Luther’s 95 Theses Until Second Great Awakening Teaching on Adam to Isaac Individuals Grid – Jan. 2024

 

 

Legend for Cells

Ai1. Adam Gen2:7-4:1,25;1 Chr1:1; Hos6:7; Lk3:38; Rom5:14

Ai11. Shem son of Noah Gen 6:10; 7:13; 9:18; 1 Chr 1:4

W = Wrote explicitly on this teaching

Ai2. Eve Gen 2:7-4:1,25; 2 Cor 11:3; 1 Tim 2:13

Ai12. Japheth son of Noah Gen 6:10; 7:13; 9:18; 1 Chr 1:4

I = Implied this is true or opposite is false

Ai3. Abel Gen 4:2,4,9,25; Mt 23:35; Lk 11:51; Heb 11:4; 12:24

Ai13. Canaan son of Ham Gen 9:18,22,25; 1 Chr 1:8

N = Implied since accepted Nicene Creed

Ai4. Cain murdered his brother/Abel Gen 4:1-16

Ai14. Nimrod/Nimrud Gen 10:8-14; 1 Chr 1:10

M = Mixed: some agree, others would not

Ai5. Seth [son of Adam & Eve] Gen4:25;5:3-6; Lk 3:38

Ai15. Abraham [friend of God] 2 Chr 20:7;Rom 4:13;Jms 2:23

P = partial ex: Irenaeus: Gnostics wrong to say Savior not killed since impassible

Ai6. Enoch Gen 5:18-21; 1 Chr 1:3; Lk 3:37; Heb 11:5; Jude 14

Ai16. Lot or his wife Gen 14:12; 19:1-29; Lk 17:28-29; 2 Pet 2:7

Ai7. Methuselah Gen 5:22,25-27; 1 Chr 1:2; Lk 3:37

Ai17. Sarai / Sarah Gen11:29-31;16:1-6; 8:6-15; Heb 11:11

- = no reference found (so far)

Ai8. Lamech Gen 5:26-28; 1 Chr 1:3; Lk 3:36

Ai18. Hagar Gen 16:1-16; 21:9,14,17; 25:12; Gal 4:24-25

X = Disagree

Ai9. Noah got drunk Gen 9:20-23

Ai19. Ishmael Gen 16:11,15; 17:18,20,23,26

blank = not researched yet

Ai10. Ham son of Noah Gen 6:10; 7:13; 9:18; 1 Chr 1:4

Ai20. Isaac Gen 24:62-66; Rom 9:6; Gal 4:28; Heb 11:9

Writer totals include W’s & I’s but not P’s

Rows: blue=Bible manuscript, white=Christian writer, khaki=spurious, green=heresy, orange=schism, pink=strange writer, yellow=foreign missions, red=Christians persecuted, purple=Roman Catholics persecuting, brown=Christians persecuting

Christian writer, heretic, or Bible manuscript

Pages

Date A.D.

1

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15

16

17

18

19

20

Martin Luther nails 95 Theses to Wittenberg church door

 

Oct 31, 1517

Since the Pope has more gold that Croesus, why doesn’t he just pay for indulgences for all Christians?

Magnus Hundt 

c.1487-1519

Man in the image of God. A founder of anthropology.

Complutensian Polyglot by Bishop Ximenes of Spain

1517/1520

Hebrew, Targum Onkelos, Latin, and Greek

Catholic Evangelismus movement in Italy

1520

Supported by many cardinals and Michelangelo

German Diet of Worms calls Luther a heretic

1521

Jan 28-May 21, 1521. Luther apologized for a harsh tone, but recanted nothing.

Thomas Muntzer and violent Munster Anabaptists

1525

Said end times were here. Killed Protestants & Catholics until Catholics killed them all.

30K Anabaptists martyred in Holland, Belgium & Lux.

1525

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.240

Jakob Hutter and the Hutterites

 

1526

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Michael Sattler. Pacifist Anabaptist 

1490-1527

Austrians executed him for being an Anabaptist. Unfortunately, he believed in soul-sleep

Sylvester Mazzolini, first theologian to publicly attack Martin Luther

 

1515-1527

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, Swiss Anabaptist

 

1521-1527-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Swiss Anabaptist Schleitheam Confession

 

1527

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sweden becomes mainly Lutheran

1527

 

German Hans Nut claims to be a prophet

1527

Said Christ would return in 1528 and immediately reign for 1,000 years.

Balthasar Hubmaier (Anabaptist)

 

1480-1528

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Patrick Hamilton, Reformed Scottish martyr

1518-1528

Studied in Geneva and with Lutherans. Freely saved through faith in Jesus only, not by works. But a good man does good works. Did not believe in free will.

Ten Conclusions of Berne (Zwinglian)

 

1528

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marburg Colloquey, sponsored by Philip of Hesse

10/1-3 1529

Philip of Hesse has Luther and Zwingli meet. Luther divides over consubstantiation.

Portuguese priests first missionaries to Vietnam

1530

Priests on Portuguese merchant ships per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.129

Tetrapolitan Confession (German Reformed) by Capito and Bucer

 

1530

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lutheran Augsburg Confession by Melanchthon

 

1530

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ulrich Zwingli, Swiss Reformer, & Zwinglians (67 Articles or Conclusions of Ulrich Zwingli)

 

1454-1531

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Johannes Oecolampadius, Zwinglian 

1519-1531

High view of venerating Mary, but said Catholics went too far. The rosary had 150 praises to Mary and only 10 to God. Held Mary always a virgin. (Friendly) debates with Erasmus, Zwingli, Luther, and Bucer.

Simon Fish Supplication for Beggars 

1530-1531

Condemned as a heretic for being against the church amassing wealth while the poor suffered. Against purgatory & indulgences. Spread Tyndale’s Bible.

English kings persecute the Lollards

1413-1532

Not too many executed

James Bainham, English Reformer & lawyer 

1532

Promoted Tyndale. Against Thomas Becket. Burned by Roman Catholics

Synod of Zwinglians and Waldensians

10/12/1532

Waldenses join with Reformed church after a 6-day conference in Chamforan, Switz.

Luther’s German translation from Erasmus’ text

1534

NT completed back in 1522

Church of England (Anglican Church)

 

1534

Henry VIII split from Rome when they would not let him annul his marriage. Acts of Supremacy: The King/Queen of England is the head of the Church of England.

Spanish Basque Ignatius Loyola founds the Jesuits (Soc. of Jesus)

1534-1556-

Prominent in the Catholic Counter-Reformation against Protestantism

English Catholic Thomas More, a man for all seasons. Advisor to Henry VII, later executed. 

1504-1535

Executed for opposing Henry’s annulments and leaving the Catholic church. Sometimes self-flagellated. Educated his daughters just as well as his sons.

Melchior Hoffman, his 12 apostles, Johann Matthijs,  Jan Bockelson, and the Munster Anabaptists

2/1534- 6/1535

Violently took over Munster until Roman Catholics killed all the city. Hoffman said the millennium would begin in 1533. Strasburg would be the New Jerusalem.

Miles Coverdale, English Bible translation

1535

While others were earlier, this was the first English Bible that used the printing press.

Jacob Faber (Stapulensis). Calvinistic Roman Catholic

1492-1536

Translated the Bible into French. The Roman Catholic church burned all copies.

Cardinal Thomas Cajetan, opponent of Luther

 

1494-1536

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (Catholic Bible scholar). Wrote 1,500 letters

 

1469-1536

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

W

 

 

 

William Tyndale. Bible translator. Believed in soul sleep

 

1515- Oct 6, 1536

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spanish king orders Cortes to convert all Indians

1523-1536

6 million Indians baptized in Mexico alone. World Christian Trends 30 AD-2200 AD p.129

First Helvetic Confession

 

1536

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andreas Althamer, Lutheran theologian

1528-1539

Wrote a Lutheran catechism before Luther did. At the Bern Disputation in 1528

“Great Bible” translation

1539

 

Angela Merici found the Ursulines 

1535-1540

Education for girls. Officially called the Companions of St. Ursula

Denmark, Norway, and Sweden officially Lutheran

1536-1540

Lutheranism made the state religion, per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.130

Russian Orthodox Gowry brings gospel to Tartars

1540

Evangelizes Tartars in Russia, per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.130

Luther and Calvin: no more Great Commission

1540

They said it was only for first century, per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.130

Wolfgang Capito German Protestant, 

1524-1541

With Martin Bucer wrote the Tetrapolitan Creed

Andreas Karlstadt, German reformer

1480-1541

Both foe and friend of Luther at various times. Denied consubstantiation, then recanted

Diet of Regensberg (=Colloquy of Ratisbon)

1541

Tried to recover unity between Catholics and Protestants but both Luther and the HRE Emperor rejected what they had agreed upon.

Roman Catholic Gaspar Cortarini 

1483-1542

Wrote On the Office of the Bishop

Albert Pighius. Debated Calvin in predestination 

1522-1542

Roman Catholic theologian, mathematician, and astronomer

Muslim Ahmad Gran persecutes Ethiopians

1527-1542

Destroyed Amharic churches and monasteries for 15 years in Ethiopia

Sebastian Franck 

1531-1542

Against the Trinity. Forced by Bucer, Melanchthon and Philip of Hesse to move out.

Nicholaus Copernicus Catholic astronomer.  70 years later Pope Paul V against this and Galileo.

1473-1543

Protestants Luther, John Owen, and Wilhelm Gnapheus thought earth going around the sun unbiblical. Melanchthon taught government should use force to suppress this.

Johann Eck Roman Catholic counter-reformist

 

1506-1543

Mentor of Hubmaier, against Osiander defending the Jews, “a blasphemous race”. Advocated force against Luther and Lutherans

Crusade against the Waldenses

1487-1545-

Pope Innocent VIII orders a crusade to exterminate the Waldenses

George Spalatin. Luther’s counselor & translator

 

1502-1545

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther, or conservative Lutherans

 

1483-1546

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

Frederich Myconius, pastor and Luther’s helper

c.1520-1546

About to die in 1540, Luther wrote commanding him to live, and he lived 6 more years

Peter Faber

1534-1546

Co-founder of the Jesuits. Though reforming the corrupt Catholic priests was the way to counter the Protestant Reformation

Luther preaches to kill Jews & Anabaptists

1537-1546

Luther changed his view on killing Anabaptists in his last sermon.

French Henri II executes 1,000’s of Protestants

1546

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.130

Beatus Bild (Rhenanus), Erasmus’ friend and biographer

1528-1547

Attempted to reconcile Calvin, Luther, and Zwingli

Johannes Honter, Saxon-Transylvanian mapmaker

1533-1549

Founded the Romanian Lutheran church

Anti-Trinitarians Council of Venice

1550

 

Libertine Spiritualists. Marguerite de Navarre, Quintin de Hainaut and Anthony Pocquet

1548-

Three ages: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Those in the H.S. age don’t need to concern themselves with the other aspects. Calvin wrote against them.

Martin Bucer. Mediator for Luther & Zwingli 

1523-1551

Influenced Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anglicanism. Thought Catholics would all be persuaded to become Protestants.

Council of the 100 Chapters (Stoglav) Moscow (Orthodox, icons)

 

1551

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inquisition in Toledo, Spain

1551

Banned the Bible in Spanish. The ban was rescinded in 1790.

Andreas Osiander (Roman Catholic) wrote a harmony of the gospels 

1522-1552

Justification by faith “instilled” rather than “ascribed as Luther and Calvin said. Refuted scandalous attacks against Jewish people.

Francis Xavier

1534-1552

Jesuit missionary to India, Indonesia, and Japan. Died on his way to China.

Michael Servetus against the Trinity. Son created at conception. Unitarians, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and Oneness Pentecostals have all claimed him as like them. Believe in soul sleep.

 

1531-1553

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Johann Mathesius, Lutheran

1540-1555

Published Table Talk of Luther’s teachings at meals.

Nicholas Ridley

1529-1555

Pope not supreme in England. No free will or transubstantiation. Queen Mary killed him.

Richard Woodman plus 9 others

June 1557

Protestants burned at the stake by the Catholic Church in Lewes, Sussex, England

Caspar Hedio. Protestant reformer and world historian

1519-1556

Present at the Marburg Colloquy and Diet of Worms. Friend of Bucer & Melanchthon

Thomas Cranmer [Anglican] archbishop of Canterbury

 

1527-1556

Worked for Henry VIII’s annulment of marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Said the king is supreme over the church in his realm. Martyred by Catholic Mary Queen of Scots.

Pilgram Marpeck

1528-1556

Moderate south German Anabaptist. Against both legalism, spiritualism and religious violence. Debate Bucer and Schwenkfield.

David Joris. Dutch Anabaptist leader.

1524-1556

200 works. No vengeance, but polygamy OK. Simons thought him too compromising.

Michael Agricola. Lutheran Finnish Bible translator.

1537-1556

A founder of Finnish literature, worked to spread Lutheranism in Sweden/Finland.

Geneva Bible translation

1557

 

Confession of Czengar

 

1557

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inquisition exterminates Protestants in Spain

1558

Protestants burned at the stake, per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.131

The Gallican Confession (de La Rochelle (Huguenot) (Reformed)

 

1559

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Scotch Confession of Faith

7.4

8/17/1560

W

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

W

W

Menno Simons, peaceful German Anabaptist, Mennonites

 

1536-1561-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

Caspar Schwenckfeld von Ossig and the Schwenckenfelder group 

1525-1561-

Communion bread and wine a metaphor. Luther expelled him, Zwingli liked him. Like Menno Simons, he had a strange view of the “heavenly flesh” of Christ.

Belgic Confession (Reformed)

 

1561

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peter Vermigli, Italian Catholic turned Calvinist

1537-1562

Expert debater on the Eucharist. Believed in double predestination.

Lelio Sozzini (Socinus) (forbearer of Unitarian heretics)

1554-1562

Anti-Trinitarian who denied the pre-existence of Christ

Fausto Sozzini (Socinus) (forbearer of Unitarian heretics)

1554-1562

Same Anti-Trinitarian view as his uncle Lelio Sozzini

3K Protestants killed in Toulouse, France

1562

 

39 Articles of the Church of England

 

1562

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sebastian Castellio

1540-1563

French preacher and theologian. Became a Calvinist after seeing Calvinist martyrs in the French Inquisition

Roman Catholic Council of Trent

 

1545-1563

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Heidelberg Catechism

 

1563

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Calvin, a founder of Reformed theology

 

1536-1564

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

Bartolome de Lascasas, Spanish Dominican missionary

1512-1566

Wrote History of the Indies. Said needed to end slavery and stop oppressing natives.

Jacob Acontius

1557-1566

Engineer with 2 patents. ex-Catholic, Reformed, then Unitarian theologian

Unitarian churches in Romania, Hungary, and Poland

1566

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.131

Second Helvetic Confession

 

1566

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dirk Philips Dutch Mennonite theologian

 

1534-1568

7 church ordinances: Pure doctrine, sacraments, footwashing, shunning, love, obedience, suffering/persecution. Believed in soul sleep.

Bishops’ Bible translation

1568

 

John of Avila (6 volumes of writing)

 

1499-1569

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peru Inquisition tortures 120K heretics

1569

Also burned to death 189 dissenters, per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.131

Dirk Willems martyred in Spanish-controlled Netherlands

1569

Dirk Willems escaped from prison, the guard chasing him fell through the ice, and after rescuing the guard, the burgomaster still insisted Dirk be burned to death.

Johannes Brenz/Brentius & Ubiquitarians

1559-1570

Lutherans who said Christ’s presence is everywhere, not just in the bread & wine.

Consensus of Sendomir, (Reformed in Poland)

 

1570

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anglican Churches

 

1571-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

Aug 23, 1572

French Catholics treacherously kill 5K-30K French Huguenots at Spain’s insistence

Juan Focher. French Franciscan missionary to Mexico

1540-1572

One of the first writers on missiology and civil law.

John Knox (Scotch Calvinist)

 

1547-1572

Fiery Calvinist preacher who brought the Reformation to Scotland

Petrus Ramus

1561-1572

Converted Huguenot philosopher who systemized all knowledge. He was against Aristotle, which put him at odds with Jesuits, Theodore Beza, and Richard Hooker. martyred on St. Bartholemew’s Day Massacre. Jacob Arminius was a Ramist.

Maturinus Corderius (Catholic who taught Calvin and converted to Calvinism)

 

1540-1574

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lutheran Joachim Westphalus debated Calvin on the Lord’s Supper

 

1543-1574

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heinrich Bullinger, reformed leader

 

1523-1575

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Luis Bolanos, missionary to Paraguay & Argentina

1529-1575

Converts 20K Tucaman Indians, per to World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.129

German pietist missionaries in Tranquebar, India

1575

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.131

Laurentius Surius (Carthusian monk historian)

 

1542-1578

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

David Ferenc, Transylvanian Unitarian

1565-1579

Catholic, then Lutheran (1541), then Calvinist (1559), then Unitarian (1565)

Maronite Council of Qannoubine 

1580

Settled on Latin usage for the Maronite church

Second Scotch Confession of Faith

1.4

1580

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theresa of Avila, Carmelite nun, mystic. John of the Cross ministered under her.

 

1550-1582

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100K Philippine Christians, or 16% of the population

1583

1594 286K-46%. 1629 500K-74%. per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.131

Charles Borromeo of Milan. Persecuted Protestants in the counter-Reformation

 

1538-1584

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lutheran Formula of Concord

 

1576 & 1584

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Chemnitz, Lutheran writer, a “second Martin”

1554-1586

Wrote 4 vol. An Examination of the Council of Trent, an author of Formula of Concord.

John Foxe

 

1552-1587

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Third Rome doctrine of the Russian Orthodox Church

1589

Claimed that Moscow was the “third Rome” since Rome and Constantinople had fallen

Girolamo Zanchi Romanian reformer

1551-1590

A Calvinist theologian and a Thomist in philosophy and methodology.

Jesuit scholar Rebeira

 

1537-1591

Taught Revelation all in the future, and first to teach that the Millennium was in heaven, not on earth.

John of the Cross. Spanish Carmelite, later beaten by other Carmelites for disobeying them, later made a saint

 

1567-1591

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Second Council of Lima, Peru. Indians cannot be clergy

1591

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.131

Lutheran Saxon Visitation Articles (against crypto-Calvinism)

 

1592

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Estimated 125 or 100 million Christians (18%)

by 1600

per Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.126 or World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.97

Richard Hooker. Influential Anglican theologian, believed Scripture alone, justification by faith,  but against Popish rules and Puritan predestination.

 

1577-1600

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jesus Luis de Molina (Molinists teach prevenient grace)

 

1588-1600

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portuguese missionaries convert 300K in Japan

by 1600

1571: 30K, 1582:150K, 200 churches, per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.130

Unitarian heretics (later because Unitarian Universalists)

1600-

Denied the deity of Christ and the virgin birth

William Perkins of Cambridge. A Founder of the Puritans

 

1558-1602

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bible first translated into Gaelic

1602

 

Pierre Charron, Roman Catholic theologian

1588-1603

Wrote on proof of God, the Catholic Church being the true church. The soul is in the ventricles of the brain. Piety, prayers, presents, vows, and suffering appease God.

Tim Cartright. Strict Calvinist

 

1572-1603

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jacobus Arminius

 

1588-1605

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heretical Socinian Catechism of Rakow

1605

 

John Smyth organizes Baptist church in Amsterdam

1609

 

Matteo Ricci, Italian Jesuit missionary to China

1577-1610

Created a world map in Chinese. Believed Confucians and Christians had the same God.

Rheims-Douai Bible translation (Roman Catholic)

1582-1610

 

King James Version of the Bible

1611

 

Thomas Helwys and General Baptists in England

1612

 

Roman Catholic Willem Hessels van Est (Estius).

1572-1613

Wrote the [19 R.C.] Martyrs of Gorcum. Commentary on Paul and Catholic epistles.

Jesuit Luis del Alcazar first to each Preterism. All but the last 3 chapters were fulfilled soon after John

 

1614

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emperor Ieyasu prohibits Christianity in Japan

1614

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.241

Spanish Jesuit Francisco Suarez

1570-1617

Considered the greatest Medieval Catholic theologian after Thomas Aquinas. Influenced Hugo Grotius.

Dutch Reformed Synod of Dort

 

1618

Developed the five points of Calvinism (TULIP) against the five points of Arminius

Bohemia forced to become Roman Catholic again

1620

30K Protestants expelled, many others killed

Cardinal Robert Bellarmine. Against Galileo. Later made a saint and doctor of the church.

 

1567-1621

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francis de Sales, Catholic bishop of Geneva

1592-1622

Tolerant of Protestants. After being depressed about predestination, devoted himself to the virgin Mary. Wrote devotional works.

Johannes Piscator, wrote a condenses version of Calvin’s Institutes

1573-1625

Wrote Latin Bible commentaries and Disputations on the Judicial Laws of Moses. While on earth Christ had to obey the law too.

Creed of Metrophanes Critopulus

 

1625

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lancelot Andrewes, oversaw KJV translation

1571-1626

Friend of Grotius. Against Calvinism. God condemned Cain for his freely chosen sin.

David Blondel, Protestant reformer

 

1628

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Six Mile Water Presbyterian Revival in Ireland

1628

Robert Blair and John Livingstone preach. James Ussher supports them.

Sixtinus Amama, Protestant Dutch scholar 

1618-1629

One of the first the emphasize the studying the Bible in the original languages

Cyril Lucar (Loukaris) Greek orthodox patriarch follows Protestant reformers

 

1629-1631

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Robert Browne. Founder of Brownian English Separatists

 

c.1575-1633

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

William Ames, hard Calvinist

1609-1633

Wrote The Marrow of Theology which would cause much controversy a century later

Ottomans devise the Devsirme system

1383-1638

Required each Christian family to give up one son to be a Muslim Janissary soldier

Galileo Galilei, Christian astronomer

 

1564-1642

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dominic Gravina Dominican theologian at Naples

1610-1643

Many published works, including Catholic Prescriptions Against all Heretics

Orthodox Confession of the Eastern Church by Peter Mogilas of Kiev

 

1643

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hugo Grotius (Dutch “economic theologist”) The Truth of the Christian Religion. Founder of International Law

 

1608-1645

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First persecution of Christians in Vietnam

1645

Alexander de Rhodes expelled, per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.133

Westminster Shorter Catechism

 

1646-1647

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thirty Years War Catholics vs. Lutherans/France

1618-1648

About 1/4 of Germans perished. Many Protestants and Catholics killed.

Chmielnicki Massacre

1648

Polish Catholics kill 100K Jews, per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.133

Puritans banish Baptists from Massachusetts

1649

They would banish all against baptism of infants

Bogomils, Manichaean/Gnostic

970-1650

Originating from Paulicans, they spread from Greece to France.

Quakers (=The Religious Society of Friends)

 

1650-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lutheran missionary Peter Heyling of Lubeck

1634-1652

Went to Egypt and Ethiopia, per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.133

Johann V. Andrea and Rosicrucians

1619-1654-

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.132

Waldensian Confession of Faith A Brief Confession of the Reformed Churches of Piedmont

 

1655

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

English Puritan pastor William Gurnall

1655

The Christian in Complete Armour (on Gal 6:10-20) 1,472 pages in the eighth edition

James Ussher, Protestant archbishop of Ireland

 

1581-1656

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Polish Catholics kill Orthodox in Poland

-1656

 

Lelio Sozzini & Socinianism (became Unitarians later)

1550-1658

Denied the deity of Christ, and later the virgin birth. Believed in soul sleep

Polish brethren (=Reformed Church of Poland)

6/1565-1658

Non-Trinitarian, no Hell, pacifists, soul sleep

Dutch persecute Roman Catholics in Sri Lanka

1658

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.241

Congregationalist Savoy Declaration of Faith

 

1658

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quakers, worldwide 

1660

40K to 60K. Pacifist

Chinese pirate Koxinga kills Christians in Taiwan

1661

Kills 6K Reformed Mountain people. per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.241

Peter Heylin/Heylyn, English Arminian theologian

1618-1662

Historian, who wrote much against the Puritans.

Blaise Pascal, Jensenist (a Calvinist Catholic)

 

1654-1662

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

English king Charles II imprisons 15K Quakers

1662

500 died in prison. per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.241

Moses/Moise Amyraut. French founder of Amaryldian (4.5 point) Calvinist

 

1596-1664

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jean Bolland. Jesuit scholar of lives of saints

1630-1665

The Catholic Bollandist Society is named after him

Second persecution of Christians in Vietnam

1665

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.241

German Jesuit astronomer J.A. Schall von Bell

1630-1666

Missionary to China, wins 100K converts

Sabbatai Sebi/Zvi Jewish rabbi

Sept. 1666

A Jewish rabbi who claimed to be the Messiah

Great Council of Moscow (Orthodox, icons)

 

1666-1667

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

German Lutheran Justinian von Weltz

1663-1668

Writes exhorting Christians to foreign missions

Dutch Reformed Johannes Koch (Cocceius)

 

1630-1669

Formulated Federal Headship and Covenant theology. Emphasized Christ in the OT. Sabbath not valid in NT times. Wrote 12 volumes of theology. Millennialist.

Martin Schoock. theologian, historian, scientist 

1636-1669

wrote 50 books, including ones on butter, and the Bible vs. Cartesian philosophy

Thomas Browne. Christian physician and best-selling author. “think magnificently about God”

 

1637-1672

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Synod of Jerusalem (decree of Dositheus)

 

1672

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Puritan tract writer John Milton. He taught Roger Williams Hebrew. One of England’s greatest poets, he wrote Paradise Lost and On the Morning of Christ's Nativity. Advocated for separation of church and state.

 

1626-1674

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Confession of the Society of Friends (Quakers)

 

1675

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gijsbert Voetius Dutch strong Calvinist 

1611-1676

Present at the Synod of Dort. Opponent of Coccheius

Francois Combefis (Dominican monk historian)

 

1640-1679

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In Russia, many Old Believers killed

1682

Avvakum Petrovich & Boyarina Morozova killed. per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.241

Roger Williams, Baptist minister, abolitionist 

1631-1683

Said Anglicans corrupt, against living on Indian land without paying the Indians first.

John Owen, influential Puritan

 

1637-1683

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francis Turretin 

1679-1685

Institutes of Elenctic Theology. Primary Princeton theology text until Charles Hodge

French Edict of Nantes revoked

 

1685

Huguenots have to leave France

John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress. Traducian. Imprisoned 11 years. Wrote 60 works.

 

1649-1688

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Baptist Philadelphia Confession of 1688

 

1688

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Elliot, apostle to the Indians, converts 4K Indians

1640-1690

Massachusetts language Bible, per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.133

Richard Baxter. Puritan who believed in universal atonement and the importance of faith in getting saved (Neonomian). Opposed by John Owen.

 

1641-1691

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George Fox (Quaker)

 

1650-1691

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Synod of Constantinople

 

1672,1691

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese Emperor allows Christianity 

1692

2,000 believers to 300K

King of Pegu in Burma drowns Parise missionaries

1693

Friars Genoud and Joret killed. per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.241

Jakob Ammann & the Amish (no modernity)

 

1693-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abraham a Sancta Clara. Popular Augustinian preacher and monk with coarse humor.

 

1686-1695

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

200K Christians martyred in Japan

1614-1697

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.134

Estimated 155 million or 130 million Christians (21%)

by 1700

per Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.126 or World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.97

French king Louis XIV has a great slaughter of Protestants

1685-1702

Many villages all massacred and 2,000 churches burned. This turned into the Camisard revolt by the Huguenot Protestants in 1702.

Benjamin Keach. English Particular Baptist, hymn writer. Wrote 43 works

 

1658-1704

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Locke. Famous economist. Wrote The Reasonableness of Christianity

1688-1704

Ex-Puritan, then Socinian Unitarian, then Arian. Believed in religious toleration for all but atheists. Wrote on human development, politics, and economics

Philipp Spener

1675-1705

A German Lutheran founder of pietism

Pierre Bayle, renowned Huguenot Calvinist scholar

1682-1706

theologian, philosopher, and historian. His books’ footnotes were more important than the text! French, fled to Geneva, then Holland.

Early covenant theologians: Caspar Alerianus, Johannes Oecolampadius, Zacharius Ursinus, Robbert Rollock, Herman Witsius

 

1536-1708

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George Bull. Anglican priest who wrote on the Trinity and justification

 

1655-1710

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Caroline Divines 

160-1711

Anglican with many Catholic beliefs. Precursor to the Oxford Movement.

Isaac Chauncy, Neonomian and medical doctor

 

1660-1712

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Herman von der Hardt. Bible Commentary 

1712

First to deny the view that the anonymous book of Lamentations was by Jeremiah

Roman Catholic Papal bulls against Jansenists

 

1653, 1713

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roman Catholic Archbishop Francois Fenelon

1675-1715

Writer, poet, theologian. Supported Madam Guyon. Against Huguenots and Jensenists.

Gottfried Leibniz, Protestant scientist, mathematician 

1666-1716

Co-inventor of Calculus. Wrote on math, probability, science, politics, philosophy, theology. Wrote on the problem of evil, that this was the best of all possible worlds.

Madam Guyon (Jeanne-Marie Motte-Guyon)

1648-1717

Devotional Catholic imprisoned by the Catholic Church for 7 years

Ebenezer Pemberton, sharp-tempered Congregationalist minister

1700-2/1717

A founder of Princeton University. Emotional religious experience was not required to join a church. Often against Cotton Mather, though Mather spoke well at his funeral.

Marrow Controversy in Scottish Presbyterian Church

1718

William Craig failed ministry certification because he would not agree with: "I believe that it is not sound and orthodox to teach that we must forsake sin in order to our coming to Christ."

Heinrich Plutschau and Bartholomaes Ziegenbalg, Danish Lutheran missionaries to Tamils in India. NT translation.

1706-1719

The English jailed Ziegenbalg for four months for his work. After them, the Halle Mission continued from 1719 to 1839.

Eleventh persecution of Christians in Vietnam

1719

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.241

Synod of the Russian Church (Orthodox, icons)

 

1722

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Isaac Newton (denied the Trinity, liked Arians)

 

1642-1727

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cotton Mather. Boston Puritan minister and writer

1685-1728

Promoted smallpox vaccination in 1721. Defended Salem witch trials.

Maronite Synod of Mt. Lebanon 

1736

Accepted women deacons

Tibetan monks persecute Jesuits & Capuchins

1737

Killed most of 40 Tibetan believers. per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.241

First Great Awakening in North America & England

1726-1740

Jonathan Edwards, John and Charles Wesley, George Whitfield, others

Daniel Jablonski

1660-1741

Czech-German theologian who tried to unite Lutherans and Calvinists

Benedictine Antoin Calmet

 

1707-1742

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Archbishop Hugh Boulter of Ireland

1724-1742

Forbade Catholic lawyers, judges, voters. During famine brought food to Ulster

David Brainerd, Presbyterian missionary to native Americans

1742-1747

In New York and Pennsylvania. New Light Movement. Suffered from tuberculosis, depression, and malnourishment. Inspiration for Carey and others.

Isaac Watts, theologian and logician. 750 hymns

 

1690-1748

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Easter Litany of the Moravian Church

 

1749

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Joseph Butler Analogy of Religion 

1718-1752

ex-Presbyterian, Anglican bishop refuted Deism & Locke’s view of personal identity

Dutch kill 2K Catholics in Timor

1754

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.241

James Davenport, weird Congregationalist minister. Spoke against other pastors.

1741-1757

Had bonfires to throw in immoral books and luxuries. Criticized after he removed his pants and threw them in. Later said the devil had gotten in to him.

Jonathan Edwards, theologian, revivalist Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

 

1733-1758

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf in S. Germany

1737-1760

Lutheran to Moravian Brethren. This small group sent out 226 missionaries.

Thomas Sherlock, Anglican bishop & apologist

1714-1761

Wrote against Deism defending the Resurrection, miracles, God’s providence

Gilbert Tennant, Irish-American Presbyterian revivalist

1725-1764

In the First Great Awakening. He “preached the terrors” of Hell. Caused a 17-year split among Presbyterians, which he worked to heal.

Nathaniel Lardner

1727-1768

ex-Presbyterian Arian, Socinian. Nothing of Jesus existed before Mary

George Whitfield (Great Awakening preacher)

 

1714-1770

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emmanuel Swedenborg (Last Judgment in 1757, Oneness)

 

1744-1770

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Howell Harris and Daniel Rowland, Welsh revivalists

1735-1773

Calvinist Methodists. They had a rift, but some years later reconciled.

Christian August Crusius

 

1744-1775

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Synod of Constantinople (Orthodox, icons)

 

1776

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nestorian schism of the Shimun line and the Eliya (hereditary patriarch) line 

1553-1780

Catholic Church in communion with the Shimun line from 1553-1590. Today the Nestorian “Chaldean Catholic Church” is in communion with Rome.

Catholicism spreads in Korea, then is persecuted

1785,1791,

1801-1846

None killed in 1791. About 2,000 killed after that.

Methodist Articles of Religion

 

1784

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Howard, British Calvinist prison reformer

1773-1790

After being briefly imprisoned by French privateers, he campaigned the rest of his life for prison reform. Many stayed in prison just because they could not pay the jailer fee.

John Wesley, Arminian, a founder of Methodism

 

1738-1791

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Polish-Jew Jacob Frank started “Frankism”, a mixture of Jewish and Christian beliefs.

1755-1791

He claimed to be a part of the Trinity and the reincarnation of Sabbatai Zevi. He taught “purification through transgression” Held to the Kabbalah, rejected the Talmud.

Josiah Wedgewood, very wealthy anti-slavery crusader

1787-1795

Mass-produced pottery. His anti-slavery jewelry became a popular fashion in England.

Christians persecuted in Korea

1795

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.242

Alexander Kilham, Methodist minister

1785-1798

Temporarily separate Methodist church because wanted complete split from Anglicans

Estimated 200 or 205 million Christians (23%)

by 1800

per Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.126 or World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.97

Deism. They taught God revealed Himself clearly through nature, but no divine revelation.

1564-1801 -

Prominent deists include John Toland, Matthew Tindal, William Wollaston, Charles Blount, Henry St. John, First Viscount Bolingbroke, Peter Annet, Thomas Chubb

Joseph Priestly soul sleep, ex-Calvinist Unitarian heretic, famous chemist

1755-1804

Wrote over 150 books, on theology, chemistry, politics, even grammar. Believed in soul sleep and ushering in the new Millennium.

Anglican William Paley Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of Deity

1787-1805

Apologist. He strongly opposed the slave trade. Came up with the watchmaker analogy. Used the teleological argument.

Isaac Backus. Congregationalist then Baptist pastor

1746-1806

Against slavery and state-sponsored churches. A founder of Brown University.

The Haystack Movement. First ever U.S. Protestant foreign missions sent out in 1812.

8/1806-

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. First 50 years sent out 1,250 missionaries.

Wilbur Wilberforce

1807

Powerful Christian anti-slavery speaker and member of the British Parliament.

Robert Morrison translates Bible into Chinese

1807

 

James Chater, Richard Mardon, Felix Carey

1807

First Protestant missionaries to Burma/Myanmar

Gr. Orthodox: Nicodemus of the Holy Mountain Pedalion (The Rudder)

 

1775-1809

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anglican Beilby Porteus. Bishop of London

1762-1809

Anglican leader who led the fight to end slavery

Calvinists persecute Anabaptists

1527-1810

Switzerland repealed persecution laws against Anabaptists in 1810.

Henry Martyn, missionary to India and Persia

1806-1812

Translated parts of the Bible into Urdu and Persian

Thomas Coke, co-founder of Methodism in America

1772-1814

Later also a missionary to the West Indies and Sierra Leone. Spoke against slavery.

Francis Asbury. co-leader of Methodism in America

1767-1816

Picked by John Wesley. Rode 1,000’s of miles. Had Methodist churches be neutral in the American Revolution. Ordained Richard Allen.

Richard Allen & the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church after segregation in Methodist church. Aided in the yellow fever epidemic; peaceful abolitionists

1777-1816

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roman Catholic pope finally abolishes torture

1816

 

William Bramwell, English Methodist revivalist

1781-1818

Influential Methodist Revivalist in Yorkshire. Friend of Kilham but did not separate.

Samuel Mills. A Haystack Movement member, missionary

1801-1818

Founds the American Bible Society and later the United Foreign Mission American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Preached to the poor in the Mississippi Valley, New York City, and west Africa.

Calvinistic Methodists

 

1823

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