily 17 ch.17 p.323

 

Ie18. Benjamin

 

Genesis 35:18,24; 42:4,36; 43:14-16,29; 45:12,14,22; 46:19,21; 49:27; Exodus 1:3,36-39; 2:2; 7:60; 10:24; 13:9; 26:31,41; 34:21; Numbers 1:11; Deuteronomy 27:12; 33:12; Joshua 13:11,20-21,28; 21:4,17; Judges 1:21; 5:14; 10:9; 19:14; 20; 21:1-23; 1 Samuel 4:12; 9:1; Esther 2:5; Acts 13:21; Romans 11:1; Philippians 3:5; Revelation 7:8

 

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “of Juda, Benjamin, and Levi were not taken captive by Sennacherib;” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.332

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “But how Paul, an apostle, from being a persecutor, who first of all shed the blood of the church, though afterwards he exchanged the sword for the pen, and turned the dagger into a plough, being first a ravening wolf of Benjamin, then himself supplying food as did Jacob, -how he, (I say, ) speaks in favour of martyrdoms, now to be chosen by himself also,Scorpiace ch.13 p.646

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “He foresaw that Paul would arise out of the tribe of Benjamin, a voracious wolf, devouring his prey in the morning: in order words, in the early period of his life he would devastate the Lord’s sheep, as a persecutor of the churches; but in the evening he would give them nourishment, which means that in his declining years he would educate the fold of Christ, as the teacher of the Gentiles.Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.1 p.430

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “This [Genesis 49:27] thoroughly suits Paul, who was of the tribe of Benjamin. For when he was young, he was a ravening wolf; but when he believed, he ‘apportioned’ food. This also is shown us by the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that the tribe of Benjamin is among the first persecutors, which is the sense of ‘in the morning.’ For Saul, who was of the tribe of Benjamin, persecuted David, who was appointed to be a type of the Lord.Fragments from Commentaries Gen. 49:27 p.168

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “And seeking to ascertain what might be the inference from the heavenly Jerusalem belonging to the lot of Benjamin and the valley of Ennom [Hinnom],Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.25 p.584

Origen (239-242 A.D.) mentions Benjamin. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 4 ch.3.2 p.71

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “the books of Kings; where ten tribes were divided from the tribe of Judah and Benjamin, and, forsaking their king, appointed for themselves another one without.Epistles of Cyprian Letter 75 ch.6 p.399

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Benjamin in Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.21 p.18.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (70-135 A.D.) Benjamin ch.12 said Benjamin prophesied that the Messiah would rise from the grave and ascend from earth into heaven.

 

Among heretics

Naaseni (222-235/236 A.D.) “This, he [the Naaseni author] says, has been discovered hid in the beauteous seeds of Benjamin.” In Hippolytus’ Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.3 p.52

 

Ie19. Manasseh (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 48:20

 

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.13 p.145 “And he brought Manasseh and Ephraim, desiring that Manasseh should be blessed, because he was the elder. With this view Joseph led him to the right hand of his father Jacob. But Jacob saw in spirit the type of the people to arise afterwards. And what says [the Scripture]? And Jacob changed the direction of his bands, and laid his right hand upon the head of Ephraim, the second and younger, and blessed him. And Joseph said to Jacob, ‘Transfer thy right hand to the head of Manasseh, for he is my first-born son.’

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “After these events, Gideon, of the tribe of Manasseh, the son of Joas, having fought with his three hundred men, and killed a hundred and twenty thousand, ruled forty years; after whom the son of Ahimelech, three years.Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.326

Origen (c.250 A.D.) mentions Manasses, Reuben, and Gad. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 15 homily 1 ch.4 p.45

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “For when this very Jacob was about to bless Manasseh and Ephraim, the sons of Joseph,” Treatise on the Trinity ch.19 p.631

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “On this matter too in Genesis: ‘But when Joseph saw that his father placed his right hand on the head of Ephraim, it seemed displeasing to him: and Joseph laid hold of his father’s hand, to lift it from the head of Ephraim on to the head of Manasseh.Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first book ch.21 p.513

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Ephraim and Manasseh in Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.21 p.18.

 

Ie20. Ephraim (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 48:20

 

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.13 p.145 tells of various Old Testament saints, including Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Ephraim.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “But God shall bring on thee, and on thy people, and on the house of thy father, days which have not yet come upon thee since the day in which Ephraim took away from Judah the king of Assyria.’Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.43 p.216

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “After him Deborah the wife of Lapidoth, of the tribe of Ephraim, prophesied; and Ozias the son of Rhiesu was high priest.Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.326

Origen (c.227-c.240 A.D.) “‘And He shall destroy chariots from Ephraim and horse from Jerusalem, and the bow of the warrior shall be destroyed, and a multitude and peace from the Gentiles, and He shall rule over the waters as far as the sea, and the rivers to the ends of the earth,’” Commentary on John book 10 ch.17 p.395-396

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “For when this very Jacob was about to bless Manasseh and Ephraim, the sons of Joseph,” Treatise on the Trinity ch.19 p. 631

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “On this matter too in Genesis: ‘But when Joseph saw that his father placed his right hand on the head of Ephraim, it seemed displeasing to him: and Joseph laid hold of his father’s hand, to lift it from the head of Ephraim on to the head of Manasseh.’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first book ch.21 p.513

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Ephraim and Manasseh in Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.21 p.18.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Hippolytus (after 235 A.D.) (partial, Mount Ephraim, not Ephraim) “And Joshua the son of Nun lived 110 to years, and died on the fourth day, which was the first day of the month Elul. And they buried him in the city Thamnatserach, on Mount Ephraim.Commentary on Deuteronomy 33:2 p.199

 

Ie21. Patriarch[s]

 

Romans 9:5

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “But the Gentiles, who have believed on Him, and have repented of the sins which they have committed, they shall receive the inheritance along with the patriarchs and the prophets, and the just men who are descended from Jacob, even although they neither keep the Sabbath, nor are circumcised, nor observe the feasts. Assuredly they shall receive the holy inheritance of God.Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.27 p.207

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) mentions Abraham our patriarch Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.24 p.118. He also mentions the patriarch David in Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.28 p.120

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “It was for this reason, too, that the Lord descended into the regions beneath the earth, preaching His advent there also and [declaring] the remission of sins received by those who believe in Him. Now all those believed in Him who had hope towards Him, that is, those who proclaimed His advent, and submitted to his dispensations, the righteous men, the prophets, and the patriarchs,… For ‘all men come short of the glory of the God,’ and are not justified of themselves, but by the advent of the Lord,” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.27.1 p.499. See also ibid book 3 ch.12.10 p.434

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) “from Abraham to Isaac and Jacob and the twelve patriarchs” On Pascha stanza 85 p.60. See also ibid stanza 57 p.52.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) mentions Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Twelve Patriarchs, Adam, and Noah. On Pascha stanza 83 p.60

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Thou hast lived for the defense of the people, thy children were blessed in the tents of their fathers.’ And if the same mansions are promised by prophecy to us and to the patriarchs, the God of both covenants is shown to be one.” Stromata book 2 ch.6 p.354.

Tertullian (c.203 A.D.) mentions that Christ went to Hades “that He might there make the patriarchs and prophets partakers of Himself.” (It does not say whether or not Jesus preached to them though.) A Treatise on the Soul ch.55 p.231.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “Now we believe that Christ did ever act in the name of God the Father; that He actually from the beginning held intercourse with (men); actually communed with patriarchs and prophets; was the Son of the Creator; was His Word; whom God made His Son by emitting Him from His own self, and thenceforth set Him over every dispensation and (administration of) His will, making Him a little lower than the angels, as is written in David.Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.27 p.318

Theodotus the probable Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) “as the patriarchs and Moses, and the prophets; then also the apostles.” Excerpts of Theodotus ch.52 p.49

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “The web-beam, therefore, is the passion of the Lord upon the cross, and the warp on it is the power of the Holy Spirit, and the woof is the holy flesh (woven) by the Spirit, and the thread is the grace by which the love of Christ binds and unites the two in one, and the combs or (rods) are the Word; and the workers are the patriarchs and prophets who weave the fair, long, perfect tunic for Christ; and the Word passing through these, like the combs or (rods), completes through them that which His Father willeth.” Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.4 p.205

Julius Africanus (235-245 A.D.) mentions the patriarchs and Joseph. Epistle to Aristides ch.1 p.125

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “Now the question here before us, is why the light of men should not be the light of other creatures also, and we have seen that to speak of the light of men by no means excludes the possibility that the light may be that of other beings besides man, whether inferior to him or like him, Now a name is given to God; He is said to be the God of Abraham and of Isaac and of Jacob. He, then, who infers from the saying, ‘The life was the light of men,’ that the light is for no other than for men, ought also to conclude that the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob is the God of no one else but these three patriarchs.” Origen’s Commentary on John 2 ch.16 p.335-336. See also homily on 1 Kings 28 ch.10 p.333.

Origen (235-245 A.D.) mentions the Patriarchs. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 4 ch.2.4 p.35

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “What will be the glory and how great the joy to be admitted to see God, to be honoured to receive with Christ, thy Lord God, the joy of eternal salvation and light-to greet Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the patriarchs, and prophets, and apostles, and martyrs-to rejoice with the righteous and the friends of God in the kingdom of heaven, with the pleasure of immortality given to us-to receive there what neither eye hath seen, nor ear heard, neither hath entered into the heart of man!Epistles of Cyprian letter 55 ch.10 p.350

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) “Moreover, also, they are the twenty-four fathers-twelve apostles and twelve patriarchs.Commentary on the Apocalypse from the fourth chapter verse 7-10 p.348

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “To-day, also, the patriarch Jacob keeps feast in spirit, seeing his prophecy” Oration on Psalms ch.2 p.394

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) “the covenant of God with Abraham, and concerning the twelve patriarchs. Also the account of the famine and the buying of corn, and the mutual recognition of the sons of Jacob,” An Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the Apostles Section H (Stephen’s speech) p.166

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions the patriarchs. Incarnation of the Word ch.35.7 p.55; ibid ch.37.4 p.56.

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) “of the patriarchs and apostles, and all the saints. And in one Lord Jesus” Epistles on the Arian Heresy letter 1 ch.12 p.295

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions the patriarchs. Demonstration of the Gospel book 1.5 p.7

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) (Partial, only 1, not Jewish) mentions Seth, Noah, Shem, Japheth, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the Patriarch Job Demonstration of the Gospel book 2.2 p.2

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (70-135 A.D.) Benjamin ch.12 said Benjamin prophesied that the Messiah would rise from the grave and ascend from earth into heaven.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 2 ch.47 p.110 and book 5 ch.10 p.145 mention the patriarchs.

 

Ie22. The twelve tribes [of Israel]

 

The Shepherd of Hermas mentions twelve tribes, but it refers to nations, not Israel

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Esther also, being perfect in faith, exposed herself to no less danger, in order to deliver the twelve tribes of Israel from impending destruction.1 Clement ch.55 vol.1 p.20. See also vol.9

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.8 p.142 “To these He gave authority to preach the Gospel, being twelve in number, corresponding to the twelve tribes of Israel.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “shall also come again, and then your twelve tribes shall mourn. For if you had” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.126 p.263

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 29 no.7-8 p.89 “when the Son of man shall sit on the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit on twelve thrones, and shall judge the twelve tribes of Israel.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) “And Jacob begat twelve sons, from whom the twelve tribes of Israel were named.Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.24

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) (implied) “For He [the Naasene Gnostic] says He chose twelve disciples from the twelve tribes, and spoke by them to each tribe. On this account, He says, the preachings of the twelve disciples neither did all hear, nor, if they heard, could they receive.Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.3 p.53

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “That people which was called of old the people of God was divided into twelve tribes, and over and above the other tribes it had the Levitical order, which itself again carried on the service of God in various priestly and Levitical suborders.Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.1 p.297

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “As the twelve tribes of Israel were divided, the prophet Abijah rent his garment.Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 1 ch.7 p.423

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) refers to the Son of Man in two places. (implied) “‘We have forsaken all that we had, and followed Thee: what shall we have?’ our Lord replied, ‘When the Son of man shall sit upon the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’” Commentary on the Apocalypse From the 4th chapter no.8 p.349

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) “The whole Hebrew race consisted of twelve tribes, one of which has Judah for its ancestor and head,”. And then he goes to say that the Messiah would come from Judah.. Demonstration of the Gospel book 7 ch.3 p.15

 

Among heretics

[Gnostic] heretics according to Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “For they [heretics] declare that the twelve sons of Jacob, from whom also sprung twelve tribes,-the breastplate of the high priest, which bore twelve precious stones and twelve little bells, -the twelve stones which were placed by Moses at the foot of the mountain, -the same number which was placed by Joshua in the river, and again, on the other side, the bearers of the ark of the covenant, -those stones which were set up by Elijah when the heifer was offered as a burnt-offering; the number, too, of the apostles; and, in fine, every event which embraces in it the number twelve,-set forth their Duodecad.Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.18.4 p.344

Naasene Gnostics according to Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) “For He [the Naasene Gnostic] says He chose twelve disciples from the twelve tribes, and spoke by them to each tribe. On this account, He says, the preachings of the twelve disciples neither did all hear, nor, if they heard, could they receive.Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.3 p.53

 

Ie23. Job and his sufferings/patience

 

Job

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “and again, Job says, ‘Thou shalt raise up this flesh of mine, which has suffered all these things.’” 1 Clement ch.26 p.12

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “How did God smile, how was the evil one cut asunder, while Job with mighty equanimity kept scraping off the unclean overflow of his own ulcer, while he sportively replaced the vermin that brake out thence, in the same caves and feeding-places of his pitted flesh!On Patience ch.14 p.716

Origen (c.250 A.D.) (implied) mentions Job and name and Satan testing him. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 36 homily 3 ch.6 p.111

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Thus Job, after the loss of his wealth, after the death of his children, grievously afflicted, moreover, with sores and worms, was not overcome, but proved; since in his very struggles and anguish, showing forth the patience of a religious mind,Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 7 ch.10 p.471

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “and Job, in the tempest of his afflictions, had not made shipwreck of his faith, but his constancy shone forth the rather;” Fragment 2 p.401

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions the sufferings of Job in Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.25 p.26

 

 

Exodus to Solomon Individuals

 

Es1. Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt

 

Exodus 12-14; Hebrews 3:16

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 11:27-28

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. Mentions the Israelites delivered out of Egypt, no mention of Moses though. Jude 5

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) tells of Pharaoh’s army and the princes of Egypt sunk in the depths of the red sea after so many signs and wonders by Moses. 1 Clement ch.51 vol.1 p.19 (See also vol.9 p.244)

Epistle of Barnabas ch.10 p.143 (c.70-130 A.D.) (partial) mentions Moses and Deuteronomy.

Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.24 p.118 (partial) says that the Israelites left Egypt. Then it mentions that Moses died.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (speaking of Gnostics, but not disagreeing with this) “Afterwards, by means of Moses, he brought forth Abraham’s descendants from Egypt, and gave them the law, and made them the Jews.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.30.10 p.356-357

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) tells how God brought the Israelites out of Egypt by the hand of Moses, and mentions Aaron, the ten plagues, and slaying the first-born. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.24

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) Moses led the people out. Stromata book 1 ch.23 p.335-336

Tertullian (298-220 A.D.) For thus, after the above-mentioned patriarchs, was the Law given to Moses, at that (well-known) time after their exodus from Egypt, after the interval and spaces of four hundred years. In fact, it was after Abraham’s ‘four hundred and thirty years’ that the Law was given. Whence we understand that God’s law was anterior even to Moses?” An Answer to the Jews ch.2 p.153

Tertullian (298-220 A.D.) (partial) “For Joshua was to introduce the people into the land of promise, not Moses.” An Answer to the Jews ch.9 p.163

Tertullian (213 A.D.) (partial) mentions Moses. On Monogamy ch.6 p.63

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) (partial) mentions Moses in many places, and mentions coming out of Egypt in a few places including Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.11 p.453-454

Theodotus the probable Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) (mentions Moses) “as the patriarchs and Moses, and the prophets; then also the apostles.” Excerpts of Theodotus ch.52 p.49

Julius Africanus (235-245 A.D.) dates the Exodus and the time Moses left Egypt. Five Books of the Chronology of Julius Africanus ch.13.5 p.133.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) Moses came out of Egypt with the Jewish people. Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.67 p.527

Origen (233/234 A.D.) (partial) mentions Moses and Aaron. Origen On Prayer ch.3.2 p.22

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) (partial) ch.12 p.660 speaks of Pharaoh, after being stricken with the plagues from heaven, asking Moses and Moses’ brother to pray for him. (Does not mention Moses leaving Egypt though.)

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) (partial) says how Moses led an ungrateful people. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 9 ch.10 p.487

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) mentions the plague on Pharaoh but protected by the blood. Commentary on Luke ch.8.2 p.109

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (partial) mentions Moses in may places, but not specifically leading the Israelites out of Egypt. “The law was given through Moses” Dialogue on the True Faith fifth part ch.11 p.160

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) (implied) mentions Moses, Mount Sinai, and the exodus. An Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the Apostles H. vol.6 p.166

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) (partial) God conversed with Moses. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.4.8 p.87

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Epistle of Peter to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) ch.3 p.215 (partial) mentions Moses.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.34-35 p.86-87 said that God sent ten plagues and Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) (partial) mentions Moses. homily 2 ch.16 p.231

 

Es2. Miriam [sister of Moses]

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “On account of envy, Aaron and Miriam had to make their abode without the camp.” 1 Clement ch.4 ANF vol.1 p.6. See also ibid ch.43 p.16. See also ch.4 (ANF vol.9) p.230.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “For Miriam’s punishment affected him to such an extent, that no sooner did she experience it, than he entreated [Moses], who had been injured, that he would be his intercession do away with the affliction.” fragment 32 p.573

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) While Miriam, my sister, watched afar. Then, with her maids, the daughter of the king, To bathe her beauty in the cleansing stream, Came near, straight saw, and took and raised me up; And knew me for a Hebrew. Miriam my sister to the princess ran, and said, ‘Is it thy pleasure, that I haste and find A nurse for thee to rear this child Among the Hebrew women?’” Stromata book 1 ch.7 p.308

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) “in the way that He says to Aaron and Miriam, ‘And if there shall be a prophet amongst you, I will make myself known to him in a vision, and will speak to him in a dream; not as with Moses, with whom I shall speak mouth to mouth,Against Praxeas ch.14 p.609

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) speaks of Aaron and his sister Miriam angering Moses. Dialogue on the True Faith First part ch.13 p.56

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Miriam. homily 17 ch.18 p.323

 

Es3. Aaron [brother of Moses]

 

Exodus 4:14,27,28-30; 5:1,4,20; 6:13,20,23,26-27; 7:1-2,6-10,19-20; 8:5-6,8,12,16-17,25; 9:8,27, etc.

Luke 1:5; Acts 7:40; Hebrews 5:4; 7:11

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “On account of envy, Aaron and Miriam had to make their abode without the camp. Envy brought down Dathan and Abiram alive to Hades, through the sedition which they excited against God’s servant Moses.” 1 Clement ch.4 ANF vol.1 p.6. See also ibid ch.43 p.16. See also ch.4 (ANF vol.9) p.230.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “Moses and Aaron among His priests, and Samuel among those who call upon His name.Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.37 p.213

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) says that Moses and Aaron’s rod were types of Christ. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.21.8 p.453. In ibid book 4 ch.25.2 p.496 he also mentions that the scarlet thread when Tamar was giving birth was a type of salvation.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) tells how God brought the Israelites out of Egypt by the hand of Moses, and mentions Aaron, the ten plagues, and slaying the first-born. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.24

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “An instance of the same is the making of the calf by the people before Aaron.” Stromata book 2 ch.15 p.363

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “which had dedicated Samuel, and consecrated Aaron, to God. For of” On Fasting ch.9 p.108

Tertullian (205 A.D.) “Aaron is importuned, and commands that the earrings of their women be brought” Scorpiace ch.3 p.636

Tertullian (213 A.D.) mentions Aaron. On Monogamy ch.6 p.63

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “They first refused it when they said to Aaron, ‘Make us gods, which shall go before us;’” Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.31 p.401

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “Froth his other actions, then, the proof is already given us that he spoke not with a pure spirit; for he who blasphemes against the Holy Ghost is cast out from the holy inheritance. He alleged that he was himself Moses, and that Aaron was his brother.Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.1 p.223

Julius Africanus (232-245 A.D.) mentions Aaron and Eleazar. Genealogy in the Holy Gospels (=Epistle to Aristides) ch.1 p.125

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “Behold I have given thee for a God to Pharaoh, and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet.” Origen’s Commentary on John book 6 ch.10 p.359

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Moses and Aaron. Origen On Prayer ch.3.2 p.22

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “as in the book of Numbers the Lord commanded Moses, saying, ‘Take Aaron thy brother, and Eleazar his son, and place them in the mount, in the presence of all the assembly, and strip Aaron of his garments, and put them upon Eleazar his son; and let Aaron die there, and be added to his people.’” [Numbers 20:25-26] Epistles of Cyprian letter 67 ch.4 p.370

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) speaks of Aaron and his sister Miriam angering Moses. Dialogue on the True Faith First part ch.13 p.56

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) “But Luke said, ‘There was a priest, by name Zachariah, of the course of Abia, and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron:’” Commentary on the Apocalypse from the fourth chapter verses 7-10 p.348

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “And Aaron shall burn thereon sweet incense every morning:” Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 5 ch.6 p.328

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions Aaron, Moses’ brother. Incarnation of the Word ch.37.1 p.56

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Aaron in Preparation for the Gospel book 9 ch.27 p.27

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius of Antioch (after 117 A.D.) “and the two hundred and fifty who conspired with him against Aaron, were” Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians ch.3 p.60

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Aaron. homily 2 ch.16 p.231. See also ibid homily 2 ch.33 p.235 and homily 17 ch.18 p.323..

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.46 p.89 mentions Aaron.

The Gnostic Basilides (222-235/236 A.D.) “And this is what has been declared: ‘As the ointment upon the head which descended to the beard of Aaron.’ This is the savour from the Holy Spirit borne down from above, as far as formlessness, and the interval (of space) in the vicinity of our world. And from this the Son began to ascend, sustained as it were, says (Basilides), upon eagles’ wings, and upon the back.” In Hippolytus’ Refutation of All Heresies book 7 ch.10 p.105

 

Es4. Pharaoh during the Exodus

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Envy compelled Moses to flee from the face of Pharaoh king of Egypt, when he heard these words from his fellow-countryman,1 Clement ch.4 vol.1 p.6. See also ch.4 (ANF vol.9) p.230.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) “The Scripture of the exodus of the Hebrews has been read, and the words of the mystery have been declared; how the sheep was sacrificed, and how the people was saved, and how Pharaoh was flogged by the mystery.” On Pascha stanza 1 p.37. See also ibid stanza 68 p.55.

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “And Moses, becoming the leader of the Jews, as we have already stated, was expelled from the land of Egypt by the king, Pharaoh, whose name was Amasis, and who, they say, reigned after the expulsion of the people 25 years and 4 months, as Manetho assumes.Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.20 p.117

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “And Moses himself, being a man of God, was indeed given as a god before Pharaoh; but he is not properly termed Lord, nor is called God by the prophets, but is spoken of by the Spirit as ‘Moses, the faithful minister and servant of God,’ which also he was.Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.6.5 p.420

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.170-202 A.D.) “Now (as to) the rod: for this cause also Moses with a rod showed the mighty works to Pharaoh: and with other men also the rod is a sign of rule. And by flower he means His flesh; for from spirit it budded forth, as we have said before.Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.59

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “Further, to Moses He says, ‘Go and tell Pharaoh to send My people forth; but I know that he will not send them forth.’” The Instructor book 1 ch.9 p.228

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “The serpents which emerged from the magicians’ rods, certainly appeared to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians as bodily substances.Treatise on the Soul ch.57 p.233

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “that Egypt, although most depraved and superstitious, and, worse still, the harasser of its guest-population, was unjustly stricken with the chastisement of its ten plagues. God hardens the heart of Pharaoh.” Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.14 p.308

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “Of old, too, the Lord made a similar announcement to Moses, saying, ‘See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh;’Scholia on Daniel ch.46 p.187

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “On the one hand, ‘Thou shalt say to Pharaoh, Thus saith the Lord, Let My people go, that they may serve Me in the wilderness.Commentary on John book 10 ch.11 p.388

Origen (235 A.D.) discusses Moses, Pharaoh, and the plagues of Egypt. “And Moses going forth from the presence of Pharao, prayed to the Lord.” Origen On Prayer part 1 ch.3 p.23

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “And what in the world is the reason, that although they say that this name was given even to Moses, since it is said, ‘I have made thee as a god to Pharaoh,’ it should be denied to Christ, who is declared to be ordained not to Pharaoh only, but to every creature, as both Lord and God?Concerning the Trinity ch.20 p.631

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) (partial) ch.12 p.660 speaks of Pharaoh, after being stricken with the plagues from heaven, asking Moses and Moses’ brother to pray for him. (Does not mention Moses leaving Egypt though.)

Cyprian of Carthage (c.248-256 A.D.) “In Exodus the Jewish people, prefigured as a shadow and image of us, when, with God for their guardian and avenger, they had escaped the most severe slavery of Pharaoh and of Egypt-that is, of the devil and the world-faithless and ungrateful in respect of God, murmur against Moses,Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.7 p.500

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) “But now it always flows onward, polluted with blood and slaughters and the drowning struggles of men, just as it did of old, when on Pharaoh’s account it was changed by Moses into blood, and made putrid.” Letter 13 ch.2 p.109

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions the Pharaoh who opposed Moses. Preparation for the Gospel book 8 ch.9 p.22. Also ibid book 8 ch.9 p.23

 

Es5. Korah / Kore

 

Exodus 6:21,24; Numbers 16:1-49; 26:9-11; 27:3

1 Chronicles 1:35; 2:43; 6:22,37; 9:19,31; 12:6; 26:1,19; 2 Chronicles 20:19; 31:14

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) (implied) “For it is better that a man should acknowledge his transgressions than that he should harden his heart, as the hearts of those were hardened who stirred up sedition against Moses the servant of God, and whose condemnation was made manifest [unto all]. For they went down alive into Hades, and death swallowed them up.1 Clement 51 p.19

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “acknowledge that Esau, Korah, the Sodomites, and all such persons, are relatedIrenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.31.1 p.358

Origen (246-248 A.D.) “For though there were three sons of Korah whose names we find in the Book of Exodus” Commentary on Matthew book 14 ch.1 p.495

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Which, moreover, we find to be manifested also in Numbers, when Korah, and Dathan, and Abiram Claimed for themselves the power of sacrificing in opposition to Aaron the priest.Epistles of Cyprian letter 67 ch.3 p.370

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) “For Dathan and Abiram did not speak against the law, but against Moses, and were cast down alive into Hades. Korah also, and the two hundred and fifty who conspired with him against Aaron, were destroyed by fire.” To the Magnesians (Latin version) ch.3 p.60

pseudo-Hippolytus (after 236 A.D.) “the sons of Core (Korah), and even to Moses. As they are therefore. the words ofOn Psalm 1 ch.1 p.199

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Protoevangelium of James (145-248 A.D.) ch.5 p.363 “remember what the Lord did to Dathan, and Abiram, and Korah; how the earth opened, and they were swallowed up on account of their contradiction. And no fear, O Joseph [mother of Mary]”

 

Es6. Balaam or his donkey

 

Numbers 22:5-41; 23:1-30; 24:1-25; 31:8,16; Deuteronomy 23:4-5; Joshua 13:22; 24:9; Micah 6:5; 2 Peter 2:15 (partial), Jude 11 (partial), Revelation 2:14 (partial) Balaam’s teaching

 

p115 (=Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 4499) (c.250-300 A.D.) 119 verses of Revelation. 2:1-3,13-15,27-29; 3:10-12; 5:8-9; 6:5-6; 8:3-8,11-13; 9:1-5,7-16,18-21; 10:1-4,8-11; 11:1-5,8-15,18-19; 12:1-5,8-10,12-17; 13:1-3,6-16,18; 14:1-3,5-7,10-11,14-15,18-20; 15:1,4-7 (middle to late 3rd century) Balaam Revelation 2:14

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “is, of the virgin of [the house of] David, and Emmanuel; whose star also Balaam” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.9.2 p.422

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “And a little after he sets forth, in a most instructive manner, representations of those that are judged: ‘Woe unto them, for they have gone in the way of Cain, and run greedily after the error of Balaam, and perished in the gainsaying of Core.’” The Instructor book 3 ch.8 p.282

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “The prophet Balaam, in Numbers, when sent forth by king Balak to curse Israel, with whom he was commencing war, was at the same moment filled with the Spirit.” Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.28 p.396

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “possessing as they did the prophecies of Balaam, which Moses also records,” Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.60 p.422

Origen (239-242 A.D.) mentions Balaam. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 6 ch.1.1 p.86

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Nor is it difficult for God to open the mouth of a man devoted to Himself, and to inspire constancy and confidence in speech to His confessor; since in the book of Numbers He made even a she-ass to speak against the prophet Balaam.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.10 p.502

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) “For Balaam, with his doctrine, taught Balak to cast a stumbling-block before the eyes of the children of Israel, to eat what was sacrificed to idols, and to commit fornication,-a thing which is known to have happened of old.Commentary on the Apocalypse from the second chapter verse 14-16 p.346

 

Es7. Joshua conquered Canaan

 

Joshua 1-14; 23-24

 

p46 Chester Beatty II (100-150 A.D.) 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) (partial, only mentions Joshua) Hebrews 11:30

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) tells of Joshua, Rahab and the spies to Jericho. The scarlet thread was a type of the blood of the Lord. 1 Clement ch.12 vol.1 p.8 (See also vol.9 p.233)

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.12 p.145 (partial) mentions Joshua, Son of Nave [Nun] one who would spy out the land.

Justin Martyr in Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.106 p.252 (c.138-165 A.D.) says that under Joshua the people who survived Egypt were conducted to the promised land. See also ibid ch.113 p.255

Meleto/Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (implied) says that God was with Jesus [Joshua] son of Nun. In ch.4 On Faith p.757

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) “Jesus [Joshua] son of Nun succeeded him [Moses]. He divided the Jordan and made the people to pass over into the land; and when he had overthrown and destroyed seven races that dwelt therein, …”. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.29

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) mentions Joshua warring for 65 years. Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.325

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) mentions Joshua and the Battle of Jericho. An Answer to the Jews ch.4 p.155-156

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) discusses much about Joshua’s conquest, including the parting of the Red Sea, the waters of the Jordan standing still, and the sun standing still. Five Books Against Marcion book 4ch.20 p.378

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) Joshua prayed for the sun to stand still [happened while he was conquering Canaan.]. Commentary on Isaiah ch.2 p.177

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) (implied) “Joshua, too, understood the meaning of the allotment of the land after the destruction of the nine and twenty kings, and could see better than we can the realities of which his achievements were the shadows.Commentary on John book 6 ch.2 p.351

Origen (233/234 A.D.) (partial) mentions Joshua. Origen On Prayer ch.14.5 p.53 and ibid ch.22.13 p.102

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) (partial) mentions Joshua. (No inference of the command to conquer Canaan though.) Epistles of Cyprian letter 73 ch.2 p.386

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) (partial) mentions Joshua who succeeded Moses in Fragment 5 ch.5 p.282

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) (partial) mentions Joshua in Preparation for the Gospel book 10 ch.10 p.25 and “Jesus the son of Nave” in book 9 ch.30 p.47

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) (partial) briefly mentions Joshua at Jericho and Joshua encountering the captain of the Lord’s army. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.10,12 p.83

 

Es8. Rahab of Jericho

 

Joshua 2:1-21; Hebrews 11:31

 

p13 (225-250 A.D.) Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) Hebrews 11:31

p1 (225-275 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-9, 12, 14-20 (17 verses) Matthew 1:5

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) tells of Joshua, Rahab and the spies to Jericho. The scarlet thread was a type of the blood of the Lord. 1 Clement ch.12 vol.1 p.8 (See also vol.9 p.233)

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “son of Nave (Nun), gave to Rahab the harlot, telling her to bind it to the window” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.111 p.254

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “seven trumpets, Rahab the harlot was preserved, when all was over” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.20.12 p.492

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “For faith and hospitality, Rahab the harlot was saved.” Stromata book 4 ch.17 p.428

Origen (246-248 A.D.) “have become harlots; but these have become like the harlot Rahab, who received the spies of Joshua, and was saved with all her house;Commentary on Matthew book 12 ch.4 p.452

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Which also we see expressed concerning Rahab, who herself also bore a type of” Epistles of Cyprian Letter 75 ch.4 p.398

Cyprian of Carthage (c.248-256 A.D.) “Rahab, in whom was prefigured the Church, ‘Thy father, and thy mother, and thy brethren,’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 1 ch.8 p.424

 

Es9. Jephthah [the judge]

 

Judges 11:1-12:7; Hebrews 11:32

 

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) Hebrews 11:32

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) mentions Jephthah. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.24 p.119

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “After whom, the people having sinned again, were delivered to the Ammonites eighteen years; and on their repentance were commanded by Jephtha the Gileadite, of the tribe of Manasseh; and he ruled six years.Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.326

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “Jephthah’s sacrifice of his daughter should receive attention; it was by vowing it that he conquered the children of Ammon, and the victim approved his vow,Commentary on John book 6 ch.36 p.377

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Jephthah’s vow. Origen on Prayer ch.1.4 p.26.

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Jephthah in Judges 11:30. Origen On Prayer ch.4.2 p.26

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.15 p.678 briefly mentions the Holy Spirit’s interaction with Joshua, Othoniel (Gothoniel), Gideon, Jephthah, Samson, Saul, and David.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “Jephthah offered his fresh slaughtered virgin daughter a sacrifice to God, like a lamb; and she, nobly fulfilling the type of Thy body, O blessed One,Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 11 ch.2 p.352

 

Es10. Gideon

 

Judges 6-8:35; Hebrews 11:32

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “...they had judges: Gothonoel, 40 years; Eglon, 18 years; Aoth, 8 years. Then having sinned, they were subdued by strangers for 20 years. Then Deborah judged them 40 years. Then they served the Midianites 7 years. Then Gideon judged them 40 years; Abimelech, 3 years;Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.24 p.119

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) mentions Gideon. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.17.3 p.445

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Noah preached repentance; Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob gave many clear utterances respecting future and present things. Contemporaneous with the law, Moses and Aaron; and after these prophesied Jesus the son of Nave, Samuel, Gad, Nathan, Achias, Samaeas, Jehu, Elias, Michaeas, Abdiu, Elisaeus, Abbadonai, Amos, Esaias, Osee, Jonas, Joel, Jeremias, Sophonias the son of Buzi, Ezekiel, Urias, Ambacum, Naum, Daniel, Misael, who wrote the syllogisms, Aggai, Zacharias, and the angel [Malachi] among the twelve. These are, in all, five-and-thirty prophets. And of women (for these too prophesied), Sara, and Rebecca, and Mariam, and Debbora, and Olda, i.e., Huldah.” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.331

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.15 p.676 “as upon Gothoniel, Gideon, Jephthah, Samson, Saul, David, and many others.”

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) And Baruk delivered it to Gideon. And Gideon delivered it to Abimelech. And Abimelech delivered it to Taleg. (Fragment 1, doubtful fragments on the Pentateuch) p.195

pseudo-Tertullian Five Books In Reply to Marcion “Of whom when Gideon, guide (new line) 100 Of martial band, keen to attack the foe,”

 

Es11. Samson

 

Judges 13:14-16:30; Hebrews 11:32

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 11:32

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) mentions Samson. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.24 p.119

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “The little boy, therefore, who guided Samson by the hand, pre-typified John the Baptist, who showed to the people the faith in Christ. And the house in which they were assembled signifies the world, in which dwell the various heathen and unbelieving nations, offering sacrifice to their idols. Moreover, the two pillars are the two covenants. The fact, then, of Samson leaning himself upon the pillars, [indicates] this, that the people, when instructed, recognized the mystery of Christ.” Fragment 27 p.572

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “The noble Samson was overcome by the harlot, …” The Instructor book 3 ch.11 p.287

Hippolytus of Portus (222-234/5 A.D.) “That it is in reality out of the tribe of Dan, then, that that tyrant and king, that dread judge, that son of the devil, is destined to spring and arise, the prophet testifies when he says, ‘Dan shall judge his people, as (he is) also one tribe in Israel.’ But some one may say that this refers to Samson, who sprang from the tribe of Dan, and judged the people twenty years. Well, the prophecy had its partial fulfilment in Samson, but its complete fulfilment is reserved for Antichrist.Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.15 p.207

Theodotus the probable Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) mentions Samson and his hair. Excerpts of Theodotus ch.39 p.48

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) mentions Samson, from the tribe of Dan, as a possible fulfillment of the prophecy of Dan in Genesis 49:16. Origen’s Commentary on John book 6 ch.12 p.361

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Samson. Origen On Prayer ch.14.5 p.56

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.15 p.676 “as upon Gothoniel, Gideon, Jephthah, Samson, Saul, David, and many others.”

 

Among heretics

The Encratite Gnostic Tatian (c.172 A.D.) “And he [Tatian] said that women were punished on account of their hair and ornaments by a power placed over those things, which also gave strength to Samson by his hair, and punishes those who by the ornament of their hair are urged on to fornication.” Fragment 6 in Clement of Alexandria p.82

 

Es12. Eli [priest and mentor of Samuel]

 

1 Samuel 1-4

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “Then Samson judged them 20 years. Then there was peace among them for 40 years. Then Samera judged them one year; Eli, 20 years; Samuel, 12 years.” Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.24 p.119

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “But on their returning [to God], they were led by Samson, of the tribe of Dan, who conquered the foreigners in battle. He ruled twenty years. And after him, there being no governor, Eli the priest judged the people for forty years. He was succeeded by Samuel the prophet; contemporaneously with whom Saul reigned, who held sway for twenty-seven years.” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.326

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Eli breaks his neck before the temple doors, his sons fall in battle, his daughter-in-law expires in child-birth: for such was the blow which had been deserved at the hand of God by the shameless house, the defrauder of the fleshly sacrifices.” On Fasting ch.16 p.113

Origen (c.230 A.D.) refers to Heli [Eli]. Exhortation to Martyrdom ch.17 p.158

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Heli [Eli]. Origen On Prayer ch.28.9 p.112. See also Origen on Prayer ch.4.1 p.25.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Also in the first book of Kings, God says to the priest Eli: “And I will raise up to me a faithful priest, who shall do all things which are in my heart: and I will build him a sure house;Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first book ch.17

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.318-325 A.D.) refers to Eli. Preparation for the Gospel book 10 ch.10 p.25

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 116 A.D.) “Samuel also, when he was but a little child, reproved Eli, who was ninety years old, for giving honour to his sons rather than to God.Epistle to the Magnesians ch.3 p.60

pseudo-Hippolytus (after 235 A.D.) “Moreover, he was the father of Samuel the prophet. Of this Helkanah mention is made in the beginning of the first book of Kings (Samuel). And Helkanah delivered it to Eli the priest. And Eli delivered it to Samuel the prophet.” Doubtful fragments on the Pentateuch p.195

 

Es13. Samuel

 

1 Samuel 1:20; 2:18-26; 3-4; 7-16, 19, 25:1; 28:3-20; 1 Chronicles 6:28; 9:22; 11:3; 26:28-29; 2 Chronicles 35:18; Psalm 99:6; Jeremiah 15:1; Acts 3:24; 13:20; Hebrews 11:32

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “Moses and Aaron among His priests, and Samuel among those who call upon His name.Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.37 p.213

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) mentions Samson, Samuel, and Saul to the captivity. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.25 p.119

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “And all [the prophets] from Samuel, and henceforth, as many as have spoken, have likewise foretold of these days.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.3 p.431

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says that after Eli judged Israel for 42 years he was succeeded by Samuel. Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.326

Tertullian (c.203 A.D.) “-even to represent the soul of Samuel, when Saul consulted the dead, after” A Treatise on the Soul ch.57 p.234

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “Now this point is determined for you even in the scripture which we have quoted. Samuel says to Saul, ‘The Lord hath rent the kingdom of Israel from thee this day, and hath given it to a neighbour of thine that is better than thou;’ and into two parts shall Israel be divided: ‘for He will not turn Himself, nor repent; for He does not repent as a man does.’” Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.24 p.316

Hippolytus of Portus (222-234/5 A.D.) “And in the second (form),-to wit, by the prophets, as by Samuel, calling” Fragments of Discourses or Homilies 4 Discourse on Elkanah and Hannah ch.3 p.238

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “desire such things, as when Samuel prophesies regarding three she-asses” Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.36 p.412

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Samuel (the person, not the book). Origen On Prayer ch.13.5 p.32

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “In the book of Kings also, when Samuel the priest was despised by the Jewish people on account of his age, as you are now, the Lord in wrath exclaimed, and said, ‘They have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me.’” Epistles of Cyprian letter 64 ch.1 p.366

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “Besides, when Samuel appeared, it is clear that, being seen, he was clothed in a body; and this must especially be admitted, if we are pressed by arguments which prove that the essence of the soul is incorporeal, and is manifested by itself.Discourse on the Resurrection ch.9 p.366

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) “Was not Samuel born of Elkanah, was not David of Jesse, …” Incarnation of the Word ch.35.7 p.55

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Samuel in Preparation for the Gospel book 10 ch.2 p.4, book 10 ch.10 p.5, and book 9 ch.30 p.47.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 116 A.D.) “Samuel also, when he was but a little child, reproved Eli, who was ninety years old, for giving honour to his sons rather than to God.Epistle to the Magnesians ch.3 p.60

 

Es14. Saul [son of Kish]

 

1 Samuel 9:2-27; 10:11-26; 11:4-15; 13-24; 25:44; 26-29, 31:2-12; 2 Samuel 1-9, 12:7; 16:5,8; 19:17,24; 21:1-14; 22:1; 1 Chronicles 5:10; 8:33; 9:39; 10:2-13; 11:2; 12:1-2,19,25,29; 13:3; 15:29; 26:28; Psalm 18:title; 52:title; 54:title; 57:title; 59:title; Isa 10:29

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Through envy, David underwent the hatred not only of foreigners, but was also persecuted by Saul king of Israel.” ch.4 p.6. See also ch.4 (ANF vol.9) p.230.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “And that the souls survive, I have shown to you from the fact that the soul of Samuel was called up by the witch, as Saul demanded.Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.105 p.252

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) As in the book of Kings: ‘It repented me that I have made Saul king.’”

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) mentions Samson, Samuel, and Saul to the captivity. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.25 p.119

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “God, although Saul persecuted him. For all the righteous possess the sacerdotal” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.8.3 p.471

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says that Saul reigned after Samuel. Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.326

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) mentions Saul the king. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.1 p.172

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “For there fell upon him that ecstasy, which is the Holy Ghost’s operative virtue of prophecy. And even the evil spirit too is an influence which comes upon a man. Indeed, the Spirit of God not more really “turned Saul into another man,” that is to say, into a prophet, when “people said one to another, What is this which is come to the son of Kish? Is Saul also among the prophets?’” Treatise on the Soul ch.11 p.191

Tertullian (c.203 A.D.) “-even to represent the soul of Samuel, when Saul consulted the dead, after” A Treatise on the Soul ch.57 p.234

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “because He actually said, ‘It repenteth me that I have set up Saul to be king’” Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.24 p.315

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “And of all men, we Christians alone are those who in the third gate celebrate the mystery, and are anointed there with the unspeakable chrism from a horn, as David (was anointed), not from an earthen vessel, he says, as (was) Saul, who held converse with the evil demon of carnal concupiscence.” Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.4 p.58

Origen (246-248 A.D.) “For he knows that all the Scripture is the one perfect and harmonised instrument of God, which from different sounds gives forth one saving voice to those willing to learn, which stops and restrains every working of an evil spirit, just as the music of David laid to rest the evil spirit in Saul, which also was choking him." Commentary on Matthew book 2 p.413

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.14 p.661 “Saul, that once good man, besides other things, is subsequently overthrown by envy, and strives to do everything that is harsh and hostile against David.

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.15 p.676 “as upon Gothoniel, Gideon, Jephthah, Samson, Saul, David, and many others.”

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258) “mentions Jacob, Joseph, king Saul persecuting David. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.11 p.503.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) says that Saul pursued David.. (Adamantius is speaking) Dialogue on the True Faith First part ch.12 p.55

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions that King Saul persecuted David. Incarnation of the Word ch.37.1 p.56

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Saul in Preparation for the Gospel book 10 ch.14 p.36. See also ibid book 6 ch.30 p.47

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions King Saul and David. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.6.4 p.90

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 116 A.D.) “Saul also was dishonoured, because he did not wait for Samuel the high priest.” (Latin) Letter to the Magnesians ch.3 p.60

 

Es15. David

 

At Tel Dan an inscription on a well is in 9th B.C. Aramaic, speaks of a victory over ‘the king of Israel’ and the ‘house of David.’

 

(House of David is counted as partial)

 

2 Samuel 7

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 11:32

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) (partial, only mentions house of David) John 17:42

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels plus Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Acts 13:33

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) Hebrews 11:32 mentions Samson, David, and others

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) tells of David repenting of his (unspecified) sin, and quotes Psalm 51:1-17. 1 Clement ch.18 vol.1 p.10. See also vol.9 ch.4 p.230 and p.234-235.

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) says Jesus Christ was of the seed of David and Abraham. Letter of Ignatius to the Romans ch.7 p.77

Didache (=Teaching of the Twelve Apostles) (before 125 A.D.) vol.7 ch.9 p.380 mentions the holy vine of David.

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.10 p.143 says that David knew the three doctrines about meats.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) in Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.14 mentions the sure mercies promised to David.

Justin Martyr mentions the one fall of David with Uriah’s wife. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.141 p.270

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 7.37 p.55 “But Jesus said unto them, Have ye not read in olden time what David did, when he had need and hungered, he and those that were with him? how he entered the house of God, when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the bread of the table of the Lord, which it was not lawful that any should eat, save the priests, and gave to them that were with him also?

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) mentions what was said through the prophet David. Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.35 p.108

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) says that David reigned 40 years. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.25 p.119

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) says that David was godly, except that he committed adultery. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.27.1 p.498

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) mentions the “blessed David” Stromata book 1 ch.1 p.301

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) speaks of David and Psalm 78:8,10. The Instructor book 1 ch.9 p.231

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) mentions David. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.1 p.172

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) (implied) quotes for us what David says [in Psalms] Against Hermogenes ch.29 p.493

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) mentions David. Tertullian on Modesty ch.6 p.79

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) (partial) mentions David many times against Marcion. One example is Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.36 p.411

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “This is the Spirit that David sought when he said, ‘Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right spirit within me.’” Discourse on the Holy Theophany ch.9 p.237

Julius Africanus (235-245 A.D.) “And for this reason the one traced the pedigree of Jacob the father of Joseph from David through Solomon; the other traced that of Heli also, though in a different way, the father of Joseph, from Nathan the son of David.On the Genealogy of Christ ch.1 p.125

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) is that we should become wise, can be proved not only from the ancient Jewish writings, which we also use, but especially from those which were composed after the time of Jesus, and which are believed among the churches to be divine. Now, in the Psalms 50, David is described as saying in his prayer to God these words: “The unseen and secret things of Thy wisdom Thou hast manifested to me.” Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.45 p.482

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions David. Origen On Prayer ch.29.3 p.114

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.10 p.660 mentions the Holy Spirit testifying by David.

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.15 p.676 “as upon Gothoniel, Gideon, Jephthah, Samson, Saul, David, and many others.”

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) discusses how David was commended for patience and not killing King Saul when he could have done so. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 9 ch.10 p.487

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) mentions David the king and prophet. Metaphrase of Ecclesiastes ch.1 p.9

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) Megethius quotes Psalm 2:1-2 as “David announced”. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.67. Adamantius then says, “What have been reasonably stated in the Scriptures you want to interpret unreasonably.” Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.68

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) mentions “the blessed David”. Orations on the Psalms ch.4 p.396

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions that King Saul persecuted David. Incarnation of the Word ch.37.1 p.56

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions Jacob, Jeremy [Jeremiah], Ezekiel, David, Solomon, Gad, Asaph, Nathan, Osee [Hosea] Incarnation of the Word ch.40 p.57

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says that David and Solomon were the most powerful kings, and also prophets. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.8 p.107

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Saul and David in Preparation for the Gospel book 10 ch.14 p.36

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions King Saul and David. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.6.4 p.90

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Pseudo-Clement Two Epistles on Virginity (3rd century A.D.) (partial) Letter 2 ch11 p.64 tells how David committed adultery with Bathsheba, and had her [unnamed] husband killed.

 

Among heretics

Megethius (c.300 A.D.) Megethius quotes Psalm 2:1-2 as “David announced”. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.67. Adamantius then says, “What have been reasonably stated in the Scriptures you want to interpret unreasonably.” Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.68

 

Es16. [King] Saul persecuted David

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Through envy, David underwent the hatred not only of foreigners, but was also persecuted by Saul king of Israel.” 1 Clement ch.4 p.6. See also vol.9

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “For David had been appointed a priest by God, although Saul persecuted him. For all the righteous possess the sacerdotal rank.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.8.3 p.471

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “Then, again, in Sauls conduct towards David, exhibited first in violent persecution of him, and then in remorse and reparation, on his receiving from him good for evil, we have nothing else than an anticipation of Paul in Saul-belonging, too, as they did, to the same tribe-and of Jesus in David, from whom He descended according to the Virgins genealogy.” Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.1 p.430

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) (partial) “Saul, who was good beyond all others, is afterwards subverted by envy.” Prescription Against Heretics ch.3 p.244

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “For Saul, who was of the tribe of Benjamin, persecuted David, who was appointed to be a type of the Lord.” Commentary on Genesis on Genesis 49.27 p.168

Origen (c.250 A.D.) (implied) mentions David escaping from Saul. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 15 homily 1 ch.1 p.37

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.14 p.661 “Saul, that once good man, besides other things, is subsequently overthrown by envy, and strives to do everything that is harsh and hostile against David.”

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.15 p.676 “and after a malign spirit from the Lord vexed him, because then he had come, after the messengers whom he had previously sent before with care, with intent to kill David;”

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Thus, at the very beginning of the world, the righteous Abel was the first to be slain by his brother; and Jacob was driven into exile, and Joseph was sold, and king Saul persecuted the merciful David; and king Ahab endeavoured to oppress Elias, who firmly and bravely asserted the majesty of God.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.11 p.503

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (implied) says that Saul pursued David.. (Adamantius is speaking) Dialogue on the True Faith First part ch.12 p.55

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions that King Saul persecuted David. Incarnation of the Word ch.37.1 p.56

 

Es17. Nathan [the prophet, not the son of David]

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “And Nathan likewise, speaking to David about Him, thus” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.118 p.258

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “and Nathan the prophet is sent to him, pointing out to him his crime, in order” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.27.1 p.498

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “And after this Solomon the son of David reigned forty years. Under him Nathan” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.326

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “Uriah, the prophet Nathan said unto him, ‘The Lord hath cancelled’” Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.10 p.358

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “David, … desired to build a temple for God. But God, through Nathan, prevents him from doing so, and Nathan says to him,” and quotes 1 Chronicles 22:8,9 Origen’s Commentary on John book 6 ch.1 p.349

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Nathan [the prophet]. Origen On Prayer ch.33.3 p.138

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “In the second of Kings: ‘And the word of the Lord came to Nathan, saying,’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first part ch.15 p.511

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions Jacob, Jeremy [Jeremiah], Ezekiel, David, Solomon, Gad, Asaph, Nathan, Osee [Hosea] Incarnation of the Word ch.40 p.57

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “Also in the second book of Kings, the prophet Nathan was sent to David, who” The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.13 p.113

 

Es18. Uriah [the Hittite]

 

Justin Martyr (c.238-165 A.D.) “And this one fall of David, in the matter of Uriah’s wife,Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.141 p.270

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “But when his [David’s] lust prompted him to take Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah, the Scripture said concerning him,Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.27.1 p.498

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) “and David, by confession, purged Uriah’s slaughter, together with its cause-adultery.Tertullian on Modesty ch.6 p.79

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “I read, too, how that, when David acknowledged his sin against Uriah, the prophet Nathan said unto him, ‘The Lord hath cancelled thy sin, and thou shalt not die;’” Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.10 p.358

Origen (239-242 A.D.) mentions Uriah. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 9 ch.5.5 p.126

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Pseudo-Clement Two Epistles on Virginity (3rd century A.D.) (partial) Letter 2 ch11 p.64 tells how David committed adultery with Bathsheba, and had her [unnamed] husband killed.

 

Es20. [King] Solomon

 

1 Kings 3

Matthew 6:29 (partial, only mentions Solomon in his splendor)

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) mentions Solomon possessing the spirit of wisdom. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.87 p.243

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 16.5 p.68 mentionst he wisdom of Solomon.

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 10 p.59 (partial) in the Sermon on the Mount says that Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of the lilies.

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) (implied) “And Moses, who lived many years before Solomon, or, rather, the Word of God by him as by an instrument, says, ‘In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.’” Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.10 p.98

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) mentions Solomon in many places in Irenaeus Against Heresies books 3 and 4, including book 4 ch.9.2 p.472

Caius (190-217 A.D.) “And the book of Wisdom, written by the friends of Solomon in his honour.” ch.4 p.&&&

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) teaches on Solomon’s wisdom. Stromata book 1 ch.5 p.305

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) mentions Solomon the king in The Instructor book 2 ch.11 p.264

Tertullian (205 A.D.) Mentions God’s wisdom through Solomon. Scorpiace ch.7 p.639

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) (partial) mentions Solomon was king of Israel. (no mention of his wisdom though.) Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.20 p.339

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) Solomon was a king. Commentary on Proverbs p.172

Julius Africanus (235-245 A.D.) says that Christ is King, and the High Priest of His Father. Solomon was a prophet. Epistle to Aristides ch.1 p.125.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says that Solomon asked for wisdom and received it. Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.45 p.482

Origen (239-242 A.D.) mentions Solomon. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 1 ch.2.2 p.27

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit speaking by Solomon. letter 54 ch.21 p.346

Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) p.566 mentions false Christs, false prophets, and the Lord saying to Solomon.

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) says Solomon was a prophet and “wise above all men.” Metaphrase of Ecclesiastes ch.1 p.9

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) Ecclesiastes says that Solomon had an experience surpassing prudence. Commentary on Ecclesiastes ch.1 verse 18 p.111

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) “with Noah, seven of all clean things in the ark; seven revenges of Cain, seven years for a debt to be acquitted, the lamp with seven orifices, seven pillars of wisdom in the house of Solomon.On the Creation of the World p.342-343

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) (partial) mentions the times of Solomon. Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the Apostles section H p.166

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) says Solomon and refers to the Song of Songs. The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 9 ch.3 p.346

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions Jacob, Jeremy [Jeremiah], Ezekiel, David, Solomon, Gad, Asaph, Nathan, Osee [Hosea] Incarnation of the Word ch.40 p.57

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) (partial) mentions Solomon being born of David. Incarnation of the Word ch.35.7 p.55

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says mentions “that most wise King Solomon”. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.6 p.105

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says that David and Solomon were the most powerful kings, and also prophets. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.8 p.107

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) refers to a saying of Solomon. Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 1 ch.7 p.294

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) says that wisdom was revealed most clearly through Solomon Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2 p.84

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Solomon and his wisdom. homily 11 ch.33 p.391

 

Es21. Hannah, mother of Samuel

 

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Thus a God-ward fast is a work of reverential awe: and by its means also Hannah the wife of Elkanah making suit, barren as she had been beforetime, easily obtained from God the filling of her belly, empty of food, with a son, ay, and a prophet.On Fasting ch.7 p.106

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “And likewise earlier, in the book of Kings, Hannah the mother of Samuel gives glory to God in these words: ‘He raiseth the poor man from the ground, and the beggar, that He may set him amongst the princes of His people (that is, in His own kingdom), and on thrones of glory’ (even royal ones).Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.14 p.366

Hippolytus of Portus (222-234/5 A.D.) “And in the second (form),-to wit, by the prophets, as by Samuel, calling” Fragments of Discourses or Homilies 4 Discourse on Elkanah and Hannah ch.3 p.238

Origen (246-248 A.D.) “In like manner also he who has been weaned, like Samuel, and dedicated by his mother to God, -she was Hannah, which is, by interpretation, grace, -would be also a son of grace, seeking, like one nurtured in the temple, flesh of God, the holy food of those who are at once perfect and priests.Commentary on Matthew book 12 ch.31 p.467

Origen (233/234 A.D.) refers to Anna [Hannah] in 1 Kings (to us 1 Samuel). Origen on Prayer ch.2.5-6 p.21

Origen (233/234 A.D.) refers to Anna [Hanna]. Origen On Prayer ch.13.2 p.48.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Thus also to Abraham, when his former son was born of a bond-woman, Sarah remained long barren; and late in old age bare her son Isaac, of promise, who was the type of Christ. Thus also Jacob received two wives: the elder Leah, with weak eyes, a type of the synagogue; the younger the beautiful Rachel, a type of the Church, who also remained long barren, and afterwards brought forth Joseph, who also was himself a type of Christ. And in the first of Kings it is said that Elkanah had two wives: Peninnah, with her sons; and Hannah, barren, from whom is born Samuel, not according to the order of generation, but according to the mercy and promise of God,” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 book 1 ch.20 p.512-513

 

Es22. Jesse [father of David]

 

Luke 3:32

 

p4 Luke 1:58-59; 1:62-2:1,6-7; 3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35; 5:3-8; 5:30-6:16 (c.150-175 A.D.) Luke 3:32

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “But what shall we say concerning David, to whom such testimony was borne, and of whom God said, ‘I have found a man after Mine own heart, David the son of Jesse; and in everlasting mercy have I anointed him?’1 Clement ch.18 p.10 see also vol.9.

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) “And Isaiah, another prophet, foretelling the same things in other words, spoke thus: “A star shall rise out of Jacob, and a flower shall spring from the root of Jesse; and His arm shall the nations trust. And a star of light has arisen, and a flower has sprung from the root of Jesse-this Christ.” First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.32 p.174

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “The hymns of David the son of Jesse are ended.” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.34 p.211

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) “For Jesse was the descendant of Abraham, and the father of David; (and David’s) descendant the virgin was who conceived Christ.Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.59

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “For Christ did not at that time descend upon Jesus, neither was Christ one and Jesus another: but the Word of God-who is the Saviour of all, and the ruler of heaven and earth, who is Jesus, as I have already pointed out, who did also take upon Him flesh, and was anointed by the Spirit from the Father-was made Jesus Christ, as Esaias also says, ‘There shall come forth a rod from the root of Jesse, and a flower shall rise from his root; and the Spirit of God shall rest upon Him: the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and piety, and the spirit of the fear of God, shall fill Him.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.9.3 p.423

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “The golden lamp conveys another enigma as a symbol of Christ, not in respect of form alone, but in his casting light, ‘at sundry times and divers manners,’ on those who believe on Him and hope, and who see by means of the ministry of the First-born. And they say that the seven eyes of the Lord ‘are the seven spirits resting on the rod that springs from the root of Jesse.’” Stromata book 5 ch.6 p.452. See also The Instructor (193-217/220 A.D.) book 1 ch.7 p.224.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “And that the virgin of whom it behooved Christ to be born (as we have above mentioned) must derive her lineage of the seed of David, the prophet in subsequent passages evidently asserts. ‘And there shall be born,’ he says, ‘a rod from the root of Jesse’ - which rod is Mary –’and a flower shall ascend from his root: and there shall rest upon him the Spirit of God, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of discernment and piety, the spirit of counsel and truth; the spirit of God’s fear shall fill Him.’An Answer to the Jews ch.9 p.164

Tertullian (203/204 A.D.) “In Him dwelt the fullness of the Spirit; therefore I acknowledge Him to be ‘the rod of the stem of Jesse.’ His blooming flower shall be my Christ, upon whom hath rested, according to Isaiah,” Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.17 p.335. See also Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.8 p.445.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “For Isaiah says, ‘There shall come forth a rod out of the root of Jesse, and a flower shall grow up out of it.’ That which is called by Isaiah a flower, Jacob calls a shoot. For first he shot forth, and then he flourished in the world. And the expression, ‘he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as a lion’s whelp,’ refers to the three days’ sleep (death, couching) of Christ;” Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.8 p.206

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “Isaiah also called Christ the rod and the flower: ‘There shall come forth a rod out of the root of Jesse, and a flower shall spring out of its root, and the spirit of God shall rest upon Him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel slid of might, the spirit of knowledge and of godliness, and He shall be full of the spirit of the fear of the Lord.’Commentary on John book 1 ch.23 p.310

Novatian (250-258 A.D.) (implied) “Isaiah alludes to: ‘There shall go forth a rod from the root of Jesse, and a flower shall grow up from his root.’ The same also when he says: ‘Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son.’ Him he refers to when he enumerates the healings that were to proceed from Him,” referring to Christ. Concerning the Trinity ch.9 p.619

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Also in Isaiah: ‘And a rod shall go forth of the root of Jesse, and a flower shall go up from his root; and the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon Him, the spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and piety; and the spirit of the fear of the Lord shall fill Him.’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second part ch.11 p.520

Athanasius of Alexandria (c.318 A.D.) “Christ, who was born of the root of Jesse” Incarnation of the Word ch.40 p.58. See also ibid ch.35.6 p.55.

Lactantius (c.303-325 A.D.) “There shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a blossom shall grow out of his root; and the Spirit of God shall rest upon Him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and of might, the spirit of knowledge and of piety;” The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.13 p.113

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) “visible and invisible, shinest forth as the most honourable. Blessed is the root of Jesse, and thrice blessed is the house of David, in which thou hast sprung up.Oration on Simeon and Anna ch.9 p.389

 

Es23. Dathan and Abiram

 

Numbers 16:1-27; 26:9; Deuteronomy 11:6; Psalm 106:17

 

Abiram who died when Jericho was rebuilt is a different person.

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “On account of envy, Aaron and Miriam had to make their abode without the camp. Envy brought down Dathan and Abiram alive to Hades, through the sedition which they excited against God’s servant Moses.” 1 Clement ch.4 ANF vol.1 p.6. See also ibid ch.43 p.16. See also ch.4 (ANF vol.9) p.230.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “who bring strange fire to the altar of God-namely, strange doctrines-shall be burned up by the fire from heaven, as were Nadab and Abiud. But such as rise up in opposition to the truth, and exhort others against the Church of God, [shall] remain among those in hell (apud inferos), being swallowed up by an earthquake, even as those who were with Chore, Dathan, and Abiron.Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.26.2 p.497

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Which, moreover, we find to be manifested also in Numbers, when Korah, and Dathan, and Abiram Claimed for themselves the power of sacrificing in opposition to Aaron the priest.Epistles of Cyprian letter 67 ch.3 p.370

Firmilian of Caesarea to Cyprian (250-251 A.D.) “But the enemies of the one Catholic Church in which we are, and the adversaries of us who have succeeded the apostles, asserting for themselves, in opposition to us, unlawful priesthoods, and setting up profane altars, what else are they than Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, profane with a like wickedness, and about to suffer the same punishments which they did, as well as those who agree with them, just as their partners and abettors perished with a like death to theirs?Epistles of Cyprian Letter 74 ch.16 p.394

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) “For Dathan and Abiram did not speak against the law, but against Moses, and were cast down alive into Hades. Korah also, and the two hundred and fifty who conspired with him against Aaron, were destroyed by fire.” To the Magnesians (Latin version) ch.3 p.60

 

Es24. Hiram [king of Tyre]

 

1 Kings 5:1

 

Theophilus of Antioch (178-188 A.D.) “Then concerning the building of the temple in Judaea, which Solomon the king built 566 years after the exodus of the Jews from Egypt, there is among the Tyrians a record how the temple was built; and in their archives writings have been preserved, in which the temple is proved to have existed 143 years 8 months before the Tyrians founded Carthage (and this record was made by Hiram (that is the name of the king of the Tyrians), the son of Abimalus, on account of the hereditary friendship which existed between Hiram and Solomon, and at the same time on account of the surpassing wisdom possessed by Solomon.Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.22 p.117

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “For you will make up in all, down to the death of Solomon, six hundred and eighty-three years and seven months. Hiram gave his daughter to Solomon about the time of the arrival of Menelaus in Phoenicia, after the capture of Troy, as is said by Menander of Pergamus, and Laetus in The Phoenicia. And after Solomon, Roboam his son reigned for seventeen years; and Abimelech the son of Sadoc was high priest. In his reign, the kingdom being divided, Jeroboam, of the tribe of Ephraim, the servant of Solomon, reigned in Samaria; and Achias the Shilonite continued to prophesy; also Samaeas the son of Amame, and he who came from Judah to Jeroboam, and prophesied against the altar. After him his son Abijam, twenty-three years; and likewise his son Asaman. The last, in his old age, was diseased in his feet; and in his reign prophesied Jehu the son of Ananias.Stromata book 1 ch.1 p.21

Origen (c.227-c.240 A.D.) “And the sons of Solomon and the sons of Hiram hewed the stones and laid them in the fourth year, and they founded the house of the Lord in the month Nisan and the second month: in the tenth year in the month Baal, which was the eighth month, the house was finished according to the whole count and the whole plan of it.Commentary on the Gospel of John book 10 ch.22 p.402-403

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Hiram. Preparation for the Gospel book 10 ch.11 p.28

 

Es25. Deborah [godly judge]

 

Rebecca’s nurse, also named Deborah, is a different person.

 

Judges 4:4-10;5:1

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “...they had judges: Gothonoel, 40 years; Eglon, 18 years; Aoth, 8 years. Then having sinned, they were subdued by strangers for 20 years. Then Deborah judged them 40 years. Then they served the Midianites 7 years. Then Gideon judged them 40 years; Abimelech, 3 years;Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.24 p.119

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “After him Deborah the wife of Lapidoth, of the tribe of Ephraim, prophesied; and Ozias the son of Rhiesu was high priest.Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.326

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Jabin’s commander-in-chief, conquered him. And after that Deborah ruled, judging" Stromata book 1 ch.19 p.&&&

Tertullian (203/204 A.D.) Yea, Deborah, a woman far Five Books Against Marcion book &&&

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) “Joshua was of the tribe of Ephraim; after whom their ruler was Deborah, of the tribe of Ephraim, and Barak.” Demonstration of the Gospel ch.1

 

Es26. Caleb [son of Jephunneh]

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “Those, doubtless, who do believe God, and who have continued in His love; as did Caleb [the son] of Jephunneh and Joshua [the son] of Nun, and innocent children, who have had no sense of evil.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.29.2 p.502

Irenaeus of Lyons (188-202 A.D.) “save only the two who had testified of the inheritance, Jesus the son of Nun and Caleb the son of Jephunneh, and those who were quite young and knew not the right hand and the left.” Demonstration of Apostolic Preaching ch.27.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “But having afterwards besought the Lord, they receive for leader Gothoniel [Othniel],(1) the younger brother of Caleb, of the tribe of Judah, who, having slain the king of Mesopotamia, ruled over the people forty years in succession.” Stromata book 1 ch.21p.325-326

Origen (c.250 A.D.) mentions Caleb in Homilies on Psalms Psalm 15 homily 1.6 p.47

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.318 A.D.) “Arb. … Formerly it was called Arbo but later Hebron after Hebron one of the sons of Caleb according to Paralipomenon [Chronicles]. … Zeib (Zif). "Dry mountain" of Zeib (rough mountain or foggy or cloudy near Zif), in which David lived near Chumalba, which is called (in scriptures) Karmelos. This is name given today to a village of Jews. Home of Nabal the Carmelite. One of the descendants of Caleb is said to be Zeib (Zif) according to Paralipomenon.” Onomasticon

 

 

DIVIDED KINGDOM ON Individuals

 

Dk1. Jeroboam

 

1 Kings 12:28

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “receive from God the same punishment as Jeroboam did.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.26.2 p.497

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) mentions Jeroboam and the start of the divided kingdom. Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.326

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “in conjunction with Jeroboam, worship golden kine [cows], and groves, and enslave” An Answer to the Jews ch.1 p.152

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “He [God] designated idolatry under the name of Samaria, as that city was shameful for its idolatry, through which it had then revolted from God from the days of king Jeroboam.Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.13 p.332

Origen (235-245 A.D.) mentions Jeroboam. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 4 ch.2 p.30

Origen (239-242 A.D.) mentions the two golden calves of Jeroboam in discussing 1 Kings 12:28. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 9 ch.1.4 p.118

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Jeroboam. Origen On Prayer ch.13.2 p.34

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “and they made themselves a king, Jeroboam the son of Nebat.” Epistles of Cyprian Letter 75 ch.6 p.399

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Jeroboam in Preparation for the Gospel book 6 ch.10 p.61

 

Dk2. Ahab

 

1 Kings 16-22; 2 Kings 3:1,5’; 2 Chronicles 18,21,22; Jeremiah 29:21-22; Micah 6:16

 

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “For she was of the family of Ahab. But the sister of Ozias, Josabaea, stole Joas” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.327

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “This remedy even Ahab acknowledges. When, after his transgression and idolatry,” On Fasting ch.7 p.106

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “How ready to forgive Ahab, the husband of Jezebel, the blood of Naboth, when he” Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.11 p.452

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “altar in the times of Ahab” Origen’s Commentary on John book 6 ch.13 p.362

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “was sold, and king Saul persecuted the merciful David; and king Ahab endeavoured” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.11 p.503

 

Dk3. Elijah was a godly prophet

 

1 Kings 18-20; Luke 9:33;

(Implied) John 1:25

 

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) (implied, John the Baptist was asked if he was Elijah) John 1:21

p75 (c.175-225 A.D.) Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) The transfiguration Luke 9:33

p5 John 1:23-31, 33-40; 16:14-30; 20:11-17,19-20,22-25 (47 verses) (early 3rd century) (implied) John 1:25

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) mentions Elijah in many places including Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.49 p.219

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 18.3 p.71 (implied) mentions asking if John the Baptist was Elijah returned.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “Elijah, too, was caught up [when he was yet] in the substance of the [natural] form; thus exhibiting in prophecy the assumption of those who are spiritual, and that nothing stood in the way of their body being translated and caught up.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.5.1 p.530-531

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) mentions the prophet Elijah in Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.327

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) discusses God feeding Elijah using ravens. On Fasting ch.9 p.107-108

Tertullian (213 A.D.) mentions Elijah. On Monogamy ch.6 p.65

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “For in like manner, during the famine in Elijah’s time, the scanty and final meal of the widow of Sarepta was multiplied by the blessing of the prophet throughout the period of the famine. You have the third book of the Kings. If you also turn to the fourth book,Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.21 p.381

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “By one week, therefore, he meant the last week which is to be at the end of the whole world of which week the two prophets Enoch and Elias will take up the half. For they will preach 1,260 days clothed in sackcloth, proclaiming repentance to the people and to all the nations.Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.43 p.213

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) “Then, doubtless, the world shall be finished when he shall appear. He himself shall divide the globe into three ruling powers, when, moreover, Nero shall be raised up from hell, Elias [Elijah] shall first come to seal the beloved ones; at which things the region of Africa and the northern nation, the whole earth on all sides, for seven years shall tremble. But Elias shall occupy the half of the time, Nero shall occupy half. Then the whore Babylon, being reduced to ashes, its embers shall thence advance to Jerusalem; and the Latin conqueror shall then say, I am Christ, whom ye always pray to; and, indeed, the original ones who were deceived combine to praise him. He does many wonders, since his is the false prophet.” Instructions of Commodianus ch.41 p.211

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “but only he who has devoted himself to God, such as Elijah and those who are called men of God in the Scriptures, Origen’s Commentary on John book 2 ch.24 p.340

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “And through this same Jordan Elisha receives, through Elijah, the gift he desired, saying, ‘Let a double portion of thy spirit be upon me.’Commentary on John book 6 ch.27 p.373

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions the prophet Elijah [Elias]. Origen On Prayer ch.13.5 p.52

Origen (c.250 A.D.) mentions Elijah’s ravens sent by God. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 36.3.10 p.115

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258) “And king Ahab endeavoured to oppress Elias, who firmly and bravely asserted the majesty of God.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second book ch.11 p.520.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Thus that widow in the third book of Kings, when in the drought and famine, having consumed everything, she had made of the little meal and oil which was left, a cake upon the ashes, and having used this, was about to die with her children, Elias came and asked that something should first be given him to eat,” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 8 ch.17 p.480

Pontius (258 A.D.) “although to him, if the ministrations of men had been wanting, either birds, as in the case of Elias, or angels, as in that of Daniel, would have ministered.” Life and Passion of Cyprian ch.11 p.271

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (implied) says that Elijah went up to heaven. Dialogue on the True Faith 5th part ch.18b p.172

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) in discussing Revelation 7 says that Elijah the prophet will come before the Antichrist. Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John from the Sixth chapter 7 p.352

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “Hence the Scripture relates that Elijah, fleeing from the face of the woman Jezebel, at first came under a bramble, [1 Kings 19:4] and there, having been heard, received strength and took food;Banquet of the Ten Virgins Discourse 10 ch.3 p.349

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions Naaman the leper, Elias [Elijah], Eliseus [Elisha]. Incarnation of the Word ch.38.5 p.57

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) mentions the prophet Elias [Elijah] in the third book of kings [1 Kings] The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.11 p.109

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Elias [Elijah]. homily 2 ch.16 p.231

The Gnostic Docetae (222-235/236 A.D.) “And (we may learn, according to the Docetae, the same) from the expressions of the Saviour, ‘And if ye will receive it, this is Elias [Elijah] that was for to come.” In Hippolytus Refutation of All Heresies book 8 ch.3 p.119

 

Dk4. Hezekiah [godly king]

 

Isaiah 38:5-39:7

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.’ Who does not admit, then, that Hezekiah is no priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek? And who does not know that he is not the redeemer of Jerusalem?” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.83 p.240

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) mentions the 29 year reign of Hezekiah. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.25 p.119

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “In his time, in the fifteenth year, Israel was carried away to Babylon. And Salmanasar the king of the Assyrians carried away the people of Samaria into the country of the Medes and to Babylon. Again Ahaz was succeeded by Osee, who reigned for eight years. Then followed Hezekiah, for twenty-nine years. For his sanctity, when he had approached his end, God, by Isaiah, allowed him to live for other fifteen years, giving as a sign the going back of the sun.” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.327-328

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Similarly, when the king of the Assyrians, Sennacherib, after already taking several cities, was volleying blasphemies and menaces against Israel through Rabshakeh, nothing else (but fasting) diverted him from his purpose, and sent him into the Ethiopias. After that, what else swept away by the hand of the angel an hundred eighty and four thousand from his army than Hezekiah the kings humiliation?On Fasting ch.7 p.106

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “Hezekiah was no priest; and even if he had been one, he would not have been a priest for ever. ‘After the order,’ says He, ‘of Melchizedek.’ Now what had Hezekiah to do with Melchizedek, the priest of the most High God, and him uncircumcised too, who the blessed the circumcised Abraham after receiving from him the offerings of tithes? To Christ, however, ‘the order of Melchizedek’ will be very suitable; for Christ is the proper and legitimate High Priest of God. He is the Pontiff of the priesthood of the uncircumcision,…” Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.9 p.468. See also ibid book 5 ch.9 p.448.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “When Hezekiah, king of Judah, was still sick and weeping, there came an angel, and said to him: ‘I have seen thy tears, and I have heard thy voice. Behold, I add unto thy time fifteen years. And this shall be a sign to thee from the Lord: Behold, I turn back the shadow of the degrees of the house of thy father, by which the sun has gone down, the ten degrees by which the shadow has gone down,’ so that day be a day of thirty-two hours. For when the sun had run its course to the tenth hour, it returned again.On the Prophet Isaiah ch.1 p.176

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/6 A.D.) “Hezekiah did away with, because the people looked to these for the remedies for their diseases, and neglected to seek their healing from god.” On the Song of Songs ch.2 p.176

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “Let him also read the account of Hezekiah, who not only recovered from his sickness, according to the prediction of Isaiah, but was also bold enough to say, ‘Afterwards I shall beget children, who shall declare Thy righteousness.’” Origen Against Celsus book 8 ch.46 p.656

Origen (239-242 A.D.) mentions Hezekiah and quotes Isaiah 39:7. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 4 ch.8.4 p.77

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “And Hezekiah: ‘That all may know that Thou art God alone.’” Concerning the Trinity ch.30 p.642

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “And therefore Hezekiah is commanded” Banquet of The Ten Virgins discourse 10 ch.5 p.350

Athanasius of Alexandria (c.318 A.D.)”the Assyrian oppressed them, … and Ezechias [Hezekiah] quail at the boasting of Senacherim [Sennacherib], and Amalek make war against Moses, and the Amorites oppose him,…” Incarnation of the Word ch.36.3 p.55

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Hezekiah in Preparation for the Gospel book 10 ch.14 p.36

 

Dk5. Elisha

 

1 Kings 19:17,19; 2 Kings 2-9; 13:14-21

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “went about proclaiming the coming of Christ; I mean Elijah, Elisha, and Ezekiel” 1 Clement ch.17 p.9

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “into the river Jordan, recovered the iron part of the axe with which the sons of” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.86 p.242

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) “Elisha the Hebrew, and he came and healed him of his leprosy. The people of” Discourse in the Presence of Antonius Caesar p.752

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “upon Elisha’s coming to the place, and learning what had happened, he threw some wood into the water. Then, when he had done this, the iron part of the axe Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.17.3 p.545

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) Mentions Elisaeus son of Saphat (Elisha). Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.327

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “stream the iron which had sunk. And accordingly Elisha, having taken ‘wood,’ and” An Answer ot the Jews ch.13 p.170

Tertullian (207/208A.D.) “If, however, the Creator’s prophet Elisha cleansed Naaman the Syrian alone, to the exclusion of so many lepers in Israel,” Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.9 p.356

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “And through this same Jordan Elisha receives, through Elijah, the gift he desired, saying, ‘Let a double portion of thy spirit be upon me.’Commentary on John book 6 ch.27 p.373

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Moreover, belief in divine Scripture declares to us, that among all, whether infants or those who are older, there is the same equality of the divine gift. Elisha, beseeching God, so laid himself upon the infant son of the widow, who was lying dead, that his head was applied to his head, and his face to his face, and the limbs of Elisha were spread over and joined to each of the limbs of the child, and his feet to his feet. If this thing be considered with respect to the inequality of our birth and our body, an infant could not be made equal with a person grown up and mature, nor could its little limbs fit and be equal to the larger limbs of a man.” [2 Kings 4:34-35] Epistles of Cyprian letter 58 ch.3 p.354

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) “Many think that there is Elisha, or Moses, with Elijah; but both of these Commentary on the Apocalypse from the eleventh chapter verse 5 p.354

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions Naaman the leper, Elias [Elijah], Eliseus [Elisha]. Incarnation of the Word ch.38.5 p.57

 

Among heretics

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) (partial) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius mentions that the god of creation told a bear to come out and devour children. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.16 p.58

 

Dk6. Naaman [the Syrian leper]

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 17 line 47 p.71 mentions Naaman the Syrian.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) says that Naaman the Syrian was dipped seven times because of the seven deadly sins, such as “idolatry, blasphemy, murder, adultery, fornication, false-witness, and fraud.” Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.9 p.356

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) mentions Naaman the Syrian. Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.35 p.408

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “and what is said of the rivers of religion of the enemies of Israel. It is recorded of Naaman that he came with horse and chariot, and stood at the door of the house of Elisha. And Elisha sent a messenger to him, saying, ‘Go, wash seven times in the Jordan, and thy flesh shall come again unto thee, and thou shalt be cleansed.’Origen’s Commentary on John book 6 ch.28 p.374

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions Naaman the leper, Elias [Elijah], Eliseus [Elisha]. Incarnation of the Word ch.38.5 p.57

 

Dk7. Jonah in the fish or warned Ninevites

 

Jonah; Matthew 12:39-41; (partial) Luke 11:29-32

 

p75 (c.175-225 A.D.) Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) (partial) Luke 11:29-32

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) Jonah proclaimed destruction to the Ninevites, but they repented. 1 Clement ch.7 vol.1 p.7 also ch.7 vol.9 p.231

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) mentions Jonah preaching to the city of Ninevah after he had been cast up on the third day from the belly of the great fish. This is a sign of Christ. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.107 p.252

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 16.3-4 p.68 mentions Jonah and the Ninevites. Ibid section 23.18 p.79 also mentions Jonah.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) Jonah was swallowed by a great whale, and God saving Him is a type of our salvation. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.20.2 p.449-450

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (partial) mentions the shipmaster asking why Jonah was snoring and not calling out to his God. Stromata book 5 ch.14 p.474-475

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) (partial) mentions the Ninevites. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.10 p.197

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) Jonah did not die in the belly of the great beast [big fish]. Tertullian’s De Fuga Persecution ch.10 p.122

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) mentions Jonah and the Ninevites. Tertullian on Modesty ch.10 p.84

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) mentions Jonah. On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.18 p.597

Tertullian’s (207/208 A.D.) (partial) mentions Jonah fleeing to Tarshish instead of going to the Ninevites. Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.24 p.315

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) discusses Jonah telling the Ninevites that in three days Ninevah will be overthrown. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 1 ch.1.2 p.3-4. See also homily 1 ch.1 p.3

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Jonah in the fish. Origen On Prayer ch.13.2 p.49

Origen (246-248 A.D.) (partial) mentions the prophets Jonah and Daniel. Commentary on Matthew book 7 ch.53 p.633

Origen (233/234 A.D.) (partial) mentions Mardochai [Mordecai] and Esther. He also mentions Nabuchodonosor [Nebuchadnezzar], Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, Daniel in the den of lions and Jonas [Jonah]. On Prayer ch.13.2 p.49

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.12 p.660 (partial) says the mercy of God is indeed not denied to the Ninevites. (No mention of Jonah or the great fish though.)

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) says that Jonah was in the whale’s belly three days and three nights, as the Jesus was. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 book 2 ch.25 p.525

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (partial) mentions that the water received Jonah. Dialogue on the True Faith 5th part ch.18b p.172

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “As, then, Jonah spent three days and as many nights in the whale’s belly, and was delivered up sound again, so shall we all, … rise again.” On the History of Jonah ch.2 p.378

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Jonas [Jonah]. homily 11 ch.33 p.291

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 6 ch.14 p.156 mentions Jonah and the men of Nineveh.

 

Dk8. Sennacherib

 

2 Kings 18:13; 19:9-36; 2 Chronicles 32; Isaiah 36:1; 37:9-37

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “There were these kings of Assyria: Tiglath-Pileser, and after him Shalmaneser, then Sennacherib; and Adrammelech the Ethiopian, who also reigned over Egypt,Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.31 p.107

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Demetrius, in his book, On the Kings in Judaea, says that the tribes of Juda, Benjamin, and Levi were not taken captive by Sennacherib; but that they were from this captivity to the last, which Nabuchodonosor made out of Jerusalem,” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.332

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Similarly, when the king of the Assyrians, Sennacherib, after already taking several cities, was volleying blasphemies and menaces against Israel through Rabshekah, nothing else (but fasting) diverted him from his purpose, and sent him into the Ethiopias. After that, what else swept away by the hand of the angel an hundred eighty and four thousand from his army than Hezekiah, the king’s humiliation?” On Fasting ch.7 p.106

Origen (246-248 A.D.) “and of Tirhakah, king of the Ethiopians, with Sennacherib, Commentary on Matthew book 12 ch.1 p.450

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “Tobias himself says, ‘Because I remembered God with all my heart; and the Most High gave me grace and beauty in the eyes of Nemessarus, and I was his purveyor; and I went into Media, and left in trust with Gabael, the brother of Gabrias, at Ragi, a city of Media, ten talents of silver.’ And he adds, as if he were a rich man, ‘In the days of Nemessarus I gave many alms to my brethren. I gave my bread to the hungry, and my clothes to the naked: and if I saw any of my nation dead, and cast outside the walls of Nineve, I buried him; and if king Senacherim [Sennacherib] had slain any when he came fleeing from Judea, I buried them privily (for in his wrath he killed many).’Letter of Origen to Africanus ch.13 p.391

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions Sennacherim [Sennacherib]. Incarnation of the Word ch.36.3 p.55

 

Dk9. Josiah [the godly king]

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) mentions Josiah and other kings. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.25 p.119

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) in chronicling all the kings of Israel and Judah mentions Josiah, who was succeeded by Jeconiah. Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.328

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “prisoner to Babylon. Now there are born to the blessed Josiah these five sons-Jehoahaz, Eliakim, Johanan, Zedekiah, or Jeconiah, and SadumOn Daniel section 1 p.177

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “Josiah, too, as we read in third Kings, was predicted by name by the prophet who came out of Judah; for he said, Jeroboam also being present at the altar, ‘Thus saith the Lord, Behold a son is born to David, his name is Josiah.’” Origen’s Commentary on John book 6 ch.12 p.361

Origen (235-245 A.D.) mentions Josiah. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 1 ch.2 p.4

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Josiah. Origen On Prayer ch.5.5 p.29

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions Josiah. Incarnation of the Word ch.36.1 p.55

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Josiah. Preparation for the Gospel book 6 ch.10 p.41

 

Dk10. Jeconiah/Jechoniah

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “But besides, if indeed He had been the son of Joseph, He could not, according to Jeremiah, be either king or heir. For Joseph is shown to be the son of Joachim and Jechoniah, as also Matthew sets forth in his pedigree. But Jechoniah, and all his posterity, were disinherited from the kingdom; Jeremiah thus declaring, ‘As I live, saith the Lord, if Jechoniah the son of Joachim king of Judah had been made the signet of my right hand, I would pluck him thence, and deliver him into the hand of those seeking thy life.’” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.21.3 p.452

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Josiah was succeeded by Jechoniah, called also Joachas, his son, who reigned three months and ten days. Necho king of Egypt bound him and led him to Egypt, after making his brother Joachim king in his stead, who continued his tributary for eleven years.” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.328

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “prisoner to Babylon. Now there are born to the blessed Josiah these five sons-Jehoahaz, Eliakim, Johanan, Zedekiah, or Jeconiah, and SadumOn Daniel section 1 p.177

Origen (235-245 A.D.) mentions Jeconias. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 27 ch.2.5 p.254

 

Dk11. Nebuchadnezzar [King of Babylon]

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) mentions Nebuchadnezzar. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.25 p.119

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “the captivity of the people under Nebuchadnezzar, the Scriptures had been” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.21.2 p.452

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Demetrius, in his book, On the Kings in Judaea, says that the tribes of Juda, Benjamin, and Levi were not taken captive by Sennacherib; but that they were from this captivity to the last, which Nabuchodonosor made out of Jerusalem,” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.332

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “that example of the three brethren has forerun us, who, in other respects obedient toward king Nebuchadonosor, rejected with all constancy the honor to his image,” On Idolatry ch.15 p.71

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “[Daniel] a prophet and witness of Christ, who not only declare the visions of Nebuchadnezzar the king in those times,” On Daniel section 1 p.177

Origen (235-245 A.D.) mentions Nebuchadnessar of Babylon. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 5 ch.6 p.48. See also ibid homily 12 ch.11 p.124

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Mardochai [Mordecai] and Esther. He also mentions Nabuchodonosor [Nebuchadnezzar], Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, Daniel in the den of lions and Jonas [Jonah]. On Prayer ch.13.2 p.49

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “faith by these words: ‘O king Nebuchadnezzar, we are not careful to answer thee in this matter” Epistles of Cyprian letter 55 ch.4 p.348

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) “‘And he shall place,’ says he, ‘his temple within Samaria, upon the illustrious and holy mountain that is at Jerusalem, an image such as Nebuchadnezzar had made.’Commentary on the Apocalypse from the thirteenth chapter verse 13 p.357

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “time of Nebuchadnezzar, and those who after him reigned over Babylon, until the time of the Persian expedition against the Assyrians” A synopsis of the Apostolic Word from the Discourse on the Resurrection ch.18 p.376

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar. Preparation for the Gospel book 6 ch.10 p.42

 

Among corrupt of spurious books

pseudo-Hippolytus (after 236 A.D.) mentions Nebuchodonosor. Discourse on the End of the World ch.12 p.245

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Nebuchadnezzar. homily 17 ch.78 p.323

 

Dk12. Zedekiah

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “Then another Jehoiakim, 3 months 10 days; and after him Zedekiah, 11 years. And after these kings, the people, continuing in their sins, and not repenting, the king of Babylon, named Nebuchadnezzar, came up into Judaea, according to the prophecy of Jeremiah. He transferred the people of the Jews to Babylon, and destroyed the temple which Solomon had built.Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.25 p.119

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Then Zedekiah reigned for eleven years; and up to his time Jeremiah continued to prophesy. Along with him Ezekiel the son of Buzi, and Urias the son of Samaeus, and Ambacum prophesied.” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.328

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) Jeremiah and Ambacum [Habakkuk] were still prophesying in the time of Zedekiah. In the fifth year of his reign Ezekiel prophesied at Babylon; after him Nahum, then Daniel. After him, again, Haggai and Zechariah prophesied in the time of Darius the First for two years; and then the angel among the twelve. After Haggai and Zechariah, Nehemiah, the chief cup-bearer of Artaxerxes, the son of Acheli the Israelite, built the city of Jerusalem and restored the temple. Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.328

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “prisoner to Babylon. Now there are born to the blessed Josiah these five sons-Jehoahaz, Eliakim, Johanan, Zedekiah, or Jeconiah, and SadumOn Daniel section 1 p.177

Origen (239-242 A.D.) mentions Zedekiah. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 12 ch.2.1 p.149

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “Then their condition was changed, and they began to have kings; and when they had ruled during four hundred and fifty years, until the reign of Zedekiah, the Jews having been besieged by the king of Babylon, and carried into captivity, endured a long servitude, until, in the seventieth year afterwards, the captive Jews were restored to their own lands and settlements by Cyrus the elder, who attained the supreme power over the Persians, at the time when Tarquinius Superbus reigned at Rome.The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.5 p.105

 

Dk13. Ezekiel

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “went about proclaiming the coming of Christ; I mean Elijah, Elisha, and Ezekiel” 1 Clement ch.17 p.9

2 Clement (120-140 A.D.) ch.6 p.518 “For thus also saith the Scripture in Ezekiel, “If Noah, Job, and Daniel should rise up, they should not deliver their children in captivity.’”

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) quotes Ezekiel 14:18,20 as by Ezekiel, directly followed by quoting Ezekiel 18:20. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.40 p.269

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) “having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras.” From the Book of Extracts p.759

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “And another prophet, Ezekiel, says: ‘If the wicked will turn from all his sins that he hath committed, and keep all My statutes, and do that which is right in My sight, he shall surely live, he shall not die. All his transgressions that he hath committed, they shall not be mentioned unto him; but in his righteousness that he hath done he shall live: for I desire not the death of the sinner, saith the Lord, but that he turn from his wicked way, and live.’” Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.11 p.114

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “But when they turned themselves to make a calf, and had gone back in their minds to Egypt, desiring to be slaves instead of free-men, they were placed for the future in a state of servitude suited to their wish,-[a slavery] which did not indeed cut them off from God, but subjected them to the yoke of bondage; as Ezekiel the prophet, when stating the reasons for the giving of such a law, declares: “And their eyes were after the desire of their heart; and I gave them statutes that were not good, and judgments in which they shall not live.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.15.1 p.479

Clement of Alexandria (197-202 A.D.) “Jeremiah and Ambacum were still prophesying in the time of Zedekiah. In the fifth year of his reign Ezekiel prophesied at Babylon; after him Nahum, then Daniel.” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.328

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “if you turn to the prophecy of Ezekiel, you will at once perceive that this angel was both by creation good and by choice corrupt. For in the person of the prince of Tyre it is said in reference to the devil: “Moreover, the word of the Lord came unto me, saying, Son of man,” Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.10 p.305

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “Ezekiel also speaks of him to the same effect, thus: “Thus saith the Lord God, Because thine heart is lifted up, and thou hast said, I am God, I sit in the seat of God, in the midst of the sea; yet art thou a man, and not God, (though) thou hast set thine heart as the heart of God. Art thou wiser than Daniel? Have the wise not instructed thee in their wisdom? With thy wisdom or with thine understanding hast thou gotten thee power, and gold and silver in thy treasures?’” Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.18 p.208

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) And in the book of Ezekiel it is said to the ruler of Tyre, who greatly prided himself on his wisdom, ‘Art thou wiser than Daniel? Every secret was not revealed to thee.’” Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.45 p.482

Origen (239-242 A.D.) mentions Ezekiel. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 1 ch.2.1 p.26. See also Origen on Prayer 16.2 p.67.

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) quotes as by Ezekiel ch.36:17-23 followed by referring to Ezekiel 18:23-32. ch.10 p.660. It quotes Ezekiel 18:30-32 in ch.18 p.663.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “It is required, then, that the water should first be cleansed and sanctified by the priest, that it may wash away by its baptism the sins of the man who is baptized; because the Lord says by Ezekiel the prophet: “Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be cleansed from all your filthiness; and from all your idols will I cleanse you: a new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you.’ Epistles of Cyprian letter 69 ch.1 p.376

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) “There came one of the seven angels, which have the seven bowls, and spake with me, saying, Come, I will show thee the judgment of that great whore who sitteth upon many waters. And I saw the woman drunk with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs.’] The decrees of that senate are always accomplished against all, contrary to the preaching of the true faith; and now already mercy being cast aside, itself here gave the decree among all nations.(paragraph) ‘And I saw the woman herself sitting upon the scarlet-coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy.’] But to sit upon the scarlet beast, the author of murders, is the image of the devil. Where also is treated of his captivity, concerning which we have fully considered. I remember, indeed, that this is called Babylon also in the Apocalypse, on account of confusion; and in Isaiah also; and Ezekiel called it Sodom. In fine, if you compare what is said against Sodom, and what Isaiah says against Babylon, and what the Apocalypse says, you will find that they are all one.” Commentary on the Apocalypse from the 17th chapter verses 1-6 p.357

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “XVIII. And, when Origen allegorises that which is said by the prophet Ezekiel concerning the resurrection of the dead, and perverts it to the return of the Israelites from their captivity in Babylon, the saint in refuting him, after many other remarks, says this also: For neither did they obtain a perfect liberty, nor did they overcome their enemies by a greater power, and dwell again in Jerusalem; and when they frequently intended to build (the temple), they were prevented by other nations.” Discourse on the Resurrection ch.18 p.376

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) Ezekiel. Incarnation of the Word ch.39.4-5 p.57

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions Jacob, Jeremy [Jeremiah], Ezekiel, David, Solomon, Gad, Asaph, Nathan, Osee [Hosea] Incarnation of the Word ch.40 p.57

 

Dk14. Daniel

 

Ezekiel 14:14,20; book of Daniel, Matthew 24:15; Mark 13:14

Ezekiel 28:3 (Daniel, probably not the Ugaritic Danel, who was not particularly wise)

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “For what shall we say, brethren? Was Daniel cat into the den of lions by such as feared God? Were Ananias, and Azariuas, and Nishael shut up in a furnace of fire by those who observed the great and glorious worship of the Most High? Far from us be such a thought!” 1 Clement ch.45 p.17. See also vol.9

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.4 p.138 “In like manner Daniel says concerning the same, ‘And I beheld the fourth beast, wicked and powerful, and more savage than all the beasts of the earth, and how from it sprang up ten horns, and out of them a little budding horn, and how it subdued under one three of the great horns.’”

2 Clement (120-140 A.D.) ch.6 p.518 “For thus also saith the Scripture in Ezekiel, ‘If Noah, Job, and Daniel should rise up, they should not deliver their children in captivity.’

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “But if so great a power is shown to have followed and to be still following the dispensation of His suffering, how great shall that be which shall follow His glorious advent! For He shall come on the clouds as the Son of man, so Daniel foretold, and His angels shall come with Him.” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.31 p.209

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 42 no.4 p.108 “And when ye see the unclean sign of desolation, spoken of in Daniel the prophet,

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) “having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras.” From the Book of Extracts p.759

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “of history, in agreement with Moses; and with the prophets Jeremiah and Daniel” Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.29 p.121

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “Whom also Daniel the prophet, when Cyrus king of the Persians said to him, ‘Why dost thou not worship Bel?’ Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.5.2 p.467

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says that Daniel 9:24-27 prophesies of Christ. Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.329

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “For Daniel says, that ‘both the holy city and the holy place are exterminated together with the coming Leader, and that the pinnacle is destroyed unto ruin.’” An Answer to the Jews ch.8 p.158

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “For we shall, according to the apostle, be caught up into the clouds to meet the Lord (even the Son of man, who shall come in the clouds, according to Daniel) and so shall we ever be with the Lord,” Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.25 p.343

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) mentions the four beasts [living creatures] and the four and twenty elders. Commentary on Daniel ch.2.20 p.181

Hippolytus of Portus (225-234/5 A.D.) “which Daniel says: ‘I saw in the night visions, and behold one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and was brought near before Him. And there was given Him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom; and all peoples, tribes, and languages shall serve Him: and His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom shall not be destroyed.’” Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.26 p.209

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “In the book of Daniel, also, the following prophecies are found relating to those who are to share in the resurrection: “And at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that has been written in the book. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament, and (those) of the many righteous as the stars for ever and ever,’” Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.10 p.547

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Mardochai [Mordecai] and Esther. He also mentions Nabuchodonosor [Nebuchadnezzar], Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, Daniel in the den of lions and Jonas [Jonah]. On Prayer ch.13.2 p.49

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.17 p.662 “Like things to these also says Daniel: “I beheld a throne placed, and the”

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “For the grace of God is mighty to associate and join together in the bond of charity and unity even those things which seem to be divided by a considerable space of earth, according to the way in which of old also the divine power associated in the bond of unanimity Ezekiel and Daniel, though later in their age, and separated from them by a long space of time, to Job and Noah, who were among the first; so that although they were separated by long periods, yet by divine inspiration they felt the same truths.” Epistles of Cyprian Letter 74 ch.3 p.390

Pontius’ Life and Passion of Cyprian (258 A.D.) ch.11 p.271 “Such a place might have borne the name of exile, if Cyprian, the priest of God, had come thither; although to him, if the ministrations of men had been wanting, either birds, as in the case of Elias, or angels, as in that of Daniel, would have ministered.”

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) says that the kingdom of Iron in the prophecy of Daniel is the Roman Empire. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.24 p.67

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) “one should buy or sell them. Daniel had previously predicted his contempt and” Commentary on the Apocalypse from the thirteenth chapter verse 13 p.357

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “and therefore Daniel was called ‘a man of desires.’” Discourse on the Resurrection part II ch.12 p.375

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) “the most wise Daniel, who marks both the actual date, and the divine sojourn of the Saviour, saying: ‘Seventy weeks are cut short upon thy people, and upon the holy city,…” Incarnation of the Word ch.39 p.57

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “Daniel also foretold similar things: ‘I saw,’ he said, ‘in a vision of the night, and, behold, one like the Son of man coming with the clouds of heaven, and He came even to the Ancient of days.The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.12 p.111

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “The prophet Daniel had long before shown this, saying, ‘I saw in the night vision, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days; and they who stood beside Him brought Him near before Him. And there was given Him a kingdom, and glory, and dominion, and all people, tribes, and languages shall serve Him; and His power is an everlasting one, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.’” Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.47 p.241

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar. Preparation for the Gospel book 6 ch.10 p.42

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Daniel. Preparation for the Gospel book 10 ch.14 p.36

 

Among corrupt of spurious books

pseudo-Ignatius of Antioch (after 117 A.D.) “For Daniel the wise, at twelve years of age, became possessed of the divine X Spirit, and convicted the elders, who in vain carried their grey hairs, of being false accusers, and of lusting after the beauty of another man’s wife.” Letter to the Magnesians (Latin version) ch.3 p.60

pseudo-Ignatius of Antioch (after 117 A.D.) “He, being begotten by the Father before the beginning of time, was God the Word, the only-begotten Son, and remains the same for ever; for ‘of His kingdom there shall be no end,’ says Daniel the prophet.Epistle to the Magnesians ch.6 p.61

 

Dk15. The three youths in Daniel

 

Daniel 3:16-18

 

See also, W30: Christ with the three youths in Daniel.

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “For what shall we say, brethren? Was Daniel cat into the den of lions by such as feared God? Were Ananias, and Azariuas, and Nishael shut up in a furnace of fire by those who observed the great and glorious worship of the Most High? Far from us be such a thought!” 1 Clement ch.45 p.17. See also vol.9

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “And then, again, when Ananias, Azarias, and Misael were cast into the furnace of fire sevenfold heated, they sustained no harm whatever, neither was the smell of fire perceived upon them. As, therefore, the hand of God was present with them, working out marvellous things in their case-[things] impossible [to be accomplished] by man’s nature-what wonder was it, if also in the case of those who were translated it performed something wonderful, working in obedience to the will of God, even the Father? Now this is the Son of God, as the Scripture represents Nebuchadnezzar the king as having said, ‘Did not we cast three men bound into the furnace? and, lo, I do see four walking in the midst of the fire, and the fourth is like the Son of God.’Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.5.2 p.531

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “But His Word [Christ],… For at one time He [Christ] was seen with those who were around Ananias, Azarias, Misael, as present with them in the furnace of fire, in the burning, and preserving them from [the effects of] fire: ‘And the appearance of the fourth,’ it is said, ‘was like to the Son of God.’” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.20.11 p.491

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) mentions the youths, Mishael, Ananias, Azariah. Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.328

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) quotes Daniel 3:16 in Scorpiace ch.8 p.640.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “…even Jesus the Creator. It was He who was seen by the king of Babylon in the furnace with His martyrs: ‘the fourth, who was like the Son of man.’” Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.359

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) in discussing the three youths in the fire says, See how even the fire appears intelligent, as if it recognised and punished the guilty. For it did not touch the servants of God, but it consumed the unbelieving and impious Chaldeans. Scholia on Daniel ch.3 no.47 p.188

Hippolytus of Portus (225-235/6 A.D.) also mentions that Jesus was in the furnace with Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, though Jesus was not yet born on earth of a virgin. Fragment 3 : Commentary on Daniel ch.2.93 p.188

Origen (233/234 A.D.) speaks of the three youths in Daniel. Origen On Prayer ch.13.2 p.49 and Exhortation to Martyrdom ch.5.33 p.173

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Mardochai [Mordecai] and Esther. He also mentions Nabuchodonosor [Nebuchadnezzar], Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, Daniel in the den of lions and Jonas [Jonah]. On Prayer ch.13.2 p.49

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “representing to us something of the same kind as once did Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, the illustrious youths to whom, when shut up in the furnace, the fires gave way, and the flames gave refreshment, the Lord being present with them, and proving that against His confessors and martyrs the heat of hell could have no power, but that they who trusted in God should always continue unhurt and safe in all dangers.” Epistles of Cyprian Letter 80 ch.3 p.407

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) (partial) “Let us imitate the three children Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, who, neither frightened by their youthful age nor broken down by captivity, Judea, being conquered and Jerusalem taken, overcame the king by the power of faith in his own kingdom;” Epistles of Cyprian letter 55 ch.5 p.348

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) mentions the three children in Daniel. Dialogue on the True Faith part 1 815a ch.20 p.63

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 17 ch.17 p.323 (partial) mentions that Nebuchadnezzar, an impious man, saw a vision of a fourth man in the furnace with the three men. It does not specifically say who this is though.

 

Dk16. Cyrus [King of Persia]

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) mentions Nebuchadnezzar and Cyrus. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.25 p.119

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “For who is the God of the living unless He who is God, and above whom there is no other God? Whom also Daniel the prophet, when Cyrus king of the Persians said to him, ‘Why dost thou not worship Bel? ‘ did proclaim, saying, “Because I do not worship idols made with hands, but the living God, who established the heaven and the earth and has dominion over all flesh.’” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.5.2 p.467

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says that Cyrus of Persia reigned 30 years. Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.329

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Finally, in the third year of Cyrus king of the Persians, when he had fallen into careful and repeated meditation on a vision, he provided another form of humiliation. “In those days,” he says, “I Daniel was mourning during three weeks: pleasant bread I ate not; flesh and wine entered not into my mouth; with oil I was not anointed; until three weeks were consummated:” On Fasting ch.9 p.107

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) This has been fulfilled. For after Cyrus arose Darius, and then Artaxerxes. These were the three kings; (and) the Scripture is fulfilled. Interpretations of Hippolytus on Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar ch.2 no.30 p.183

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “And therefore that very ancient prophet, who prophesied many generations before the reign of Cyrus (for he was older than he by more than fourteen generations), expressed himself in these words: “The Lord is my light and my salvation: whom shall I fear?” Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.5 p.575

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) mentions Cyrus building God’s temple in Jerusalem. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.21 p.63

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “The prophet Ezra also, who was in the times of the same Cyrus by whom the Jews were restored, thus speaks:” and then quotes Nehemiah 9:26. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.11 p.109

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Cyrus in Preparation for the Gospel book 6 ch.10 p.41, book 10 ch.9 p.24, and book 10 ch.14 p.37

 

Dk17. Darius [King of Persia]

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) mentions Darius. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.25 p.119

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) discusses Darius Hystaspes of Persia. Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.329

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Apollodorus says that he was born in the fortieth Olympiad, and reached to the times of Darius and Cyrus.” Stromata book 1 ch.14 p.314

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “But withal Daniel, in the first year of King Darius, when, fasting in sackcloth and ashes, he was doing exomologesis to God, said:On Fasting ch.10 p.109

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) This has been fulfilled. For after Cyrus arose Darius, and then Artaxerxes. These were the three kings; (and) the Scripture is fulfilled. Interpretations of Hippolytus on Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar ch.2 no.30 p.183

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “And because they [the Jews] were in favour with God, they were not abandoned by Him; but although few in number, they continued to enjoy the protection of the divine power, so that in the reign of Alexander of Macedon they sustained no injury from him, although they refused, on account of certain covenants and oaths, to take up arms against Darius. They say that on that occasion the Jewish high priest, clothed in his sacred robe, received obeisance from Alexander, who declared that he had beheld an individual arrayed in this fashion, who announced to him in his sleep that he was to be the subjugator of the whole of Asia.” Against Celsus book 5 ch.50 p.565

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions Darius’ edict in Daniel. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 3 ch.20 p.541

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says that Zechariah prophesied in the time of King Darius. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.5 p.105

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Justin Martyr (168-200 A.D.) “And they say that Darius, the father of Xerxes, was the sixth who legislated for the Egyptians.Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.9 p.277

 

Dk18. Artaxerxes/Ahasuerus [King of Persia]

 

Nehemiah 2:1

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “land, then, in the times of Artaxerxes king of the Persians, inspired Esdras” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.21.2 p.452

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “After Haggai and Zechariah, Nehemiah, the chief cup-bearer of Artaxerxes,Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.328

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Artaxerxes reigned” An Answer to the Jews ch.8 p.159

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) This has been fulfilled. For after Cyrus arose Darius, and then Artaxerxes. These were the three kings; (and) the Scripture is fulfilled. Interpretations of Hippolytus on Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar ch.2 no.30 p.183

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “Neither are the letters; nor the one written to Amman [Haman] about the rooting up of the Jewish nation, nor that of Mardochaios [Mordecai] in the name of Artaxerxes delivering the nation from death.” Letter to Africanus ch.3 p.387

 

Dk19. Ezra the scribe/prophet

 

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says the Esdras [Ezra] reconstructed the scriptures. Stromata book 1 ch.23 p.335

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) mentions Ezra in On the Apparel of Women ch.1 p.14

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/256 A.D.) “son of Josedech, and Ezra the scribe, and Zerubbabel the son of Salathiel,” of Fragments

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “The place-names of Scripture are specially to be suspected where many of them occur in a catalogue, as in the account of the partition of the country in Joshua, and in the first Book of Chronicles from the beginning down to, say, the passage about Dan, and similarly in Ezra.” Origen’s Commentary on John ch.6.24 p.371

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “In Ezra also: ‘They have fallen away from Thee, and have cast Thy law behind their backs, and have killed Thy prophets which testified against them that they should return to Thee.’ [Nehemiah 9:26]” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 1 ch.2 p.508

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “The prophet Ezra also, who was in the times of the same Cyrus by whom the Jews were restored, thus speaks:” and then quotes Nehemiah 9:26. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.11 p.109

 

Dk20. Zerubbabel

 

Ezra 2:2; Luke 3:27

 

p4 Luke 1:58-59; 1:62-2:1,6-7; 3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35; 5:3-8; 5:30-6:16 (c.150-175 A.D.) Luke 3:27

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “If any one, however, advocating the cause of the Jews, do maintain that this new covenant consisted in the rearing of that temple which was built under Zerubbabel after the emigration to Babylon, and in the departure of the people from thence after the lapse of seventy years, let him know that the temple constructed of stones was indeed then rebuilt (for as yet that law was observed which had been made upon tables of stone), yet no new covenant was given, but they used the Mosaic law until the coming of the Lord;” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.34.4 p.512

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “At the time of Zorobabel, having by his wisdom overcome his opponents, and obtained leave from Darius for the rebuilding of Jerusalem, returned with Esdras [Ezra] to his native land;” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.328

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “son of Josedech, and Ezra the scribe, and Zerubbabel the son of Salathiel, of” An Interpretation by Hippolytus of the Visions of Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar ch.15 p.180

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Also in Haggai: ‘And Zerubbabel the son of Salathiel, of the tribe of Judah, and Jesus the son of Josedech, the high priest, and all who remained of the people, obeyed the voice of the Lord their God, because the Lord sent him to them, and the people feared from the face of God.’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 3 ch.20 p.541

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Zerubabbel in Preparation for the Gospel book 10 ch.10 p.24.

 

Dk21. Joshua the high priest (in Zechariah)

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) quotes Zechariah 3:1 as by Zechariah, as a foreshadowing of Jesus. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.79 p.238

Clement of Alexandria (193-220 A.D.) (partial, no mention of Joshua) quotes Zechariah 3:2 as by Zechariah.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) refers to Zechariah 3 as by Zechariah. An Answer to the Jews ch.14 p.172.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) quotes Zechariah 3:1,3,5,7,8 as by Zechariah. The Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 2 ch.13 p.521-522.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) quotes Zechariah 3:1-8 as by Zechariah. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.14 p.113-114

 

Dk22. Antiochus [Epiphanes] of Syria

 

Hippolytus of Portus (222-234/235 A.D.) “For in this wise, too, did Antiochus Epiphanes the king of Syria, the descendant of Alexander of Macedon, devise measures against the Jews.” Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.49 p.214

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “But if this result has not taken place, and if, on the contrary, they have suffered countless calamities rather than renounce Judaism and their law, and have been cruelly treated, at one time in Assyria, at another in Persia, and at another under Antiochus, is it not in keeping with the probabilities of the case for those to suppose who do not yield their belief to their miraculous histories and prophecies, that the events in question could not be inventions, but that a certain divine Spirit being in the holy souls of the prophets, as of men who underwent any labour for the cause of virtue, did move them to prophesy some things relating to their contemporaries, and others to their posterity, but chiefly regarding a certain personage who was to come as a Saviour to the human race?Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.3 p.466

Origen (233/234 A.D.) tells of the seven brothers in Machabees, who were tortured with whips and scourges by Antiochus. Origen’s Exhortation to Martyrdom ch.4.23 p.163-164

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “The king Antiochus, their enemy-yea, in Antiochus Antichrist was set forth-sought to pollute the mouths of martyrs, glorious and unconquered in the spirit of confession, with the contagion of swine’s flesh; and when he had severely beaten them with whips, and could prevail nothing, commanded iron plates to be heated, which being heated and made to glow, he commanded him who had first spoken, and had more provoked the king with the constancy of his virtue and faith, to be brought up and roasted, his tongue having first been pulled out and cut off, which had confessed God; and this happened the more gloriously to the martyr.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.11 p.504

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) “Matthias also, prince of Judah, broke the Sabbath; for he slew the prefect of Antiochus the king of Syria on the Sabbath, and subdued the foreigners by pursuing them.” On the Creation of the World p.342

 

Modern times

C. H. Spurgeon (1834-1892), of unforgettable stature in Christian history, referred to a commentary on the book of Daniel as setting forth the ”absurd hypothesis” that all of Daniel’s prophecies were fulfilled in the period between the Old and New Testament -- that is, the years between Malachi and Matthew (See Spurgeon’s Commenting and Commentaries, page 126, review #770).

 

Jewish Writers

1 Maccabees 1:54 claims Antiochus Epiphanes fulfilled Daniel.

Josephus claims Antiochus Epiphanes fulfilled Daniel.

 

Dk23. Rehoboam

 

Matthew 1:7

 

p1 (225-275 A.D.) Matthew 1:1-9, 12, 14-20 (17 verses) Matthew 1:7

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “And after the judges they had kings, the first named Saul, who reigned 20 years; then David, our forefather, who reigned 40 years. Accordingly, there are to the reign of David [from Isaac] 496 years. And after these kings Solomon reigned, who also, by the will of God, was the first to build the temple in Jerusalem; he reigned 40 years. And after him Rehoboam, 17 years; and after him Abias, 7 years;Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.25 p.119

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) mentions Roboam [Rehoboam] Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.326

Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) mentions Rehoboam. A Treatise on the Soul ch.25 p.206

Origen (c.250 A.D.) mentions Rehoboam. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 77.1.1 p.288. Homilies on Luke (233-244 A.D.) homily 28.2 p.116

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) “As this Psalm is addressed to Solomon, the first verse of (354) the Psalm must be referred to him, and all the rest to the son of Solomon, not Rehoboam, who was king of Israel after him, but Him that was of his seed according to the flesh, the Christ of God: for all who are acquainted with the Holy Scriptures will agree that it is impossible to connect (c) what is said in this Psalm with him or his successors, because of what they reveal about him.” Demonstration of the Gospel from Psalm 72 p.&&&

 

Dk24. The prophets are holy

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “with your holy prophets, so are there now many false teachers amongst usDialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.82 p.240

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “At the same time, I met with the sacred Scriptures of the holy prophets, who also by the Spirit of God foretold the things that have already happened,…” Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.14 p.93

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “sent holy prophets to declare and teach the race of men, that each one of us might awake and understand that there is one God.” Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.34 p.108

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “of which God hath spoken by His holy prophets.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.3 p.430-431

Clement of Alexandria (198-220 A.D.) “The like also we find in the holy prophets; but to Moses an angel appeared near and at hand. Moses heard him and spoke to him manifestly, face to face.” Comments on the First Epistle of John (Latin translation by Cassiodorus) p.574

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) mentions “His holy prophets” On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.33 p.362

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “And holy prophets that were after himFive Books Against Marcion book

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “after the glorious and honourable company of the holy prophetsCommentary on Genesis 49:21-26 p.167

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) “the choir of the holy prophetsInstructions of Commodianus ch.42 p.211

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “souls of the holy prophets.” Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.81 p.496

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) “Therefore, when the holy prophets, and all, as I have said, who righteously and justly walked in the law of the Lord, together with the entire people, celebrated a typical and shadowy Passover, the Creator and Lord of every visible and invisible creature, the only-begotten Son, and the Word co-eternal with the Father and the Holy Spirit, and of the same substance with them, according to His divine nature, our Lord and God, Jesus Christ, being in the end of the world born according to the flesh of our holy and glorious lady, Mother of God, and Ever-Virgin, and, of a truth, of Mary the Mother of God; and being seen upon earth, and having true and real converse as man with men, who were of the same substance with Him, according to His human nature, Himself also, with the people,” fragment 5.7 p.282

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “This is the doctrine of the holy prophets which we Christians follow;The Divine Institutes book 7 ch.26 p.221

 

 

Teachings on O. T. individuals not on the list

 

1. Abigail (no writers)

2. Abimelech in Isaac’s time (only 2 writers: Clement of Alexandria, Origen)

3. Abimelech father of Abiathar (only 1 writer: Clement of Alexandria)

4. Abimelech son of Gideon (only 2 writers: Theophilus of Antioch, Hippolytus)

5. Abner (no writers)

6. Abraham’s descendants like dust (only 3 writers; Clement of Rome, Justin Martyr)

7. Abraham rejoiced to see the day of Christ (only 3 writers)

8. Absalom (no writers. After Nicea Ambrosiaster q6 p.130, Asterius of Amasea Against Covetousness sermon 3 ch.1 p.2.)

9. Achish (no writers)

10. Adonijah (no writers)

11. Adoniram (no writers)

12. Agag (no writers)

13. Ai (town of) (no writers)

14. Amaziah (only 1 writer: Theophilus of Antioch)

15. Amon (only 1 writer: Theophilus of Antioch)

16. Ammonites (Not an individual. 4 writers: Justin Martyr, Theophilus of Antioch, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian)

17. Aphek (town of) (no writers)

18. Arad (town of) (no writers)

19. Arioch (only 1 writer: Theophilus of Antioch)

20. Asa (only 1 writer: Theophilus of Antioch)

21. Asahel (no writers)

22. Asaph (only 2 writers: Origen, Athanasius of Alexandria Incarnation ch.40 p.57. Also pseudo-Hippolytus)

23. Asher (2 writers)

24. Athaliah, evil queen (only 1 writer: Theophilus of Antioch)

25. Athiophel (no writers)

26. Bathsheba, Solomon’s wife (only 1 writer. After Nicea Ambrosiaster (Bersabee or adultery) q3 p.153)

27. Baasha king of Israel (no writers)

28. Baruch Jeremiah’s scribe (no writers)

29. Ben Hadad of Syria (no writers)

30. Beniah, Solomon’s soldier (no writers)

31. Bildad the Shuhite (no writers)

32. Bilhah [Jacob’s concubine] (no writers)

33. Boaz, husband of Ruth Matthew 1:5 (no writers. manuscript p1)

34. Caleb (only 2 writers: Irenaeus Against Heresies, Irenaeus Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.27, Clement of Alexandria)

35. David, man after God’s own heart (no writers)

36. Deborah, godly judge (only 3 writers: Theophilus of Antioch, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian)

37. Delilah, caused Samson’s downfall (no writers)

38. Dinah, Jacob’s daughter (no writers)

39. Doeg the Edomite (no writers. After Nicea: Athanasius of Alexandria)

40. Eldad and Modat [Medad] (only 1 writer: Shepherd of Hermas)

41. Eleazar (only 3 writers: Julius Africanus, Origen, Cyprian)

42. Eliashib the priest (no writers)

43. Enoch (son of Cain) (only 2 writers)

44. Enos (only 2 writers)

45. Esther the Persian queen (only 3 writers: Clement of Rome, Clement of Alexandria, Origen)

46. Geshem the Arab (no writers)

47. Goliath the Philistine (only 1 writer)

48. Ham son of Noah (only 3 writers)

49. Haman (only 2 writers)

50. Hezekiah did away with Solomon’s books on healing (only 1 writer)

51. Ichabod (no writers)

52. Isaac became blind (only 1 writer: Adamantius: 1 heretic: Megethius)

53. Issachar (only 1 writer: Eusebius)

54. Jair (only 1 writer)

55. Jannes and Jambres/Mambres (only 2 writers: Origen, Cyprian of Carthage. After Nicea: Hegemonius/Archelaus)

56. Jared (only 1 writer: Origen)

57. Jehoiada (no writers)

58. Jehoshaphat, good king of Judah Matthew 1:8 (only 1 writer manuscript p1)

59. Jehu (only 1 writer)

60. Jethro (only 1 write: Origen. Among heretics a Naasene sermon TGB p.485)

61. Jezebel in the OT (only 3 writers: Tertullian, Hippolytus, Methodius. After Nicea: Athanasius of Alexandria)

62. Joab (no writers)

63. Joash (only 2 writers: Clement of Alexandreia, Athanasius)

64. Jonadab and the Recabites (only 1 writer: Origen)

65. Jonathan son of Saul (only 3 writers: Tertullian, Hippolytus, Gregory Thaumaturgus)

66. Jotham (only 1 writer)

68. Keturah, wife of Abraham (no writers)

68. Manasseh son of Hezekiah (only 1 writer)

69. Manoah [father of Samson (no writers. After Nicea: Athanasius of Alexandria)

70. Mephibosheth, son of Jonathan (no writers)

71. Methuselah (only 3 writers: Theophilus of Antioch, Methodius,)

72. Mesha, king of Moab (no writers)

73. Mordecai (only 2 writers: Clement of Alexandria, Origen’s Exhortation to Martyrdom ch.33 p.173 and On Prayer ch.13.2 p.49)

74. Moses fasted for 40 days on the mountain (only 3 writers: Clement of Rome, Epistle of Barnabas, Irenaeus. After Nicea: Hegemonius/Archelaus)

75. Naboth, vineyard owner (only 1 writer: Tertullian. After Nicea: Athanasius of Alexandria, Ambrosiaster q110 p.118)

76. Nadab (only1 writer: Irenaeus)

77. Nahor/Nachor (only 2 writers. Origen)

78. Naomi, mother-in-law of Ruth (no writers)

79. Nazirites (only 2 writers)

80. Nehemiah (only 1 writer)

81. Noah’s nakedness (only 2 writers)

82. Oded (no writers)

83. Orpah (no writers)

84. Othniel (only 1 writer: Eusebius of Caesarea)

85. Queen of Sheba (only 1 writer: Origen)

86. Reu (only 2 writers: Theophilus of Antioch, Hippolytus)

87. Reuben (only 3 writers: Justin Martyr, Hippolytus, Origen)

88. Ruth (the person, not the book) (only 2 writers: Julius Africanus and Origen. Melito mentions the book)

89. Serug/Serag (only 2 writers: Theophilus of Antioch, Hippolytus)

90. Shamgar (no writers)

91. Shimei (no writers)

92. Simeon (only 3 writers: Tertullian, Hippolytus, Origen)

93. Terah, Abraham’s father (only 2 writers: Theophilus of Antioch, Eusebius of Caesarea)

94. Thola/Tola (only 1 writer: Theophilus of Antioch)

95. Tobias the Ammonite (no writers)

96. Tobit [in the apocrypha] (only 3 writers: Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Adamantius)

97. The widow [and Elisha] (only 1 writer: Cyprian)

98. Uriah the Hittite (only 3 writers: Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Tertullian 5 Books)

99. Uzziah Matthew 1:9 (only 3 writers: Theophilus of Antioch, Cyprian of Carthage, Eusebius of Caesarea. manuscript p1 corrupt or spurious: pseudo-Methodius)

100. Zadok the scribe (no writers)

101. Zechariah killed between temple and altar (only 1 writer: Cyprian of Carthage)

102. Zelophehad (no writers)

103. Zilpah [Jacob’s concubine] (no writers)

104. Zipporah circumcising their son (only 2 writers: Tertullian, Origen)

 

 

GOSPEL Individuals

 

Go1. Mary mother of Jesus was blessed

 

Luke 1:48b

 

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “But it has fixed and established ‘the fruit of the belly,’ that it might declare the generation of Him who should be [born] from the Virgin, as Elisabeth testified when filled with the Holy Ghost, saying to Mary, ‘Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy belly;’Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.21.5 p.453

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “Tell me, O blessed Mary, what that was that was conceived by thee in the womb, and what that was that was born by thee in thy virgin matrix.” Fragment 4 On Resurrection and Incorruption p.238

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “Chap. II. 7. And if you please, we say that the Word was the first-born of God, who came down from heaven to the blessed Mary, and was made a first-born man in her womb, in order that the first-born of God might be manifested in union with a first-born man.On Luke ch.7 p.194

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Also in the Gospel according to Luke: ‘And it came to pass, when Elisabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb; and she was filled with the Holy Ghost, and she cried out with a loud voice, and said, Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb.’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second part ch.8 p.519

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Protoevangelium of James (145-248 A.D.) ch.11 p.363 (implied) mentions Mary, the mother of Jesus.

 

 

Go2. Elizabeth [mother of John the Baptist]

 

Luke 1:5,7,13,24,40-45,57

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “For Samuel’s mother, who was barren, brought forth by the will of God; and so also the wife of the holy patriarch Abraham; and Elisabeth, who bore John the Baptist, and other such.Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.84 p.241

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 1 p.43 The angel came and spoke to Elizabeth and Mary.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “Luke also, the follower and disciple of the apostles, referring to Zacharias and Elisabeth, from whom, according to promise, John was born, says:Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.10.1 p.423

Tertullian (c.203 A.D.) “who had been irregularly conceived. However, even these have life, each of them in his mothers womb. Elizabeth exults with joy, (for) John had leaped in her womb;A Treatise on the Soul ch.26 p.207

Tertullian (198-240 A.D.) has a detailed description of a surgical abortion. In Elizabeth’s womb the fetus was alive. A Treatise on the Soul ch.25 p.206

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “45. He, on hearing the salutation addressed to Elisabeth, leaped with joy in his mothers womb, recognising God the Word conceived in the womb of the Virgin.” Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.44,45 p.213

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “This is to teach us that the man also of the Son of God, the man who was mixed with His divinity, was older than His birth from Mary. John says he does not know this man, but must he not have known Him when he leapt for joy when yet a babe unborn in Elisabeth’s womb, as soon as the voice of Mary’s salutation sounded in the ears of the wife of Zacharias?Commentary on John book 1 ch.37 p.317

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Zechariah and Elizabeth. Origen On Prayer ch.14.3 p.54

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Also in the Gospel according to Luke: “And it came to pass, when Elisabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb; and she was filledTreatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first part ch.8 p.519

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) claims that Herod slew Zechariah, while [John the Baptist] escaped with Elisabeth.” Canonical Epistle canon 13 p.277

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) says Zechariah and Elizabeth are the father and mother of John the Baptist. Ginza p.550

 

Go3. Zechariah, husband of Elizabeth

 

Luke 1:5-25

 

p4 Luke 1:58-59; 1:62-2:1,6-7; 3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35; 5:3-8; 5:30-6:16 (c.150-175 A.D.) Luke 1:59

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 1.6 p.43 mentions the priest Zacharias and his wife Elizabeth.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “For through him we have become acquainted with very many and important parts of the Gospel; for instance, the generation of John, the history of Zacharias, the coming of the angel to Mary, the exclamation of Elisabeth, the descent of the angels to the shepherds, the words spoken by them, the testimony of Anna and of Simeon with regard to Christ, and that twelve years of age He was left behind at Jerusalem;” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.14.3 p.438

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) “And it was this which was signified by the dumbness of Zacharias, which waited for fruit in the person of the harbinger of Christ, that the Word, the light of truth, by becoming the Gospel, might break the mystic silence of the prophetic enigmas.” Exhortation to the Heathen ch.1 p.174

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) Zechariah, John the Baptist’s father. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.1 p.174

Tertullian (213 A.D.) “Monogamy and Continence: one modest, in Zechariah the priest; one absolute, in John the forerunner: one appeasing God; one preaching Christ: one proclaiming a perfect priest; one exhibiting ‘more than a prophet,’ -him, namely, who has not only preached or personally pointed out, but even baptized Christ.On Monogamy ch.8 p.65

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “Thus also two forerunners were indicated. The first was John the son of Zacharias, who appeared in all things a forerunner and herald of our Saviour,” Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.44 p.213

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “This explains, perhaps, how it was that Zacharias lost his voice at the birth of the voice which points out the Word of God, and only recovered it when the voice, forerunner of the Word, was born.” Origen’s Commentary on John 2 ch.26 p.341

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Zechariah and Elizabeth. Origen On Prayer ch.14.3 p.54

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Also in that according to Luke: ‘And Zacharias was filled with the Holy Ghost, and prophesied, saying, Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, who hath foreseen redemption for His people, and hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of His servant David.’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second part ch.7 p.519

Pontius (258 A.D.) “I find something similar in the Scriptures. For Zacharias the priest, because he did not believe the promise of a son, made to him by the angel, became dumb; so that he asked for tablets by a sign, being about to write his son’s name rather than utter it.” Life and Passion of Cyprian ch.13 p.272

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) “Luke, in narrating the priesthood of Zacharias as he offers a sacrifice for the people, and the angel that appears to him with respect of the priesthood,” Commentary on the Apocalypse from the fourth chapter 7-10 p.348

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) claims that Herod slew Zechariah, while [John the Baptist] escaped with Elisabeth.” Canonical Epistle canon 13 p.277

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Protoevangelium of James (145-248 A.D.) ch.10 p.363 mentions that Zecharias was mute, and after Jesus was born he spoke again.

Mandaeans (>350?) says Zechariah and Elizabeth are the father and mother of John the Baptist. Ginza p.550

 

Go4. John the Baptist leapt in Elizabeth’s womb

 

Luke 1:44

 

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 1.43 p.44 says that Elizabeth’s baby leaped in her womb.

Tertullian (c.203 A.D.) “who had been irregularly conceived. However, even these have life, each of them in his mothers womb. Elizabeth exults with joy, (for) John had leaped in her womb;A Treatise on the Soul ch.26 p.207

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “45. He, on hearing the salutation addressed to Elisabeth, leaped with joy in his mothers womb, recognising God the Word conceived in the womb of the Virgin.” Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.45 p.213

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “Gabriel, when announcing to Zacharias the birth of John, and to Mary the advent of our Saviour among men, says: That John is to be ‘filled with the Holy Spirit even from his mothers womb.’ And we have also the saying, ‘For behold, when the voice of thy salutation came into mine ears, the babe leaped in my womb for joy.’” Origen’s Commentary on John book 2 ch.24 p.340

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Also in the Gospel according to Luke: “And it came to pass, when Elisabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb; and she was filledTreatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first part ch.8 p.519

 

Go5. Shepherds at Jesus’ birth

 

Luke 2:8-20

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 2.16-28 p.46 “And there were in that region shepherds abiding, keeping their flock in the watch of the night. And behold, the angel of God came unto them, and the glory of the Lord shone upon them; and they were greatly terrified. And the angel said unto them, Be not terrified; for I bring you tidings of great joy which shall be to the whole world; there is born to you this day a Saviour, which is the Lord the Messiah, in the city of David. And this is a sign for you: ye shall find a babe wrapped in swaddling cloths and laid in a manger. And there appeared with the angels suddenly many heavenly forces praising God and saying, Praise be to God in the highest, And on the earth peace, and good hope to men. And when the angels departed from them to heaven, the shepherds spake to one another and said, We will go to Bethlehem and see this word which hath been, as the Lord made known unto us. And they came with haste, and found Mary and Joseph, and the babe laid in a manger. And when they saw, they reported the word which was spoken to them about the child. And all that heard wondered at the description which the shepherds described to them. But Mary kept these sayings and discriminated them in her heart. And those shepherds returned, magnifying and praising God for all that they had seen and heard, according as it was described unto them.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) “…He who in David and the prophets announced His own sufferings; He who put on a bodily form in the Virgin; He who was born in Bethlehem; He who was wrapped in swaddling-clothes in the manger; He who was seen by the shepherds; He who was glorified by the angels; He who was worshipped by the Magi; He who was pointed out by John; He who gathered together the apostles; He who preached the kingdom; He who cured the lame; He who gave light to the blind; He who raised the dead;…” Fragment 4 On Faith p.757

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “And the angel of the Lord, he says, appeared to the shepherds, proclaiming joy to them: ‘For there is born in the house of David, a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord. Then [appeared] a multitude of the heavenly host, praising God, and saying, Glory in the highest to God, and on earth peace, to men of good will.’Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.10.3 p.424-425

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “…and from the testimony of the angel, who at night announced to the shepherds that Christ had at that moment been born, and again from the place of the birth, for it is towards night that persons arrive at the (eastern) ‘inn’.Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.9 p.448

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “This is He who was hymned by the angels, and seen by the shepherds, and waited for by Simeon, and witnessed to by Anna.Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.18 p.230

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “Hence an angel standing over the shepherds made a bright light to shine round about them, and said: ‘Fear not; behold I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all tile people; for there is born to you, this day, a Saviour, who is Christ the Lord, in the city of David.’” Commentary on John book 1 ch.13 p.304

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.8 p.671 “For that our Lord was born, and that He was the Christ, appeared by many reasons to be believed, not unjustly, by His disciples, because He had been born of the tribe of Judah, of the family of David, and in the city of Bethlehem; and because He had been announced to the shepherds by the angels at the same moment that there was born to them a Saviour; because His star being seen in the east, He had been most anxiously sought for and adored by the Magi,…”

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Also in the same place, the angel said to the shepherds: ‘Fear not; for, behold, I bring you tidings that unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ Jesus.’Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 2 ch.7 p.519

 

Go6. The Magi came to Christ

 

Matthew 2:1-12

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “‘Now this king Herod, at the time when the Magi came to him from Arabia, and said they knew from a star which appeared in the heavens that a King had been born in your country, and that they had come to worship Him, learned from the elders of your people that it was thus written regarding Bethlehem in the prophet: ‘And thou, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, art by no means least among the princes of Judah; for out of thee shall go forth the leader who shall feed my people.’ Accordingly the Magi from Arabia came to Bethlehem and worshipped the Child, and presented Him with gifts, gold and frankincense, and myrrh; but returned not to Herod, being warned in a revelation after worshipping the Child in Bethlehem.’” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.88 p.237

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.106 p.252 says that the Magi worshipped Jesus. He also says that we should worship him in ch.63 p.229

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 3.1 p.47 says the Magi came to worship Christ.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) vol.8 ch.4 p.757 says that the Magi worshipped Jesus.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) says, “Christ our Lord. To whom be glory forever and ever. Amen.” On Pascha ch.45 p.48, ch.65 p.54, and ch.100 p.65

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) says the Magi worshipped Jesus. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.9.2 p.423

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “and the Magi of the Persians, who foretold the Saviour’s birth and came into the land of Judea guided by a star.” Stromata book 1 ch.15 p.316

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “‘But Magi and astrologers came from the east.’ We know the mutual alliance of magic and astrology. The interpreters of the stars, then, were the first to announce Christ’s birth the first to present Him “gifts.” By this bond, [must] I imagine, they put Christ under obligation to themselves? What then? Shall therefore the religion of those Magi act as patron now also to astrologers? Astrology now-a-days, forsooth, treats of Christ-is the science of the stars of Christ; not of Saturn, or Mars, and whomsoever else out of the same class of the dead it pays observance to and preaches? But, however, that science has been allowed until the Gospel, in order that after Christ’s birth no one should thence forward interpret any one’s nativity by the heaven. For they therefore offered to the then infant Lord that frankincense and myrrh and gold, to be, as it were, the close of worldly sacrifice and glory, which Christ was about to do away. What, then? The dream-sent, doubtless, of the will of God-suggested to the same Magi, namely, that they should go home, but by another way, not that by which they came. It means this: that they should not walk in their ancient path.” On Idolatry ch.9 p.65

Hippolytus of Portus (222-234/5 A.D.) mentions that the Gnostic heretic Basilides mentions the Magi. “And the Magi (afford similar testimony) when they gaze wistfully upon the (Saviour’s) star.” Refutation of All Heresies book 7 ch.15 p.108

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions the wise men who came from the east to worship the child Jesus. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.40 p.413. See also Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.80 p.609-610.

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.8 p.671 “He had been announced to the shepherds by the angels at the same moment that there was born to them a Saviour; because His star being seen in the east, He had been most anxiously sought for and adored by the Magi, and honoured with illustrious presents and distinguished offerings;”

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) (partial) says men from Persia came to worship Him [Christ]. Incarnation of the Word ch.37.5 p.56

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions the Magi from the east who came to worship Christ. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.8.1 p.94

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Protoevangelium of James (145-248 A.D.) ch.21 p.366 discusses the story of how the Magi came and worshipped Jesus.

The Gnostic Basilides in Hippolytus (222-234/5 A.D.) mentions the Magi. “And the Magi (afford similar testimony) when they gaze wistfully upon the (Saviour’s) star.” Refutation of All Heresies book 7 ch.15 p.108

 

Go7. Simeon [at Jesus’ dedication]

 

Luke 2:25-35

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 2.30-41 p.46 “And when the days of their purification according to the law of Moses were completed, they took him up to Jerusalem to present him before the Lord (as it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male opening the womb shall be called the holy thing of the Lord), and to give a sacrificial victim as it is said in the law of 33 the Lord, A pair of doves or two young pigeons. And there was in Jerusalem a man whose name was Simeon; and this man was upright and pious, and expecting the consolation of Israel; and the Holy Spirit was upon him. And it had been said unto him by the Holy Spirit, that he should not see death till he had seen with his eyes the Messiah of the Lord. And this man came by the Spirit to the temple; and at the time when his parents brought in the child Jesus, that they might present for him a sacrifice, as it is written in the law, he bare him in his arms and praised God and said, Now loosest thou the bonds of thy servant, O Lord, in peace, According to thy saying; For mine eye hath witnessed thy mercy, Which thou hast made ready because of the whole world; A light for the unveiling of the nations, And a glory to thy people Israel. And Joseph and his mother were marvelling at the things which were being said concerning him. And Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother, Behold, he is set for the overthrow and rising of many in Israel; and for a sign of contention; and a spear shall pierce through thine own soul; that the thoughts of the hearts of many may be revealed. And Anna the prophetess, …

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “For through him we have become acquainted with very many and important parts of the Gospel; for instance, the generation of John, the history of Zacharias, the coming of the angel to Mary, the exclamation of Elisabeth, the descent of the angels to the shepherds, the words spoken by them, the testimony of Anna and of Simeon with regard to Christ, and that twelve years of age He was left behind at Jerusalem;” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.14.3 p.438

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Then within the same period John prophesied till the baptism of salvation; and after the birth of Christ, Anna and Simeon.” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.331

Tertullian (207-220 A.D.) “We acknowledge, however, that the prophetic declaration of Simeon is fulfilled, which he spoke over the recently-born Saviour: ‘Behold, this child is set for the fall and rising again of many in Israel, and for a sign that shall be spoken against.’” On the Flesh of Christ ch.23 p.541

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “This is He who was hymned by the angels, and seen by the shepherds, and waited for by Simeon, and witnessed to by Anna.Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.18 p.230

Origen (233-244 A.D.) mentions Simeon holding Jesus in his arms. Homilies on Luke homily 15 ch.1 p.62

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Certainly Simeon, that just man, who was truly just, who kept God’s commands with a full faith, when it had been pledged him from heaven that he should not die before he had seen the Christ, and Christ had come an infant into the temple with His mother, acknowledged in spirit that Christ was now born, concerning whom it had before been foretold to him; and when he had seen Him, he knew that he should soon die. Therefore, rejoicing concerning his now approaching death, and secure of his immediate summons, he received the child into his arms, and blessing the Lord, he exclaimed, and said, ‘Now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace, according to Thy word; for mine eyes have seen Thy salvation;’” [Luke 2:29) Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 7 ch.3 p.470

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “Once, indeed, the aged Simeon met the Saviour and received in his arms, as an infant, the Creator of the world, and proclaimed Him to be Lord and God;” Oration on Psalms ch.5 p.396

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Protoevangelium of James (145-248 A.D.) (partial because in one reading but not in the main one.) ch.24 p.366 “the priests consulted as to whom they should put in his place; and the lot fell upon Simeon; For it was he who had been warned by the Holy Spirit that he should not see death until he should see the Christ in the flesh.”

 

Go8. Anna [at Jesus’ dedication]

 

Luke 2:36-38

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 2.30-41 p.46 “And Anna the prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher, was also advanced in years (and she dwelt with her husband seven years from her virginity, and she remained a widow about eighty-four years); and she left not the temple, and served night and day with 46 fasting and prayer. And she also rose in that hour and thanked the Lord, and she spake of him with every one who was expecting the deliverance of Jerusalem.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “For through him we have become acquainted with very many and important parts of the Gospel; for instance, the generation of John, the history of Zacharias, the coming of the angel to Mary, the exclamation of Elisabeth, the descent of the angels to the shepherds, the words spoken by them, the testimony of Anna and of Simeon with regard to Christ, and that twelve years of age He was left behind at Jerusalem;” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.14.3 p.438

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Then within the same period John prophesied till the baptism of salvation; and after the birth of Christ, Anna and Simeon.” Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.331

Tertullian (298-220 A.D.) “On the threshold of the Gospel, Anna the prophetess, daughter of Phanuel, ‘who both recognised the infant Lord, and preached many things about Him to such as were expecting the redemption of Israel,’” On Fasting ch.8 p.107

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “seen by the shepherds, and waited for by Simeon, and witnessed to by Anna.” Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.18 p.230

Origen (233-244 A.D.) mentions Anna who prophesied about Jesus. Homilies on Luke homily 17 ch.9 p.74

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Let not us, then, who are in Christ-that is, always in the lights cease from praying even during night. Thus the widow Anna, without intermission praying and watching, persevered in deserving well of God, as it is written in the Gospel: ‘She departed not,it says, ‘from the temple, serving with fastings and prayers night and day.’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 4 ch.36 p.457

 

Go9. Herod’s slaughter in Bethlehem

 

Matthew 2:16

 

p70 – Matthew 2:13-16; 2:22-3:1; 11:26-27; 12:4-5; 24:3-6,12-25 (3rd century A.D.) tells of Herod killing the infant boys in Bethlehem. Matthew 2:13-16

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) mentions that Magi visiting Herod, and Herod massacring all the children in Bethlehem. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.78 p.238

Tatian’s Diatessaron quotes Luke 2 and the killing of the baby boys in Bethlehem.

Hegesippus (170-180 A.D.) (partial) said that Herod dreaded the advent of Christ Five Books of Commentaries on the Acts of the Church section 1 Concerning the Relatives of our Savior p.763

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) says that [God] “removed those children belonging to the house of David, whose happy lot it was to have been born at that time, that He might send them on before into His kingdom” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.16.4 p.442

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) said Jesus “fled from the persecution set on foot by Herod” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.21.3 p.452

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) (partial, does not mention babies being killed) “means this: that they should not walk in their ancient path. Not that Herod should not pursue them, who in fact did not pursue them;” On Idolatry ch.9 p.66

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says that Herod slew all the infants in Bethlehem and surrounding areas hoping to kill the King of the Jews. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.61 p.423

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) (implied, no mention of Herod) mentions that at Christ’s birth infants two years old and under were killed for Christ. Epistles of Cyprian letter 55 ch.6 p.349

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) mentions the infants Herod slaughtered because of Christ. Canonical Epistle Canon 13 p.277

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) tells of Herod’s slaughter of the boys under 2 in Bethlehem. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.8.1-7 p.94. See also ibid book 1 ch.8.16 p.95.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Protoevangelium of James (145-248 A.D.) ch.21-22 vol.8 p.366 mentions that after the wise men were warned and left for their own country, Herod sent murderers to slay the children.

 

Go10. John the Baptist

 

Matthew 3:1-15; Mark 1:4-8; 14; Luke 3:1-20; John 1:15,19-35

(Implied) John 1:23-31

 

Matthew 3:1-12; Mark 1:1-8; Luke 3:3-20; John 1:5-34

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 5:35; 3:22-35

p4 + p64 + p67 Luke 1:58-59; 1:62-2:1,6-7; 3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35; 5:3-8; 5:30-6:16; Matthew 26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-33; Matthew 3:9,15; 5:20-22,25-28 -95 verses (c.150-175 A.D.) Mention of John the Baptist. Luke 1:76

p75 (c.175-225 A.D.) Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) John the Baptist rebuked Herod because of his wife Herodias in Luke 3:18-20. Also John 1:15-29

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels plus Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Mark 6:17-25; Mark 11:29

p5 John 1:23-31, 33-40; 16:14-30; 20:11-17,19-20,22-25 (47 verses) (early 3rd century) (implied) John 1:23-31

p70 – Matthew 2:13-16; 2:22-3:1; 11:26-27; 12:4-5; 24:3-6,12-25 (3rd century A.D.) mentions John the Baptist. Matthew 3:1

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) discusses how John the Baptist was the forerunner of Christ. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.51 p.221.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) vol.8 ch.4 p.757 says that Jesus was pointed out by John [the Baptist]

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) tells how John the Baptist identified Jesus as the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.10.2 p.424

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) discusses John the Baptist. The Instructor book 2 ch.11 p.266

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) mentions John the Baptist. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.1 p.174

Tertullian (c.203 A.D.) mentions that John the Baptist coming in the spirit and power of Elijah in Matthew 11:14 does not support transmigration [reincarnation]. The error of transmigration teaches a person will die, leave their body, and go to some other body. But Elijah did not die, and he will return in the endtimes in his own body. The “spirit and power” were bestowed as external gifts by the grace of God.” A Treatise on the Soul ch.35 p.217-218

Tertullian (213 A.D.) says that John was the forerunner. On Monogamy ch.8 p.65

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “He graciously adduced the prophecy in the superior sense of the alternative mentioned by the perplexed John, in order that, by affirming that His own precursor was already come in the person of John, He might quench the doubt which lurked in his question: ‘Art thou He that, should come, or look we for another?’ Now that the forerunner had fulfilled his mission, and the way of the Lord was prepared, He ought now to be acknowledged as that (Christ) for whom the forerunner had made ready the way.Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.18 p.376

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) Jesus came to John the Baptist, the forerunner of the Lord. Discourse on the Holy Theophany ch.2 p.235

Julius Africanus (235-245 A.D.) (partial) says that prophecy was until John [the Baptist]. Five Books of the Chronology of Julius Africanus ch.16.1 p.134.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) discusses the role of John the Baptist. Origen’s Commentary on John book 2 ch.29-30 p.343-344

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) mentions John the Baptist as coming in the spirit and power (but not the reincarnation of) Elijah. Origen’s Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.20 p.427

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions John the Baptist. Origen On Prayer ch.24.3 p.54

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) mentions John the Baptist. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.14 p.623

Treatise on Rebaptism (254-257 A.D.) mentions us fully following the announcement of John the Baptist ch.19 p.677-678

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.2 p.668 mentions with approval the baptism of John the Baptist. Ch.15 p.676 says that John was filled with the Holy Spirit form his mother’s womb.

Cyprian of Carthage (256 A.D.) mentions that John the Baptist was esteemed the greatest among prophets. Epistles of Cyprian Letter 72 ch.25 p.385

Firmilian (c.246-258 A.D.) in his letter to Cyprian mentions John the Baptist who baptized before the Holy Spirit had been sent by the Lord in Letter 74 p.392

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) discusses the role of John the Baptist. Dialogue on the Truth second part 867d p.100. He mentions that John the Baptist was Christ’s forerunner from God. Dialogue on the True Faith First part d 26 p.70

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions John the Baptist. Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John ch.16 p.345

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) He was baptized by the prophet John in the river Jordan, that He might The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.15 p.115

 

Among heretics

The First Form of the Gospel of Thomas (shorter Greek version) (188-235 A.D.) ch.46 p.131 speaks well of John the Baptist.

The Ebionite Protoevangelium of James (145-248 A.D.) ch.22 p.366 mentions John the Baptist.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 2 ch.23 p.233 positively mentions John the Baptist.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) ch.1.53 p.91 mentions John the Baptist.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.63 p.94 (partial) Said he preached to the disciples of John the Baptist that he should not be a stumbling block to them accepting the eternal Christ. (Does not say whether John was good or bad though.)

 

 

Go11. Andrew the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 4:18; John 1:40

 

p5 John 1:23-31, 33-40; 16:14-30; 20:11-17,19-20,22-25 (47 verses) (early 3rd century) John 1:40

p137 Mk 1:7-9,16-18 (6 verses) (150-250 A.D.) Simon [Peter] and Andrew

 

Papias (95-110 A.D.) “If, then, any one who had attended on the elders came, I asked minutely after their sayings,-what Andrew or Peter said, or what was said by Philip, or by Thomas, or by James, or by John, or by Matthew, or by any other of the Lord’s disciples: which things Aristion and the presbyter John, the disciples of the Lord, say.From the Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord ch.1 p.153

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 5.10-15 p.50 tells of Jesus calling Andrew, Simon [Peter], Philip, Nathanael.

Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.1 p.603 “to Andrew, one of the apostles, that John should narrate all things in his own”

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “also brothers, as Peter with Andrew, and James with John the sons of Zebedee,” Who is the Rich Man That Shall Be Saved ch.25 p.598

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “Christ as found by Andrew, or Jesus saying to Philip, ‘Follow Me,’ or Philip” Origen’s Commentary on John book 10 ch.28 p.408

 

Among heretics

Gospel of Peter (180-190 A.D.) ANF vol.9 ch.14 p.8 mentions Simon Peter, Andrew, and Levi son of Alphaeus

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Andrew. homily 12 ch.6 p.293.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book2 ch.63 p.114 mentions Andrew the disciple.

Acts of Thomas (early form) (pre-Nicene) p.535 mentions Simon Peter, Andrew his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James of Alphaeus, Simon the Cananaean, and Judas of James. (Judas of James is not in the Bible).

 

Go12. Peter the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 4:18; 10:2; Mark 3:16; Luke 6:14; Acts 1:13; John 1:40,42; Matthew 16:13-20; k 8:27-30; Luke 9:18-27; Matthew 17:1-8; Mark 9:2-8; Luke 9:28-36; 2 Peter 1:16-18; Matthew 17:24-27; Matthew 26:31-35; Mark 14:27-31; Luke 22:31-34; John 13:31-38; Matthew 26:69-75; Mark 14:66-72; Luke 22:54-62; John 18:15-27; Acts 10; Acts 11; 15; Acts 12; Galatians; 2:11-21; Acts 15

 

(Peter being a disciple before the resurrection is not counted here)

 

Acts 8:14; 10:6-16; 12:13-18; John 21:7-19

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Galatians 1:18; 2:1

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 21:15-19

p5 John 1:23-31, 33-40; 16:14-30; 20:11-17,19-20,22-25 (47 verses) (early 3rd century) John 1:40

p4 + p64 + p67 Luke 1:58-59; 1:62-2:1,6-7; 3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35; 5:3-8; 5:30-6:16; Matthew 26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-33; Matthew 3:9,15; 5:20-22,25-28 -95 verses (c.150-175 A.D.) Matthew 10:33 p64

p69 – Luke 22:40,45-48,58-61 (3rd century A.D.) mentions Peter betraying Jesus. Luke 22:58-61

p37 (222-275 c.260 A.D.) mentions Peter and Judas at the Garden of Gethsemane. Mt 26:19-52

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. Peter is a servant and an apostle. 1 Peter 1:1; 2 Peter 1:1

p137 Mk 1:7-9,16-18 (6 verses) (150-250 A.D.) Simon [Peter] and Andrew

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) says that Peter was a martyr. “Peter, through unrighteous envy [by others], endured not one or two, but numerous labors; and when he had at length suffered martyrdom, departed to the place of glory due to him.” 1 Clement ch.5 ANF vol.1 p.6. The same quoted is in another copy of 1 Clement ch.5, in ANF vol.9 p.230.

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) “I do not, as Peter and Paul issue commandments unto you. They were apostles; I am but a condemned man;…” Letter of Ignatius to the Romans ch.4 p.75

Aristides (125 or 138-161 A.D.) says Jesus called Peter and the disciples lambs. Then Peter asked Jesus about the wolves tearing the lambs, and Jesus answered him, said not to fear those who can only kill your body. Apology of Aristides (Greek version) ch.1 p.252.

2 Clement (120-140 A.D.) vol.7 ch.5 p.518 (implied) shows that Peter was asking Jesus about the meaning of sheep and wolves.

Polycarp (100-165 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 2:22 in Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.9 p.35

Papias (95-110 A.D.) And the presbyter said this. Mark having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately whatever he remembered. It was not, however, in exact order that he related the sayings or deeds of Christ. For he neither heard the Lord nor accompanied Him. But afterwards, as I said, he accompanied Peter, who accommodated his instructions to the necessities [of his hearers], but with no intention of giving a regular narrative of the Lord’s sayings. Wherefore Mark made no mistake in thus writing some things as he remembered them. For of one thing he took especial care, not to omit anything he had heard, and not to put anything fictitious into the statements. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 3 ch.39 vol.1 p.154

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) says that Peter recognized Jesus to be Christ the Son of God, by the revelation of His Father Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.100 p.249

Dionysius of Corinth (170 A.D.) speaks of the churches planted by Peter and Paul: Romans and Corinthians Fragment 3 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.765

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) Section 54.33-34 p.128 quotes John 21:15 where Jesus asks Peter to “feed my sheep”.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 2:16 as “Peter says”. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.16.5 p.482

Caius (190-217 A.D.) ch.1 p.601 “For they say that all those of the first age, and the apostles themselves, both received and taught those things which these men now maintain; and that the truth of Gospel preaching was preserved until the times of Victor, who was the thirteenth bishop in Rome from Peter, and that from his successor Zephyrinus the truth was falsified. And perhaps what they allege might be credible, did not the Holy Scriptures, in the first place, contradict them. And then, besides, there are writings of certain brethren older than the times of Victor, which they wrote against the heathen in defence of the truth, and against the heresies of their time: I mean Justin and Miltiades, and Tatian and Clement, and many others, in all which divinity is ascribed to Christ.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) tells how the blessed Peter, when watching his wife being led to death, called to her saying, “Remember the Lord” Stromata book 7 ch.60 p.541

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 2:1-3 as by Peter. The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.220

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) In Matthew 16:18 the keys were personally given to Peter, not the church. Tertullian on Modesty ch.21 p.99. See also On Monogamy (213 A.D.) ch.8 p.65.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “I mean the Gospels of John and Matthew – whilst that which Mark published may be affirmed to be Peter’s whose interpreter Mark was. For even Luke’s form of the Gospel men unusually ascribe to Paul. And it may well seem that the works which disciples publish belong to their masters.” Tertullian Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) says Paul rebuked Peter in See also Prescription Against Heretics ch.23 p.254.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) Simon the Sorcerer later went to Rome, and Peter opposed him there. Refutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.14 p.80. He also says that Nero crucified Peter head downward.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 1:24,25 The Refutation of All Heresies book 4 ch.5 p.76

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 3:18-20 as by Peter. Origen’s Commentary on John book 6 ch.18 vol.9 p.368. See also Origen’s Commentary on John book 3 ch.3 p.346

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Peter. Origen On Prayer ch.14.5-6 p.57

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.5 p.669 speaks of Peter speaking in Acts 10 and the Holy Spirit falling on those who heard. He also mentions Simon [Peter] in ch.12 p.674

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Nevertheless, Peter, upon whom by the same Lord the Church had been built, speaking one of all, and answering with the voice of the Church, says, ‘Lord, to whom shall we go? Thou hast the words of eternal life;… Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God” The Epistles of Cyprian letter 54 ch.7 p.341

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions “the Epistle of Peter to them in Pontus” and then quotes 1 Peter 4:15-16 in Treatises of Cyprian - Testimonies ch.39 p.545.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions “The Epistle of Peter” and quotes 2 Peter 2:11,12 in Treatises of Cyprian - Testimonies ch.11 p.536.

Firmilian (c.246-258 A.D.) in his letter to Cyprian mentions that Gnostics defame the blessed apostles Peter and Paul the Lord in Letter 74 p.391

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) “And on the ground of such a revelation as that the Lord pronounced Peter blessed, when He said: 'Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jona; for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.'From the Two Books on Promises ch.4 p.83

Anatolius (270-280 A.D.) “so far as regards this matter, with the authority of some, namely, the successors of Peter and Paul, who have taught all the churches in which they sowed the spiritual seeds of the Gospel,” The Paschal Canon of Anatolius ch.10 p.149

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (implied) “Because he was a Jew and had been taught in the Law, Peter was expecting the Christ announced by the Law and the Prophets.” Dialogue on the True Faith second part ch.13 p.92

Arnobius of Sicca (297-303 A.D.) said that the chariot and fiery car of Simon Magus were blown to pieces by the Peter’s mouth and vanished at the name of Christ. Arnobius Against the Heathen book 2 ch.12 p.438

Phileas of Thmuis (martyred 306/307 A.D.) mentions “Peter, on whom we all depend in the hope which we have in the Lord Jesus Christ” Letter of Phileas to Meletius of Lycopolis vol.6 p.164

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) mentions Peter speaking a number of times in his Exposition of the Chapter on the Acts of the Apostles p.166.

Creed of Lucian of Antioch (c.300-311 A.D.) &&&

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) says that Peter was the first of the apostles. Canonical Epistle Canon 9 p.283

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “He [Nero] it was who first persecuted the servants of God; he crucified Peter, and slew Paul:”. Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died ch.2 p.302

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Cornelius, of Caesarea in Palestine, Peter, and later the persecution of Stephen and still later Agabus. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.3.3 p.107

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) talks of Peter in Rome. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.14.4 p.115

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Peter. homily 1 ch.15 p.227.

Sethian Letter of Peter to Philip (before 185 A.D.) TGB p.238 Peter is speaking and then it says “And he [Peter] was filled with the holy spirit and spoke in this way: ‘our luminary Jesus came down and was crucified. He wore a crown of thorns, was clothed in a purple robe, crucified upon a cross, and buried in a tomb. And he rose from the dead. My brothers, Jesus is a stranger to this suffering. But we are the ones who have suffered through the mother’s transgression.” … the lord Jesus…”

The Ebionite Epistle of Peter to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date ) ch.4.1 p.216 mentions James and Peter.

The Ebionite Epistle of Clement to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) ch.1 p.218 mentions Peter.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.12 p.80 positively narrates stories about Peter.. See also book 1 ch.44 p.89.

Gospel of Peter (180-190 A.D.) ANF vol.9 ch.14 p.8 mentions Simon Peter, Andrew, and Levi son of Alphaeus

Nag Hammadi Apocalypse of Peter (3rd century A.D.) Nag Hammadi Library in English p.373 positively mentions Peter.

The First Form of the Gospel of Thomas (shorter Greek version) (188-235 A.D.) ch.13 p.127 mentions Peter.

The Valentinian Letter of Peter to Philip (c.300 A.D.) The Nag Hammadi Library in English p.434 Peter is writing to Philip.

Acts of Thomas (early form) (pre-Nicene) p.535 mentions Simon Peter, Andrew his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James of Alphaeus, Simon the Cananaean, and Judas of James. (Judas of James is not in the Bible).

 

Go13. Philip the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14; John 1:43-48; 14:8; Acts 1:13

 

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 1:43-48; 14:8

p4 + p64 + p67 Luke 1:58-59; 1:62-2:1,6-7; 3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35; 5:3-8; 5:30-6:16; Matthew 26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-33; Matthew 3:9,15; 5:20-22,25-28 -95 verses (c.150-175 A.D.) Luke 6:14 p4

p75 (c.175-225 A.D.) Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) Luke 6:14; John 1:43-48; 14:8

 

Papias (95-110 A.D.) “If, then, any one who had attended on the elders came, I asked minutely after their sayings,-what Andrew or Peter said, or what was said by Philip, or by Thomas, or by James, or by John, or by Matthew, or by any other of the Lord’s disciples: which things Aristion and the presbyter John, the disciples of the Lord, say.From the Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord ch.1 p.153

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 5.10-15 p.50 tells of Jesus calling Andrew, Simon [Peter], Philip, Nathanael.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “8. But again: Whom did Philip preach to the eunuch of the queen of the Ethiopians, returning from Jerusalem, and reading Esaias the prophet, when he and this man were alone together? Was it not He of whom the prophet spoke: ‘He was led as a sheep to the slaughter, and as a lamb dumb before the shearer, so He opened not the month?Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.8 p.422

Polycrates of Ephesus (130-196 A.D.) “I speak of Philip, one of the twelve apostles,…” Epistle to Victor and the Roman Church p.773

Caius (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.601 “And after this there were four prophetesses, daughters of Philip, at Hierapolis in Asia. Their tomb is there, and that, too, of their father.”

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) mentions Philip, Thomas, Levi, and others. Stromata book 4 ch.9 p.422

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “The Spirit had enjoined Philip to proceed to that road: the eunuch himself, too,” On Baptism ch.18 p.678

Asterius Urbanus (c.232 A.D.) “But the false prophet falls into a spurious ecstasy, which is accompanied by a want of all shame and fear. For beginning with a voluntary (designed) rudeness, he ends with an involuntary madness of soul, as has been already stated. But they will never be able to show that any one of the Old Testament prophets, or any one of the New, was carried away in spirit after this fashion. Nor will they be able to boast that Agabus, or Judas, or Silas, or the daughters of Philip, or the woman Ammia in Philadelphia, or Quadratus, or indeed any of the others who do not in any respect belong to them, were moved in this way.” ch.9 p.337

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “And Philip, not having been able to receive this, as far as it was possible to see it, requested to behold the Father. To whom then the Lord said, ‘Philip, have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known me?Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.7 p.226

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “Christ as found by Andrew, or Jesus saying to Philip, ‘Follow Me,’ or Philip” Origen’s Commentary on John book 10 ch.28 p.408

Novatian (250/254-257 A.D.) “For again and again, and frequently, he objects that it was said, ‘Have I been so long time with you, and do ye not know me, Philip? He who hath seen me, hath seen the Father also.’” Concerning the Trinity ch.28 p.638

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.4 p.669 (partial, says Philip the deacon, not the apostle) “Just as the Ethiopian eunuch, when he was returning from Jerusalem and reading the prophet Isaiah, and was in doubt, having at the Spirit’s suggestion heard the truth from Philip the deacon, believed and was baptized; and when he had gone up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord took away Philip, and the eunuch saw him no more.”

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “In the Acts of the Apostles: ‘Lo, here is water; what is there which hinders me from being baptized? Then said Philip, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest.’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 third part ch.43 p.545

Pontius (258 A.D.) “For although in the Acts of the Apostles the eunuch is described as at once baptized by Philip, because he believed with his whole heart, this is not a fair parallel.” Life and Passion of Cyprian ch.3 p.268

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) “the healing of many in Samaria by Philip the apostle.” An Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the Apostles section I p.166

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) “Whence, also, to Philip, who then was desirous to see Him, the Lord shows this abundantly. For when he said, ‘Show us the Father,’ He answered: “He that hath seen Me, hath seen the Father,” since the Father was Himself seen through the spotless and living mirror of the divine image.” Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 1 ch.9 p.294

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.59 p.92-93 “Then a certain Pharisee, hearing this, chid [chided] Philip because he put Jesus on a level with Moses. To whom Bartholomew, answering, boldly declared that we do not only say that Jesus was equal to Moses, but that He was greater than he, because Moses was indeed a prophet, as Jesus was also, but that Moses was not the Christ, as Jesus was, and therefore He is doubtless greater who is both a prophet and the Christ, than he who is only a prophet. After following out this train of argument, he stopped. After him James the son of Alphaeus gave an address to the people,” See also ibid book 1 ch.58 p.92.

The Valentinian Letter of Peter to Philip (c.300 A.D.) The Nag Hammadi Library in English p.434 Peter is writing to Philip.

Acts of Thomas (early form) (pre-Nicene) p.535 mentions Simon Peter, Andrew his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James of Alphaeus, Simon the Cananaean, and Judas of James. (Judas of James is not in the Bible).

 

Go14. Thomas the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; John 11:16; 14:5; 20:24-29; 21:2; Acts 1:13

 

p75 Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) Luke 6:15; John 11:16

p5 John 1:23-31, 33-40; 16:14-30; 20:11-17,19-20,22-25 (47 verses) (early 3rd century) John 20:24

 

Papias (95-110 A.D.) “If, then, any one who had attended on the elders came, I asked minutely after their sayings,-what Andrew or Peter said, or what was said by Philip, or by Thomas, or by James, or by John, or by Matthew, or by any other of the Lord’s disciples: which things Aristion and the presbyter John, the disciples of the Lord, say.From the Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord ch.1 p.153

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 54.19 p.127 “And after eight days, on the next First-day, the disciples were assembled again within, and Thomas with them.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) mentions Philip, Thomas, Levi, and others. Stromata book 4 ch.9 p.422

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) “For Thomas, who was so long incredulous, said: ‘Lord, we know not whither Thou goest; and how can we know the way? Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.Against Praxeas ch.24 p.620

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) discusses Thomas and John 20:21. Fragment 3 p.240

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “And therefore he did not merely say, ‘Unless I see, I will not believe; ‘but he added, ‘Unless I put my hand into the print of the nails, and lay my hands upon His side, I will not believe.’ These words were spoken by Thomas, who deemed it possible that the body of the soul might be seen by the eye of sense, resembling in all respects its former appearance,Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.61 p.456

Novatian (250-254/257 A.D.) “Christ alone declared this word out of the consciousness of His divinity; and if, finally, the Apostle Thomas, instructed in all the proofs and conditions of Christ’s divinity, says in reply to Christ, ‘My Lord and my God;’ and if, besides, the Apostle Paul says, ‘Whose are the fathers, and of whom Christ came according to the flesh, who is over all, God blessed for evermore,’ writing in his epistles;Concerning the Trinity ch.13 p.622

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Also in the same: ‘The Lord said to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands: and be not faithless, but believing. Thomas answered and said unto Him, My Lord and my God. Jesus saith unto him, Because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they who have not seen, and yet have believed.’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second part ch.6 p.518

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) tells after the resurrection, when Thomas did not believe, Jesus said to put his finger in Jesus’ side. Dialogue on the True Faith fifth part b 2 p.151

 

Among heretics

The First Form of the Gospel of Thomas (shorter Greek version) (188-235 A.D.) ch.13 p.127 mentions Thomas

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (before 188 A.D.) book 9 ch.29 p.189 “In short, among the Parthians—as Thomas, who is preaching the Gospel amongst them, has written to us—not many now are addicted to polygamy; nor among the Medes do many throw their dead to dogs; nor are the Persians pleased with intercourse with their mothers, or incestuous marriages with their daughters; nor do the Susian women practise the adulteries that were allowed them; nor has Genesis [i.e. fate] been able to force those into crimes whom the teaching of religion restrained.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.61 p.93 mentions Thomas

Acts of Thomas (early form) (pre-Nicene) p.535 mentions Simon Peter, Andrew his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James of Alphaeus, Simon the Cananaean, and Judas of James. (Judas of James is not in the Bible).

 

Go15. James son of Zebedee the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 4:21-22

James the Lord’s brother is a different person. James son of Alphaeus is a different person.

 

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 5.44 p.51 “And when he [Jesus] went on from thence, he saw other two brothers, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in the ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and Jesus called them. And they immediately forsook the ship and their father Zebedee, and followed him.

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 30 line 26-51 p.90 James and John request to be on Jesus’ right and left.

Irenaeus (182-188 A.D.) discusses how heretics focus on numbers in the scripture. He does not mention the types of heretics, but he is probably thinking of Gnostics in general. “Soter is a name of five letters; Pater, too, contains five letters; Agape (love), too, consists of five letters; and our Lord, after blessing the five loaves, fed with them five thousand men. Five virgins were called wise by the Lord; and, in like manner, five were styled foolish. Again, five men are said to have been with the Lord when He obtained testimony from the Father,-namely, Peter, and James, and John, and Moses, and Elias.Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.24.4 p.394-395

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “For it is neither penniless, nor homeless, nor brotherless people that the Lord calls to life, since He has also called rich people; but, as we have said above, also brothers, as Peter with Andrew, and James with John the sons of Zebedee, but of one mind with each other and Christ.Who is the Rich Man that Shall Be Saved ch.25 p.598

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Even there was it demonstrated to us, that both ‘dear pledges,’ and handicrafts, and trades, are to be quite left behind for the Lord’s sake; while James and John, called by the Lord, do leave quite behind both father and ship; while Matthew is roused up from the toll-booth; while even burying a father was too tardy a business for faith.On Idolatry ch.12 p.68

Origen (225-254 A.D.) “And that when seen He [Jesus] did not appear in like fashion to all those who saw Him, but according to their several ability to receive Him, will be clear to those who notice why, at the time when He was about to be transfigured on the high mountain, He did not admit all His apostles (to this sight), but only Peter, and James, and John, because they alone were capable of beholding His glory on that occasion, and of observing the glorified appearance of Moses and Elijah, and of listening to their conversation, and to the voice from the heavenly cloud.Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.64 p.457

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) “That this person was called John, therefore, and that this was the writing of a John, I do not deny. And I admit further, that it was also the work of some holy and inspired man. But I could not so easily admit that this was the apostle, the son of Zebedee, the brother of James, and the same person with him who wrote the Gospel which bears the title according to John, and the catholic epistle. But from the character of both, and the forms of expression, and the whole disposition and execution of the book, I draw the conclusion that the authorship is not his.From the Two Books on Promises ch.4 p.83

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) mentions James “The slaying of the Apostle James.An Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the Apostles Section q p.167

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) “Thus James, in the second place, being of Herod apprehended, was beheaded with the sword. Thus Peter, the first of the apostles, having been often apprehended, and thrown into prison, and treated with ignominy, was last of all crucified at Rome.Canonical Epistle canon 9 p.273

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions James the apostle being killed by Herod. “Now about that time” (it is clear that he means the time of Claudius) “Herod the King stretched forth his hands to vex certain of the Church. And he killed James the brother of John with the sword.” Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.9.1 NPNF2 p.110.

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) “But there were two Jameses: one called the Just, who was thrown from the pinnacle of the temple and was beaten to death with a club by a fuller, and another who was beheaded.” Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.1.4 NPNF2 p.104.

 

Among heretics

Gnostic? Heretics. Irenaeus (182-188 A.D.) discusses how heretics focus on numbers in the scripture. He does not mention the types of heretics, but he is probably thinking of Gnostics in general. “Soter is a name of five letters; Pater, too, contains five letters; Agape (love), too, consists of five letters; and our Lord, after blessing the five loaves, fed with them five thousand men. Five virgins were called wise by the Lord; and, in like manner, five were styled foolish. Again, five men are said to have been with the Lord when He obtained testimony from the Father,-namely, Peter, and James, and John, and Moses, and Elias.Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.24.4 p.394-395

The Ebionite Epistle of Peter to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date ) ch.4.1 p.216 mentions James and Peter.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.57 p.92 mentions James and John sons of Zebedee.

The Sethian Gnostic Apocryphon of John (c.150-185 A.D.) ch.95 p.107 mentions James the son of Zebedee.

Acts of Thomas (early form) (pre-Nicene) p.535 mentions Simon Peter, Andrew his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James of Alphaeus, Simon the Cananaean, and Judas of James. (Judas of James is not in the Bible).

 

Go16. [Samaritan] Woman at the well

 

John 4

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 21.8-48 p.76-77 quotes verbatim the encounter with the Samaritan woman in John

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “Samaritan woman, and while at a distance, cured the son of the centurion by a word, saying, ‘Go thy way, thy son liveth.’Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.22.3 p.391

Tertullian (c.207 A.D.) “thirsty with the Samaritan woman, wept over Lazarus, was troubled even untoAgainst Praxeas ch.27 p.624

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “Thus, in the Gospel of John, the woman of Samaria, when conversing with the Lord at the well, says, ‘No doubt Thou art greater,’ etc.; and again, ‘Our fathers worshipped in this mountain; but ye say, that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship.’Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.35 p.408

Tertullian (213 A.D.) mentions the Samaritan woman. On Monogamy ch.8 p.65

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) mentions the Samaritan woman. Tertullian on Modesty ch.11 p.85

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “manner, our Saviour said to the Samaritan woman, ‘The hour is coming, when’” Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.70 p.605

 

Go17. Mary Magdalene

 

Matthew 27:56,61; 28:1; Mark 15:40,47; 16:1,9; Luke 8:2; 24:10; John 20:11

 

p75 (c.175-225 A.D.) Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) mentions Mary Magdalene. Luke 8:2; 24:10

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels plus Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Mark 16:1,9

p5 John 1:23-31, 33-40; 16:14-30; 20:11-17,19-20,22-25 (47 verses) (early 3rd century) John 20:11

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 53 p.125 “And on the First-day on which he rose, he [Jesus] appeared first unto Mary Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven demons.”

Tertullian (c.203 A.D.) “Socrates’ own demon; but of seven spirits as in the case of the Magdalene; and of a legion in number, as in the Gadarene.” A Treatise on the Soul ch.25 p.206

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “dawn towards the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary,” Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.70 p.460

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) mentions Mary Magdalene and the other Mary in his Letter to Bishop Basilides canon 1 p.98

 

Go18. Jesus’ 72/70 disciples

 

Luke 10:1-17

 

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 15.15 p.67 mentionst he seventy that Jesus sent out.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “For [He [our Lord] made choice of no such other number of disciples; but] after the twelve apostles, our Lord is found to have sent seventy others before Him.Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.21.1 p.389

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Barnabas (and he was one of the seventy, and a fellow-worker of Paul), who speaks in these word and quotes the Epistle of Barnabas vol.1 p.147. Stromata book 2 ch.20 p.372

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says that Barnabas was one of the seventy disciples and a co-worker with Paul. Fragment 4 p.579 (Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 6 ch.2.2).

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “He [Christ] chose also seventy other missionaries besides the twelve. Now why, if the twelve followed the number of the twelve fountains of Elim, should not the seventy correspond to the like number of the palms of that place?Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.24 p.387

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) “First, twelve, and afterwards, seventy-two, those sent to preach the Gospel. Mark and Luke were from among the seventy-two, who along with the apostle Paul preached the gospel.Dialogue on the True Faith part 1 ch.5 (d) p.42

Council of Neocaesarea (c.315 A.D.) canon 14 p.85 (implied) “the chorepiscopi, however, are indeed after the pattern of the Seventy; and a tallow-servants, on account of their devotion to the poor, they have the honour of making the oblation.”

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) discusses the 70 disciples. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.1.4 p.104

 

Go19. Martha

 

Luke 10:38-42

 

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 13.30-35 p.64 “And while they were going in the way they entered into a certain village; and a woman named Martha entertained him in her house. And she had a sister named Mary, and she came and sat at the feet of our Lord, and heard his sayings. But Martha was disquieted by much serving; and she came and said unto him, My Lord, givest thou no heed that my sister left me alone to serve? speak to her that she help me. Jesus answered and said unto her, Martha, Martha, thou art solicitous and impatient on account of many things: but what is sought is one thing. But Mary hath chosen for herself a good portion, and that which shall not be taken from her.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “Such also was what the Lord said to Martha, who was occupied with many things, and distracted and troubled with serving; while she blamed her sister, because, leaving serving, she set herself at His feet, devoting her time to learning: ‘Thou art troubled about many things, but Mary hath chosen the good part, which shall not be taken away from her.’Who is the Rich Man That Shall Be Saved ch.10 p.594

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) “Again, when Martha in a later passage acknowledged Him to be the Son of God, she no more made a mistake than Peter and Nathanael had; and yet, even if she had made a mistake, she would at once have learnt the truth: for, behold, when about to raise her brother from the dead, the Lord looked up to heaven, and, addressing the Father, said-as the Son, of course: ‘Father, I thank Thee that Thou always hearest me; it is because of these crowds that are standing by that I have spoken to Thee, that they may believe that Thou hast sent me.’Against Praxeas ch.23 p.618

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “And what more fitting home for Mary, who chose the good part, which was not taken away from her, and for Martha, who was cumbered for the reception of Jesus, and for their brother, who is called the friend of the Saviour, than Bethany, the House of obedience?Origen’s Commentary on John book 6 ch.24 p.371

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “and then goes on to tell of the supper in Bethany six days before the passover, at which Martha served and Lazarus was at table.Commentary on John book 10 ch.15 p.393

 

Go20. Zacchaeus

 

Luke 19:1-9

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 31 p.91 tells the story of Zacchaeus

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “But that possessions distributed to the poor do annul former covetousness, Zaccheus made evident, when he said, ‘Behold, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have defrauded any one, I restore fourfold.’Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.12.5 p.477

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “also His conversation with Zaccheus the publican; also about the Pharisee and the publican, who were praying in the temple at the same time; also the ten lepers, whom He cleansed in the way simultaneously; also how He ordered the lame and the blind to be gathered to the wedding from the lanes and streets; also the parable of the judge who feared not God, whom the widow’s importunity led to avenge her cause; and about the fig-tree in the vineyard which produced no fruit.Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.14.3 p.439

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “He bids Zaccheus and Matthew, the rich tax-gathers, entertain Him hospitably.” Who is the Rich Man Who Shall be Saved ch.13 p.594

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “Now, although Zacchaeus was probably a Gentile, he yet from his intercourse with Jews had obtained a smattering of their Scriptures, and, more than this, had, without knowing it, fulfilled the precepts of Isaiah: ‘Deal thy bread,’ said the prophet, ‘to the hungry, and bring the poor that are cast out into thine house.’” Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.37 p.412

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “And the sycamine of Egypt is utterly destroyed; not, however, that one which Zaccheus climbed that he might be able to see my Lord.” Commentary on Psalm 77 or 78 ch.47 p.171

Origen (c.250 A.D.) mentions Zacchaeus. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 77 homily 1 ch.5 p.372

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “And when the Lord praised Zacchaeus, He answered and said ‘This day is salvation come to this house, forasmuch as he also is a son of Abraham.’Epistles of Cyprian letter 62 ch.4 p.359

Pontius (after 248 A.D.) “But as, by the extent of the space beyond, the view was not attainable to the confused crowd, persons who favoured him had climbed up into the branches of the trees, that there might not even be wanting to him (what happened in the case of Zacchaeus), that he was gazed upon from the trees.” Life and Passion of Cyprian ch.18 p.274

 

Among heretics

Valentinus and Marcion according to Irenaeus (182-188 A.D.) in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.8.3 p.327

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.72 p.96 mentions Zacchaeus

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.20 p.82 (implied) mentions Zacchaeus who was with Pater. It is implied but never stated that this is he same Zacchaeus. (One argue whether this should be implied or else just partial.)

 

Go21. Judas betrayed Jesus

 

Matthew 26:47-48; 27:3; Mark 14:43-44; Luke 22:47-48; John 18:2-3; Acts 1:16

 

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 18:3-5

p4 + p64 + p67 Luke 1:58-59; 1:62-2:1,6-7; 3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35; 5:3-8; 5:30-6:16; Matthew 26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-33; Matthew 3:9,15; 5:20-22,25-28 -95 verses (c.150-175 A.D.) mentions Judas planning to betray Jesus. Matthew 26:14-15

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels plus Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Matthew 26:14-16

p37 Matthew 26:19-52 (225-275 A.D.) tells at the Last Supper that Judas would betray Jesus. Matthew 26:25

p69 – Luke 22:40,45-48,58-61 (3rd century A.D.) mentions Jesus betraying Judas Luke 22:48

0171 Matthew 10:17-23,25-32; Luke 22:44-50,52-56,61,63-64 (ca.300 A.D.) Luke 22:48 Jesus said that Judas betrayed Him with a kiss.

 

Papias of Hierapolis (disciple of John) (95-110 A.D.) “And these things are credible to believers. And Judas the traitor, says he, “not believing, and asking, …” fragment 4 vol.1 p.154 from Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.32

Evarestus’ Martyrdom of Polycarp (c.169 A.D.) ch.6 p.40 (implied) briefly mentions that the servant who betrayed Polycarp might undergo the punishment of Judas himself.

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 8.23 p.56 Jesus Judas betrayed Jesus.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) vol.8 ch.4 p.757 says that Judas betrayed Jesus.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) vol.8 ch.5 p.757 “Bitter were thy nails, and sharp; bitter thy tongue, which though didst whet; bitter was Judas, to whom thou gavest hire; bitter thy false witnesses, whom thou stirrest up; bitter thy gall, which though preparedst; bitter thy vinegar, which thou madest; bitter thy hands, filled with blood. Thou slewest thy Lord…”

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) mentions “Judas, which was made guide to them that took Jesus. For he was numbered with us; … Let his habitation be desolate, and let no man dwell therein; and, His bishopric let another take;” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.1 p.429-430

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) says all agree that Judas was a traitor. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.20.4 p.388-389

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “of nature, since also Judas was chosen along with them. But they were capable of becoming apostles on being chosen by Him who foresees even ultimate issues. Matthias, accordingly, who was not chosen along with them, on showing himself worthy of becoming an apostle, is substituted for Judas. Stromata book 6 ch.13 p.504

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) says that Judas betrayed Jesus. Answer to the Jews ch.10 p.165

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “‘Woe,’ says He, ‘to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed!’ Now it is certain that in this woe must be understood the imprecation and threat of an angry and incensed Master, unless Judas was to escape with impunity after so vast a sin.Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.41 p.419

Asterius Urbanus (c.232 A.D.) “And thus they died, and finished their life like the traitor Judas.” from book 2 p.336

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) says that Jesus was betrayed by Judas Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.18 p.230

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) mentions that Judas treacherously betrayed Jesus. Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.13 p.304. See also Origen Against Celsus (225-253/254 A.D.) book 2 ch.11 p.435

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.14 p.661 man, besides other things, is subsequently overthrown by envy, and strives to do everything that is harsh and hostile against David. That Judas, who was chosen among the apostles, who was always of one mind and faithful in the house of God, himself subsequently betrayed God.”

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “For neither can Judas be thought worthy by his perfidy and treachery wherewith he wickedly dealt concerning the Saviour,” Epistles of Cyprian Epistle 74 ch.2 p.390

Therapius of Bulla [in Zeugitana] at The Seventh Council of Carthage p.571 (258 A.D.) said: He who concedes and betrays the Church’s baptism to heretics, what else has he been to the spouse of Christ than a Judas?

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) says that Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss. Commentary on Luke ch.48 p.116

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) teaches that Judas betrayed Jesus. Dialogue on the True Faith part 1 814a ch.16 p.58

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) discusses Acts chapter 1 and the “death and reprobation of Judas” An Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the Apostles ch. “b” vol.6 p.166

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) mentions that Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss. Fragment 3 p.281

Lactantius (315-325/350 A.D.) “And thus Judas, induced by a bribe, delivered up to the Jews the Son of God.” The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.18 p.119

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) “and before them Judas, who, though he followed the Saviour, afterwards became a traitor and an apostate.” Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 2.5 p.298. See also Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.4 p.84.

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) calls Judas a traitor. Preparation for the Gospel book 6 ch.10 p.40 and book 6 ch.10 p.42 where Jeuda betrayed Jesus.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.60 p.93 (partial) mentions that Matthias replaced Judas.

 

Go22. The High Priest Caiaphas tried Jesus

 

Matthew 26:57-67; Acts 4:27

 

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 18:14,28

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 49 p.118-119 discusses the chief priest Caiaphas questioning Jesus.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (partial) “the Judas you hired is bitter for you [ungrateful Israel], the Herod you followed is bitter for you, the Caiaphas you believed is bitter for you” On Pascha part 93 p.63

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) mentions priest Caiaphas, Annas, and Herod the King. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.19.7 p.387

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) (implied) “For in the person of Pilate ‘the heathen raged,’ and in the person of Israel ‘the people imagined vain things;’ ‘the kings of the earth’ in Herod, and the rulers in Annas and Caiaphas, were gathered together against the Lord, and against His anointed.’” On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.20 p.559

Tertullian “rulers in Annas and Caiaphas, were gathered together against the Lord” On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.20 p.559

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “And He who knew what manner of man Judas was, is betrayed by Judas. And He, who formerly was honoured by him as God, is condemned by Caiaphas.Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.18 p.230

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “And the high priest arose, and said to Him, Answerest thou nothing to what these witness against thee? But Jesus held His peace.’ And that He returned no answer when falsely accused, the following is the statement: ‘And Jesus stood before the governor; and he asked Him, saying, Art Thou the King of the Jews? And Jesus said to him, Thou sayest. And when He was accused of the chief priests and elders, He answered nothing.Origen Against Celsus book 1 preface p.395

Peter of Alexandria fragments (306,285-311 A.D.) “Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; fragment 5 ch.1.7 p.282

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) (implied) Caiaphas was the High Priest when Jesus was tried. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.10.4 p.97

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.44 p.89 (partial) mentions Caiaphas the high priest asking for proof of Jesus (after Jesus had risen). No mention of a trial though.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.53 p.91 (partial) mentions Caiaphas. No mention of a trial though.

 

Go23. Herod tried Jesus

 

Matthew 26:57-67; Acts 4:27

 

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 18:14,28

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 50.5-10 p.120 discusses Jesus’ trial before Herod.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (partial) “the Judas you hired is bitter for you [ungrateful Israel], the Herod you followed is bitter for you, the Caiaphas you believed is bitter for you” On Pascha part 93 p.63

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) mentions priest Caiaphas, Annas, and Herod the King. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.19.7 p.387

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) discusses both Herod and Pontius Pilate. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.5 p.431

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) mentions both Herod and Pontius Pilate in the trial against Jesus. Against Praxeas ch.28 p.625

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “For in the person of Pilate ‘the heathen raged,’ and in the person of Israel ‘the people imagined vain things;’ ‘the kings of the earth’ in Herod, and the rulers in Annas and Caiaphas, were gathered together against the Lord, and against His anointed.’” On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.20 p.559

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) mentions that Jesus was sent to Herod gratuitously by Pilate. Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.42 p.420

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) says that Herod and Pilate presided over Jesus. Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.6 p.441

Origen (246-248 A.D.) says that Herod seems to joined in the vote for Jesus to die. Commentary on Matthew book 13 ch.2 p.477

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (implied) discusses what if Jesus only suffered in appearance. “If He suffered in appearance, and not in reality, Herod sat in judgment only in appearance; …. Even His blood was poured out in appearance; the Evangelists preached the Gospel in appearance; Christ came from Heaven in appearance, and He ascended in appearance. The salvation of mankind was also in appearance, and not in truth. Why then does Christ say, ‘I am the truth?’” Dialogue on the True Faith fifth part ch.851a p.149

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says that Herod himself did not pass sentence, but let the people do it. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.18 p.119-120

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says Herod the Tetrarch and Pontius Pilate tried Jesus. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.45 p.240

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) (implied) “He [Jesus] also lived a holy life, and healed every kind of sickness and disease among the people, and wrought signs and wonders for the benefit of men; and to those who had fallen into the error of polytheism He made known the one and only true God, His Father, and underwent the passion, and endured the cross at the hands of the Christ-killing Jews, under Pontius Pilate the governor and Herod the king.Epistle to the Magnesians (Latin form) ch.11 p.64

 

Among heretics

Gospel of Peter (180-190 A.D.) ANF vol.9 ch.1 p.7 (implied) mentions Herod trying Jesus.

 

Go24. Pontius Pilate sentenced Jesus

 

Luke 23:4-25; John 18:28-19:26

 

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 18:28-49

p90 (175 A.D.) John 18:36-19:7 – (partial) Jesus was on trial before Pontius Pilate (Pilate does not sentence Jesus until John 19:16) John 18:37-19:6

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels plus Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Acts 13:28; 4:27

 

Ignatius (-107/116 A.D.) Jesus was truly persecuted under Pontius Pilate, truly crucified, died, and raised from the dead. Ignatius’ Letter to the Trallians ch.9 p.70

Letter of Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans ch.1 p.86 (-107/116 A.D.) says that Jesus was truly of the seed of David, Son of God, truly born of a virgin, baptized by John, and nailed for us under Pontius Pilate and Herod the tetrarch.

Ignatius (-107/116 A.D.) Jesus was under the time of the government of Pontius Pilate. Ignatius’ Letter to the Magnesians ch.11 p.64

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) Jesus Christ crucified under Pontius Pilate. “…and we reasonably worship Him, having learned that He is the Son of the true God Himself, and holding Him in the second place, and the prophetic Spirit in the third, and we will prove.” First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.13 p.166-167

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) Jesus was made man and crucified under Pontius Pilate. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.6 p.190

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 49-51 p.119-122 discusses Pilate questioning Jesus and having him crucified.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 ch.4 p.757 says Jesus was condemned by Pilate.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (partial) says that Pilate washed his hand. On Pascha part 92 p.62.

Irenaeus Of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) says that Jesus “united man through Himself to God” suffered under Pontius Pilate, and rose again. Jesus is the Judge of those who are judged. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.4.2 p.417

Irenaeus Of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial) mentions the Gnostics [as well as Christians said Jesus lived among them under Pontius Pilate. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.25.6 p.353

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes 1 Timothy 6:13 and mentions Pontius Pilate. Fragment 4 p.579 (Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 6 ch.14)

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) mentions Pontius Pilate. in Tertullian’s Apology ch.21 p.35 as well as in On the Veiling of Virgins ch.1 vol.4 p.27

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) mentions Jesus being brought before Pilate. Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.42 p.420

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) says that Herod and Pilate presided over Jesus. Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.6 p.441

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) mentions Caiaphas, Herod, and Jesus being scourged by Pilate. Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.18 p.230

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) says that the crowds would have influenced Pilate to condemn Jesus. It also mentions his hostility to Herod and their apparent friendship. Origen’s Commentary on Matthew book 12 ch.1 p.449-450.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “finally seized Him [Jesus] and delivered Him to Pontius Pilate, who was then the procurator of Syria on behalf of the Romans, demanding with violent and obstinate urgency His crucifixion and death.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 7 ch.13 p.468

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) (partial) mentions Pilate. The Canonical Epistle Canon 9 p.273

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) mentions after Judas betrayed Jesus, that the Jews took Jesus before Pontius Pilate. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.18 p.119. He mentions Herod in ch.18 p.120.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says Herod the Tetrarch and Pontius Pilate tried Jesus. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.45 p.240

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) (partial) mentions Pilate. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.9.3 p.96 and book 1 ch.10.1 p.96.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) (implied) “He [Jesus] also lived a holy life, and healed every kind of sickness and disease among the people, and wrought signs and wonders for the benefit of men; and to those who had fallen into the error of polytheism He made known the one and only true God, His Father, and underwent the passion, and endured the cross at the hands of the Christ-killing Jews, under Pontius Pilate the governor and Herod the king.Epistle to the Magnesians (Latin form) ch.11 p.64

 

Among heretics

Gospel of Peter (180-190 A.D.) ANF vol.9 ch.1 p.7 (partial) mentions Pontius Pilate without saying he sentenced him.

 

Go25. Barabbas

 

Mt 27:16-20; Mk 15:7-11

Luke 23:18-19

(partial) Acts 3:14

 

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 50.28 p.121 mentions Barabbas.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) “but they chose Barabbas the robber who had been taken for murder:” Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.95.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “said it should, through His not speaking. Then Barabbas, the most abandoned” Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.42 p.420

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “That the judge would, without any hesitation, have set Him at liberty if He had offered a defence, is clear from what is related of him when he said, ‘Which of the two do ye wish that I should release unto you, Barabbas or Jesus, who is called Christ?’Origen Against Celsus book 1 Preface ch.2 p.395

 

Go26. John the Baptist was beheaded

 

Matthew 14:1-12; Mark 6:14-29; Luke 9:7-9

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 18.6-21 p.71-72 gives verbatim the details in the gospels of the execution of John the Baptist.

Tertullian (918-220 A.D.) “That person himself, at the close of the law and the prophets, and called not a prophet, but a messenger, is, suffering an ignominious death, beheaded to reward a dancing-girl.Scorpiace ch.8 p.640

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “And Herod, too, said, 'John whom I beheaded, he is risen from the dead; 'so that he appears not to have known what was said about Christ, as reported in the Gospel, 'Is not this the son of the carpenter, is not His mother called Mary, and His brothers James, and Joseph, and Simon, and Judas? And His sisters, are they not all with us?Origen’s Commentary on John book 6 ch.7 p.357

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) says that John the Baptist was beheaded. Incarnation of the Word ch.24.4 p.49

 

Go27. Annas the former high priest

 

John 18:13,24 Annas was high priest from 6 to 15 A.D.

Annas in Acts 23:2; 24:1 was a different person. He was high priest from 47-59 A.D.

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 170 A.D.) section 48.46-48 p.118 “Then they took Jesus, and bound him, and brought him to Annas first; because he was the father in law of Caiaphas, who was chief priest that year. And Caiaphas was he that counselled the Jews, that it was necessary that one man should die instead of the people.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.)  “For if this were true, the high priest Caiaphas, and Annas, and the rest of the chief priests, arid doctors of the law, and rulers of the people, would have been the first to believe in the Lord, agreeing as they did with respect to that relationship; and even before them should have been Herod the king.Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.19.7 p.387

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “For in the person of Pilate 'the heathen raged,' and in the person of Israel 'the people imagined vain things;' 'the kings of the earth' in Herod, and the rulers in Annas and Caiaphas, were gathered together against the Lord, and against His anointed.'The Resurrection of the Flesh ch.20 p.559

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) “Therefore the whole number of venerable and honourable priests put in trust of this most excellent law was fifty-six, Hanan (i.e. Annas) and Caiaphas being excepted.” Fragment 1

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) “The Divine Scripture says, moreover, that he passed the entire time of his ministry under the high priests Annas and Caiaphas,Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 10 ch.2 p.&&&

 

Go28. John the Baptist ate locusts and wild honey

 

Matthew 3:4; Mark 1:6

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “For when John remained by the Jordan, and preached the baptism of repentance, wearing only a leathern girdle and a vesture made of camels' hair, eating nothing but locusts and wild honey, men supposed him to be Christ; but he cried to them, 'I am not the Christ, but the voice of one crying; for He that is stronger than I shall come, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear.'Dialogue with Trypho, the Jew ch.88 p.244

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) &&&

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says that John the Baptist ate locusts and wild honey. The Instructor book 2 ch.13 p.266

Origen (233-244 A.D.) says that John the Baptist ate clean locusts and wild honey. Homilies on Luke homily 11 ch.5 p.46

 

Go29. Judas hanged himself

 

Matthew 27:5-6; Acts 1

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 51.9-10 p.122 says that Judas went and hanged himself.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) “For Judas, being one of Christ’s disciples, agreed with the Jews and covenanted with them, when he saw they desired to kill Him, because he had been reproved by Him: and he took the thirty staters of the province, and betrayed Christ unto them: and then, repenting of what he had done, he gave the silver back again to the rulers of the Jews, and hanged himself. But they, thinking it not right to cast it into their treasury, because it was the price of blood, bought with it the ground that was a certain potter’s for the burial of strangers.Proof of Apostolic Teaching ch.81

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “-and that, having thrown the money down in the temple, he departed, and went and hanged himself. But if this covetous Judas," Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.11 p.435

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.318-325 A.D.) “Judas - "3. that betrayed the Lord, seeing that he was condemned, repented and returned the money to the chief priests and elders, saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood? 4. And they said to him, What is that to us? see thou to that. 5. And he cast down the money in the Temple and went and hanged himself. 6. And the chief priests took the money and said, It is not lawful to put them in the treasury, for it is (481) the price of blood. 7. And they took counsel, and bought with them the potters' field to bury strangers in: 8. Wherefore that field is called the field of blood unto this day. 9. Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet saying, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was valued, whom they of the children of Israel did value, 10. and gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord appointed me."” Demonstration of the Gospel book 10 ch.4

 

 

Go30. Jesus’ twelve disciples

 

Apology of Aristides (&&&)

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) &&&

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.)

Origen (25-253/254 A.D.)

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Two Epistles on Virginity (pseudo-Clement)

Akhmin Apocalypse of Peter (Greek) (135,100-150 A.D.) no.5 p.245 mentions the twelve disciples after they prayed with Jesus.

 

 

Individuals AFTER THE GOSPELS

 

N1. Matthias

 

Acts 1:20

(partial) Psalm 109:8

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) refers to Acts 1 and Matthias. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.20.2 p.388

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “of nature, since also Judas was chosen along with them. But they were capable of becoming apostles on being chosen by Him who foresees even ultimate issues. Matthias, accordingly, who was not chosen along with them, on showing himself worthy of becoming an apostle, is substituted for Judas. Stromata book 6 ch.13 p.504

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “chosen Matthias by lot as the twelfth, into the place of Judas, they obtained the promised power of the Holy Ghost for the gift of miracles and of utterance; and after first bearing witness to the faith in Jesus Christ throughout Judaea, and rounding churches (there), they next went forth into the world and preached” Prescription Against Heretics ch.20 p.252

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “Let us, then, see how clearly Basilides, simultaneously with Isidorus, and the entire band of these (heretics), not only absolutely belies Matthias, but even the Saviour Himself.” Refutation of all Heresies book 7 ch.8 p.103

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “the apostles, was enabled to behold, and along with him the twelve (Matthias having been substituted in room of Judas);Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.65 p.457

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) &&&

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) “in this chapter we have also the section on the substitution of Matthias,” An Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the Apostles section B p.166

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “His apostles were at that time eleven in number, to whom were added Matthias,” The Manner in Which the Persecutors Died ch.2 p.301

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Matthias. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.1.1 p.103 and book 1 ch.12.3 p.99.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.60 p.93 mentions that Matthias replaced Judas.

 

N2. James the Lord’s brother

 

Acts 15:13-18; 1 Corinthians 15:7

 

Note that no mention is made of James never drinking alcohol or having his hair cut from birth except in Eusebius quoting what Hegesippus wrote.

 

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels plus Acts) (200-225 A.D.) (implied) Acts 12:2

 

Hegesippus (170-180 A.D.) discusses at length James the Lord’s brother. Five Books of Commentaries on the Acts of the Church section 1 p.762-763

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) discusses Peter, James, and the Council of Jerusalem. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.14 p.435

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) said the James the Just [The Lord’s brother) was made bishop of Jerusalem. Fragment 4 p.579 (Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 6 ch.2.1)

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) mentions the holy apostles, Peters, James, John, and Paul. Stromata book 1 ch.1 p.301

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) briefly mentions John and James reputed to be pillars. Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.3 p.348

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (partial) discusses how the Naaseni believe James the brother of the Lord handed down secret teachings to Mariamne. Hippolytus implicitly accepts that James was the brother of the Lord here, but gives no indication that he was godly. The Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.2 p.48

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 15:4-8 referring to James Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.63 p.456. He also discusses the brothers of Jesus in his Commentary on Matthew 10 ch.17 p.424

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.12 p.673 mentions James and Simon [Peter] speaking to the church in the Acts of the Apostles.

Treatise On Rebaptism (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.12 p.674 quotes Acts 15:13-17 “as James says in the Acts of the Apostles”.

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) mentions James and Paul and circumcision. An Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the Apostles “EE” p.168

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions James, the Savior’s brother. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.12 p.96

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Epistle of Peter to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) preface p.215 positively mentions James.

The Ebionite Epistle of Clement to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) preface p.218 and ch.19p.212 mentions James

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions James the Lord’s brother. homily 11 ch.35 p.291.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 p.75 positively narrates stories about James.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.67 p.95; book 4 ch.55 p.142 mentions James [the Lord’s brother] the bishop of Jerusalem.

 

N3. The Ethiopian eunuch

 

Acts 8:26-40

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “But again: Whom did Philip preach to the eunuch of the queen of the Ethiopians, returning from Jerusalem, and reading Esaias the prophet,” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.8 p.433

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “For this reason, also, Philip, when he had discovered the eunuch…” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.23.2 p.494

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “The Spirit had enjoined Philip to proceed to that road: the eunuch himself, too, was not found idle, nor as one who was suddenly seized with an eager desire to be baptized; but, after going up to the temple for prayer’s sake, being intently engaged on the divine Scripture, was thus suitably discovered-to whom God had, unasked, sent an apostle, which one, again, the Spirit bade adjoin himself to the chamberlain’s chariot. The Scripture which he was reading falls in opportunely with his faith:” On Baptism ch.18 p.678

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “John, we shall add, lest this should be called a mere unsupported assertion, what is said in the Acts about the eunuch of the queen of the Ethiopians and Philip.” Origen’s Commentary on John 1 ch.15 p.305

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.4 p.669 “Just as the Ethiopian eunuch, when he was returning from Jerusalem and reading the prophet Isaiah, and was in doubt, having at the Spirit’s suggestion heard the truth from Philip the deacon, believed and was baptized; and when he had gone up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord took away Philip, and the eunuch saw him no more.”

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) &&&

Pontius’ Life and Passion of Cyprian (258 A.D.) ch.3 p.268 “For although in the Acts of the Apostles the eunuch is described as at once baptized by Philip, because he believed with his whole heart, this is not a fair parallel.”

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) “l. “That the Lord helps the good and the believing on the way to salvation, as is shown from the instance of the eunuch.” An Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the Apostles section L p.167

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions the Ethiopian eunuch. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.1.13 p.105

 

N4. Stephen the martyr

 

Acts 7:59-60

 

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (177 A.D.) says that the Christians were like Stephen, who even prayed for those who inflicted tortures on them. p.784

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) says that Stephen say Jesus standing on the right hand of God. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.13 p.435

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) “‘He sitteth at the Father’s right hand’ -not the Father at His own. He is seen by Stephen, at his martyrdom by stoning, still sitting at the right hand of God where He will continue to sit, until the Father shall make His enemies His footstool.Against Praxeas ch.30 p.627

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) mentions the martyrdom of Abel, Stephen, and others in Instructions of Commodianus ch.62 p.215

Origen (235 A.D.) mentions Stephen the martyr speaking to Jesus. Origen On Prayer part 1 ch.14 p.57. See also ibid part 1 ch.6.5 p.35

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “And this we see done in the case of Stephen, who, when he was slain by the Jews with violence and stoning, did not ask for vengeance for himself, but for pardon for his murderers, saying, ‘Lord, lay not this sin to their charge.’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 9 ch.16 p.488

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) “The rising and slanderous information of the Jews against Stephen, and his address …”An Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the Apostles section H p.166

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) “Thus first Stephen, pressing on His footsteps, suffered martyrdom, being apprehended in Jerusalem by the transgressors, and being brought before the council, he was stoned, and glorified for the name of Christ, praying with the words, ‘Lord, lay not this sin to their charge.’” Canonical Epistle canon 9 p.273

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Cornelius, of Caesarea in Palestine, Peter, and later the persecution of Stephen and still later Agabus. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.3.3 p.107

 

N5. Cornelius the centurion who was saved

 

Acts 10:24-48

 

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels plus Acts) (200-225 A.D.) (partial) tells part of the story of Cornelius in Acts 10:10-23, 31-41; 11:2-13

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “Cornelius the centurion, and those Gentiles with him, to whom the word of God” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.7 p.432

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “spirit’s egress as of the Holy Spirit’s ingress? Finally, granting that upon the centurion Cornelius, even before baptism, the honourable gift of the Holy Spirit, together with the gift of prophecy besides, had hastened to descend, we” On Fasting ch.8 vol.4 p.107

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “And there was none other (sent) but the Word. And that He was sent Peter testifies, when he says to the centurion Cornelius: 'God sent His Word unto the children of Israel by the preaching of Jesus Christ. This is the God who is Lord of all.'Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.13 p.228

Origen “Cornelius, suggesting to him “to send to Joppa, to Simon surnamed Peter,” Peter” Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.1 p.429

Origen (233/234 A.D.) (partial) mentions Cornelius the centurion. Origen On Prayer ch.27.13 p.101

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.15 p.646 (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “Cornelius the centurion before they were baptized with water.”

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “so that in the house of Cornelius the centurion, the Holy Ghost had descended upon the Gentiles who were there, fervent in the warmth of their faith,” Epistles of Cyprian Letter 71 p.378

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Thus, for instance, Cornelius the centurion, when he prayed, had a claim to be heard.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 4 p.456

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) Acts section O p.167 “Of Cornelius, and what the angel said to him. See also what was”

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) &&&

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Cornelius, of Caesarea in Palestine, Peter, and later the persecution of Stephen and still later Agabus. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.3.3 p.107

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Cornelius. homily 20 ch.13 p.343. See also ibid homily 1 ch.15 p.227.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 10 ch.55 p.206 mentions Cornelius the Centurion

 

N6. Saul of Tarsus persecuted the church

 

Acts 9:1-3

Paul wrote about this with regret in Galatians 1:13; 1 Corinthians 15:9; Philippians 3:6; and 1 Timothy 1:13.

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “But again, we allege the same against those who do not recognise Paul as an apostle: that they should either reject the other words of the Gospel which we have come to know through Luke alone, and not make use of them; or else, if they do receive all these, they must necessarily admit also that testimony concerning Paul, when he (Luke) tells us that the Lord spoke at first to him from heaven: ‘Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou Me? I am Jesus Christ, whom thou persecutest;’ and then to Ananias, saying regarding him: ‘Go thy way; for he is a chosen vessel unto Me, to bear My name among the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel.Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.15.1 p.439

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “But how Paul, an apostle, from being a persecutor, who first of all shed the blood of the church, though afterwards he exchanged the sword for the pen, and turned the dagger into a plough, being first a ravening wolf of Benjamin, then himself supplying food as did Jacob, -how he, (I say, ) speaks in favour of martyrdoms, now to be chosen by himself also, when, rejoicing over the Thessalonians, he says, ‘So that we glory in you in the churches of God, for your patience and faith in all your persecutions and tribulations, in which ye endure a manifestation of the righteous judgment of God, that ye may be accounted worthy of His kingdom, for which ye also suffer!Scorpiace ch.13 p.646

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “To Saul, when still a persecutor it is said, ‘Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou Me? “and, “I am Jesus whom thou persecutest.’” Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.12 p.304

Origen (233/234 A.D.) says that Saul “persecuted” the church Origen On Prayer ch.24.2 p.81

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Nor did he [Peter] despise Paul because he had previously been a persecutor of the Church, but admitted the counsel of truth, and easily yielded to the lawful reason which Paul asserted, furnishing thus an illustration to us both of concord and of patience, that we should not obstinately love our own opinions, but should rather adopt as our own those which at any time are usefully and wholesomely suggested by our brethren and colleagues, if they be true and lawful.Epistles of Cyprian Letter 70 ch.3 p.377

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) (implied) says that Paul persecuted the church. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.1.9 p.104

 

N7. Paul was a godly apostle

 

Acts 15:22; Galatians 1:1; 2 Peter 3:15-16; Titus 1:1

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) (implied) contains most of Paul’s writings

p32 (=P. Rylands 5) Titus 1:1-15; 2:3-8 (21 verses) (150-200 A.D.) Titus 1:1 “Paul, a servant of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ”

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels plus Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Acts 9:23-25

p65 1 Thessalonians 1:3-2:1; 2:6-13 (225-275 A.D.) Paul says he is an apostle in 1 Thessalonians 2:6

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. Calls the writings of Paul scripture. 2 Peter 3:15-16

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) Paul was imprisoned seven times and was stoned. 1 Clement ch.5 p.6

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) says to the Corinthians, “Take up the epistle of the blessed Apostle Paul.” And refers to 1 Corinthians 3:13. 1 Clement ch.47 vol.1 p.18 (See also vol.9 p.243)

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) “I do not, as Peter and Paul issue commandments unto you. They were apostles; I am but a condemned man;…” Letter of Ignatius to the Romans ch.4 p.75

Ignatius (-107/116 A.D.) Paul wrote a letter to the Ephesians. Ignatius’ Letter to the Ephesians ch.12 p.55

Polycarp (100-165 A.D.) “For neither I, not any other such one, can come up to the wisdom of the blessed and glorified Paul. He, when among you, accurately and stedfastly taught the word of truth in the presence of those who were then alive. And when absent from you [Philippians] he wrote you a letter, which, if you carefully study, you will find to be the means of building you up in that faith…” Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians ch.3 p.33.

Dionysius of Corinth (170 A.D.) speaks of the churches planted by Peter and Paul: Romans and Corinthians Fragment 3 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.765

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 1:18 as being by Paul. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.3:5 p.320

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) refers to Paul and Barnabas in Lystra and Lycia in Acts 14:15-17 Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.8 p.434

Epitaph of Abercius (190-210 A.D.) (partial) mentions Paul and then the epitaph breaks off.

Caius (190-217 A.D.) (implied) discusses Paul going to Rome and the letters of Paul. Muratorian Canon ch.3.2,3 p.603

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) mentions Paul the apostle. Stromata book 1 ch.1 p.301

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says “the blessed Paul” wrote and quotes 1 Corinthians 14:20. The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.217. See also The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.214 and Fragments from Cassiodorus (fragment 1) ch.1 p.572

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) quotes 1 Timothy 4:8, saying it was by Paul in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.196

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes 1 Thessalonians 2:6-7 by the blessed Paul. The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.214

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) stresses the authorship of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Revelation, many of Paul’s letters in Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) 1 Thessalonians 4:12 was by Paul to the Thessalonians. Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.66 p.219. See also Commentary on Proverbs p.173

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) “But your god is your belly, and rewards are your laws. Paul the apostle suggests this” Instructions of Commodianus ch.31 p.209

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “But it is not the appropriate time to describe at present the truly venerable and divine contents of the Gospels, or the mind of Christ-that is, the wisdom and the word-contained in the writings of Paul.” Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.21 p.472

Origen (239-242 A.D.) mentions Paul a wise man. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 7 ch.6.1 p.105

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions the apostle Paul. Origen On Prayer ch.6.5 p.35

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) (implied) “since Paul also, the apostle whom the Lord called a chosen vessel unto Him, laid down in his epistle: 'I marvel that ye are so soon removed from Him that called you into the grace of Christ, unto another gospel: which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the Gospel of ChristEpistles of Cyprian Epistle 22 ch.3 p.301

Firmilian (c.246-258 A.D.) in his letter to Cyprian mentions that Gnostics defame the blessed apostles Peter and Paul the Lord. Epistles of Cyprian Letter 74 p.391

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 15:41 as by Paul. The books on Nature ch.3 p.86

Hermias (3rd century) “Paul the blessed apostle, my beloved brethren, writing to the Corinthians who inhabit Laconian Greece, spake saying, ‘The wisdom of this world is folly in the sight of God’ [1 Cor 3:19], and he said not amiss.Satire on Greek Philosophers ch.1 p.1

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) refers to many of Paul’s letters as scripture such as Galatians 1 (Paul sent to the Galatians) on Dialog of the True Faith first part p.44 and quoting Ephesians 2:11-13 as by the apostle to the Ephesians in Dialog of the True Faith first part p.99.

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) The apostle Paul was blessed. Commentary on the Apocalypse ch.11.7 p.354. See also ibid ch.6 p.344

Phileas of Thmuis (martyred 306/307 A.D.) mentions “the word of the Apostle Paul, the most blessed seer” Letter of Phileas to Meletius of Lycopolis vol.6 p.164

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) mentions Paul being called to the apostleship. An Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the Apostles M. vol.6 p.167

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 7:34 as by “the blessed Paul” Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 1 ch.1 p.311

Hesychius of Egypt, Pachomius, Phileas, Theodorus (martyred 311 A.D.) &&&

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions “the blessed Paul”. Athanasius Against the Heathen book 1 ch.5.2 p.6

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) says that we should have not only deeds but also “godly patience”. Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 1 ch.3 p.292

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) shows that Paul was an apostle of God. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.1.4 p.104

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Acts of Paul and Thecla (before 207 A.D.) p.487 shows that Paul was very godly.

pseudo-Hippolytus (after 236 A.D.) positively mentions Paul. Discourse on the End of the World ch.11 p.244

 

Among heretics

Mani (262-278 A.D.) positively mentions Paul. Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) (implied) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius accepts Paul as an apostle and his letters are scripture. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.15d, 6 p.42-43

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) says that Paul was greater than Marcion. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.809a p.47

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) “Paul, the interpreter of the divine oracle” and quote 2 Corinthians 5:19. Oration Concerning Simeon and Anna

 

N8. Barnabas, companion of Paul

 

Acts 13:2; 14:1-3; 15:22; Galatians 2:1

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Galatians 2:1

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels plus Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Acts 9:27; 11:24-25

 

Note that the author of the Epistle of Barnabas never claimed to be the Barnabas in the Bible.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) refers to Paul and Barnabas in Lystra and Lycia in Acts 14:15-17. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.8 p.434. See also book 3 ch.12.14 p.435

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Barnabas (and he was one of the seventy, and a fellow-worker of Paul), who speaks in these word and quotes the Epistle of Barnabas vol.1 p.147. Stromata book 2 ch.20 p.372

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says that Barnabas was one of the seventy disciples and a co-worker with Paul. Fragment 4 p.579 (Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 6 ch.2.2). He quotes from the Epistle of Barnabas as by the apostle (Stromata book 2 ch.6 p.354 and Stromata book 2 ch.7 p.355) according to vol.1 p.137

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) Barnabas, too, who in person preached the word along with the apostle in the Stromata book 5 ch.10 p.459

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) mentions Barnabas, “a man sufficiently accredited by God” Tertullian on Modesty ch.20 p.97

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “Moreover, in the Epistle to the Galatians, Paul states that Peter, still from fear of the Jews, ceased upon the arrival of James to eat with the Gentiles, and ‘separated himself from them, fearing them that were of the circumcision;’ and the rest of the Jews, and Barnabas also, followed the same course. And certainly it was quite consistent that those should not abstain from the observance of Jewish usages who were sent to minister to the circumcision, when they who “seemed to be pillars” gave the right hand of fellowship to Paul and Barnabas, in order that, while devoting themselves to the circumcision, the latter might preach to the Gentiles.’ Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.1 p.429

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) “surname Mark, whom Barnabas and Paul attached to themselves as companion,” From the Books on the Promises ch.5 p.83

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) “his association with the apostles by the instrumentality of Barnabas.” An Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the Apostles s, w vol.6 P.167

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) mentions Barnabas with Paul. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.1.4 p.104

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions Barnabas. homily 1 ch.9 p.225.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.13 p.80 positively mentions the preaching of Barnabas.

 

N9. Silas, companion of Paul

 

Acts 15:22,27-34,40; 16:19,25,29; 17:4,10,14,15; 18:5; 2 Corinthians 1:19; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1; 1 Peter 5:12

Note Silas is called Silvanus in the KJV outside of Acts

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. We have sent therefore Judas and Silas” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.14 p.436

Asterius Urbanus (c.242 A.D.) “Nor will they be able to boast that Agabus, or Judas, or Silas, or the daughters” fragment 9 p.337

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “his chains; and that Paul, having been bound in the stocks along with Silas” Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.34 p.445

Origen (233/234 A.D.) mentions Silas. Origen On Prayer ch.12.2 p.47

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “night Paul and Silas prayed and gave thanks to God, and the prisoners heard” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 3 ch.14 p.537

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) Epistle “and Silas were dragged before the magistrates at Thessalonica, were dismissed”

Peter of AlexandriaEpistle “brethren immediately sent away Paul and Silas by night unto Berea.”

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) “Neither can they [false prophets] boast of Agabus, or Judas, or Silas, or the daughters of Philip, or Ammia in Philadelphia, or Quadratus, or any others not belonging to them.” Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 5 ch.17.3 p.234

 

N10. Apollos

 

Acts 18:24-28; 19:1; 1 Corinthians 1:12; 3:4-6; 4:6; 16:12; Titus 3:13

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.)

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Take up the epistle of the blessed Apostle Paul. What did he write to you [the Corinthian church] at the time when the Gospel first began to be preached? Truly, under the inspiration of the Spirit, he wrote to you concerning himself, and Cephas, and Apollos, because even then parties had been formed among you.” 1 Clement ch.47 vol.1 p.18

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “But these words were written to the Corinthians in regard of the circumstances of that particular time; seeing that schisms and dissensions were agitated among them, while one attributes everything to Paul, another to Apollos.” On Baptism ch.14 p.676

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “epistle: ‘All things are yours; whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the” Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.7 p.444

Origen (235-245 A.D.) mentions Apollos. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 5 ch.13.3 p.56

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “In fine, the Apostle Paul also apprehended this agreement of unity, with the distinction of persons notwithstanding: for in writing to the Corinthians he said, ‘I have planted, Apollos watered, but God gave the increase. Therefore neither is he that planteth anything, nor he that watereth, but God who gives the increase. Now he that planteth and he that watereth are one.’ And who does not perceive that Apollos is one person and Paul another, and that.” Concerning the Trinity ch.27 p.637-638

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (Adamantius is speaking) “Again Paul says, … [‘Indeed I belong to Paul’; and another, ‘I belong to Apollo [Apollos]’; are you not ordinary men” footnote 179 says that the bracketed quotation is not found in Rufinus’ Latin translation “but was almost certainly written by our author.” Dialogue on the True Faith Fifth Part 22c p.178

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) “And concerning Apollos, an eloquent man and a believer.” An Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the Apostles section AA p.168.

 

N11. Paul was in prison/bonds

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “indicating with all diligence both places, and cities, and number of days, until they went up to Jerusalem; and what befell Paul there, how he was sent to Rome in bonds; the name of the centurion who took him in charge; and the signs of the ships, and how they made shipwreck; and the island upon which they escaped, and how they received kindness there, Paul healing the chief man of that island; and how they sailed from thence to Puteoli, and from that arrived at Rome; and for what period they sojourned at Rome.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.14.1 p.437

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “When Agabus, making use of corresponding action too, had foretold that bonds awaited Paul, the disciples, weeping and entreating that he would not venture upon going to Jerusalem, entreated in vain.” Scorpiace ch.15 p.648

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) (implied) “Of this same thing in the Acts of the Apostles: ‘But about the middle of the night Paul and Silas prayed and gave thanks to God, and the prisoners heard them.’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 3 ch.14 p.537

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) “and of the cure of the damsel having a spirit of divination, on account of which the masters of the damsel cast Paul into prison; and of the earthquake and miracle which happened there; and how the jailer believed and was baptized forthwith that same night with all his house.” An Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the Apostles section X p.167

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) (partial) “Paul underwent many persecutions” The Canonical Epistle Canon 10 p.274

 

N12. Paul was persecuted besides prison

 

Acts 13:50; 14:19; 16:22-23; 17:5

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Owing to envy, Paul also obtained the reward of patient endurance, after being seven times thrown into captivity, compelled to flee, and stoned. After preaching both in the east and west, he gained the illustrious reputation due to his faith, having taught righteousness to the whole world, and come to the extreme limit of the west, and suffered martyrdom under the prefects.1 Clement ch.5 p.6

Tertullian (ca.208 A.D.) “Nay, Paul too, who had submitted to deliverance from persecution by being let down from the wall, as to do so was at this time a matter of command, refused in like manner now at the close of his ministry, and after the injunction had come to an end, to give in to the anxieties of the disciples, eagerly entreating him that he would not risk himself at Jerusalem, because of the sufferings in store for him which Agabus had foretold; but doing the very opposite, it is thus he speaks, ‘What do ye, weeping and disquieting my heart?’” On Fleeing Persecution ch.6 p.120

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Let them also follow the example of the Apostle Paul, who, after often-repeated imprisonment, after scourging, after exposures to wild beasts, in everything continued meek and humble; and even after his rapture to the third heaven and paradise, he did not proudly arrogate anything to himself when he said, ‘Neither did we eat any man’s bread for nought, but wrought with labour and travail night and day, that we might not be chargeable to any of you.’” Epistles of Cyprian Letter 5 ch.2 p.683

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) (implied) “After that, however, Paul is stoned there by the neighbouring people.” section V p.167

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) says Paul “was brought in the peril of death, having endured many evils, and making his boast in his numerous persecutions and afflictions, in the same city was also beheaded;” Canonical Epistle Canon 9 p.273

 

N13. Timothy the individual (not just the book)

 

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.603 mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) quotes 1 Timothy 6:20,21 as by the Apostle to Timothy. Then he says, “Convicted by this utterance, the heretics reject the Epistles to Timothy.” Stromata book 2 ch.11 p.359.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “‘Use a little wine’, says the apostle to Timothy, who drank water, ‘for thy stomach’s sake;’” The Instructor book 2 ch.2 p.242

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) “‘Thou, O Timothy,’ he says, ‘from a child hast known the holy letters, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation, through faith that is in Christ Jesus.’” Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.196

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Similarly, concerning Onesiphorus, does he also write to Timothy: ‘The Lord grant unto him that he may find mercy in that day;’On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.23 p.562

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “He [Paul] therefore made some concession, as was necessary, for a time; and this was the reason why he had Timothy circumcised,Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.3 p.433.

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) “For it is not to no purpose that the blessed apostle exhorts Timothy, and says, ‘O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called; which some professing have erred concerning the faith.’Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.1 p.204

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “As Paul could not benefit those who were Jews according to the flesh, without, when reason shows it to be necessary, circumcising Timothy, and when it appears the natural course getting himself shaved and making a vow, and, in a word, being to the Jews a Jew that he might gain the Jews-so also it is not possible for one who is responsible for the good of many to operate as he should by means of that Christianity only which is in secret.Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.9 p.302

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “For if the Apostle Paul, writing to Timothy, said, ‘Let no man despise thy youth,’ how much rather must it he said by your colleagues to you, ‘Let no man despise thy age?Epistles of Cyprian Letter 64 ch.3 p.366

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) “And abridging in a short space his announcement, he [Paul] thus says to Timothy: ‘That thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the Church of the living God.’ [1/2 of 1 Timothy 3:15]Commentary on the Apocalypse from the first chapter verse 16 (second time) p.345

Phileas of Thmuis (martyred 306/307 A.D.) “And thou wert not persuaded to delay such procedure or restrain thy purpose readily even by the word of the Apostle Paul, the most blessed seer, and the man who put on Christ, who is the Christ of all of us no less; for he, in writing to his dearly-beloved son Timothy, says: ‘Lay hands suddenly on no man, neither be partaker of other men’s sins.’Letter to Meletius of Lycopolis ch.164

Pamphilus (309 A.D.) “Of the teaching of Timothy, and of the coming of Paul into Macedonia according to revelation.An Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the Apostles section X p.167

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) “For they did not assent to their impiety; as I have again heard from their fellow-ministers, they will be reckoned amongst the confessors, as also he who hath after the example of Timothy ordered his life,Canonical Epistle canon 14 p.278

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) “Such, then, are ye, having been taught by such instructors, Paul the Christ-bearer, and Timothy the most faithful.Epistle to the Ephesians ch.6 p.52 (long version)

 

Among Heretics

Megethius (c.300 A.D.) “But he does not speak of these, but concerning Silvanus and Timothy.” In Adamantius Dialogue on the True Faith part 1 ch.6 p.44

 

N14. James [the disciple] was beheaded / slain

 

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “And of this James, Clement also relates an anecdote worthy of remembrance in the seventh book of the Hypotyposes, from a tradition of his predecessors. He says that the man who brought him to trial, on seeing him bear his testimony, was moved, and confessed that he was a Christian himself. Accordingly, he says, they were both led away together, and on the way the other asked James to forgive him. And he, considering a little, said, 'Peace be to thee' and kissed him. And so both were beheaded together.” Fragment 2 (p.579) from Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.2 p.&&&

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “That Peter is struck, that Stephen is overwhelmed by stones, that James is slain as is a victim at the altar, that Paul is beheaded has been written in their own blood.Scorpiace ch.15 p.648

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) “r. The slaying of the Apostle James. *Also the apprehension of Peter by Herod, and the account of the manner in which the angel by divine command delivered him from his bonds, and how Peter, after showing himself to the disciples by night, quietly withdrew.

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) “Thus James, in the second place, being of Herod apprehended, was beheaded with the sword.Canonical Epistle canon 9 p.273

 

N15. Peter was in Rome

 

1 Peter 5:13 (implied)

 

Ignatius of Lyons (100-107/116 A.D.) (partial, does not say they commanded from Rome) “I do not, as Peter and Paul, issue commandments unto you. They were apostles; I am but a condemned man;…” Ignatius’ Epistle to the Romans (both Greek and Latin) ch.4.3 p.75

Dionysius of Corinth (c.170 A.D.) “Therefore you also have by such admonition joined in close union the churches that were planted by Peter and Paul, that of the Romans and that of the Corinthians: for both of them went to our Corinth, and taught us in the same way as they taught you when they went to Italy; and having taught you, they suffered martyrdom at the same time.” ch.3 p.765

Irenaeus of Lyons (180-188 A.D.) “Matthew also issued a written Gospel among the Hebrews in their own dialect, while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome, and laying the foundations of the Church. After their departure, Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, did also hand down to us in writing what had been preached by Peter.Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.1.1 p.414

Caius (190-217 A.D.) ch.1 p.601 “For they say that all those of the first age, and the apostles themselves, both received and taught those things which these men now maintain; and that the truth of Gospel preaching was preserved until the times of Victor, who was the thirteenth bishop in Rome from Peter, and that from his successor Zephyrinus the truth was falsified. And perhaps what they allege might be credible, did not the Holy Scriptures, in the first place, contradict them. And then, besides, there are writings of certain brethren older than the times of Victor, which they wrote against the heathen in defence of the truth, and against the heresies of their time: I mean Justin and Miltiades, and Tatian and Clement, and many others, in all which divinity is ascribed to Christ.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “He says that the Gospels containing the genealogies were written first, and that the Gospel according to Mark was composed in the following circumstances:-Peter having preached the word publicly at Rome, and by the Spirit proclaimed the Gospel, those who were present, who were numerous, entreated Mark, in as much as he had attended him from an early period, and remembered what had been said, to write down what had been spoken.” From Eusebius’ Church History book 2 ch.2 p.&&&

Tertullian (&&&) &&&

Hippolytus of Portus (225-235/236 A.D.) (implied) “But he afterwards abjured the faith, and attempted these (aforesaid practices). And journeying as far as Rome, he [Simon Magus] fell in with the Apostles; and to him, deceiving many by his sorceries, Peter offered repeated opposition.Refutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.15 p.81

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) &&&

Peter of Alexandria (306-311 A.D.) “Thus James, in the second place, being of Herod apprehended, was beheaded with the sword. Thus Peter, the first of the apostles, having been often apprehended, and thrown into prison, and treated with ignominy, was last of all crucified at Rome. Likewise also, the renowned Paul having been oftentimes delivered up and brought in peril of death, having endured many evils, and making his boast in his numerous persecutions and afflictions, in the same city was also himself beheaded; who, in the things in which he gloried, in these also ended his life;Canonical Letter canon 9 p.273

Lactantius (c.321-c.325 A.D.) “And while Nero reigned, the Apostle Peter came to Rome, and, through the power of God committed unto him, wrought certain miracles, and, by turning many to the true religion, built up a faithful and stedfast temple unto the Lord. When Nero heard of those things, and observed that not only in Rome, but in every other place, a great multitude revolted daily from the worship of idols, and, condemning their old ways, went over to the new religion, he, an execrable and pernicious tyrant, sprung forward to raze the heavenly temple and destroy the true faith. He it was who first persecuted the servants of God; he crucified Peter, and slew Paul: nor did he escape with impunity; for God looked on the affliction of His people; and therefore the tyrant, bereaved of authority, and precipitated from the height of empire, suddenly disappeared, and even the burial-place of that noxious wild beast was nowhere to be seen.The Manner in Which the Persecutors Died ch.2 p.301-302

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) “And Peter makes mention of Mark in his first epistle which they say that he wrote in Rome itself, as is indicated by him, when he calls the city, by a figure, Babylon, as he does in the following words: ‘The church that is a Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you; and so doth Marcus my son.’” Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.15.2 p.116

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Clement of Alexandria (after 220 A.D.) “Mark, the follower of Peter, while Peter publicly preached the Gospel at Rome before some of Caesar's equites, and adduced many testimonies to Christ, in order that thereby they might be able to commit to memory what was spoken, of what was spoken by Peter wrote entirely what is called the Gospel according to Mark.” Fragment 1 from Cassiodorus. Comments on the First Epistle of Peter

 

Teachings on New Testament Individuals not on the list

 

1. Agabus (only 3 writers: Tertullian, Asterius Urbanus, Pamphilus)

2. Alphaeus (only 2 writers: Papias, Diatessaron)

3. Anacletus (only 2 writers: Irenaeus, Tertullian)

4. Antipas (only 1 writer: Tertullian. p115)

5. Aquila and or Prisca/Priscilla in Acts Acts 18:2,18,26; Romans 16:3; 1 Corinthians 16:19; 2 Timothy 4:19 (only 3 writers: Tertullian, Origen, Pamphilus. After Nicea: Hegemonius. Among heretics partial the Ebionite Recognitions of Clement)

6. Bartholomew (no writers. Among heretics the Ebionite Recognitions of Clement)

7. Berean(s) (no writers)

8. Caesar’s household (no writers)

9. Cleopas (only 3 writers: Diatessaron, Origen, Treatise on Rebaptism)

10. Crispus (only 1 writer: Tertullian)

11. Demas (only 2 writers: Irenaeus, Adamantius)

12. Epaphroditus (only 2 writers: Irenaeus, Cyprian)

13. Euodia and Synteche (no writers)

14. Eutychus (no writers)

15. Felix (only 2 writers: Tertullian, Pamphilus)

16. Festus (only 1 writer: Pamphilus)

17. Gamaliel (only 2 writers: Origen, Pamphilus. Among heretic the Ebionite Recognitions of Clement)

18. Herod killed James the disciple (only 1 writer: Peter of Alexandria)

19. Holy apostles (only 2 writers: Clement of Alexandria, Hippolytus)

20. Hymenaeus or Alexander, who opposed Paul 1 Tim 1:20; 2 Tim 2:17 (only 2 writers: Tertullian, Alexander of Alexandria. After Nicea: Hegemonius/Archelaus, Athanasius of Alexandria. Among heretics Mani.)

21. James son of Alphaeus (only 2 writers: Papias, Diatessaron)

22. James and John request to be on Jesus’ right and left (only 1 writer: Diatessaron)

23. Jezebel in Revelation (only 1 writer: Tertullian)

24. Joanna (only 1 writer: Diatessaron)

25. Joseph [of Arimathea (only 2 writers: Diatessaron, Tertullian. Corrupt: Ignatius [Latin version])

26. Judas hanged himself (Matthew 27:5-6; Acts 1) (only 3 writers: Diatessaron, Irenaeus, Origen. After Nicea: Hegemonius/Archelaus)

27. Linus (only 2 writers: Irenaeus, Tertullian)

28. Lydia (only 1 writer: Pamphilus)

29. Malchus (only1 2 writers: Tatian’s Diatessaron, Tertullian)

30. Nicodemus (only 3 writers: Diatessaron section 32.28 p.93, Tertullian, Origen)

31. Paul bore the marks of Jesus (only 1 writer: Adamantius)

32. Paul was a chosen instrument (only 1 writer: Adamantius)

33. Paul rebuked / disputed with Peter (only 3 writers: Tertullian, Origen, Cyprian)

34. Paul was shipwrecked (only 3 writers: Irenaeus, Cyprian, Pamphilus)

35. Peter denied Christ (1 writer: Diatessaron)

36. Philip the Tetrarch (only 1 writer: Origen)

37. Quirinius (only 1 writer: Diatessaron)

38. Rhoda (only 1 writer: Origen)

39. Salome (only 3 writers: Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Papias)

40. Susanna [who followed Jesus] (only 1 writer: Diatessaron)

41. Simon of Cyrene (only 3 writers: Diatessaron, Irenaeus, Origen)

42. Simon the Zealot (no writers. Among heretic the Ebionite Recognitions of Clement mentions Simon the Canaanite)

43. Sosthenes (only 2 writers: Minucius Felix, Origen)

44. Syzygus/loyal yokefellow (no writers)

45. Thaddeus (only 1 writer: Papias)

46. The woman Lydia (only 1 writer: Pamphilus)

47. Thief/robber in Paradise (only 3 writers: Tertullian, Hippolytus, Origen)

48. Titus [the individual, not just the book] (only 3 writers: Irenaeus, the Muratorian Canon, Tertullian)

49. Tychicus (no writers)

50. Zenas (no writers)

 

Experiencing God

 

X1. God/Christ lives inside of Christians

 

John 14:23; 1 John 4:12,15

Romans 9:10-18 Spirit of Christ lives in us; Christ lives in us.

(implied Holy Spirit dwells in us) 1 Corinthians 6:19

 

(implied, because accept all believers) Romans 8:9-11

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 14:23

p9 – 1 John 4:11-12, 14-16 (3rd century A.D.) God lives in us. 1 John 4:12,15

p27 – Romans 8:8-12,17-22 (3rd century A.D.) the Spirit of god lives in us. Romans 8:9-10

 

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) “if we are not in readiness to die into His passion, His life is not in us.” Letter of Ignatius to the Magnesians ch.5 p.61

Epistle of Barnabas ch.16 p.147 (c.70-130 A.D.) “in our habitation God truly dwells in us.”

Shepherd of Hermas (c.115-155 A.D.) book 2 tenth commandment ch.2 p.27 mentions “the Holy Spirit which dwells in you” Also book 2 fifth commandment ch.1 p.23

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 13:5 that Christ Jesus is in us. The Instructor book 3 ch.3 p.276

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) says that God “sent forth His Holy Spirit into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father.” Tertullian Against Marcion book 5 ch.4 p.437

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) says that Christ lives in believers in Origen’s Commentary on John ch.6 p.300.

Origen (233/234 A.D.) quotes John 14:23. Origen On Prayer ch.23.1 p.77. See also ibid ch.23.2 p.77.

Origen (233/234 A.D.) says Christ lives in us. Origen’s Exhortation to Martyrdom ch.12 p.153

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) quotes John 14:23 about the Comforter living in us. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.28 p.639

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “As the sun shines spontaneously, as the day gives light, as the fountain flows, as the shower yields moisture, so does the heavenly Spirit infuse itself in us.” Epistles of Cyprian Letter 1 ch.14 p.279

Lucius and the brethren to Cyprian of Carthage (246-256 A.D.) “… as being certain of the heavenly rewards, and of the crown of martyrdom, and of the kingdom of God, from the prophecy which, being filled with the Holy Spirit, you have pledged to us in your letter.” Letter 78 p.406

 

X2. Our bodies are God’s temple/temples

 

1 Corinthians 6:19 (individual)

(partial) Hebrews 3:6 we are God’s house

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 3:16-17; 6:19; 2 Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 2:21

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) (partial) Hebrews 3:6 We are God’s house

 

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) says that God dwells in us, that we may be His temples. Letter of Ignatius to the Ephesians ch.15 p.56

Epistle of Barnabas ch.4 p.139 (c.70-130 A.D.) says that we are temples of God.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) says that our bodies are temples of God. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.6.2 p.532

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says that are bodies are temples of God in Stromata book 7 ch.13 p.547. See also Stromata book 7 ch.11 p.541

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) says that our bodies are temples of God in Treatise on the Soul ch.53 p.230

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) discusses how our body is God’s temple. Tertullian on Modesty ch.7 p.79-80 and ch.15 p.90

Tertullian (198-240 A.D.) says we are the Temple of God. On Modesty ch.16 p.91

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “‘For you are the temple of the living God’ if ‘the Spirit of God lives in you.’” Homilies on Leviticus homily 6 ch.5.2 p.125

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) says that our bodes are temples of the Holy Spirit. Epistles of Cyprian letter 59.3 p.355

Cyprian of Carthage (c/246-256 A.D.) “For as our bodies are members of Christ, and we are each a temple of God,…'Epistles of Cyprian Letter 51 ch.27 p.334

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says our body is a temple of God. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.66 p.251

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Acts of Paul and Thecla (before 207 A.D.) p.487 “blessed are they that have kept the flesh chaste, for they shall become a temple of God:”

Pseudo-Clement Two Epistles on Virginity (3rd century A.D.) Letter 1 ch12 p.60 “He who acts thus ‘is a temple of the Holy Spirit of God.’”

 

Among heretics

The Encratite heretic Tatian (c.172 A.D.) says that the bodies of believers are temples of God. Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.15 p.71

 

X3. Christians escape corruption

 

Martyrdom of Polycarp (c.169 A.D.) ch.14 p.42 “Thy martyrs, in the cup of thy Christ, to the resurrection of eternal life, both of soul and body, through the incorruption [imparted] by the Holy Ghost.”

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) “in the language of the apostle, ‘this corruptible (and dissoluble) must put on incorruption,’ in order that those who were dead, having been made alive by the resurrection, and the parts that were separated and entirely dissolved having been again united, each one may, in accordance with justice, receive what he has done by the body, whether it be good or bad.” On the Resurrection of the Dead ch.18 p.159

Epistle to Diognetus (c.130-200 A.D.) ch.6 p.27 “Christians dwell as sojourners in corruptible [bodies], looking for an incorruptible dwelling in the heavens.”

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “impossible that the bodies of men, after they have been dissolved, and like seeds resolved into earth, should in God’s appointed time rise again and put on incorruption.” First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.19 p.169

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (177 A.D.) “after having endured divers contests and gained grand victories, should receive the great crown of incorruption.”

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “When thou shalt have put off the mortal, and put on incorruption” Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.7 p.91

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “this mortal body shall put on immortality, and this corruptible shall put on incorruption;” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.10.3 p.331

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) says that God causes believers to posses incorruption. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.7.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “He that soweth to his flesh, shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that soweth to the Spirit, shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting.” Stromata book 4 ch.7 p.417

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) speaks of the “incorruptible crown” in To the Martyrs ch.3 p.694

Hippolytus of Portus (225-235/6 A.D.) “Wherefore I preach to this effect: Come, all ye kindreds of the nations, to the immortality of the baptism. I bring good tidings of life to you who tarry in the darkness of ignorance. Come into liberty from slavery, into a kingdom from tyranny, into incorruption from corruption.” Discourse on the Holy Theophany ch.8 p.237

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) “We shall arise again to Him, who have been devoted to Him. And they shall be incorruptible,” Instructions of Commodianus ch.44 p.212

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “about the creation it is said that it is delivered from the bondage of corruption into the liberty of the glory of the children of God.” Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.24 p.311-312

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Therefore until this corruptible shall put on incorruption, and this mortal receive immortality, and the Spirit lead us to God the Father, whatsoever are the disadvantages of the flesh are common to us with the human race.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 7 ch.8 p.478

Theonas of Alexandria (282-300 A.D.) “and they do it to obtain a corruptible crown, but we an incorruptible.” Letter to the Chief Chamberlain ch.2 p.159

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “But now life inherits that which is mortal, that death may be swallowed up of life unto victory, and that which is corruptible appear the possession of incorruption; being made free from death and sin, and become the slave and subject of immortality, that the body may become the possession of incorruption, and not incorruption of the body.” Discourse on the Resurrection part 2 ch.6 p.374

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says Christians escape corruption. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.61 p.248

 

Among heretics

Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224/232 A.D.) “For lust is one thing, and love is another; and friendship is one thing, and good-fellowship another; and we ought without any difficulty to understand that the false counterfeit of affection which is called lust, even though there be in it the enjoyment of the moment, is nevertheless widely different from true affection, whose enjoyment is for ever, incorruptible and indestructible.” Books of Laws of Diverse Countries p.726

 

X4. Believers are set free

 

(Set free from Egypt or slavery is not counted here.)

 

Psalm 118:5; 119:32; 146:7; Luke 4:18; John 8:32,36; Romans 6:18; 8:2; 2 Corinthians 3:17; Galatians 5:1; James 1:25

1 Peter 2:16 (implied)

Revelation 1:5 freed us from our sins by His blood

 

p18 Revelation 1:4-7 (4 verses) (300 A.D.) Revelation 1:5

 

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) “…set us free from the slavery of the devil as from the hand of Pharaoh, and sealed our souls with his own spirit, and the members of our body with his blood” On Pascha stanza 67 p.55. See also On Pascha part 103 p.65

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “Therefore, when man has been liberated, ‘what is written shall come to pass, Death is swallowed up in victory. O death sting?’ This could not be said with justice, if that man, over whom death did first obtain dominion, were not set free. For his salvation is death’s destruction. When therefore the Lord vivifies man, that is, Adam, death is at the same time destroyed.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.23.7 p.457

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) says believers are set free. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.38

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) “Such was the influence of pleasure. Man, that had been free by reason of simplicity, was found fettered to sins. The Lord then wished to release him from his bonds, and clothing Himself with flesh-O divine mystery!-vanquished the serpent, and enslaved the tyrant death; and, most marvellous of all, man that had been deceived by pleasure, and bound fast by corruption, had his hands unloosed, and was set free. O mystic wonder! The Lord was laid low, and man rose up; and he that fell from Paradise receives as the reward of obedience something greater [than Paradise]-namely, heaven itself.Exhortation to the Heathen ch.11 p.203

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Our members, therefore, will no longer be subject to the law of death, because they cease to serve that of sin, from both which they have been set free.On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.46 p.579

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “For the death of Christ reduced to impotence those powers which war against the human race, and it set free from sin by a power beyond our words the life of each believer.” Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.37 p.316-317

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “When, however, they come to the water of salvation and to the sanctification of baptism, we ought to know and to trust that there the devil is beaten down, and the man, dedicated to God, is set free by the divine mercy.Epistles of Cyprian Letter 75 ch.15 p.402

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) “for they gave themselves up to be afflicted for the name of Christ, even though in their dungeon they enjoyed much consolation from their brethren; which, indeed, they shall return many fold, desiring to be set free from that most bitter captivity of the devil, especially remembering Him who said: ‘The spirit of the Lord is upon me, because He hath anointed me to preach the Gospel to the poor; He hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised; to preach the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of recompense unto our God.’Canonical Epistle canon 2 p.269-270

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “The creation, then, after being restored to a better and more seemly state, remains, rejoicing and exulting over the children of God at the resurrection; for whose sake it now groans and travails, waiting itself also for our redemption from the corruption of the body, that, when we have risen and shaken off the mortality of the flesh, according to that which is written, ‘Shake off the dust, and arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem,’ and have been set free from sin, it also shall be freed from corruption and be subject no longer to vanity, but to righteousness.” Discourse on the Resurrection part 1 ch.8 p.366

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) mentions Christ dying to set us free form our sins. Like the Passover lamb, he shed His blood on the cross. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.2 p.128-129

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) “He is the Mediator between God and man; He is the resurrection and the salvation of all; He is the Guide of the erring, the Shepherd of men who have been set free, the life of the dead, the charioteer of the cherubim, the standard-bearer of the angels, and the King of kings, to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.Epistles on the Arian Heresy letter 3 addition to the codex p.302

 

X5. God renews us

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) quotes Psalm 51 as by David. 1 Clement ch.18 vol.1 p.10

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.6 p.140 “Since, therefore, having renewed us by the remission of our sins, He [the Lord] hath made us after another pattern,”

Shepherd of Hermas (c.115-155 A.D.) book 1 vision third ch.12 p.17 “For the Lord had compassion on you, and renewed your spirit, and ye laid aside your infirmities.”

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) (implied) “We must meet, therefore, those who say, that even though it be the special handiwork of God, and beyond all else valued by Him, it would not immediately follow that it has the promise of the resurrection. Yet is it not absurd, that that which has been produced with such circumstance, and which is beyond all else valuable, should be so neglected by its Maker, as to pass to nonentity? Then the sculptor and painter, if they wish the works they have made to endure, that they may win glory by them, renew them when they begin to decay; but God would so neglect His own possession and work, that it becomes annihilated, and no longer exists. Should we not call this labour in vain? As if a man who has built a house should forthwith destroy it, or should neglect it, though he sees it falling into decay, and is able to repair it: we would blame him for labouring in vain; and should we not so blame God? But not such a one is the Incorruptible,-not senseless is the Intelligence of the universe. Let the unbelieving be silent, even though they themselves do not believe. But, in truth, He has even called the flesh to the resurrection, and promises to it everlasting life.” On the Resurrection ch.8 p.297

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) (partial, does not say us) “For the latter is He after whom and by whom the Father will renew both the heaven and the earth;” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.113 p.255

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “respect to Him. For the knowledge of God renews man. And when he says,” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.12.4 p.538

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) quotes Psalm 51. Stromata book 1 ch.1 p.301

Hippolytus of Portus (225-234/5 A.D.) “This is the Spirit that David sought when he said, “Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right spirit within me.” Discourse on the Holy Theophany ch.9 p.237

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “in prayer we say, ‘Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right spirit within me,’ so that we may behold Him with that ‘pure heart’ to which alone is granted the privilege of seeing Him.” Origen Against Celsus book 7 ch.45 p.629

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “by the sacrament of baptism, the filth of the old man is washed away by them, that they pardon the former mortal sins, that they make sons of God by heavenly regeneration, and renew to eternal life by the sanctification of the divine layer.” Epistles of Cyprian Letter 74 ch.17 p.394-395

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “joints by God, the Creator and Perfect Artificer, who will then renew the flesh…” Discourse on the Resurrection ch.14 p.376

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “After these things God will renew the world, and transform the righteous into the forms of angels, that, being presented with the garment of immortality, they may serve God for ever; and this will be the kingdom of God, which shall have no end.” Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.72 p.255

 

X6. We are children of light

 

Ephesians 5:8-13; Philippians 2:15-16; 1 Thessalonians 5:5-7; 1 John 2:9-10

 

Ignatius of Antioch (c.100-117 A.D.) “Wherefore, as children of light and truth, flee from division and wicked doctrines; but where the shepherd is, there do ye as sheep follow.” Ignatius’ Letter to the Philadelphians [Greek] ch.2 p.79-80

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 40.20 p.104 “Walk so long as ye have light, test the darkness overtake you; for he that walketh in the darkness knoweth not whither he goeth. So long as ye have light, believe the light, that ye may be the children of the light.”

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “And, ‘For ye were sometimes darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord; walk honestly as children of the light, not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in anger and jealousy. And such were some of you; but ye have been washed, but ye have been sanctified in the name of our Lord.’” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.37.4 p.519

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) says we are children of light. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.10 p.198

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) “For it was only right that Christians should shine in the world as ‘children of light,’ adoring and invoking Him who is the One God and Lord as ‘the light of the world.’” Against Praxeas ch.13 p.608

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “He is transfigured, His face also shines as the sun, that He may be manifested to the children of light, who have put off the works of darkness, and put on the” Commentary on Matthew book 12 ch.37 p.470

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “without the strongest rebuke, ‘The children of this world are wiser in their generation than the children of light.’” Epistles of Cyprian letter 72 ch.19 p.384

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) “For ye were sometimes darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord: walk as children of light (for the fruit of the light is in all goodness, and righteousness, and truth), proving what is acceptable unto the Lord.” Canonical Epistle canon 2 p.18

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) (partial) “And the stars, which the dragon touched with the end of his tail, and drew them down to earth, are the bodies of heresies; for we must say that the stars, which are dark, obscure, and falling, are the assemblies of the heterodox; since they, too, wish to be acquainted with the heavenly ones, and to have believed in Christ, and to have the seat of their soul in heaven, and to come near to the stars as children of light.” Banquet of the Ten Virgins Discourse 8 ch.10 p.338

 

Among corrupt and spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) “Wherefore, as children of light and truth, avoid the dividing of your unity, and the wicked doctrine of the heretics, from whom ‘a defiling influence has gone forth into all the earth.’” Ignatius’ Letter to the Philadelphians [Latin version] ch.2 p.79-80

 

Among heretics

The Gnostic Marcus according to Irenaeus (182-188 A.D.) “declared to the children of light, that regeneration which has been wrought out by Him who appeared as the Episemon in regard to that number.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.14.6 338

 

X7. God strengthens us

 

(Not referring to marriage or strengthened by reading the word)

 

Ephesians 3:16

2 Thessalonians 2:17 Father and Son strengthen us

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Many women also, being strengthened by the grace of God, have performed numerous” 1 Clement ch.55 p.20

Ignatius (-107/116 A.D.) “He who became a perfect man inwardly strengthening me.” Letter of Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans ch.4 p.88

Shepherd of Hermas (c.115-155 A.D.) second part commandment twelfth ch.6 p.30 “the Lord strengthening me”

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) (partial, refers to military strengthening, not spiritual) “the Romans began to increase in power, God strengthening them” Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.27 p.105

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (177 A.D.) “yet they remained alive in prison, destitute indeed of care from man, but strengthened by the Lord, and invigorated both in body and soul, and they animated and consoled the rest.”

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial, does not say by God) “Now is was necessary that man should in the first instance be created; and having been created, should receive growth; and having received growth, should be strengthened, should abound” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.38.3 p.522

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “do all things through Him who strengthens me.” (Philippians 4:11b-13) Stromata book 4 ch.16 p.427

Hippolytus of Portus (225-234/5 A.D.) “And in an agony He sweats blood, and is strengthened by an angel, who Himself strengthens those who believe on Him, and taught men to despise death by His work.” Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.18 p.230

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “Our faith, therefore, is directed to God through His Son, who strengthens it in us;” Origen Against Celsus book 8 ch.8 p.642

Origen (233/234 A.D.) says that God strengthens us.. Exhortation to Martyrdom ch.4.27 p.167

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “or this is He who strengthened their hearts and minds, who marked out the Gospel sacraments,” Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.29 p.640

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Whence the Lord exhorts and strengthens us to contempt of death” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.5 p.499

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “His mercy the Lord will every day more and more arm and adorn every one of us with greater abundance and readiness, and will confirm and strengthen us by the strength of His power” Letter 25 ch.5 p.304

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) “And of Eusebius I speak as one whom the Lord strengthened from the beginning, and qualified for the task of discharging energetically the services due to the confessors who are in prison, and of executing the perilous office of dressing out and burying the bodies of those perfected and blessed martyrs.” Part II Epistle 1 ch.3 p.97

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named, that He would grant you, according to the riches of His glory, to be strengthened I with might by His Spirit in the inner man” Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 8 ch.8 p.337

 

X8. We are friends of Christ

 

John 15:15

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “But straightway a flame was kindled in my soul; and a love of the prophets, and of those men who are friends of Christ, possessed me; and whilst revolving his words in my mind, I found this philosophy alone to be safe and profitable.” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.8 p.198

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) “familiar friend and fellow-heir of Christ” as well as “friend of Christ” in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.11 p.204

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (partial, God) “I regard as showing who is and who is not the friend of God” Stromata book 4 ch.6 p.414

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “And if then, unlike the multitudes whom He sends away, we wish to hear Jesus and go to the house and receive something better than the multitudes, let us become friends of Jesus, so that as His disciples we may come to Him when He goes into the house, and having come may inquire about the explanation of the parable, whether of the tares of the field, or of any other.Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.1 p.414

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “when we are about to eat the three loaves which we ask from Jesus, who wishes to be our friend; for with hands that are defiled and unwashed and impure, we ought not to partake of the loaves.Commentary on Matthew book 11 ch.8 p.437

Origen (233/234 A.D.) (Partial) says we are friends of God. Origen’s Exhortation to Martyrdom ch.7 p.147

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “you are friends as well as witnesses of Christ” Epistles of Cyprian Letter 20 ch.3 p.298

Arnobius of Sicca (297-303 A.D.) “as if carried away by some charm, and by an eager longing for all the virtues, and prefer the friendship of Christ to all that is in the world” Arnobius Against the Heathen book 2 ch.5 p.435

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) (partial, God) “the perfection of a happy life is the knowledge of God of all the word and friendship with Him accomplished by piety,” Preparation for the Gospel book 15 ch.3 p.7

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 9 ch.3 p.183. (implied) says that we are friends of God’s Son.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.26 p.84 (partial) says that we are friends of the Creator.

 

 

X9. Pure in heart will see God

 

Matthew 5:8

 

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels plus Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Matthew 21:13,16; Acts 13:34-35 (Psalms, Isaiah)

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Matthew 5:8. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.9.2 p.472 and book 4 ch.20.5 p.489.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) quotes Matthew 5:8. Stromata book 2 ch.11 p.359; book 4 ch.6 p.416

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Matthew 5:8 as by the Lord Jesus. Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.4 p.575; book 7 ch.32 p.624

Origen (239-242 A.D.) quotes Matthew 5:8 that the pure in heart will see God. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 3 ch.7.1 p.60

Cyprian of Carthage (C.246-258 A.D.) quotes Matthew 5:8. Letters of Cyprian Letter 45 ch.2 p.323

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) quotes Matthew 5:8. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.28 p.639-640.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) (partial) an impure soul is hateful to God. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.62 p.248

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Acts of Paul and Thecla (before 207 A.D.) p.487 quotes Matthew 5:8.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) boo 2 ch.22 p.103 and book 3 ch.27 p.121 quote Matthew 5:8.

 

X10. None shall separate us from God’s love

 

Romans 8:35a

 

p27 (&&&)

 

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “work, and such activity ‘shall not be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.’” Stromata book 4 ch.14 p.426

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “And therefore he afterward says: ‘Who shall separate us from the love of God? Shall tribulation, or distress, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?” Scorpiace ch.13 p.646-647

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Moreover the apostle: ‘Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?’Epistles of Cyprian Letter 25 ch.4 p.303

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “For observe that he [Paul] says, firstly: ‘Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?’Origen Against Celsus book 1 preface ch.3 p.396

 

X11. The Lord disciplines or corrects us

 

Isaiah 26:16; Hebrews 12:5-11

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 12:5

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) Hebrews 12:5

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “For who the Lord loveth He chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom He receiveth.’ (He quotes Proverbs 3:12 and Hebrews 12:6. 1 Clement vol.1 ch.56 p.20. See also ibid ch.56 p.20

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “since God is good, He corrects us, that we may be admonished by His Holy chastisement.” 1 Clement ch.56 vol.1 p.20

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “and merciful, to those who love and fear Him; for He is a chastener” Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.3 p.90

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “And to prove that example corrects, he says directly to the purpose: ‘A clever man, when he seeth the wicked punished, will himself be severely chastised, for the fear of the Lord is the source of wisdom.’” Stromata book 1 ch.27 p.339

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “while He reproves, corrects, and teaches as a shepherd His flock.” The Instructor book 1 ch.9 p.230. The Lord chastises us in The Instructor book 1 ch.7 p.224-225.

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) says the Lord disciplines us. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.195

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “Nay, He teaches us to give thanks and rejoice, over and above, at being thought worthy of divine chastisement. ‘Whom I love,’ saith He, ‘I chasten’ Of Patience ch.11 p.714

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “righteousness, but the Father doing good to those who have been disciplined by the righteousness of the Son. This is after the kingdom of the Son; then the” Origen’s Commentary on John 1 ch.40 p.318

Origen (239-242 A.D.) says that the Lord disciplines us. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 2 ch.5.4 p.53

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “And from Solomon we have received the mandates of wisdom, warning us: 'My son, despise not thou the discipline of the Lord, nor faint when thou art rebuked of Him: for whom the Lord loveth He correcteth.'Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 2 ch.1 p.430

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Let us urgently pray and groan with continual petitions. For know, beloved brethren, that I was not long ago reproached with this also in a vision, that we were sleepy in our prayers,…” Epistles of Cyprian Letter 7 ch.5 p.286

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “That the sinner is to be publicly reproved. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 third part ch.77 p.552

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says that God corrects us when needed with stripes and blows. The Divine Institutes book 5 ch.23 p.160

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) quotes all of Hebrews 12:6 about God chastening us. Preparation for the Gospel book 13 ch.3 p.12

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.56 p.113 says that the Lord disciplines us.

The Secret Book of James The Gnostic Bible p.347. (implied) “Accept correction from me [Jesus] and save yourselves. I am mediating for you with the father, and he will forgive you many things.”

 

X13. Please the Lord

 

1 Corinthians 7:32; 2 Corinthians 5:9; 12:1; 14:18; Galatians 1:10; 6:8; Ephesians 5:10; Philippians 4:18; 1 Colossians 1:10; 3:2; Thessalonians 2:4; 4:1; Hebrews 11:5-6

(implied) Romans 8:8

Isaiah 56:4 “To the eunuchs who keep my Sabbaths, who choose what pleases me...”

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “The Lord, brethren, stands in need of nothing; and He desires nothing of any one, except that confession be made to Him. For, says the elect David, ‘I will confess unto the Lord ; and that will please Him more than a young bullock that hath horns and hoofs. Let the poor see it, and be glad.’1 Clement ch.52 p.19 See also vol.9

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) “…but count it impious not to speak the truth in all things, which also we know is pleasing to God,” Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.4 p.189

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “and they do please God, ordering their conversation in all” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.4.2 p.417

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “For it is pleasing to God to lead decorum from the tongue to our actions. Filthy speech is the way to effrontery; and the end of both is filthy conduct.” Stromata book 2 ch.23 p.378

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “This abstinence, however, he [Daniel] used in order to please God by humiliation,Treatise on the Soul ch.48 p.226

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “Now, when shall we be able to please God except whilst we are in this flesh?” Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.10 p.451

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “For the Church of God, e.g., which is at Athens, is a meek and stable body, as being one which desires to please God, who is over all things; whereas the assembly of the Athenians is given to sedition, and is not at all to be compared to the Church of God in that city.” Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.30 p.476

Origen (233/234 A.D.) says we are to please the Lord.. Origen On Prayer ch.19.3 p.69

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “And because we may not hate, and we please God more by rendering no return for wrong, we exhort you…” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 5 ch.25 p.465

Pontius (after 248 A.D.) “Such things ought they to do, he was accustomed to say, who desire to please God. And thus running through the examples of all good men, by always imitating those who were better than others he made himself also worthy of imitation.” Life and Passion of Cyprian ch.3 p.268

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “to care for the things of the Lord and to please God, is much better than to” Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 3 ch.13 p.322

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.33 p.86 says to please the Lord.

 

X14. Glory in the Lord

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) which is written (for the Holy Spirit saith), “Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man glory in his might, neither let the rich man glory in his riches; but let him that glorieth glory in the Lord, in diligently seeking Him, and doing judgment and righteousness” 1 Clement ch.13 vol.1 p.8

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “O ye countries of the nations, bring to the Lord glory and honour, bring to the Lord glory in His name.” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.73 p.235

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “heavenly host, praising God, and saying, Glory in the highest to God, and on earth peace, to men of good will.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 10.3 p.425

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) But if human wisdom, as it remains to understand, is the glorying in knowledge, hear the law of Scripture: ‘Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, and let not the mighty man glory in his might; but let him that glorieth glory in the Lord.’ The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.218-219

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “So by Jeremiah likewise did He say: “Let not the rich man glory in his riches but let him that glorieth even glory in the Lord.” Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.15 p.369

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “leaving us to gather how the joy preached to us through the birth of Jesus Christ is glory in the highest to God; they humbled themselves even to the ground, and then returned to their place of rest, to glorify God in the highest through Jesus Christ.” Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.13 p.304

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “He is a confessor; for this cause he ought the more to stand on the side of the Lord’s Gospel, since he has by the Gospel attained glory from the Lord.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 1 ch.21 p.428

 

X15. Seek wisdom from God or His word

 

Proverbs 9:1-6; 10:1; 13:1; Ephesians 1:17; James 1:5

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Ephesians 1:17

 

Epistle to Diognetus ch.12 p.30 “But he who combines knowledge with fear, and seeks after life, plants in hope, looking for fruit. Let your heart be your wisdom; and let your life be true knowledge inwardly received. Bearing this tree and displaying its fruit, thou shalt always gather in those things which are desired by God,”

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “This is the generation of them that seek the Lord, that seek the face of the God of Jacob.Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.36 p.

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “But all these things will every one understand who seeks the wisdom of God” Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.38 p.110

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “For if thou call on wisdom and knowledge with a loud voice, and seek it as treasures of silver, and eagerly track it out, thou shalt understand godliness and find divine knowledge.” Stromata book 1 ch.4 p.305

Hippolytus of Portus (345-345/6 A.D.) “He asks of wisdom, who seeks to know what is the will of God. And he will show himself prudent who is sparing of his words on that which he has come to learn.” Commentary on Proverbs p.173

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) says to “learn from Holy Scriptures” Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.9 p.227

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement book 8 ch.34 p.174 “For those things which are kept in secret, and are hidden within the senses of Wisdom, as in a royal treasury, are laid open to none but those who have learned of Him, with whom these things are sealed and laid up.”

 

X16. Be peaceful, kind, or good

 

Matthew 5 (peacemakers)

Ephesians 4:31-32; Philippians 4:8; Hebrews 12:14; 1 Peter 3:11

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 12:14

p49 Ephesians 4:16-29; 4:31-5:13 (225-275 A.D.) Be kind and compassionate, forgiving one another. Ephesians 4:31-32

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. Seek peace and pursue it. 1 Peter 3:11

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Let us be kind one to another after the pattern of the tender mercy and benignity of our Creator.” It goes on to say we should be kind-hearted and peaceful. ch.14 vol.1 p.8 (See also vol.9 p.233)

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) says to “be meek in response to wrath, humble in opposition to boasting, … and for their cruelty, manifest your gentleness. While we take care not to imitate their conduct, let us be found their brethren in all true kindness; and let us seek to be followers of the Lord…” Letter of Ignatius to the Ephesians ch.10 p.55

Didache vol.7 ch.2.7 p.378 (before 125 A.D.) “Thou shalt not hate any man”

Epistle of Barnabas ch.18 p.148 (c.70-130 A.D.) says we are to meek and peaceable.

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) quotes Luke 6:36 about how we are to be kind and merciful as our Father is kind and merciful. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.15 p.167-168

Shepherd of Hermas (c.115-155 A.D.) Book 1 vision Third ch.12 p.17 “And He [the Lord] will shows you other things, if you continue at peace with each other with all your heart.”

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Galatians 6 about the fruit of the spirit. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.11.1 p.537

Clement of Alexandria: (193-217/220 A.D.) “Put on therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, bowels of mercies, kindness, humbleness, meekness, long-suffering. Stromata book 4 ch.5 p.419

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) says that Christ wishes us to be gentle, and in Him joyful. Instructions of Commodianus ch.53 p.214. See also ibid ch.58 p.214.

Origen (239-242 A.D.) teaches were are to show mercy, kindness, humility, and patience. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 7 ch.3.1 p.101

Cyprian of Carthage (256 A.D.) mentions that priestly concord is maintained by them in gentleness and patience. Epistles of Cyprian Letter 72 ch.26 p.386

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Epistle of Clement to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) ch.17 p.221 (implied) mentions that the president (Clement) should “be careful of the cares of all.”

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 2 ch.27 p.105 says blessed are the peacemakers. It also says that the way of God is the way of Peace in book 2 ch.25 p.104.

Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224/232 A.D.) says that we are to be kind. The Book of Laws of Divers Countries p.726

 

X17. Be strong / strengthened

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Many women also, being strengthened by the grace of God, have performed numerous” 1 Clement ch.55 p.20. In both vol.1 and vol.9

Ignatius (-107/116 A.D.) “He who became a perfect man inwardly strengthening me.” Letter of Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans ch.4 p.88

Shepherd of Hermas (c.115-155 A.D.) book 2 commandment fifth p.23-24 “Be strong, then, in these commandments, and put on power,”

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “hands and enfeebled knees. Be comforted, ye faint in soul: be strong, fear not.” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.69 p.233

Evarestus (c.169 A.D.) “Now, as Polycarp was entering into the stadium, there came to him a voice from heaven, saying, ‘Be strong, and show thyself a man, O Polycarp!’ No one saw who it was that spoke to him; but those of our brethren who were present heard the voice.” Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.9 p.41

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “Now is was necessary that man should in the first instance be created; and having been created, should receive growth; and having received growth, should be strengthened, should abound” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.38.3 p.522

Irenaeus (182-188 A.D.) “of this book to know Thee, that Thou art God alone, to be strengthened in Thee,” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.6.4 p.419

Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas (c.201/205 A.D.) (ANF vol.3) preface p.699 “If ancient illustrations of faith which both testify to God’s grace and tend to man’s edification are collected in writing, so that by the perusal of them, as if by the reproduction of the facts, as well God may be honoured, as man may be strengthened; why should not new instances be also collected, that shall be suitable for both purposes”

Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas (c.201/205 A.D.) (ANF vol.3) ch.3.1 p.702 Perpetua has a vision where Pomponius the deacon comes to the prison to encourage her.

Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) “For fortitude is strengthened by infirmities, and calamity is very often the discipline of virtue; in addition, strength both of mind and of body grows torpid without the exercise of labour. Therefore all your mighty men whom you announce as an example have flourished illustriously by their afflictions. And thus God is neither unable to aid us, nor does He despise us, since He is both the ruler of all men and the lover of His own people. But in adversity He [God] looks into and searches out each one; He weighs the disposition of every individual in dangers, even to death at last; He investigates the will of man, certain that to Him nothing can perish. Therefore, as gold by the fires, so are we declared by critical moments.” The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.38 p.197

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) “Ye do not worship the gods whom they themselves falsely announce; ye worship the priests themselves, fearing them vainly. But if thou art strong in heart, flee at once from the shrines of death.” Instructions of Commodianus ch.19 p.206

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (177 A.D.) p.780 “yet they remained alive in prison, destitute indeed of care from man, but strengthened by the Lord, and invigorated both in body and soul, and they animated and consoled the rest.”

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “‘Thou, therefore, be strong,” says Paul, “in the grace that is in Christ Jesus. And the things which thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach others also.’” Stromata book 1 ch.1 p.299

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “do all things through Him who strengthens me.” (Philippians 4:11b-13) Stromata book 4 ch.16 p.427

Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas (c.201/205 A.D.) (ANF vol.3) preface p.699 “If ancient illustrations of faith which both testify to God’s grace and tend to man’s edification are collected in writing, so that by the perusal of them, as if by the reproduction of the facts, as well God may be honoured, as man may be strengthened; why should not new instances be also collected, that shall be suitable for both purposes”

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “merit of a plenary grace! Then must the devil be understood to be stronger for” On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.34 p.569

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “For, says Isaiah, ‘they shall see the glory of the Lord, and the excellency of our God.’ What glory, and what excellency? ‘Be strong, ye weak hands, and ye feeble knees:’” Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.10 p.357

Asterius Urbanus (c.232 A.D.) (implied) “I did in such manner that the church rejoiced and was strengthed in the truth, while the adversaries were forthwith routed, and the opponents put to grief.” The Exordium p.335

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) “And again, ‘Thou therefore, my son, be strong in the grace that is in Christ” Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.1 p.204

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “Of those, then, who seek to enter in, those who are not able to enter will not be able to do so, because the gates of Hades prevail against them; but in the case of those against whom the gates of Hades will not prevail, those seeking to enter in will be strong, being able to do all things, in Christ Jesus, who strengtheneth them.” Commentary on Matthew book 12 ch.12 p.457

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “are cowardly in heart; be strong; fear not. Lo, our God shall return judgment;” Concerning the Trinity ch.12 p.621

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Let patience be strong and stedfast in the heart; and neither is the sanctified” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 9 ch.14 p.488

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) “And of Eusebius I speak as one whom the Lord strengthened from the beginning, and qualified for the task of discharging energetically the services due to the confessors who are in prison, and of executing the perilous office of dressing out and burying the bodies of those perfected and blessed martyrs.” Epistle 1 To Domitus and Didumus ch.3 p.97

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “that He would grant you, according to the riches of His glory, to be strengthened with might by His Spirit in the inner man;” Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 8 ch.8 p.337

Theophilus (events c.315 A.D.) (implied) “And, when many were strengthened by his words…” Martyrdom of Habib the Deacon (events c.315 A.D.) p.690

Anatolius of Cappadocia (270-280 A.D.) (partial, encouragement but not inner strengthening) “For we believe that nothing is impossible to your power of prayer, and to your faith. Strengthened, therefore, by this confidence, we shall set bashfulness aside, and shall enter this most deep and unforeseen sea of the obscurest calculation, in which swelling questions and problems surge around us on all sides.Paschal Canon of Anatolius of Alexandria ch.1 p.146

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “saying: “Be strong, ye hands that are relaxed; and ye weak knees, be comforted.” The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.15 p.115

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) “brethren who are with you. I pray that ye may be strong in the Lord, beloved,” Epistles on the Arian Heresy Letter 1 ch.14 p.296

 

X18. God’s people mourn

 

2 Corinthians 7:9,11

 

Clement of Rome (96/98A.D.) “Ye mourned over the transgressions of your neighbours: their deficiencies you” 1 Clement ch.2 vol.1 p.5. See also vol.9.

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.7 p.141 “people fast and mourn in sackcloth and ashes.”

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “pierced this Christ shall mourn as I have shown has been declared by the” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.118 p.258

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “shall also come again, and then your twelve tribes shall mourn. For if you had” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.126 p.263

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “those men [Marcosian Gnostics] are really worthy of being mourned over, who promulgate such a kind of religion,” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.16.3 p.341

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “For He called all men that mourn; and granting forgiveness to those who had been” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.9.3 p.423

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) (partial) “And, again, He likens the kingdom of heaven to children sitting in the market-places and saying, ‘We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced; we have mourned, and ye have not lamented;’The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.212

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “And yet the innocent can find no pleasure in another’s sufferings: he rather mourns that a brother has sinned so heinously as to need a punishment so dreadful.The Shows ch.19 p.87

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “To give unto them that mourn in Sion, beauty (or glory) for ashes, and the oil” Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.14 p.367

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) “Daniel was mourning three weeks of days. I ate no pleasant bread, neither came” Visions of Daniel ch.23 p.182

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) Art thou not ashamed without restraint to lament thy sons, like the Gentiles? Thou tearest thy face, thou beatest thy breast, thou takest off thy garments; and dost thou not fear the Lord, whose kingdom thou desirest to behold? Mourn as it is right, but do not do wrong on their behalf.” Instructions of Commodianus ch.73 p.217

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.9 p.659 “with all your heart, in fasting, and weeping, and mourning; and rend your hearts, and not your garments;”

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Considering His love and mercy, we ought not to be so bitter, nor cruel, nor inhuman in cherishing the brethren, but to mourn with those that mourn, and to weep with them that weep, and to raise them up as much as we can by the help and comfort of our love; neither being too ungentle and pertinacious in repelling their repentance; nor, again, being too lax and easy in rashly yielding communion.” Epistles of Cyprian letter 51 ch.19 p.332

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) “have no permission to approach God? but only to weep and mourn, as I call to” Oration and Panegyric to Origen argument 16 p.37

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) Ecclesiastes follows; namely, ‘It is better to go to the house of mourning than to go to the house of feasting.’ Commentary on Ecclesiastes ch.2.25 p.114

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) “And now certainly all things are turned to mourning, and all men are in grief,” Epistle 12 ch.1 p.108

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) “For to sympathize with the sorrow and affliction of those who sorrow and mourn for those who in the contest have been overcome by the great strength of the evil-contriving devil, whether it be for parents, or brethren, or children, hurts no one.” Canonical Epistle canon 11 p.276

 

X19. Fear/reverence of the Lord/God

 

The fear of the Lord is Wisdom. Job 28:28; Psalm 111:10a; Proverbs 1:7; 9:10

Leviticus 19:14,32; 25:!7,36,43; Deuteronomy 4:10; 5:29; 6:2,13,24; 8:6; 10:12,20; 13:4; 4:23; 17:19; 28:58; 31:12, 31:13; Joshua 4:24; 24:14; 1 Samuel 12:14; 12:242 Samuel 23:3; 1 Kings 18:12; 2 Kings 4:1; 17:28; 17:32-41; 1 Chronicles 16:25; 16:30; 2 Chronicles 19:7,9; Nehemiah 1:11; 5:9; 5:15; 7:2; Psalm 2:11; 5:7; 15:4; 19:9; 22:23; 22:25; 25:14; 33:8; 33;18; 34:7; 34:9; 34:11; 40:3; 52:6; 66:16; 67:7; 89:7; 96:4; 96:9; 102:15; 103:11; 103:13; 103:17; 111:5; 112:1; 115:11; 115:13; 118:4; 128:1; 128:4; 130:4; 135:20; 145:19; Proverbs 1:29; 2:5; 3:7; 8:13; 22:4; 23:17; 24:21; Ecclesiastes 3:14; 5:7; 8:12; 12:13; Isaiah 29:23; 33:6; 50:10a; Jeremiah 32:39; 32:40; Hosea 3:5; Jonah 1:9; Haggai 1:12; Malachi 1:6; 3:5; 4:2; Matthew 10:28; Luke 1:50; 12:5; Acts 10:35; 13:16; 13:26; 2 Corinthians 7:1; 7:117:15; Ephesians 5:21; 6:5; 1 Peter 2:17; Revelation 11:18; 14:7; 15:4

(Implied) Genesis 22:12; Deuteronomy 25:18; Job 1:1; 1:8; 2:3; Psalm 25:12; 36:1 55:19; 76:8; 85:9; 86:11; 119:74; 119:120; 119:63; 119:74; 147:11; Proverbs 10:27; 14:2; 14:16; 28:14; 31:30; 14:26; 14:27; 15:16; 15:33; 16:6; 19:23; Ecclesiastes 7:18; Isaiah 41:5; 50:10; 57:11; Jeremiah 5:22; Jonah 1:16; Malachi 2:5; 3:16; Luke 18:4; 23:40; Acts 9:31; 10:22; 19:17; Romans 3:18; Philippians 2:12

(Implied) Exodus 20:20; 1 Samuel 11:7 2 Chronicles 14:14; 17:10; 20:29; Job 6:14; Psalm 114:7; Proverbs 13:13; Isaiah 2:10; 2:19; 2:21

 

In the apocrypha in Sirach 3:17 “Those who fear the Lord prepare their hearts”

 

p115 (=Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 4499) 119 verses of Revelation. 2:1-3,13-15,27-29; 3:10-12; 5:8-9; 6:5-6; 8:3-8,11-13; 9:1-5,7-16,18-21; 10:1-4,8-11; 11:1-5,8-15,18-19; 12:1-5,8-10,12-17; 13:1-3,6-16,18; 14:1-3,5-7,10-11,14-15,18-20; 15:1,4-7 (middle to late 3rd century) Revelation 14:7

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “the Holy Ghost thus addresses us: Come, ye children, hearken unto Me; I will teach you the fear of the Lord” 1 Clement ch.22 vol.1 p.11 (See also vol.9 p.235)

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “For this reason righteousness and peace are now far departed from you, inasmuch as every one abandons the fear of God, and is become blind in His faith, neither walks in the ordinances of His appointment, nor acts a part becoming a Christian, but walks after his own wicked lusts, resuming the practice of an unrighteous and ungodly envy, by which death itself entered into the world.” 1 Clement ch.3 p.6

Didache vol.7 ch.3.9-10 p.378 (before 125 A.D.) Teach your son and daughter the fear of God.

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.19 p.148 says “Thou shalt not slay the child by procuring abortion; nor, again, shalt thou destroy it after it is born. Thou shalt not withdraw thy hand from thy son, or from thy daughter, but from their infancy thou shalt teach them the fear of the Lord.”

Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians (100-155 A.D.) ch.4 p.34 say wives are to train children up in the knowledge and fear of God.

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “But before all let faith and the fear of God have rule in thy heart, and then shalt thou understand these things. When thou shalt have put off the mortal, and put on incorruption, then shall thou see God worthily.” Theophilus to Autolycus part 1 ch.7 p.91

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) says that faith and the fear of God should rule in your heart, then you will understand. Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.7 p.91

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “For ‘the fear of the LORD,’ it is said, ‘is the beginning of wisdom.’” Stromata book 7 ch.12 p.543

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “And to prove that example corrects, he says directly to the purpose: ‘A clever man, when he seeth the wicked punished, will himself be severely chastised, for the fear of the Lord is the source of wisdom.’” Stromata book 1 ch.27 p.339

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “There is no fear of God before their eyes.” Stromata book 1 ch.27 p.340

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “He both knows and admires. Godliness adds length of life; and the fear of the Lord adds days.” Stromata book 2 ch.12 p.359-360

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “‘To another, faith by the same Spirit’; this will be ‘the spirit of religion and the fear of the Lord.’” Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.8 p.446

Novatian (250/254-257 A.D.) “while the Holy Spirit dwelt affluently in Christ. For truly Isaiah, prophesying this, said: ‘And the Spirit of wisdom and understanding shall rest upon Him, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and piety; and the Spirit of the fear of the Lord shall fill Him.’” Concerning the Trinity ch.29 p.641

Theonas of Alexandria (282-300 A.D.) “Discharge the official duties to which you are severally appointed with the utmost fear of God and affect to your prince, and perfect carefullness.” Epistle of Theonas to Lucianus, the Chief Chamberlain ch.11 p.159.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (70-135 A.D.) Gad “speaketh not against any man, because the fear of the Most High”

Acts of Paul and Thecla (before 207 A.D.) p.487 “blessed are they that have the fear of God,”

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Protoevangelium of James (145-248 A.D.) ch.24 p.367 “fear our Lord Jesus Christ”

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.71 p..96 speaks positively of fearing God. See also ibid book 5 ch.13 p.143.

 

 

X20. We adore/glory in the cross

 

Galatians 6:14

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “And again: “God forbid that I should glory in anything save in the cross of Christ, by whom the world is crucified to me, and I unto the world.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.3.5 p.320

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “If any of you think we render superstitious adoration of the cross, in that adoration he is a sharer with us…Every stake fixed in an upright position is a portion of the cross; we render our adoration, if you will have it so, to a god entire and complete.” Apology ch.16 p.31

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “who both believes and knows these things, should glory in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ,” Commentary on Matthew book 12 ch.18 p.461. See also book 12 ch.27 p.465

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “6. Paul proclaims in a loud and lofty voice, “But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 2 ch.6 p.431

 

X21. God’s holy people

 

1 Peter 2:9

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “yet if ye turn to Me with your whole heart, and say, Father! I will listen to you, as to a holy people.’ And in another place He speaks thus: ‘Wash you, and become clean; put 1 Clement ch.8 p.7. See also vol.9.

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.14 p.146 “a holy people for Himself. The prophet therefore declares, ‘I, the Lord Thy God,

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “But we are not only a people, but also a holy people, as we have shown Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.119 p.258-259

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “and put strong men down, the holy people likewise; and his yoke shall be directed as a wreath [round their neck]; deceit shall be in his hand,Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.25.4 p.554

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) “And that this race was to become an holy people was declared in the Twelve Prophets by Hosea, thus: I will call that which was not (my) people, my people; and her that was not beloved, beloved. It shall come to pass that in the place where it was called not my people, there shall they be called sons of the Living God.Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.93

Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) (partial) speaks of a holy man. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.1 p.173

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “As, then, the people was precious to the Lord, so also is the entire holy people; he also who is converted from the Gentiles, who was prophesied under theStromata book 6 ch.6 p.491

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) speaks of us as God’s holy people. The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.217

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) “Let the hidden, the final, the holy people be longed for; and, indeed, let it be unknown by us where it abides, acting by nine of the tribes and a half ...;Instructions of Commodianus ch.42 p.211

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions that “the day of the Antichrist will not come until there is a falling away first. The Antichrist will destroy the holy people.” Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.47 p.595

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “it would to pass that He would gather to Himself a holy people from those who were guilty. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.26 p.128

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius of Antioch (c.100-117 A.D.) “not received the prophecy which speaks thus concerning us: ‘The people shall be called by a new name, which the Lord shall name them, and shall be a holy people.Epistle to the Magnesians [Latin version] ch.10 p.63

 

X22. Speaking of shame

 

Daniel 12:2

 

2 Corinthians 4:2 “Rather, we have renounced secret and shameful ways; we do not use deception, nor do we distort the word of God. On the contrary, by setting forth the truth plainly we commend ourselves in every man’s conscience in the sight of God.”

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “and especially to that shameful and detestable sedition, utterly abhorrent to the elect of God, which a few rash and self-confident persons have kindled to such a pitch of frenzy, that your venerable and illustrious name, worthy to be universally loved, has suffered grievous injury.1 Clement ch.1 p.5

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) “But as for me, I [Ignatius] am ashamed to be counted one of them [the martyrs]; for indeed I am not worthy, as being the very last of them, and one born out of due time.Letter of Ignatius to the Romans ch.9 p.77

2 Clement (120-140 A.D.) ch.14 p.521 “But if we say that the flesh is the Church and the spirit Christ, then he that hath shamefully used the flesh hath shamefully used the Church.

Shepherd of Hermas (c.115-155 A.D.) book 3 simultude 9 ch.14 p.49 “Those who bear His name with their whole heart. He Himself, accordingly, became a foundation to them, and supports them with joy, because they are not ashamed to bear His name.’”

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “Say, our brethren, to them that hate you and detest you, that the name of the Lord has been glorified. He has appeared to your joy, and they shall be ashamed.” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.85 p.242

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) ch.30.2-5 p.89 “When a man invites thee to a feast, do not go and sit at the head of the room; lest there 3 be there a man more honourable than thou, and he that invited you come and say unto thee, Give the place to this man: and thou be ashamed when thou risest and 4 takest another place. But when thou art invited, go and sit last; so that when he that invited thee cometh, he may say unto thee, My friend, go up higher: and 5 thou shalt have praise before all that were invited with thee. For every one that exalteth himself shall be abased; and every one that abaseth himself shall be exalted.

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons) (177 A.D.) “for they felt no shame that they had been overcome, for they were not possessed of human reason; but their defeat only the more inflamed their range, and governor and people, like a wild beast, showed a like unjust hatred of us, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, ‘He that is unjust, let him be unjust still; and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still.’” [Revelation 22:11] vol.8 p.783

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) “For those who are ashamed to be saved must of necessity perish. I therefore counsel them to open their eyes and see: for, 1o! light is given abundantly to us all to see thereby; and if, when light has arisen upon us, any one close his eyes so as not to see, into the ditch he must go.Discourse in the Presence of Antoninus Caesar p.751

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “For not only did they refute one another, but some, too, even stultified their own teachings; so that their reputation has issued in shame and folly, for they are condemned by men of understanding.Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.3 p.111

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) says that Adam and Eve were naked and were not ashamed. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.14.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) “restraining abstinence from all shameful things and all unrighteous deeds, and purity of the souls is the keeping faith towards God entire,” Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.2.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) “and you shall put to shame all who inculcate falsehood”. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.1.

Minucius Felix (c.210 A.D.) “For although nothing which comes into existence as an inviolable gift of God is corrupted by any agency, yet we abstain, lest any should think either that we are submitting to demons, to whom libation has been made, or that we are ashamed of our religion.The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.38 p.197

Caius (190-217 A.D.) ch.1 p.601 “And how are they not ashamed to utter these calumnies against Victor, knowing well that Victor excommunicated Theodotus the tanner, the leader and father of this God-denying apostasy, who first affirmed that Christ was a mere man?

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) “For those who engage in such practices in public will scarcely behave with modesty to any at home. Their want of shame in public attests their unbridled licentiousness in private.” The Instructor book 2 ch.3 p.276

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) speaks of shame. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.3 p.184

Tertullian (c.203 A.D.) “whose shame and fear it testifies by its own blushes and paleness. The soul, therefore, is (proved to be) corporeal from this inter-communion of susceptibility.” A Treatise on the Soul ch.5 p.185

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “He gets his sceptre where he first got his humanity; his power where he got the breath of life. Thither we lift our eyes, with hands outstretched, because free from sin; with head uncovered, for we have nothing whereof to be ashamed; finally, without a monitor, because it is from the heart we supplicate. Without ceasing, for all our emperors we offer prayer.” Apology ch.30 p.42

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “Plainly, you ought yourself to blush with shame for having given him a fictitious existence.Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.21 p.382

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) “The ungodly said, … Let us condemn him [Christ] with a shameful death, for by his own saying he shall be respected.’” Expository Treatise Against the Jews ch.9 p.220

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) “Art thou not ashamed, O fool, who adore such pictures? Seek one God who will allow you to live after death.Instructions of Commodianus ch.14 p.205

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) “All this had to be said; it is part of our demonstration that our good actions, and also the sins of those who stumble, are embodied in the Gospel, either to everlasting life or to reproach and everlasting shame.Commentary on John book 1 ch.12 p.304

Origen (239-242 A.D.) speaks of “dishonor and eternal shame”. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 10 ch.5.3 p.136

Origen (233/234 A.D.) speaks of shame. Origen On Prayer ch.29.12 p.119

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.2 p.658 (partial, not idolators) “to such a folly of madness as to have no reverence either for God or man? Among them, shamelessly, and without any law of ordination, the episcopate is sought after; but among us in its own Sees, and in those of the throne delivered to it by God, it is renounced.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 AD.) “their garments, lest they walk naked, and they see their shame.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 third book ch.16 p.538

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) “And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them; for it is a shame even to speak of those things which are done of them in secret.” Canonical Epistle canon 2 p.18

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) “Love is altogether and for ever on the alert, and casts about to do some good even to one who is unwilling to receive it. And many a time the man who shrinks from it under a feeling of shame, and who declines to accept services of kindness on the ground of unwillingness to become troublesome to others,” Letter 14 ch.110

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) calls Christ the “Word of God” “The Word of god experiences some passion if the Godhead feels shame. … Because you stated that it is shame to say that the Word assumed flesh. But the Godhead does not feel shame; it does not grasp at glory; nor does it experience desire. These thing are passions, but the godhead is not susceptible to passions.” (Adamantius is speaking) Dialogue on the True Faith Fourth Part d14 p.144-145.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) quotes part of 1 Corinthians 1:24 as “The Apostle says”; John 1:3 as by “John the Evangelist”; Jeremiah 1:15 (Septuagint) as by Jeremiah, Psalm 118:73 (Septuagint) as by David, Genesis 2:7 as Genesis , and then says, “If then the Scriptures show that the Word of God moulded Man into a living creature, how is it that God accepts what is considered shameful (For you people claim that the Godhead can feel a sense of shame!), while you on your side disparage something higher and even more glorious?” Dialogue on the True Faith fourth part d 15 p.147. See also ibid first part ch.610c p.80, and ibid fifth part ch.20 b p.175 and ibid fourth part ch.424a p.129 on Genesis 1:2.

Arnobius of Sicca (297-303 A.D.) speaks of shame and Jupiter trying to commit incest with his mother. Arnobius Against the Heathen book 5 ch.910 p.493; book 5 ch.23 p.498.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “Wherefore let it shame the Jews that they do not perceive the deep things of the Scriptures, thinking that nothing else than outward things are contained in the law and the prophets;” Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 9 ch.1 p.345

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) “And these [the lapsed] indeed will reap more shame and ignominy than all others, even as he who laid the foundation and was not able to finish it;Canonical Epistle canon 10 p.274

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “and they are not ashamed to run counter to the Spirit, but, as though born for this purpose, they kindle up the smouldering and lurking passion, fanning and provoking it; and therefore he [Paul the apostle], cutting off very sharply these dishonest follies and invented excuses, and having arrived at the subject of instructing them how men should behave to their wives,” Banquet of The Ten Virgins discourse 3 ch.10 p.320

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) “4. exactly as the first of men created, the one who was named Adam in Hebrew, is described in the Holy Scriptures as having at the beginning had his mind to God-ward in a freedom unembarrassed by shame, and as associating with the holy ones in that contemplation of things perceived by the mind which he enjoyed in the place where he was—the place which the holy Moses called in figure a Garden.” Athanasius Against the Heathen part 1 ch.2.4 p.5

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “that is, not to veil any shameful deed within the secrets of conscience.” The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.17 p.119

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “They shall be ashamed and confounded, all of them who oppose themselves to Thee, and shall go to confusion.’” Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.44 p.239

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) “The dead received their life, the souls were sent back again into the world, and that because the Lord had conquered hell, had trodden down death, had covered the enemy with shame; therefore was it that the souls came forth from Hades, and the dead appeared upon the earth.” Letter 4 ch.6 p.301

Sentences of Sextus no.174 “The sins of those who are ignorant are the shame of those who have taught them.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “O seed of the shameless Canaan, and not of Judah the devout!Oration on Psalms ch.3 p.395

 

Among heretics

The Encratite heretic Tatian (c.172 A.D.) “Is it not shameful that fratricide is honoured by you who look on the statues of Polynices and Eteocles, and that you have not rather buried them with their maker Pythagoras?Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.34 p.79

The Sethian Gnostic Apocryphon of John (c.150-185) ch.18 p.115 mentions shame.

The Nag Hammadi Apocalypse of Peter (3rd century A.D.) “The root of their error he shall pluck out, and he shall put it to shame so that it shall be manifest in all the impudence which it has assumed to itself.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 3 ch.30 p..122 speaks of the shame of Simon [magus].

 

X23. Put unrighteousness/adversary to shame

 

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “and sick from being healthy, is depicted [by Job] as a good example, putting the Tempter to shame, blessing his Creator” Stromata book 4 ch.5 p.412

Tertullian (ca.208 A.D.) “Thus even injustice is employed, that righteousness may be approved in putting unrighteousness to shame. On Fleeing Persecution ch.2 p.117

Tertullian (partial) “It must therefore be accounted an eternal attribute, inbred in God, and everlasting, and on this account worthy of the Divine Being, putting to shame for ever the benevolence of Marcion’s god, subsequent as he is to (I will not say) all beginnings and times, but to the very malignity of the Creator, if indeed malignity could possibly have been found in goodness.” Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.3 p.299

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) “beasts,-that in this, too, the honour-hating demon might be put to shame. For,”

Phileas of Thmuis (martyred 306/307 A.D.) “went on some died under their tortures putting the adversary to shame” Letter to the People of Thmuis ch.3 p.163

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) “The dead received their life, the souls were sent back again into the world, and that because the Lord had conquered hell, had trodden down death, had covered the enemy with shame; therefore was it that the souls came forth from Hades, and the dead appeared upon the earth.” Letter 4 ch.6 p.301

 

X24. Do not be ashamed of the cross/Christ

 

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) says not to be ashamed of Christ. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.10 p.199

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “we are neither ashamed of Christ-for we rejoice to be counted His disciples” Apology ch.21 p.34

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) evil. “For whosoever,” says He, “shall be ashamed of me, of him will I also be ashamed.” Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.21 p.382

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “if any one is ashamed of the cross of Christ, he is ashamed of the dispensation on account of which these powers were triumphed over; and it is fitting that he, who both believes and knows these things, should glory in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ,Commentary on Matthew book 12 ch.18 p.461

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) (implied) “His precepts, ‘Whosoever shall be ashamed of me, of him shall the Son of man be ashamed’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 3 ch.28 p.445

 

X25. Flesh and spirit war against each other

 

Romans 7:23 (implied)

Romans 8:6-8 (implied)

 

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) “For it is well that they should be cut off from the lusts that are in the world, since ‘every lust warreth against the spirit;’ and ‘neither fornicators, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, shall inherit the kingdom of God,’ nor those who do things inconsistent and unbecoming.Letter to the Philippians ch.5 p.40

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “‘But I say, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lusts of the flesh,’ counsels the apostolic command; ‘for the flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh. These, then, are contrary’Stromata book 4 ch.8 p.420

Tertullian (213 A.D.) “‘The flesh,’ saith (the apostle), ‘lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh.’ But what will the flesh ‘lust’ after, except what is more of the flesh?On Monogamy ch.1 p.59

Origen (225-254 A.D.) “For it is impossible for man, who is a compound being, in which ‘the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh,’ to keep the feast with his whole nature; for either he keeps the feast with his spirit and afflicts the body, which through the lust of the flesh is unfit to keep it along with the spirit, or else he keeps it with the body, and the spirit is unable to share in it.Origen Against Celsus book 8 ch.23 p.648

Origen (235 A.D.) “For since on earth we are encompassed by the flesh that wars against the spirit, and whose thought is inmity to God and cannot in any way be brought into subjection to the law of God, we are in temptation.” Origen On Prayer ch.29.1 p.113

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “For this is He who ‘desireth against the flesh,’ because ‘the flesh resisteth against the Spirit.’Concerning the Trinity ch.29 p.641

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “What are those carnal things which beget death, and what are the spiritual things which lead to life. Paul to the Galatians: ‘The flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: for these are contrary the one to the other, that ye cannot do even those things which ye wish.’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 3 ch.64 p.551

 

Among heretics

The Gnostic Book of Baruch according to Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) “obscured the precepts of Baruch, and caused his own peculiar injunctions to be hearkened unto. For this reason the soul is arrayed against the spirit, and the spirit against the soul.Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.21 p.72

 

X26. Seek the Lord / God

 

1 Chronicles 28:9; Deuteronomy 4:29

 

Clement of Rome (96/98A.D.) “Let us therefore, brethren, be of humble mind, laying aside all haughtiness, and pride, and foolishness, and angry feelings; and let us act according to that  which is written (for the Holy Spirit saith, 'Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man glory in his might, neither let the rich man glory in his riches; but let him that glorieth glory in the Lord, in diligently seeking Him, and doing judgment and righteousness'), being especially mindful of the words of the Lord Jesus which He spake, teaching us meekness and long-suffering.1 Clement ch.13 (vol.1) p.8 (vol.9 is the same)

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “Who shall ascend into the hill of the Lord? or who shall stand in His holy place? He that is clean of hands and pure of heart: who has not received his soul in vain, and has not sworn guilefully to his neighbour: he shall receive blessing from the Lord, and mercy from God his Saviour. This is the generation of them that seek the Lord, that seek the face of the God of Jacob.Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.36 p.212

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “He shall receive blessing from the Lord, and mercy from God his Saviour. This is the generation of them that seek the Lord, that seek the face of the God of Jacob.'Stromata book 7 ch.10 p.539

Clement of Alexandria (195 A.D.) “Seek God, and your soul shall live. He who seeks God is busying himself about his own salvation. Hast thou found God?-then thou hast life. Let us then seek, in order that we may live.Exhortation to the Heathen ch.10 p.201

Origen (225-254 A.D.) “We shall be satisfied with quoting on the present occasion some verses from the Psalms 34, to the following effect: 'They that seek the Lord shall not want any good thing.Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.54 p.598

Treatise on Rebaptism ch.12 p.674 “Therefore also the residue of men, that is, some of the Jews and all the Gentiles upon whom the name of the Lord is called, may and of necessity must seek the Lord, because that very invocation of the name affords them the opportunity, or even imposes on them the necessity, of seeking the Lord.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Likewise in the thirty-third Psalm: 'O taste and see how sweet is the Lord. Blessed is the man that hopeth in Him. Fear the Lord God, all ye His saints: for there is no want to them that fear Him. Rich men have wanted and have hungered; but they who seek the Lord shall never want any good thing.'Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 1 ch.22 p.514

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “And the Lord moreover promises and says, 'Take no thought, saying, 'What shall we eat, or what shall we drink, or wherewithal shall we be clothed? For after all these things do the nations seek. And your Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things. Seek ye first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and alI these things shall be added unto you.'Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 4 ch.21 p.453

Arnobius of Sicca (297-303 A.D.) “And therefore Christ the divine, … -bade us abandon and disregard all these things of which you speak, and not waste our thoughts upon things which have been removed far from our knowledge, but, as much as possible, seek the Lord of the universe with the whole mind and spirit;Arnobius Against the Heathen book 2 ch.60 p.457

Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.) “Whoever, therefore, is anxious to observe the obligations to which man is liable, and to maintain a regard for his nature, let him raise himself from the ground, and, with mind lifted up, let him direct his eyes to heaven: let him not seek God under his feet, nor dig up from his footprints an object of veneration, for whatever lies beneath man must necessarily be inferior to man; but let him seek it aloft, let him seek it in the highest place: for nothing can be greater than man, except that which is above man. But God is greater than man: therefore He is above, and not below; nor is He to be sought in the lowest, but rather in the highest region. Wherefore it is undoubted that there is no religion wherever there is an image.The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.19 p.67-68

Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.) “For on this account he is called anthropos, because he looks upward. But he looks upward who looks up to the true and living God, who is in heaven; who seeks after the Maker and Parent of his soul, not only with his perception and mind, but also with his countenance and eyes raised aloft. But he who enslaves himself to earthly and humble things, plainly prefers to himself that which is below him.Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.25 p.230

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) “’In the midst of the Church I will praise thee?’ And He proceeds: ‘The poor shall (510) eat and be satisfied, and they that seek the Lord shall praise him - their heart shall live for ever.’” Demonstration of the Gospel book 10 ch.27.

 

X28. There is sin unto death

 

1 John 5:16b

 

Clement of Alexandria (192-217/220 A.D.) “John, too, manifestly teaches the differences of sins, in his larger Epistle, in these words: ‘If any man see his brother sin a sin that is not unto death, he shall ask, and he shall give him life: for these that sin not unto death,’ he says. ‘For there is a sin unto death: I do not say that one is to pray for it. All unrighteousness is sin; and there is a sin not unto death.’” Stromata book 2 ch.15 p.362

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) “Jeremiah had been prohibited by God to deprecate (Him) on behalf of a people which was committing mortal sins. ‘Every unrighteousness is sin; and there is a sin unto death. … But we know that every one who hath been born of God sinneth not -to wit, ‘the sin which is unto death.’” Tertullian on Modesty ch.19 p.97

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (implied) “passed over to these followers of Callistus, and served to crowd his school. This one propounded the opinion, that, if a bishop was guilty of any sin, if even a sin unto death, he ought not to be deposed.” Refutation of All Heresies book 9 ch.7 p.131

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “for sins which are ‘not unto death’, or, as the law has described them in the Book of Numbers, not ‘death-bringing.’” Commentary on Matthew book 13 ch.30 p.492

Origen (235 A.D.) “they comport themselves as if through their prayer for such as have dared to commit these crimes, even the sin unto death were forgiven. They do not read the text: There is a sin unto death; for that I say not that any man ask.” Origen On Prayer ch.28.10 p.112-113

 

 

NOT OF THIS WORLD

 

n1. We need to repent and come to God

 

Just “confessing” can mean testifying about God and is not counted here.

 

Ezekiel 18:23;32

Matthew 3:2; 3:8,11; 4:17; 11:20; 21:32

Mark 1:4,15; 6:12

Luke 3:3,5,8; 5:32; 15:7,10; 16:30; 24:37

Acts 2:38; 3:19; 5:31; 8:22; 11:18; 13:24; 17:30; 19:4; 20:21; 26:20

Romans 2:4

2 Corinthians 7:9,10

2 Timothy 2:25

Hebrews 6:1,6

2 Peter 3:9

Revelation 2:5,16; 2:21,22; 3:3; 3:19; 9:20,21; 16:9,11

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) 2 Corinthians 7:9-10

p4 Luke 1:58-59; 1:62-2:1,6-7; 3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35; 5:3-8; 5:30-6:16. (c.150-175 A.D.) mentions repenting. Luke 3:8; 5:32

p47 (= Chester Beatty III) (c.250-300 A.D.) 31% of Revelation. Revelation 9:20-11:3; 11:5-16:15; 16:17-17:2 (implied) mentions with disapproval people who would not repent of their wickedness. Revelation 9:20

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) ch.8 p.7 mentions repentance and God commanding us to repent, be washed, and become clean.

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) “To all them that repent, the Lord grants forgiveness, if they turn in penitence to the unity of God, and to communion with the bishop.” Letter of Ignatius to the Philadelphians ch.8 p.84

Didache (=Teaching of the Twelve Apostles) (before 125 A.D.) (implied) “And reprove one another, not in anger, but in peace, as ye have it in the Gospel; but to every one that acts amiss against another, let no one speak, nor let him hear aught from you until he repent.” ch.15 p.381

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.5 p.139 “But when He chose His own apostles who where to preach His Gospel, [He did so from among those] who were sinners above all sin, that He might show He came ‘not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.’”

2 Clement (120-140 A.D.) vol.7 ch.17 p.522 “Let us therefore repent from the whole heart, that no one of us perish by the way.

2 Clement (120-140 A.D.) ch.8 p.519 “As long, therefore, as we are upon earth, let us practise repentance, for we are as clay in the hand of the artificer. For as the potter, if he make a vessel, and it be distorted or broken in his hands, fashions it over again; but if he have before this cast it into the furnace of fire, can no longer find any help for it: so let us also, while we are in this world, repent with our whole heart of the evil deeds we have done in the flesh, that we may be saved by the Lord, while we have yet an opportunity of repentance.

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) “I am deeply grieved, therefore, brethren, for him (Valens) and his wife; to whom may the Lord grant true repentance! And be ye then moderate in regard to this matter, and ‘do not count such as enemies,’ but call them back as suffering and straying members, that ye may save your whole body.Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.11 p.35

Shepherd of Hermas (c.115-155 A.D.) book 3 Similitude 7 p.38 speaks of people repenting of their sins. See also book 3 Similitude 9 ch.31 p.53, ch.32 p.54, Similitude 8 ch.5 p.41, and many other places too.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “And if it is the flesh that is the sinner, then on its account alone did the Saviour come, as He says, ‘I am not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.’ Since, then, the flesh has been proved to be valuable in the sight of God, and glorious above all His works, it would very justly be saved by Him.On the Resurrection ch.8 p.297

Evarestus (c.169 A.D.) “And on their giving him leave, he stood and prayed, being full of the grace of God, so that he could not cease for two full hours, to the astonishment of them that heard him, insomuch that many began to repent that they had come forth against so godly and venerable an old man.” Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.7 p.40

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 4 p.49 quotes Matthew 3:4-18.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) “The standing of the Lord -the patience of the Deity, by which He bears with sinners that they may come to repentance.” Fragment 9 p.761

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “all, but expressly to the people, says: “Seek ye the Lord while He may be found, call ye upon Him while He is near: let the wicked forsake his ways, and the unrighteous man his thoughts: and let him return unto the Lord his God, and he will find mercy, for He will abundantly pardon.” Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.11 p.114

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) says to come to repentance and cease from sin. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.41.3 p.525

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) says that God still pities us and urges us to repentance. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.10 p.197. See also ibid ch.1 p.172.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) discusses our repentance in Stromata book 2 ch.19 p.369

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) has a whole Treatise On Repentance

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) mentions the repentance of the Christian who sinned. Tertullian on Modesty ch.3 p.71 and ch.15 p.90

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “How prompt in pardoning David on his confession of his sin -preferring, indeed, the sinner’s repentance to his death, of course because of His gracious attribute of mercy.Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.11 p.452

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (implied) quotes Revelation 11:3 and said that Elijah was to come before the manifestation of Christ from heaven. There will be signs and wonders so that people will be put to shame and turn in repentance. Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.46 p.213

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) says to be penitent. Instructions of Commodianus ch.49 p.212

Origen (235-245 A.D.) discusses repentance in detail. Among other this, “for we men who repent need his kindness, but those of us who persist in sins need his severity Homilies on Jeremiah homily 4 ch.4.2 p.35

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.9 p.659 says that Scripture cries that we are to repent and then quotes Ezekiel 18:30.

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.18 p.663 says that heaven, the angels, and Christ rejoice over our repentance.

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.1 p.667 “I Observe that it has been asked among the brethren what course ought specially to be adopted towards the persons of those who, although baptized in heresy, have yet been baptized in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and subsequently departing from their heresy, and fleeing as supplicants to the Church of God, should repent with their whole hearts, and only now perceiving the condemnation of their error, implore from the Church the help of salvation.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “But although those things which we have spoken of severely afflicted us and our spirit, yet your rigour and the severity that you have used, according to the proper discipline, moderates the so heavy load of our grief, in that you rightly restrain the wickedness of some, and, by your exhortation to repentance, show the legitimate way of salvation.Epistles of Cyprian letter 29 ch.1 p.307

Roman Clergy to Cyprian (250-251 A.D.) “The Church stands in faith, notwithstanding that some have been driven to fall by very terror, whether that they were persons of eminence, or that they were afraid, when seized, with the fear of man: these, however, we did not abandon, although they were separated from us, but exhorted them, and do exhort them, to repent, if in any way they may receive pardon from Him who is able to grant it; test, haply, if they should be deserted by us, they should become worse.Epistles of Cyprian letter 2 ch.2 p.280

Caldonius (250-251 A.D.) “in that they now let go their possessions and homes, and, repenting, follow Christ” Epistles of Cyprian Letter 18 p.297

Celerinus to Lucian (c.248-256 A.D.) “For I believe that Christ, according to their repentance and the works which they have done towards our banished colleagues who came from you-by whom themselves you will hear of their good works,-that Christ, I say, will have mercy upon them, when you, His martyrs, beseech Him.Epistles of Cyprian letter 20 ch.2 p.298

Moyses et al. (250 A.D.) “words of true penitence” Epistles of Cyprian Letter 25 ch.7 p.304

Firmilian to Cyprian (256 A.D.) “Moreover, we do this that some remedy may be sought for by repentance for lapsed brethren, and for those wounded by the devil after the saving laver, not as though they obtained remission of sins from us, but that by our means they may be converted to the understanding of their sins, and may be compelled to give fuller satisfaction to the Lord.Epistles of Cyprian Letter 74 ch.4 p.391

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) “And as they saw that the conversion and repentance of such might be acceptable to Him who desires not at all the death of the sinner, but rather his repentance, they proved their sincerity, and received them, and brought them together again, and assembled with them, and had fellowship with them in their prayers and at their festivals.” Letter 3 (To Fabius of Antioch) ch.10 p.100

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) mentions repentance and the parable of he fig tree. Canonical Epistle canon 3 p.270

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “But neither did this law rule mankind, for men did not obey it, although zealously preached by Noah. But, after they began to be surrounded and drowning by the waters, they began to repent, and to promise that they would obey the commandments. Wherefore with scorn they are rejected as subjects; that is, they are contemptuously told that they cannot be helped by the law; the Spirit answering them back and reproaching them because they had deserted those men whom God had commanded to help them, and to save them, and make them glad; such as Noah and those with him. ‘Even to you, O rebellious,’ said he, ‘I come, to bring help to you who are destitute of prudence, and who differ in nothing from dry trees, and who formerly did not believe me when I preached that you ought to flee from present things.’” Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 10 ch.3 p.349

Council of Ancyra (314 A.D.) Canons 1 to 10 p.63-67 are solely concerned with the amount of time a repentant sinner should be a hears, prostrator, and communicate in prayers only, until they can return to full communion.

Council of Neocaesarea (c.315 A.D.) canons 1-3,4 p.79-80,81 discuss the time of penance for repentant sinners.

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) speaks of our need to repent. Incarnation of the Word ch.7.3 p.40

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says that God commands people to repent because He desires that all men be cleansed from the sins. The Divine Institutes book 6 ch.13 p.178

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says we need to repent. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.67 p.251

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) mentions the need for repentance. homily 1 ch.7 p.224

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 10 ch.45 p.205 is a chapter on people needing to repent. See also ibid book 10 ch.44 p.205 and book 3 ch.50 p.127.

The Encratite Gnostic Tatian (c.172 A.D.) “But matter desired to exercise lordship over the soul; and according to their free-will these gave laws of death to men; but men, after the loss of immortality, have conquered death by submitting to death in faith; and by repentance a call has been given to them, according to the word which says, ‘Since they were made a little lower than the angels.’Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.15 p.71

 

n2. Love God / the Lord

 

Loving the truth and loving scripture are not included here.

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Let him who has love in Christ keep the commandments of Christ. Who can describe the [blessed] bond of the love of God? What man is able to tell the excellence of its beauty, as it ought to be told? The height to which love exalts is unspeakable. Love unites us to God. Love covers a multitude of sins. Love beareth all things, is long-suffering in all things.1 Clement ch.49 vol.1 p.18. See also vol.9.

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Let us then draw near to Him with holiness of spirit, lifting up pure and undefiled hands unto Him, loving our gracious and merciful Father, who has made us partakers in the blessings of His elect.” 1 Clement ch.29 p.13

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) “…ye love nothing but God only.” Letter of Ignatius to the Ephesians ch.9 p.53

Didache (=Teaching of the Twelve Apostles) (before 125 A.D.) vol.7 ch.1 p.377 First love God. ch.5 p.378 do not forsake the commandments of the Lord.

Epistle of Barnabas ch.6 p.140 (c.70-130 A.D.) mentions us loving the Lord.

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) “He [Paul], when among you, accurately and stedfastly taught the word of truth in the presence of those who were then alive. And when absent from you [Philippians], he wrote you a letter, which, if you carefully study, you will find to be the means of building you up in that faith which has been given you, and which, being followed by hope, and preceded by love towards God, and Christ, and our neighbour, ‘is the mother of us all.’ Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.3 p.33

Epistle to Diognetus (c.130-200 A.D.) ch.10 p.29 “Or, how will you love Him who has first so loved you? And if you love Him, you will be an imitator of His kindness. And do not wonder that a man may become an imitator of God.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) (implied) “He overthrew also the tables of the money-changers in the temple, and exclaimed, ‘Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye pay tithe of mint and rue, but do not observe the love of God and justice.’” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.17 p.203

Evarestus’ Martyrdom of Polycarp (c.169 A.D.) ch.2 p.39 mentions the love we have towards God.

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 34 no.28 p.96 “The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O 28 Israel; The Lord our God, the Lord is one: and thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy thought, and with all thy 29, strength.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) “those who love Him speak of Him thus: ‘Father, and God of Truth.’”. Discourse to Antonius Caesar p.751

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “but He [God] is good and kind, and merciful, to those who love and fear Him;” Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.3 p.90

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (177 A.D.) p.779 (implied) “For he was a man who had contained the full measure of love towards God and his neighbours.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “It is therefore better and more profitable to belong to the simple and unlettered class, and by means of love to attain to nearness to God, than, by imagining ourselves learned and skilful, to be found [among those who are] blasphemous against their own God, inasmuch as they conjure up another God as the Father.Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.26.1 p.397

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “whether he will receive reverence, and fear, and love the Lord.” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.16.5 p.482

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) “Now, that we may not suffer ought of this kind, we must needs hold the rule of the faith without deviation, and do the commandments of God, believing in God and fearing Him as Lord and loving Him as Father.Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.3

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) (implied) “For we have received the Lord of the Law, the Son of God; and by faith in Him we learn to love God with all our heart, and our neighbour as ourselves.Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.95

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) we are to love and obey God’s commandments. Stromata book 2 ch.12 p.360

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) “For he that is fired with ardour and admiration for righteousness, being the lover of One who needs nothing, needs himself but little, having treasured up his bliss in nothing but himself and God, where is neither moth, robber, nor pirate, but the eternal Giver of good. With justice, then, have you been compared to those serpents who shut their ears against the charmers.Exhortation to the Heathen ch.10 p.202

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 6:4 An Answer to the Jews ch.2 p.152

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) “For he [Praxeas] was the first to import into Rome from Asia this kind of heretical pravity, a man in other respects of restless disposition, and above all inflated with the pride of confessorship simply and solely because he had to bear for a short time the annoyance of a prison; on which occasion, even ‘if he had given his body to be burned, it would have profiled him nothing,’ not having the love of God, whose very gifts he has resisted and destroyed.Against Praxeas ch.1 p.597

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) says we are commanded to love God. Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.13 p.308

Theodotus the probable Montanist (c.240 A.D.) (implied) “the same David says, “I will love Thee, O Lord, my strengthExcerpts from Theodotus ch.52 p.49

Commodianus (240 A.D.) “Be pleasing to the hymned chorus, and to an appeased Christ with ardent love fervently offer your savour to Christ.Instructions of Commodianus ch.60 p.215

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “by the gift of God, on those who have lived a pure and blameless life, and who have felt a single and undivided love for the God of all things,Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.81 p.496

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) “For that which is, according to what it is, can neither be declared by human discourse, nor received by human ears, nor gathered by human perceptions. For if ‘the things which God hath prepared for them that love Him, neither eye hath seen, nor ear hath heard, nor the heart of man, nor even his mind has perceived;’ what and how great is He Himself who promises these things, in understanding which both the mind and nature of man have failed!” Concerning the Trinity ch.7 p.616-617

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.13 p.675 “‘Thou shalt love the Lord thy God, with all thy heart, and with all thy mind, and with all thy thought; and thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.’”

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Of this same thing in Deuteronomy: ‘The Lord your God proveth you, that He may know if ye love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul.’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 book 3 ch.18 p.539

Moyses et al. to Cyprian (250 A.D.) “For to this battle our Lord, as with the trumpet of His Gospel, stimulates us when He says, ‘He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me: and he that loveth his own soul more than me is not worthy of me. And he that taketh not his cross, and followeth after me, is not worthy of me.’” Epistles of Cyprian Letter 25 ch.4 p.303

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) “The others were the most venerable and aged Mercuria, and Dionysia, who had been the mother of many children, and yet did not love her offspring better than her Lord.Epistle 3 To Fabius bishop of Antioch ch.6 p.99

Theonas of Alexandria (282-300 A.D.) “ye may discharge the duties of your office religiously and piously-that is, in the love of Christ-and despise all transitory objects for the sake of His eternal promises, which in truth surpass all human comprehension and understanding,”

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) “But I declare what the scripture says: ‘No one can’, it says, ‘serve two lords; for either the one he will hold hate and love the other, or he will hold to the one, and hate the other. You cannot serve God and mammon.” [Matthew 6:24; Luke 16:13] (Adamantius is speaking) Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.28 p.74

Arnobius of Sicca (297-303 A.D.) “To adore God as the highest existence, as the Lord of all things that be, as occupying the highest place among all exalted ones, to pray to Him with respectful submission in our distresses, to cling to Him with all our senses, so to speak, to love Him, to look up to Him with faith,-is this an execrable and unhallowed religion, full of impiety and of sacrilege, polluting by the superstition of its own novelty ceremonies instituted of old?Arnobius Against the Heathen book 1 ch.25 p.419

Methodius (c.260-311/312 A.D.) “Now the breastband, the girdle which gathers together and keeps firm the purpose of the soul to chastity, is love to God, which our Captain and Shepherd, Jesus, who is also our Ruler and Bridegroom, O illustrious virgins, commands both you and me to hold fast unbroken and sealed up even to the end; for one will not easily find anything else a greater help to men than this possession, pleasing and grateful to God.Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 4 ch.6 p.325

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 6:4 (Love the Lord your God with…” in Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.46 p.28

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “But with respect to God, who is one only, inasmuch as He sustains the twofold character both of Father and Lord, we are bound both to love Him, inasmuch as we are sons, and to fear Him, inasmuch as we are servants.” The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.4 p.103-104

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) “the apostle Paul, ‘Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love Him.’” Epistles on the Arian Heresy Letter 1 ch.5 p.293

 

Among heretics

The Encratite Gnostic Tatian (c.172 A.D.) “And these things severally it is possible for him to perceive who does not conceitedly reject those most divine explanations which in the course of time have been consigned to writing, and make those who study them great lovers of God.Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.12 p.70

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 3 ch.10 p.240 Peter says, “But we also can easily show many passages from them [the Scriptures] that He who made the world alone is God, and that there is none other besides Him. But if any one shall wish to speak otherwise, he also shall be able to produce proofs from them at his pleasure. For the Scriptures say all manner of things, that no one of those who inquire ungratefully may find the truth, but simply what he wishes to find, the truth being reserved for the grateful; now gratitude is to preserve our love to Him who is the cause of our being.”

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date ) homily 2 ch.42 p.237 (implied) “But I do not think, my dear Clement, that any one who possesses ever so little love to God and ingenuousness, will be able to take in, or even to hear, the things that are spoken against Him.”

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 3 ch.71 p.133 shows we need to obey God.

 

n3. Obey God

 

Luke 10:27; John 1:15,23; 1 John 2:15,17

Acts 5:32 (implied) those who obey Him.

Do what Jesus says Luke 6:46-49

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Romans 8:28; Hebrews 4:6

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 14:15,23

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels plus Acts) (200-225 A.D.) (partial, do what Christ says) Luke 6:46

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) (implied) Hebrews 4:6,11 mentions not to disobey

p65 1 Thessalonians 1:3-2:1; 2:6-13 (225-275 A.D.) Paul praised the Thessalonians for their love and endurance in 1 Thessalonians 1:3

p49 Ephesians 4:16-29; 4:31-5:13 (225-275 A.D.) (partial) says to live a life of love (does not say God though) Ephesians 5:2

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. We are to obey the gospel. 1 Peter 4:17

p75 (c.175-225 A.D.) Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) says to love god … is the greatest commandment. Luke 10:27

0232 2 John 1-9 (ca.300 A.D.) (implied) says what God commanded us. 2 John 4,6

p40 – Romans 1:24-27; 1:31-2:3; 3:21-4:8; 6:2-5,16; 9:17,27 (3rd century A.D.) mentions our obedience to God Romans 6:16

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Wherefore let us yield obedience to His excellent and glorious will;” 1 Clement ch.8 p.7 . See also ibid ch.1 vol.1 p.5 (See also vol.9 p.231); ch.2 vol.1 p.5 (See also vol.9 p.231-232).

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) “It is therefore befitting that you should in every way glorify Jesus Christ, who hath glorified you, that by a unanimous obedience…” Letter of Ignatius to the Ephesians ch.2 p.50

Letter of Ignatius to the Philadelphians ch.1 p.79 (-107/116 A.D.) “For he in harmony with the commandments [of God], even as he harp is with its strings.”

Didache (=Teaching of the Twelve Apostles) (before 125 A.D.) vol.7 ch.1 p.377 First love God. ch.5 p.378 do not forsake the commandments of the Lord.

Epistle of Barnabas ch.4 p.139 (c.70-130 A.D.) says to keep God’s commandments.

Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians (100-155 A.D.) ch.4 p.34 “and let us teach, first of all, ourselves to walk in the commandments of the Lord.”

Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians (100-155 A.D.) ch.9 p.35 says “yield obedience to the word of righteousness”

Epistle to Diognetus ch.12 p.29 (c.130-200 A.D.) speaks of us loving God

Shepherd of Hermas (c.115-155 A.D.) book 2 second commandment ch.4 p.22 says to keep God’s commandments. See also book 3 similitude 1 p.31 and book 2 commandment eighth p.25

Evarestus’ Martyrdom of Polycarp (c.169 A.D.) ch.22 p.41 says, “We wish you, brethren, all happiness, while you walk according to the doctrine of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.”

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) speaks of those who love God. Discourse to Antonius Caesar p.751

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) says “those who love him speak of Him thus; ‘Father, and God of Truth’” in his discourse ch.1 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.751 See also p.755

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “I do not disbelieve, but I believe, obedient to God” Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.14 p.93

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) says we are to obey God. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.20.1 p.487

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “God desires obedience” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.17.1 p.482

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) says that sons who disobey their earthly fathers are disinherited. Likewise, those who disobey God are disinherited and cease to be His sons. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.41.3 p.525

2 Clement (120-140 A.D.) ch.6 vol.7 p.518 “For if we do the will of Christ, we shall find rest; otherwise, nothing shall deliver us from eternal punishment, if we disobey His commandments.”

Polycrates of Ephesus (130-196 A.D.) “…knowing that I wore these grey hairs not in vain, but have always regulated my conduct in obedience to the Lord Jesus.” Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.774

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) we are to love and obey God’s commandments. Stromata book 2 ch.12 p.360

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) speaks of our good obedience. The Instructor ch.4 p.211. He speaks of our obedience in ibid ch.1 p.209.

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) says to obey God. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.196

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) says we are to obey God by the liberty of our will. Exhortation to Chastity ch.2 p.51

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) says we are commanded to love God. Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.13 p.308

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength,” Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.25 p.391

Martyrdom of the Holy Martyrs (before 250 A.D.) (ANF vol.1) ch.1 p.305 “To obey the commands of our Saviour Jesus Christ is worthy neither of blame nor condemnation,”

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) teaches we are to obey God’s precepts. de Principiis book 3 ch.1.15 [Greek] p.316

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Of this same thing in Deuteronomy: ‘The Lord your God proveth you, that He may know if ye love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul.’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 book 3 ch.18 p.539

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 6:4 (Love the Lord your God with…” in Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.46 p.28

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says we are to obey God in a great many places. One place is The Divine Institutes book 6 ch.9 p.172

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) speaks about “obedience to our Lord”. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.67 p.251

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) “Walk aft her LORD your God,… and keep His commandments.” Preparation for the Gospel book 13 ch.13 p.31

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Epistle of Clement to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) ch.17 p.221 (implied, unclear whether Christ or the local church leader) “Do you therefore strive to live in affection towards him, and in kindliness towards one another, and to obey him, in order that both he may be comforted and you may be saved.”

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) says we need to obey God. homily 13 ch.16 p.303

 

n4. Follow Jesus or His example

 

Following God is not included here.

 

John 10:4-5; 1 John 2:6

 

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 10:4-5

p75 (c.175-225 A.D.) Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) John 10:4-5

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. We are to follow in Jesus’ steps in 1 Peter 2:21

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) says that Jesus humbling Himself was an example given to us. 1 Clement ch.16 p.9

Ignatius (-107/116 A.D.) prays that the Ephesians would all seek to be like Jesus.” Ignatius’ Letter to the Ephesians ch.1 p.49

Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians (100-155 A.D.) ch.10 p.35 says to follow the example of the Lord.

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 23.45 p.80 says to follow Jesus.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “Whosoever doth not bear his cross (Stauros), and follow after me, cannot be my disciple;” and again, ‘Taking up the cross, follow me;’” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.3 5 p.320

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) “For truly the first thing is to deny one’s self and to follow Christ; and those who do this are borne onward to perfection, having fulfilled all their Teacher’s will” fragment

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Salvation, accordingly, is the following of Christ: ‘For that which is in Him is life. ‘Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth My words, and believeth on Him that sent Me, hath eternal life, and cometh not into condemnation, but hath passed from death to life.’The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.216

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “If you wish to be the Lord’s disciple, it is necessary you ‘take your cross, and follow the Lord:’ On Idolatry ch.12 p.68

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “‘do justly, and to love mercy, and to be ready to follow the Lord thy God?’” Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.36 p.410

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “Only, if one wishes to be healed, let him follow Jesus.” Commentary On Matthew 14 ch.15 p.505

Origen (235 A.D.) says we are to follow Jesus. Exhortation to Martyrdom book 3 ch.12 p.152. ibid book 5 ch.36 p.179.

Origen (c.250 A.D.) (implied) says we are to be imitators of Paul, as he imitated Christ. Homilies on Psalms Psalm 15 homily 2 ch.5 p.67

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “let those who follow the Lord humbly and peacefully and silently tread in His” Epistles of Cyprian letter 6 ch.4 p.284-285. See also Epistles of Cyprian letter 55 ch.1 p.347

Moyses et al. to Cyprian (250 A.D.) “For to this battle our Lord, as with the trumpet of His Gospel, stimulates us when He says, ‘He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me: and he that loveth his own soul more than me is not worthy of me. And he that taketh not his cross, and followeth after me, is not worthy of me.’” Epistles of Cyprian Letter 25 ch.4 p.303

Caldonius to Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “they now let go their possessions and homes, and, repenting, follow Christ.” Epistles of Cyprian letter 18 ch.1 p.297

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “I have become the torch-bearer of the unapproachable lights, and I join with their company in the new song of the archangels, showing forth the new grace of the Church; for the Word says that the company of virgins always follow the Lord, and have fellowship with Him wherever He is.” Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 6 ch.5 p.331

Athanasius of Alexandria (c.318 A.D.) “For just as for them who walk after His example, the prize is life everlasting, so for those who walk the opposite way, and not that of virtue, there is great shame, and peril without pardon in the day of judgment, because although they knew the way of truth their acts were contrary to their knowledge.Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.47.4 p.30

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Clement Two Epistles on Virginity (3rd century A.D.) ch.7 vol.8 p.57 “Those, therefore, who imitate Christ, imitate Him earnestly. For those who have ‘put on Christ’ in truth, express His likeness in their thoughts, and in their whole life, and in all their behaviour…”

 

n5. Bear/Take up the cross [and follow Christ]

 

Matthew 10:38; 16:24; Mark 8:34; 10:21; Luke 9:23; 14:27

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died c.172 A.D.) section 13 lines 25-26 p.64 quotes Matthew 10:38.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “said to the disciples, “If any man will come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow Me. For whosoever will save his life, shall lose” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.18.4 p.447

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “If, however, He was Himself not to suffer, but should fly away from Jesus, why did He exhort His disciples to take up the cross and follow Him,Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.18.5 p.447

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says of a believer: “He, bearing about the cross of the Saviour, will follow the Lord’s footsteps, as God, having become holy of holies.” Stromata book 2 ch.20 p.370

Tertullian (c.203 A.D.) “[Christ] died according to the scriptures and according to the same scriptures he was buried. … Christ descended into hell, that we might ourselves have to descend thither. … you must take up the cross and bear it after your Master…” A Treatise on the Soul ch.55 p.231

Origen (225-254) “And perhaps this man refers to us, who because of Jesus take up the cross of Jesus, but Jesus Himself takes it upon Himself; for there are, as it were, two” Commentary on Matthew 12 ch.24 p.511

Origen (233/234 A.D.) says to take up the cross. Origen’s Exhortation to Martyrdom ch.12 p.152-153

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “In the Gospel the Lord speaks, and says: ‘He that loveth father or mother more than me, is not worthy of me; and he that loveth son or daughter more than me, is not worthy of me; and he that taketh not his cross and followeth me, is not worthy of me.’” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.6 p.500

Moyses, Maximum, and Nicostratus (250 A.D.) mention you should take up your cross and follow Christ. Letter 25.4 vol.5 p.303.

 

n6. Struggle to live a victorious life

 

1 Corinthians 15:57; 1 John 5:4; Revelation 2:7,11,17,26; 3:5,12,21; 15:2

 

Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) “How beautiful is the spectacle to God when a Christian does battle with pain; when he is drawn up against threats, and punishments, and tortures; when, mocking the noise of death, he treads under foot the horror of the executioner; when he raises up his liberty against kings and princes, and yields to God alone, whose he is; when, triumphant and victorious, he tramples upon the very man who has pronounced sentence against him! For he has conquered who has obtained that for which he contends.” The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.37 p.196

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) But let him go and put himself under the Word as his trainer, and Christ the President of the contest; and for his prescribed food and drink let him have the New Testament of the Lord; and for exercises, the commandments; and for elegance and ornament, the fair dispositions, love, faith, hope, knowledge of the truth, gentleness, meekness, pity, gravity: so that, when by the last trumpet the signal shall be given for the race and departure hence, as from the stadium of life, he may with a good conscience present himself victorious before the Judge who confers the rewards, confessedly worthy of the Fatherland on high, to which he returns with crowns and the acclamations of angels.” Who is the Rich Man that Shall be Saved ch.3 p.592

Tertullian (ca.208 A.D.) “You find in the Revelation its edict, setting forth the rewards by which He incites to victory-those, above all, whose is the distinction of conquering in persecution, in very deed contending in their victorious struggle not against flesh and blood, but against spirits of wickedness.” On Fleeing Persecution ch.1 p.116

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “Could it have come to pass without divine assistance, that Jesus, desiring during these years to spread abroad His words and teaching, should have been so successful, that everywhere throughout the world, not a few persons, Greeks as well as Barbarians, learned as well as ignorant, adopted His doctrine, so that they struggled, even to death in its defence, rather than deny it, which no one is ever related to have done for any other system?Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.26 p.407.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “But they have no power over those who ‘have put on the whole armour of God,’ who have received strength to ‘withstand the wiles of the devil,’ and who are ever engaged in contests with them, knowing that ‘we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.’” Origen Against Celsus book 8 ch.34 p.652.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “are as praiseworthy in maintaining the peace of Christ, as they have been victorious in their combat with the devil.” Treatise 1 ch.22 p.428

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) says that we triumph in Christ. Dialogue on the True Faith ch.20 p.105

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “let us boldly engage with the enemy whom we know, that victorious and triumphant over our conquered adversary, we may obtain from the Lord that reward of valour which He Himself has promised.” The Divine Institutes book 7 at the very end p.223

Lactantius (315-315/330 A.D.) “Therefore God acted with the greatest foresight in placing the subject-matter of virtue in evils which He made for this purpose, that He might establish for us a contest, in which He would crown the victorious with the reward of immortality.” Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.29 p.233

 

n7. Put on the armor of God/righteousness

 

Ephesians 6:11-18

2 Corinthians 6:7 (implied) weapons of righteousness

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Ephesians 6:10-18

 

Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians (100-155 A.D.) ch.4 p.34 says to arm ourselves with the armor of righteousness.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says to put on the armor of the Lord. Stromata book 4 ch.22 p.435

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) mentions the armor of peace. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.11 p.204

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “Again, when in the preceding verse he bids us ‘put on the whole armour of God, that we may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil,’” Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.18 p.469

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (implied) “if thou castest off the armour of the devil, and puttest on the breastplate of faith” Discourse on the Holy Theophany ch.10 p.237

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 6:11-12 in Origen Against Celsus book 8 ch.34 p.652

Origen (233/234 A.D.) (partial) says to put on the armor or justice. Origen’s Exhortation to Martyrdom ch.43 p.186

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) speaks of putting on the armor. Epistles of Cyprian letter 55 ch.8 p.350

Moyses, Maximum, and Nicostratus (248-257 A.D.) mentions putting on the armor in detail. Letter to Cyprian 25 ch.5 p.304.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) refers to Ephesians 6:13,18 that the apostle says to put on the armor of God. Dialogue on the True Faith in God first part p.61-62

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “For it is necessary, as I said, that we should be tried. Let us not then, O my soul, let us not give in to the Evil One; but putting on’ the whole armour of God,’ which is our protection, let us have ‘the breastplate of righteousness, and your feet shod with the preparation of the Gospel (of peace). Above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked.Discourse on the Resurrection part 2 ch.2 p.372

 

Among heretics

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius mentions us having the armor of God. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.19 p.61-62

 

n8. Faithful Christians still get sick

 

Galatians 4:13; Philippians 2:25-27; 1 Timothy 5:23

 

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (177 A.D.) p.780-781 “with difficulty on account of the feebleness of the body, yet he was strengthened by the eagerness of his spirit, on account of his earnest desire to bear his testimony. His body, indeed, was already dissolved through old age and disease, yet the life was preserved in him, that Christ might triumph through him.”

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) “If thy brother should be weak--I speak of the poor man--do not empty-handed visit such an one as he lies ill. Do good under God; pay your obedience by your money.  Thence he shall be restored; or if he should perish, let a poor man be refreshed, who has nothing wherewith to pay you, but the Founder and Author of the world on his behalf. Or if it should displease thee to go to the poor man, always hateful, send money, and something whence he may recover himself. And, similarly, if thy poor sister lies upon a sick-bed, let your matrons begin to bear her victuals. God Himself cries out, Break thy bread to the needy. There is no need to visit with words, but with benefits.” Instructions of Commodianus ch.71 p.216

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) writes to believers who are poor in health. Instructions of Commodianus ch.72 p.217

Origen (233-234 A.D.) mentions Christians getting sick. Origen On Prayer part 1 ch.11.2 p.44

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “and may be assisted by their privilege with God, if they should be seized with any misfortune and peril of sickness, should, without waiting for my presence, before any presbyter who might be present, or if a presbyter should not be found” Letter 12 ch.1 p.293

Pontius (258 A.D.) “Still, if it seem well, let me glance at the rest. Afterwards there broke out a dreadful plague, and excessive destruction of a hateful disease invaded every house in succession of the trembling populace, carrying off day by day with abrupt attack numberless people, every one from his own house. All were shuddering, fleeing, shunning the contagion, impiously exposing their own friends, as if with the exclusion of the person who was sure to die” Life and Passion of Cyprian ch.9 p.270

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) “stick and thrust it through his bowels and heart, and slew him. Why should I mention the multitudes of those who had to wander about in desert places and upon the mountains, and who were cut off by hunger, and thirst, and cold, and sickness, and robbers, and wild beasts? The survivors of such are the witnesses” Part 2 Epistle 3 – To Fabius Bishop of Antioch ch.1.9 p.100

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) twice mentions plague breaking out in a city. Christians helped care for the sick and dying, even as they got sick and died themselves. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History &&&

 

n9. Suffer persecution or martyrdom

 

Mk 8:35; John 16:2; 16:33; Romans 8:36-37; 12:14; 1 Thessalonians 3:2-4; Hebrews 10:32-33; 1 Peter 1:6; 5:9-10; Revelation 9:20-11:3; 11:5-16:15

All who want to live a godly life will be persecuted. 2 Timothy 3:12

(implied) John 12:25

 

p87 Philemon 13-15, 24 (part), 25b (c.125 A.D.) (implied) Paul was in chains for the gospel.

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Romans 8:36-37; 12:14

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) (implied) John 12:25

p75 (c.175-225 A.D.) Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) (implied) John 12:25

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels plus Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Mark 8:35

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) Hebrews 10:32-33

p115 (=Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 4499) 119 verses of Revelation. 2:1-3,13-15,27-29; 3:10-12; 5:8-9; 6:5-6; 8:3-8,11-13; 9:1-5,7-16,18-21; 10:1-4,8-11; 11:1-5,8-15,18-19; 12:1-5,8-10,12-17; 13:1-3,6-16,18; 14:1-3,5-7,10-11,14-15,18-20; 15:1,4-7 (middle to late 3rd century) Revelation 2:13

p47 (= Chester Beatty III) (c.250-300 A.D.) 31% of Revelation. Revelation 9:20-11:3; 11:5-16:15; 16:17-17:2 mentions persecution and says this calls for faithful endurance on the part of the saints. Revelation 12:17; 13:7,10

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. Teaches that we will suffer persecution. 1 Peter 1:6; 5:9-10

 

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) “Peter, through unrighteous envy, endured not one or two, but numerous labours and when he had at length suffered martyrdom, departed to the place of glory due to him.1 Clement ch.5 p.6

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) says Christian should “Labour together with one another; strive in company together; run together; suffer together; sleep together; and awake together, as the stewards, and associates, and servants of God. Please ye Him under who ye fit, and from whom ye receive your wages. Let none of you be found a deserter. Let your baptism endure as your arms.” Ignatius to Polycarp ch.6 p.95

Ignatius (-107/116 A.D.) “I write to the Churches, and impress on them all, that I shall willingly die for God, unless ye hinder me. I beseech of you not to show an unseasonable good-will towards me. Suffer me to become food for the wild beasts, through whose instrumentality it will be granted me to attain to God. I am the wheat of God, and let me be ground by the teeth of the wild beasts, that I may be found the pure bread of Christ. Rather entice the wild beasts, that they may become my tomb, and may leave nothing of my body; so that when I have fallen asleep [in death], I may be no trouble to any one. Then shall I truly be a disciple of Christ, when the world shall not see so much as my body. Entreat Christ for me, that by these instruments” Ignatius’ Letter to the Romans ch.4 p.75

Ignatius (-107/116 A.D.) Ignatius said he was not yet perfect. But as he contemplated his martyrdom he looked forward to being perfect. Letter of Ignatius to the Philadelphians ch.5 p.82

Ignatius (-107/116 A.D.) (partial) Letter of Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans ch.4 p.88 “he who is near to the sword is near to God; he that is among the wild beast is in company with God; provided only he be so in the name of Jesus Christ.” [Does not mention a witness though.] Letter of Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans ch.4 p.88

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) vol.7 ch.5 p.518 “For the Lord saith, ‘Ye shall be as lambs in the midst of wolves.’ And Peter answer and said unto Him, ‘What, the, if the wolves shall tear in pieces the lambs?’ Jesus said unto Peter, ‘The lambs have no cause after they are dead to fear the wolves; and in like manner, fear not yet them that kill you, and can do nothing more unto you; but fear Him who, after you are dead, has power over both soul and body to cast them into hell-fire.”

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.7 p.142 “Those who wish to behold Me [Jesus], and lay hold of My kingdom, must through tribulation and suffering obtain Me.’”

Epistle of Barnabas (c.70-130 A.D.) ch.20 p.149 “are those who persecute the good, those who hate truth, those who love falsehood,”

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) mentions Ignatius, Zosimus, Rufus, and others, Paul, and the rest of the apostles who have suffered for the Lord. Letter to the Philippians ch.9 p.35

Epistle to Diognetus (c.130-200 A.D.) ch.5 p.27 “They [Christians] love all men, and are persecuted by all. They are unknown and condemned; they are put to death, and restored to life.

Shepherd of Hermas (c.115-155 A.D.) Book 3 Similitude ninth ch.28 p.53 mentions the rewards for those who have suffered for the name of Christ.

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) “you can kill, but not hurt us.” First Apology of Justin ch.2 p.163.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “Now it is evident that no one can terrify or subdue us who have believed in Jesus over all the world. For it is plain that, though beheaded, and crucified, and thrown to wild beasts, and chains, and fire, and all other kinds of torture, we do not give up our confession; but the more such things happen, the more do” Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.110 p.254

Apology of Aristides (125 or 138-161 A.D.) ch.15 p.277 (implied) “They [Christians] are ready to sacrifice their lives for the sake of Christ;”

Evarestus (c.169 A.D.) “The proconsul then said to him, ‘I have wild beasts at hand; to these will I cast thee, except thou repent.” But he answered, “Call them then, for we are not accustomed to repent of what is good in order to adopt that which is evil; and it is well for me to be changed from what is evil to what is righteous.’” Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.11 p.41

Evarestus’ Martyrdom of Polycarp (c.169 A.D.) ch.10-12 p.41 shows that Polycarp would rather die than swear by the fortune of Caesar.

Evarestus’ Martyrdom of Polycarp (c.169 A.D.) ch.2 p.39 tells of others who endured torturing and death for Christ.

Tatian’s Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) &&&

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) (implied) says Christians were brought up with the teachings of “Love your enemies; bless them that curse you; pray for them that persecute you;.” A Plea for Christians ch.11 p.134

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (177 A.D.) is an entire work on the persecution and martyrdom of some Christians. ANF vol.8 p.778-784.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) mentions that the pious are now being persecuted. Apology Addressed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus p.758

Hegesippus (170-180 A.D.) tells how James the brother of the Lord was martyred. Concerning the Martyrdom of James, the Brother of the Lord ch.1 p.763

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “mention, but blaspheme; yes, and they persecuted, and do daily persecute, those” Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.30 p.121

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) “Wherefore the Church does in every place, because of that love which she cherishes towards God, send forward, throughout all time, a multitude of martyrs to the Father;” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.33.9 p.508

Polycrates of Ephesus (130-196 A.D.) mentions that Polycarp was a bishop and martyr at Smyrna and Thraseas of Eumenia was both a bishop and martyr, who is also buried at Smyrna. Bishop and martyr Sagaris is buried at Laodicea. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.774

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs (180-202 A.D.) tells of Christians martyred by the Romans. ANF vol.9 p.285

Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas (c.201-205 A.D.) ch.6.1 p.704 martyrdom of Perpetua, Saturninus, and others. Perpetua sang psalms.

Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas (c.201-205 A.D.) (ANF vol.3) ch.2.1 p.701 shows that Perpetua is grieved that her father will not rejoice over her death for Christ.

Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas (c.201/205 A.D.) (ANF vol.3) (Perpetua had just given birth a few days before) “1. The day of their victory shone forth, and they proceeded from the prison
into the amphitheatre, as if to an assembly, joyous and of brilliant countenances; if perchance shrinking, it was with joy, and not with fear. Perpetua followed with placid look, and with step and gait as a matron of Christ, beloved of God; casting down the luster of her eyes from the gaze of all. Moreover, Felicitas, rejoicing that she had safely brought forth, so that she might fight with the wild beasts; from the blood and from the midwife to the gladiator, to wash after childbirth with a second baptism. And when they were brought to the gate, and were constrained to put on the clothing-the men, that of the priests of Saturn, and the women, that of those who were consecrated to Ceres-that noble-minded woman resisted even to the end with constancy. For she said, “We have come thus far of our own accord, for this reason, that our liberty might not be restrained. For this reason we have yielded our minds, that we might not do any such thing as this: we have agreed on this with you.” Injustice acknowledged the justice; the tribune yielded to their being brought as simply as they were. Perpetua sang psalms, already treading under foot the head of the Egyptian; Revocatus, and Saturninus, and Saturus uttered threatenings against the gazing people about this martyrdom. When they came within sight of Hilarianus, by gesture and nod, they began to say to Hilarianus, “Thou judgest us,” say they, “but God will judge thee.” At this the people, exasperated, demanded that they should be tormented with scourges as they passed along the rank of the venatores. And they indeed rejoiced that they should have incurred any one of their Lord’s passions.
2. But He who had said, “Ask, and ye shall receive,” gave to them when they asked, that death which each one had wished for. For when at any time they had been discoursing among themselves about their wish in respect of their martyrdom, Saturninus indeed had professed that he wished that he might be thrown to all the beasts; doubtless that he might wear a more
glorious crown. Therefore in the beginning of the exhibition he and Revocatus made trial of the leopard, and moreover upon the scaffold they were harassed by the bear. Saturus, however, held nothing in greater abomination than a bear; but he imagined that he would be put an end to with one bite of a leopard. Therefore, when a wild boar was supplied, it was the huntsman rather who had supplied that boar who was gored by that same beast, and died the day after the shows. Saturus only was drawn out; and when he had been bound on the floor near to a bear, the bear would not come forth from his den. And so Saturus for the second time is recalled unhurt.”

Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) “How beautiful is the spectacle to God when a Christian does battle with pain; when he is drawn up against threats, and punishments, and tortures; when, mocking the noise of death, he treads under foot the horror of the executioner; when he raises up his liberty against kings and princes, and yields to God alone, whose he is; when, triumphant and victorious, he tramples upon the very man who has pronounced sentence against him! For he has conquered who has obtained that for which he contends. What soldier would not provoke peril with greater boldness under the eyes of his general? For no one receives a reward before his trial, and yet the general does not give what he has not: he cannot preserve life, but he can make the warfare glorious. But God’s soldier is neither forsaken in suffering, nor is brought to an end by death. Thus the Christian may seem to be miserable; he cannot be really found to be so. You yourselves extol unfortunate men to the skies; Mucius Scaevola, for instance, who, when he had failed in his attempt against the king, would have perished among the enemies unless he had sacrificed his right hand. And how many of our people have borne that not their right hand only, but their whole body, should be burned-burned up without any cries of pain, especially when they had it in their power to be sent away! Do I compare men with Mucius or Aquilius, or with Regulus? Yet boys and young women among us treat with contempt crosses and tortures, wild beasts, and all the bugbears of punishments, with the inspired patience of suffering. And do you not perceive, O wretched men, that there is nobody who either is willing without reason to undergo punishment, or is able without God to bear tortures?” The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.37 p.196

Apollonius of Ephesus (c.210 A.D.) &&&

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) mentions confessing to God and martyrs in Stromata book 4 ch.4 p.412.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) “Accordingly they persecute us, not from the supposition that we are wrong-doers, but imagining that by the very fact of our being Christians we sin against life in so conducting ourselves, and exhorting others to adopt the like life.” Stromata book 4 ch.11 p.423

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) tells of a Roman soldier who imprisoned and killed by the Romans because he was a Christian. The Chaplet ch.1 p.93

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) “But all the predictions have been fulfilled concerning martyrdoms which were to happen, and were to receive the recompenses of their reward from God. ‘See,’ says Isaiah, ‘how the righteous perisheth, and no man layeth it to heart; and just men are taken away, and no man considereth.’ When does this more frequently happen than in the persecution of His saints?Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.21 p.381-382

Asterius Urbanus (c.232 A.D.) speaks of believers being persecuted by the Jews and put to death by the wicked. The Exordium book 2 p.336.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) It is better to die by the hand of wicked man that to die and fall into the hands of God. Commentary on Susannah ch.23 p.193

Commodianus (c.240) “Since, O Son, thou desirest martyrdom, hear.” Instructions of Commodianus ch.62 p.215. See also ibid ch.58 p.214.

Theodotus the probable Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) “For no one becomes a martyr unless he is persecuted; nor appears righteous, unless being wronged, he takes no revenge;…” Excerpts of Theodotus ch.63 p.50

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) “experience that they are defeated and overpowered by the martyrs for the truth,” Origen Against Celsus book 8 ch.44 p.655

Origen (235 A.D.) (implied) has an entire book Exhortation to Martyrdom. Especially see ibid book 3 ch.15 p.156 about martyrs.

Origen (233/234 A.D.) says to take up the cross. Origen On Prayer ch.29.4 p.115

Origen (233/234 A.D.) says we will have many tribulations. Origen On Prayer ch.29.3 p.114-115

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) says the Lord exhorts us to martyrdom. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.25 p.636

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) mentions the dungeons and chains and being trod underfoot for Christ. Novatian Concerning the Trinity ch.29 p.640

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) mentions how some were wounded in the Decian persecution yet afterwards, in a second encounter, persevered bravely, and did not fear to give up their life and to shed their blood. ch.6 p.659

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.11 p.673 “And this is not contrary to the former discussion, because there is left therein time for the correction of many things which are bad, and because certain things are conceded to the very name only of our Lord; while martyrdom cannot be consummated except in the Lord and by the Lord Himself, and therefore nobody can confess Christ without His name, nor can the name of Christ avail any one for confession without Christ Himself.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “And although we have not yet shed our blood, we are prepared to shed it.” Epistles of Cyprian Epistle 25 p.304

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “In persecutions, earth is shut up, but heaven is opened; Antichrist is threatening, but Christ is protecting; death is brought in, but immortality follows; the world is taken away from him that is slain, but paradise is set forth to him restored; the life of time is extinguished, but the life of eternity is realized. What a dignity it is, and what a security, to go gladly from hence, to depart gloriously in the midst of afflictions and tribulations; in a moment to close the eyes with which men and the world are looked upon, and at once to open them to look upon God and Christ!” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.13 p.507

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) “Thus, at the very beginning of the world, the righteous Abel was the first to be slain by his brother; and Jacob was driven into exile, and Joseph was sold, and king Saul persecuted the merciful David; and king Ahab endeavoured to oppress Elias, who firmly and bravely asserted the majesty of God.” Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.11 p.503

Roman Church Leaders &&&

Firmilian to Cyprian of Carthage (250-251 A.D.) “About two-and-twenty years ago, in the times after the Emperor Alexander, there happened in these parts many struggles and difficulties, either in general to all men, or privately to Christians. … So that from this also a severe persecution arose against us of the Christian name; and this after the long peace of the previous age arose suddenly, and with its unusual evils was made more terrible for the disturbance of our people. Serenianus was then governor in our province, a bitter and terrible persecutor. … that persecution was not over the whole world, but was local – Epistles of Cyprian Letter 74 ch.10 p.392-393

Celerinus (c.246-258 A.D.) in his letter to Lucian mentions being tortured for Christ in Letter 20 cp.298

Moyses et al. to Cyprian (250 A.D.) speaks of martyrdom in chapters 2,3,4,5.Epistles of Cyprian Epistle 25 p.303-304

Lucian of Antioch (c.246-258 A.D.) in his letter to Celerinus briefly mentions the Christian martyrs. Epistles of Cyprian Epistle 21 ch.2 p.299

Nemesianus et al to Cyprian of Carthage (246-256 A.D.) discusses martyrdom and suffering for Christ. Epistles of Cyprian Epistle 77 ch.2,3 p.405

Lucius and the brethren to Cyprian of Carthage (246-256 A.D.) says “being certain of heavenly rewards, and of the crown of martyrdom … being filled with the Holy Spirit” Epistles of Cyprian Epistle 78 p.406

Felix &&&

Pontius (258 A.D.) gives a eulogy to the martyr Cyprian. The Life and Passion of Cyprian ch.1 p.267

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) in Part 2 letter 10.8 p.106 speaks of the threatenings, perils, and persecutions, and the persecution of Decius and Sabinus. He also mentions being a soldier and martyr for Christ in Letter 3 ch.5 p.99

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) mentions that many Christians who fled persecution to Arabia and were carried off by Saracens. Some were ransomed and other not. Letter2 ch.11 p.100

Pierius (275 A.D.) “There was read a book by Pierius the presbyter, who, they say, endured the conflict for Christ, along with his brother Isidorus.” Fragment 2 p.157

Theonas of Alexandria (282-300 A.D.) “the storms of persecution, and its truth and grandeur have only become always the more and more illustrious, so that now, peace being granted to the churches by our gracious prince, the works of Christians are shining even in sight of the unbelieving, and God your Father, who is in heaven, is glorified thereby;” Letter to Lucianus, the Chief Chamberlain ch.1 p.158

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) “quotes Romans 8:36 as by Paul. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.21 p.64.

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) (martyrdom)

Phileas of Thmuis (martyred 306/307 A.D.) goes into detail about Christians who were tortured and killed for their faith in Christ Letter of Phileas to the People of Thmuis ch.3 p.163

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-310/311 A.D.) “Thus first Stephen, pressing on His footsteps, suffered martyrdom, being apprehended in Jerusalem by the transgressors, and being brought before the council, he was stoned, and glorified for the name of Christ, praying with the words, ‘Lord, lay not this sin to their charge.’ Thus James, in the second place, being of Herod apprehended, was beheaded with the sword.Canonical Epistle Canon 9 p.273

Hesychius of Egypt, Pachomius, Phileas, Theodorus (martyred 311 A.D.) discusses their imprisonment for the faith. ch.1

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “Would it not, then, be absurd to forbid marriage unions, seeing that we expect that after us there will be martyrs, and those who shall oppose the evil one, for whose sake also the Word promised that He would shorten those days?Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 2 ch.2 p.314

Martyrdom of Habib the Deacon (events c.315 A.D.) p.690 “and [Habib] ministered and read the Scriptures, and encouraged and strengthened many by his words, and admonished them to stand fast in the truth of their belief, and not to be afraid of the persecutors; and gave them directions.

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) “when the youths and young maidens that are in Christ despise this life and practise to die?” Incarnation of the Word ch.28.1 p.51

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) mentions martyrs for the deity of Christ. Incarnation of the Word ch.56.2 p.66

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) “Next day an edict was published, depriving the Christians of all honours and dignities; ordaining also that, without any distinction of rank or degree, they should be subjected to tortures, and that every suit at law should be received against them; while, on the other hand, they were debarred from being plaintiffs in questions of wrong, adultery, or theft; and, finally, that they should neither be capable of freedom, nor have right of suffrage.” Manner in Which the Persecutors Died ch.13 p.305-306

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) speaks about persecution of Christians. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.53 p.243-244

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) speaks of martyrdom of Christians. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.66 p.250

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-325 A.D.) is one place that speaks of martyrdom of Christians Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1.1 p.81


Among corrupt or spurious works

Acts of Paul and Thecla (before 207 A.D.) p.490 (implied) showed Paul being beaten and the governor trying to burn Thecla and throwing her to the wild beasts.

 

Among heretics

The First Form of the Gospel of Thomas (shorter Greek version) (188-235 A.D.) ch.68 p.134 Jesus told the disciples they would be persecuted.

The Ebionite Protoevangelium of James (145-248 A.D.) ch.23 p.366 Zecharias [Zechariah] father of John the Baptists, says, “I am god’s martyr”.

The Ebionite Epistle of Clement to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) ch.14 p.221 mentions suffering persecution

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) shows that Christians are persecuted. homily 12 ch.29 p.298

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius mentions that the world persecutes us because we are alien to the world. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.8e p.46. He also says we are to pray for those who persecute us in ch.21 p.63

 

n10. No sorcery, witchcraft, or magic

 

Leviticus 19:26,31;20:6-8;27; Deuteronomy 18:9-14; Jeremiah 27:9; Ezekiel 13:18; Micah 5:12; Revelation 9:21

(implied) Acts 19:19

 

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) says that when the star of Christ shone in the heaven, every kind of magic was destroyed and every bond of wickedness disappeared. Letter of Ignatius to the Ephesians ch.19 p.57

Didache vol.7 ch.2.1-4 p.377 (before 125 A.D.) Do not commit murder, adultery, corrupt boys, magic, witchcraft, “murder a child by abortion, nor kill that which is begotten”, covet, bear false witness.

Didache (=Teaching of the Twelve Apostles) vol.7 ch.5 p.379 (before 125 A.D.) The way of death is cursings, murder, adulteries, fornication, lusts, magic arts, idolatries, witchcraft, filthy talking, jealousies,

Apology of Aristides (125 or 138-161 A.D.) p.275 mentions unrighteous things the gods did, such as slaying one another, practicing sorceries, adultery, thefts, and intercourse with males.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) teaches against sorcery in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.11.4 p.502. He is against witchcraft and refers to Galatians 5:19 in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.11.1 p.537

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) teaches against divining, fortune-tellers, incantations, and soothsayers. The Instructor book 3 ch.4 p.278

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) mentions astrology as wrong along with assassins, poisoners, pimps, and sorcerers Apology ch.43 p.49

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) speaks against sorcery. Tertullian on Modesty ch.19 p.95

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) speaks against astrology. Refutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.28-42 p.30-40

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) quotes scripture against adulteries, fornications, idolatries, sorceries, murders, hatreds, strifes, heresies, drunkenness in Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 book 3 ch.64 p.551. Ch.65 p.551 also mentions thieves, cheaters, robbers.

Council of Elvira (306/307 A.D.) (implied) says to excommunicate people who murder by using sorcery or magic. Canon 6

Council of Ancyra (314 A.D.) says those who practiced divination or sorceries, and repent shall be prostrators for three years, plus two years of prayer without oblation. canon 24 p.74.

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) Against magic. Incarnation of the Word ch.11.6 p.42

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.) speaks against witchcraft and magic. Incarnation of the Word ch.48.3 p.62

Lactantius (c.33-320/325 A.D.) “But our religion is on this account firm, and solid, and unchangeable, because it teaches justice, because it is always with us, because it has its existence altogether in the soul of the worshipper, because it has the mind itself for a sacrifice. In that religion nothing else is required but the blood of animals, and the smoke of incense, and the senseless pouring out of libations; but in this of ours, a good mind, a pure breast, an innocent life: those rites are frequented by unchaste adulteresses without any discrimination, by impudent procuresses, by filthy harlots; they are frequented by gladiators, robbers, thieves, and sorcerers, who pray for nothing else but that they may commit crimes with impunity.The Divine Institutes book 5 ch.20 p.157

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Akhmin Apocalypse of Peter (Greek) (135,100-150 A.D.) says that after death sorcerers are hung on a fiery wheel.

Leucius Charinus (second century) “Thou that rejoicest in gold and delightest thyself with ivory and jewels, when night falleth, canst thou behold what thou lovest? thou that art vanquished by soft raiment, and then leavest life, will those things profit thee in the place whither thou goest? And let the murderer know that the condign punishment is laid up for him twofold after his departure hence. Likewise also thou poisoner, sorcerer, robber, defrauder, sodomite, thief, and as many as are of that band, ye shall come at last, as your works do lead you, unto unquenchable fire, and utter darkness, and the pit of punishment, and eternal threatenings.” Acts of John ch.36

 

n11. Exorcism or casting out devils

 

Luke 8:28-33; Acts 16:18

 

Matthew 9:33; 11:18; 17:14-20; 4:24; 8:16,28,33; 9:32; 12:22; 7:22; 8:31; 9:34; 10:8; 12:24,27,28; Mark 1:32,34,39; 3:15,22; 5:12,16,18; 6:13; 7:26,29,30; 9:38; 16:9,17; Luke 4:33,35,41; 7:33; 8:2,27,29-30,32,33,35-36,38; 9:1,42,49; 10:17; 11:14-15,18,19,20; 13:32; John 8:48-49,52; 10:21; 7:20; 10:20;

 

p4 + p64 + p67 Luke 1:58-59; 1:62-2:1,6-7; 3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35; 5:3-8; 5:30-6:16; Matthew 26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-33; Matthew 3:9,15; 5:20-22,25-28 -95 verses (c.150-175 A.D.) Mentions Jesus driving out a demon. Luke 4:34-35

0189 (late second or early third century) Act 5:3-21 (19 verses) Acts 5:16

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels p