Fourth Lateran Council Until Luther’s 95 Theses Teaching on OT Authors Grid – May 2023

 

 

Legend for Cells

OTa1. Moses wrote Genesis

OTa11. Ezekiel is by Ezekiel. Ezek 1:3

W = Wrote explicitly on this teaching

OTa2. Moses wrote Exodus

OTa12. Daniel spoke or wrote Daniel. Mt 24:15

I = Implied this is true or opposite is false

OTa3. Moses wrote Leviticus. Lk 5:14; Rom 10:5

OTa13. Hosea wrote or spoke Hosea. Hos 1:1

N = Implied since accepted Nicene Creed

OTa4. Moses wrote Numbers

OTa14. Joel wrote Joel. Joel 1:1

M = Mixed: some agree, others would not

OTa5. Moses wrote Deuteronomy.Mt19:7;Acts3:22;7:37

OTa15. Amos wrote Amos. Amos 1:1

P = partial ex: Irenaeus: Gnostics wrong to say Savior not killed since impassible

OTa6. David, a writer of Psalms. Ps 72:20; Mt 22:23-24

OTa16. Micah wrote or said Micah. Mic 1:1

OTa7. Solomon, a writer of Proverbs. Prov 1:1

OTa17. Habakkuk wrote Habakkuk. Hab 1:1

- = no reference found (so far)

OTA8. Solomon writer of Ecclesiastes

OTa18. Zephaniah by Zephaniah/Sophonias

X = Disagree

OTa9. Isaiah wrote or said Isaiah. Isa1:1; Mt3:3;Jn1:23

OTA19. Zechariah spoke or wrote Zechariah Zech 1:1;7:4

blank = not researched yet

OTa10. Jeremiah wrote or said Jeremiah. Jer 1:1-2

OTa20. Malachi spoke or wrote Malachi Mal 1:1

Writer totals include W’s & I’s but not P’s

Rows: blue=Bible manuscript, white=Christian writer, khaki=spurious, green=heresy, orange=schism, pink=strange writer, yellow=foreign missions, red=Christians persecuted, purple=Roman Catholics persecuting, brown=Christians persecuting

Christian writer, heretic, or Bible manuscript

Pages

Date A.D.

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Fourth Lateran Council

1215

Pivotal council that formalized 7 sacraments, transubstantiation, relationship to the clergy. Issued restrictions against the Jews. Kill Albigensians & Waldenses

Council of Bergamo (12 Waldenses attended)

1218

Said we should not believe in Purgatory or prayers for the dead because no biblical

Francis of Assisi goes to Egypt 

1219

Preached to Muslim Fatimid Sultan al-Kamil of Egypt

Serbian Orthodox Church founded

1219-

Like other orthodox they taught Traducianism

Berard of Carbio and 4 other Franciscan missionaries

1220

Killed in Marrakesh, Morocco

Daniel and 6 Italian friars in Morocco

1220

Killed in Ceuta, Morocco

Dominic founds the Roman Catholic Dominican Order

1215-1221

12K at its peak, 7K in 1983

Francis of Assisi founds the R.C. Franciscan order 

1209-1226

by 1400, 60K monks all over the world per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.123

Dominicans preach to Comans of Hungary

1221-1227

Coman ruler Barc & 15K baptized in Hungary. 1241 exterminated by Mongols. ibid p.123

Sixth Crusade, Layman’s crusade

1228

Negotiated, not fought the Egyptian Sultan, so the Pope excommunicated them. World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.123

Stephen Langton. Wrote on almost all books of the Old Testament

 

1207-1228

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Council of Toulouse

1229

Hunt heretics. Non-clergy forbidden to read any non-Latin Bible, except a psalter or breviary

Pope Gregory IX starts the Inquisition by Franciscans and Dominicans 

1231

For centuries terrorized people and tortured for confessions. When women when arrested said, “I am guilty; what did I do?”

Council of Tarragona ratified the Council of Toulouse

1233/1234

“No one may possess the books of the Old and New Testaments, and if anyone possesses them he must turn them over to the local bishop within eight days, so that they may be burned…”

Mongol Khan Ogodai appoints Simeon Rabban-Ata as Nestorian Catholicos at Tabriz, Persia

1235

Nestorians have great influence in Mongol lands per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.124

15th or so Synod of Arles, against Albigensians

 

1234 & 1236

Jean Baussan presided

Catholic Pope Gregory IX confiscates Talmuds

1239

Orders confiscating all Jewish Talmuds

Pope Gregory IX

1227-1241

Started crusade against the Holy Roman Empire. NE European Crusades.

Alexander of Hales. Aristotelian scholastic

 

1220-1245

He pondered if Christ would have been incarnated if people had never sinned?

John of la Rochelle. Wrote on the soul

 

c.1238-1245

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Serapion of Vladimir (near Kiev) 5 Sermons

 

c.1240-1245

Said that the Mongol invasion was God's punishment for people's sins

First Council of Lyon under embattled Pope Innocent IV (150 bishops + 100 others)

 

1245

Deposed the King Sancho II of Portugal in favor of his older brother, and excommunicated the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II who was besieging Rome

Swedes conquer Finland

1249

Finns forced to become Christians World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.124

Teutonic knights and Poles conquer Prussians

1250

Force Prussians to be baptized. World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.124

Innocent IV’s papal bull ex Extirpanda

1252

Fire, irons, and the rack to torture and kill heretics

Robert Grosseteste of England. theologian, poet, bishop, wrote on the scientific method

 

c.1220-1253

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Testament of Abraham (present form of long version)

8.5

13th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Franciscan Berthold von Regensburg

died 1272

Preaches to large crowds, per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.124

Cardinal Hugh of St. Cher. Dominican Bible commentator

 

1225-1263

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas of Celano (Franciscan hymnist)

 

1225-1265

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mongol Kublai Khan says he wanted to be baptized

1266

requested 100 missionaries through Polo brothers. In 1278 the R.C. Only 5 Franciscans came. World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.124

Franciscan monk Berthold of Ratisbon

 

1246-1270

One of the most important preachers of repentance in the 13th century

Chinese ports

 

c.1270

Over 400K Christians in ports plus others along the old Silk Road

Nine Crusades

1189-1272

To retake Israel (& capture Constantinople), gain land & money

Ulrich of Strasburg. Disciple of Albert Magnus. Summa de Bono

 

1265-1272

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Aquinas - Aristotelian theologian

 

1248-1274

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bonaventure (Giovanni di Fidanza)

 

c.1253-1274

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Second Council of Lyons

 

1274

Tries in vain to unite Roman Catholics and eastern Orthodox

Jacobus de Voraigne of Genoa

 

1275

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Robert Kilwardby, Archbishop of Canterbury. alphabetical summary of Church fathers. Opposed Aristotelianism,

 

1272-1279

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Citizens of Parma, Italy killed all their inquisitors

1279

They killed all the inquisitors because they were too severe

Albert Magnus of Cologne, Germany 

1245-1280

Aristotelian theologian. Also wrote on science, astrology, law. Preached the 8th crusade. He influenced Thomas Aquinas.

Portuguese Dominican Raymond Martini. Pugeo Fidei

1264-1284

Apologist to Jews and Moors (Muslims). Write a (lost) refutation of the Koran

Gregory Bar-Hebraeus, west-Syrian historian

 

1226-1286

Write Storehouse of Secrets a commentary on the Bible. Miaphysite who accepted Orthodox and Nestorian Christians too.

Mongol Kublai Khan asked the Pope to send 100 Christian teachers to teach

 

1286

The pope sent 7. In 1295 the Mongols start to convert to Islam.

Uyghur/Ongud Nestorian monk Rabban Bar Sauma

 

1287-1288

Travelled from Beijing/Khanbaliq to Tuscany, Paris, and Rome to try to forge a Franco-Mongol alliance. Met with Pope Nicholas IV

Edward I of England expels all Jews

1290

Cromwell allowed them back in 1656. World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.125

John Pecham, Archbishop of Canterbury, Opposed Aristotelianism; debated Aquinas twice

 

1279-1292

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry of Ghent (Doctor Solemnis)

 

1276-1293

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mechthild of Magdeburg, mystic nun

 

c.1230-1294

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ilkhan Ghazan destroys persecutes in Persia

1295

Orders all churches, synagogues, and Buddhist temples destroyed

Pope Boniface VII Clericis Laicos

 

1296

Excommunicates clergy who pay secular taxes. English King Edward outlaws priests in England

Hugh of Balma (Hugh of Dorche)

 

c.1250-c.97

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flagellants common in Europe

c.1296

Travelled through Europe warning of the end of the world

Jacob da Voragine (=Jacobo de Fazio)

 

1244-1298

Chronicler. Wrote The Golden Legend about the lives of the saints.

Nestorian work The Pearl (The Marganitha)

 

1298

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peter John Olivi. Franciscan extreme poverty. Invented papal infallibility on official statements

 

c.1279-1298

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peter Quesnel, Franciscan in Norwich, England

 

died 1299?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Estimated 84 million Christians

1300

World Christian Trends AD 30 – AD 220 p.97. 23% of world population of 362 million.

Mamluk king closes all churches in Egypt & Syria

1301

Syrian Christians suffer for 100 years. World Christian Trends AD 30 – AD 220 p.124

Muslims martyr Roman Catholic friars in S. India

1302

per World Christian Trends AD 30 – AD 220 p.239

Boniface VII's papal bull Unam Sanctam.

1302

French king Philip captures and tortures Pope Boniface VII for heresy. Others free him, but he dies a month later. The next pope, Benedict XI, dies mysteriously after a month. The next pope, Clement V, is France's puppet.

Roger Marston, pupil of John Pecham

 

-c.1303

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King Philip the Fair expels Jews from France

1306

100,000 Jews banished

John Duns Scotus Erigenus, pupil of Roger Marston. Commentary on the Sentences of Peter Lombard. Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary. Pre-existence of souls

 

1300-1308

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James of Viterbo (Giacomo Viterbo), pupil of Giles of Rome

 

died 1308

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clement V excommunicates all Venetians

1309

The city of Venice had opposed the election of Clement V as pope.

Muslims massacre Christians in Arbela, (modern Iraq)

1310

 Kurds and Arabs destroyed the city

Council of Vienne

1311

 

Ramon Lull/Llull. Inspired by Francis of Assisi, mathematician who influenced Leibnitz, Catalan and Arabic writer, missionary to Muslims. 

1274-1314/1315

Spent 9 years studying Arabic. Advocated converting Muslims by persuasion, not force. He started schools to train missionaries to Muslims. Stoned to death by Muslims in Tunis or Bugia, Algeria.

Dante wrote the Divine Comedy

 

1314

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Giles of Rome, pupil of Thomas Aquinas

 

1272-1316

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mark of Beijing becomes Nestorian Patriarch

1281-1317

Consecrates 75 bishops. 1301 Submits to Roman Pope Benedict XI. See World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.124

Last Nestorian Persian Synod elects Timothy II as Patriarch

 

1318

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muslims execute most Christians in Egypt

1321

Almost all churches and monasteries destroyed

Over 5,000 Jews burned in Guienne, France

1321

Accused of having wells poisoned. Last of Cathars killed too.

Pope John XXII, who was against Franciscans, issued the bull Qui quorundam.

 

1324

In the bull Qui quorundam he says papal infallibility is “the work of the devil.” He was pope for 18 years after that. Some Catholics consider this pope a heretic.

Nestorians almost extinct in China

 

1330

Only 30K Nestorians left in China, per to World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.125

French king Louis deposes Pope John XXII for heresy

1328

The next pope, Nicholas V was deposed in 1329 when Louis left Rome.

Marsilius of Padua, later archbishop of Milan, persecutes catholic clergy loyal to John XXII

1328-

 

Meister Eckhart. strange mystical views

 

c.1294-c.1328

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Durandus of Saint-Pourcain

 

c.1313-1332

Wrote commentaries on Peter Lombard's Sentences

Thomas Waleys, Dominican friar

 

1333

Imprisoned for saying saints and purified souls see God immediately after death.

Muslims massacre Christians in Almaliq

1338/1339

after Chagatai Khan Chingshi died. Richard of Almalik & 6 Franciscans killed too

Mongol Emperors Christian Alan guards

1340

They write to Pope to send missionaries. World Christian trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.125

Council of Constantinople VIII

1341

Condemned monk Barlaam for opposing Hesychasts on Mt. Athos

Dionigi di Borgo San Sepolcro. Commentary on Peter Lombard’s Sentences

 

c.1300-1342

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marsiglio of Padua. Italian scholar and doctor who argued against the Pope’s supremacy

 

1320-1342

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Franciscan friar William of Ockham

 

1321-1347

Fideist: only faith, not reason can lead us to truth. Against unlimited papal power

Gregory Akindos (against Ascetic Hesychasts)

 

-c.1347

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barlaam of Seminara – against Hesychasm

 

1333-1348

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John of Monte Corvino

 

1247-1348

 Franciscan missionary to India and China

Franciscan Nicholas of Lyra, influential Bible commentator

1309-1349

Emphasized the Bible’s literal meaning. He influenced Martin Luther.

Black death over the old world

1347-1353

kills 75M, 17% of the world. 13M China, 20-33% of Europe

Over 1 million Jews killed. 11K burned in Germany

1337-1353

Jews blamed for Black Death, per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.125

Thomas Bradwardine, mathematician, astronomer, archbishop of Canterbury

 

1321-1349

Wrote against Pelagianism. Thought stars had an influence on people's character.

Christians execute 12K Jews in Toledo, Spain

1355

Per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.126

Gregory Palamas, defender of Hesychasm (senseless prayer)

 

1335-1359

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Richard FitzRalph of Armagh - dominion doctrine

 

1328-1360

Don’t pay money to corrupt clergy. He was summoned to Avignon & then disappeared

Nicephorus Callistus Xanthopulus Ecclesiastical History. Poem on the Gospels

 

ca.1320-1360

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Johannes Tauler. Disciple of Meister Eckhart and universalist

 

1330-1361

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry Suso. Disciple of Meister Eckhart

 

c.1327-1366

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Babylonian Captivity” when Pope moves to France

1305-1378

Popes were safer in the land of their French overlords

Tamerlane’s “holy war” destroys 700 Georgian towns

1358-1378

All churches in Tiflis. per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.239

Catherine of Sienna

 

1347-1380

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Macarius Chrysocephalus of Constantinople

 

1300-1382

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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John Wycliffe & the Lollards in England

 

1367-1382

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Geert Groote founder of the Brethren of Common Life (=Modern Devotion Movement), which was a key influence on Thomas a Kempis

 

1366-1384

After studying philosophy and science, a lay Christian who became helped the poor, started schools, and a missionary preacher who preached against clerical abuses until the Pope forbade non-clergy from preaching. Died nursing plague victims.

Luther studied under the Brethren of Common Life.

Otto of Passau The 24 Elders, or the Golden Throne of Loving Souls

 

fl.1386

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Christian Uyghurs forced to convert to Islam

1390

Uyghurs east of Urumchi forced, per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.126

St. Stephen

died 1396

Missionary to Georgia

Henry of Langenstein, Germany. theologian, mathematician, wrote against astrology

 

1368-1397

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Cloud of Unknowing

 

1350-1400

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Estimated 57 million Christians

1400 A.D.

World Christian Trends AD 30 – AD 220 p.642. 16% of world population of 352 million.

Strigolniks of Pskov, Russia protesting

c.1400

against charging fees for sacraments. World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.126

Muslim Tamerlane Sevaus. 4K Christians burned alive

1401

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.239

Muslim Tamerlane sacks Baghdad

1401

Tamerlane massacres thousands of Muslims and Christians

Muslim Tamerlane killed 17 million, 5% world pop.

1360-1405

Slaughtered 100K Hindus, fellow Muslims, and almost extinguished Nestorians

Nicholas Magni, disciple of Matthew of Krakow Tractatus de supersticionibus

 

1405

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry of Kalkar. Theologian, musician, ascetic

 

c.1357-1408

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Bible in English is illegal in England

1408

Illegal to translate or read the Bible in English without the bishop's consent

Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného. Klementinum Codex

c.1355-1409

Czech Reformer, writer, translator, and theologian

Matthew of Krakow

 

1382-1410

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jean Petit, in the pay of Burgundy, justified killing those considered as tyrants

1408-1411

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Council of Prague, Bohemia

1413

 

Jan Hus & the Hussites in Bohemia … If the pope sells grace … he is the Antichrist

 

1404-7/6/1415

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Jan Hus burned at the stake

1415

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.239

John of Nepomuk martyred

1415

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.239

Jerome of Prague martyred

1416

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.239

Julian of Norwich, English Anchorite

 

1373-1416

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Western Schism of dueling Catholic popes

1378-1417

Popes in both Rome and Avignon, France, ended by the Council of Constance

Council of Constance

1414-1418

Ends the great schism and burns Jan Hus at the stake. 3 Ethiopian envoys present. 1 Pope abdicated, 2 popes deposed, 1 pope elected. Condemns Wycliffe.

Dominican monk Vincent of Ferrier/Ferrer

1335-1419

Converted many Jews and non-violently persecuted others

Pope Martin V issues papal bull

Mar 17, 1420

Crusade to exterminate followers of Wycliffe, Huss, & other heretics

Tartars kill Christians in Russia

1422

Muslim Tartars rule Russia and kill Christians

German mystic Thomas a Kempis wrote The Imitation of Christ

 

ca.1418-1427

One of the most-widely read Christian books in the Middle Ages and after. Influenced Thomas Moore, Jesuits, and John Wesley.

Jean Gerson. Against Jean Petit.

 

c.1395-1429

Major theologian at the council of Constance.

Joan of Arc burned at the stake (Pope was English)

1431

Burned as a heretic. Declared innocent in 1456, canonized in 1920.

Hussite Wars

1419-1434

After Catholics executed Jan Hus, they invaded Bohemia and Hungary

Biblia Pauperum “Poor Man’s Bible”. 40 pages of catechism

 

1435

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Catalan Raymond of Sabunde Natural Theology. Influenced Blaise Pascal

 

1434-1436

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Council of Basel, 7 cardinals, 6K clergy

1421-1438

Want dialog with Hussites, Orthodox. Orders all Jews to hear Christian sermons

Matthew Doring helps depose Pope Eugene IV

 

1439

 

Council/Synod of Florence. 700 people

 

1439

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lorenzo Valla refuted The Donation of Constantine

 

1440

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Papal bull Cantate Domino at the Council of Florence

1442

Forbade anyone to observe the Sabbath or be circumcised

Christians first evangelize in Guinea. 

1445

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.127

Gutenberg’s first Bible depose Pope Eugene IV 

1445

150 copies. Per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.127.

Nicole Boillet (St. Colette)

 

1406-3/1447

She founded the Colette Poor Clares under (Avignon) Antipope Benedict XIII. Canonized as a Catholic saint later

Council of Basil

1431-1449

 

Medieval Christians: Cath., Orthodox, Copts

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c.500-c.1500

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Muslim Qur’an or Sunni hadiths (5 collections)

 

c.609-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Some moderate Muslims

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peter Waldo/Valdes and the Waldenses in It., Fr., Sp.

 

1174/1175-1532

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Hadmannus Schedelius Chronicle

 

1450

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Albert Suho. wrote on theology and history from creation to 1452

 

1447-1452

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pope Nicholas V authorizes capturing slaves

1452,1455

Papal bulls Dum Diversas and Romanus Pontifex authorize enslaving non-Christians

Zinzendorf & the Moravian Brethren

 

1457-

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Nicholas of Cusa. Theologian and astronomer

 

1434-1464

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Matthew Doring. The Precious Blood of Wilsnack

 

1432-1469

Wrote on the primary of church councils over the pope. The communion wine miraculously survived when the church in Wilsnack burned down.

Christian Portuguese solders evangelize in Ghana

1471

Called the Gold Coast. Per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.127

Gennadios II (Scholarios) learned patriarch of Constantinople

 

1438-1472

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Johannes van Goch. German Augustinian monk

 

1400-1475

Reformer before the Reformation. Preached returning to the Bible, against Pelagianism

Start of Spanish Inquisition under Torquemada

1478-

120K condemned, imprison, or impoverished. At least 2K killed.

Johanne Ruchrat von Wesel. German Thomist Scholastic

 

1445-1481

Reformer before the Reformation. Scripture is the rule of faith. Against indulgences.

Portuguese explore the Congo (Zaire)

1482

Franciscan and Dominican missionaries. Prince Mwemba baptized. World Christian Trends AD 33-AD 2200 p.127

Heinrich von Dissen. many commentaries & sermons

 

c.1437-1484

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Christianity started in Nigeria (Benin), baptize the king.

1487

Portuguese bring the gospel to Nigeria. World Christian Trends AD 33-AD 2200 p.127

Wessel Gansfort “A reformer before the Reformation”

1470-1489

A renounced scholar, offered to be made bishop but declined, asking for a copy of the scriptures in Hebrew instead

In Spain 180K Jews expelled, 350K forced to convert

1492

12K Jews burned in Spain as heretics. World Christian Trends AD 33-AD 2200 p.128

Johannes Trimethius of Mainz

1494

bibliography of 1,000 church writers. World Christian Trends AD 33-AD 2200 p.128

Gabriel Biel. Brethren of the Open Life, a founder of the University of Tubingen

1460-1495

Wrote Sentences of Peter Lombard, which influenced Martin Luther, and Canon of the Mass.

Bohemian Brethren. 400 churches 100K members

1495

in Bohemia & Moravia. World Christian Trends AD 33-AD 2200 p.128

20% of Portugal are Jews. All must convert or leave

1497

200K converted or expelled. World Christian Trends AD 33-AD 2200 p.128

Astrologer Johannes Stoeffler predicts end of the world

1499

Predicted on Feb 20, 1524. 1,000’s of German prepare by going on boats and a 3-story ark on the Rhine. World Christian Trends AD 33-AD 2200 p.128

Portuguese Captain Pedro Alvares Cabral

1500

He brought 17 Roman Catholic missionaries to Goa

Estimated 76M or 100M Christians. 18% world pop 423M

1500 A.D.

per Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.126 or World Christian Trends AD 30 – AD 220 p.642

Russian Orthodox church has the Third Rome doctrine 

1500

Rome is heretical, Constantinople fell, so Moscow is now the center of Christianity.

In Spain, all Muslims must convert of leave

1499-1502

Inquisitor-general Cisneros forces all Muslims to convert or be expelled

No Jewish religion left in Rhodes, Greece

1502

All converted, exiled, or enslaved. World Christian Trends AD 33-AD 2200 p.128

Paulus Scriptoris, Franciscan monk & mathematician 

1498-1505

Wrote a commentary on Duns Scotus. Catholic church exiled him for denying transubstantiation

Francis Xavier and Catholic missionaries in Mozambique

1506

King Gamba of Inhambane baptized. World Christian Trends AD 33-AD 2200 p.128

Many ex-Jewish and ex-Muslim Christians killed

1506

Doubts that they genuinely converted. World Christian Trends AD 33-AD 2200 p.128

Johann Geiler Kaisenberg, famous evangelist

 

1475-1510

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pope Julius II, the Warring Pope. Raided Italian cities  

1504-1513

Church council suspended him, but he and his armies ignored it.

Fifth Lateran Council. Condemns soul sleep

 

1512-1513

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jacques Almain. Opponent of Cajetan

 

1512-1515

He and John Mair favored church councils over the Pope

Portuguese forcibly convert Nestorians

1498

Portuguese force Nestorians to convert to Catholicism in India

Cardinal Ximenes/Jimenez de Cisneros of Spain

1516

No ship may travel to the New World without a priest for evangelism

Franciscan Cardinal Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros

1436-1517

Worked to reform the Catholic Church in Spain and Portugal

Bible printing in Europe

1456-1517

Printed over 70K Bibles in 15 languages plus 100K NT’s and 120K Psalters.

Christian writer, heretic, or Bible manuscript

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www.Biblequery.org/History/ChurchHistory/FourthLAteranCouncilUntilLuthers95ThesesTeachingOnOTAuthorsGrid.html. References at www.Biblequery.org/History/ChurchHistory/WhatNiceaToEphesusChristiansTaughtOnDoctrine.html.

by Steven M. Morrison, PhD. If you find what you think are any omissions or errors, please email webmaster@biblequery.org