Topical Index of the Dead Sea Scrolls

January 9, 2003 Version

Topical Index of the non-Biblical Dead Sea Scrolls *
Introduction *
Rule of the Community *
The Damascus Document *
Halakhic Texts *
The War Scroll *
Description of the New Jerusalem *
The Temple Scroll *
Habakkuk Pesher (Commentary) *
Psalm Pesher (Commentary) *
Pentateuch Paraphrase *
Other Documents *

Note that x:y is shorthand for column x line y.

(142 entries)


(8 entries)

331 B.C. The city of Samaria was destroyed by soldiers of Alexander the Great.

375-335 B.C. The Wadi Daliyeh scrolls (=Samaria papyrii) were from people who fled Alexander p.xxxii

Murabba'at 7th century B.C.E. palimpsest, plus 1st century A.D. plus some letters from Bar Kochba. p.xxxiii

"The second theory was maintained in the fifties by J.L. Teacher and has been revived quite recently by B.E. Thiering and R. Eisenman. The discrepancies in detail between these writers are remarkable, and so are the individuals with whom they identify the principal characters (The Teacher of Righteousness would be Jesus and the Wicked Priest, Paul; or the Teacher of Righteousness would e John the Baptist, the Wicked Priest, Jesus of Nazareth; the Teacher of Righteousness would be the apostle James , the Wicked Priest Ananias, and the man of lies, Paul). However, common to all these theories is denial of the conclusions reached by archaeological investigation, which infers that all the manuscripts were deposited in the caves (and by the some token, were written) prior to the destruction of Khirbet Qumran in 68 B.C." p.xlvii

The Teacher of Righteousness was the founder of the Qumran community. p.liii

The Teacher of Righteousness appeared 390 + 20 years after the Exile.

The Kittim were the Romans.

The Rule of the Community and the Damascus Document were composite documents. p.2

Rule of the Community

(20 entries)

Sons of Light and Sons of Darkness. The RofC 2:16 p.3; 3:24,25 p.3; 3:13 p.6

Sentenced to the gloom of everlasting fire. The RofC 2:7 p.4; 1QS p.21

Everlasting destruction. The RofC 2:15 p.5

God foreknew all. RofC 2:23; 3:15,16

Eternal damnation permanent error and shame ... until their destruction. RofC 4:12-14 p.7

Sons of men. RofC 4:26; 3:14

Keep apart from men of sin. RofC 5:1-2 p.8

Waters or repentance. RofC 3:4,5,9 p.5; 4:21 p.7

Sons of Zadok RofC 5:2; 9:14 p.8

Everlasting annihilation RofC 5:13 p.8

Drink new wine. RofC 6:5-6 p.9

Do not interrupt a fellow brother. RofC 6:10 p.10

An initiate is tested for one year. RofC 6:17 p.10

An initiate cannot drink with others until the end of the year. RofC 6:17 p.10

Stages and strict rules. RofC 6:21-26 p.10

Mention of the Messiahs of Aaron and Israel. RofC 9:11-14 p.13

Men of the pit and men of sin. RofC 9:16-17 p.14; p.24

Assembly of worms. RofC 11:10 p.18

Atone for sins. RofC 11:14 p.19

Mention that God created man to rule the world. RofC 3:17-18 p.23

The Damascus Document

(32 entries)

The Teacher of Righteousness came 390 years after the Exile started. Damascus 1:4-11 p.33

God's foreknowledge Damascus 2:7-8 p.34

Watchers who fell. Damascus 2:17-18 p.34

Recap of Abraham, the friend of God, through the entire Exodus. Damascus 3:1-13 p.34-35

Emphasis on Zadok. Damascus 4:1-12 p.35

Atone for sins. Damascus 4:1

Taking two wives in your lifetime is fornication. Damascus 4:21

Mention of Zawzaw Damascus 4:19 p.35-36

Mention of Jannes and his brother. Damascus 5:18-19 p.36

Quotes from Amos. Damascus 5:26-27; 9:11 [/37-38; 7:14-16

Mention of Damascus. Damascus 5:19; 6:5 p.36; 6:19 p.37; 7:15 p.38; 8:21 p.38

Sons of the pit. Damascus 6:15 p.37

Strange Sabbath work rules. Damascus 10:18-23, 11:1-23 p.41-42

Do not send a foreigner to do work you wish done on a Sabbath Day. Damascus 11:2 p.41

Rules. Damascus 12:3-4 p.42.

Those who preach apostasy are to be executed. 12:6-7 p.42

Do NOT shed the blood of a Gentile for the sake of riches or gain. 12:6-7 p.42

They shall follow the rules, in the time of wickedness until the there arises the messiah of Aaron will come. Damascus 12:23 p.43

Mention of the messiah of Aaron and Israel. Damascus 19:11 p.45

Mention of the messiah of Aaron and Israel. Damascus 22:1 p.46

Mention of Damascus. Damascus 20:12 p.46

They should listen to the Teacher's voice. Damascus 20:28 p.47

It will be 40 years between the gathering of the Teacher and the destruction of those who follow the man of lies. Damascus 20:14 p.47

390 years after the Exile the Teacher of Righteousness came. Damascus 4Q268 13-17 4Q467 p.48,49

Jannes Damascus 4Q266 frag. 3 col.2 line 14 p.50

Mention of Damascus. Damascus p.51 (2x),68

Messiah of Aaron and Israel. Q266 frag. 18 col.13 line 12

No one should help an animal give birth on the Sabbath Day 4Q271 frag. 3 col.1 line 8

If a man falls into a pit, no one should take him out on the Sabbath. 4Q271 frag.3 col.1 line 9

No one should sleep with his wife in the city of the temple. p.59

Jannes 4Q267 frag.2 line2 p.60

Watchers of heaven who fell. 4Q270 p.62

Halakhic Texts

(1 entry)

Mention of the red heifer. P.80

The War Scroll

(8 entries)

Sons of Light will attack Edom, Moab, and Ammon. Mention of Kittim. War Scroll 1Q33 col.1 p.95

An army gathered form the tribes of Israel will attack all the nations. War Scroll 2:2-4 p.96

In the 8th year the Sons of Light will wage war against the sons of Ishmael and Keturah. p.96; p.122

They will leave Jerusalem to go to war. Col.7 line 4

Archangel names include Sariel. The War Scroll 1Q33 9:16 p.102

Fighting the kings of Kittim. The War Scroll p.110

Men in the community marry at 20 years old. 1Q28 lines 9-10 p.126

The Messiah p.127

Description of the New Jerusalem

(1 entry)

Description of the New Jerusalem p.129-135

The Temple Scroll

(7 entries)

The Temple Scroll is put forth as a sixth book of the Torah. p.142

Winged creatures include locusts and other insects. Temple Scroll 11Q19 48:3-4

Exterminate any city from the tribes of Israel where upon investigation they have turned to worship other gods. Temple Scroll 11Q19 col.55 p.173

The verb "to crucify" is in the Dead Sea Scrolls 11QTemple 64:6-13, 4QPNah. Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls p.87,284

Cursing God is blasphemy. Temple Scroll 64.10 Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls p.89

A priest can take a second wife if his first wife dies. Temple Scroll 11Q19 col.52 line 15-19

Execute false prophets. Temple Scroll col.61 lines 1-3 p.176

Mention of marrying captive women (Cannot have sex with them outside of marriage though.) col.63 line 10-14 p.177

Habakkuk Pesher (Commentary)

(13 entries)

Totally wrong interpretation of Habakkuk 1:1-26. Habakkuk Pesher col.1-9 p.197-200

The Teacher of Righteousness will know all mysteries of words of the prophets. Habakkuk Pesher col.4 line 4 p.200

The House of Judah will follow the Teacher of Righteousness. Habakkuk Pesher 8:1-3 p.200

The Wicked Priest ferociously pursued the Teacher of Righteousness. Habakkuk Pesher col.11 lines 2-5 p.201-202

The wicked of Ephraim and Manasseh will attempt to lay hands on the [good] priest, but God will deliver him. Habakkuk Pesher col.2 lines 18-19 p.204

The [good] priest is the Teacher of Righteousness. Habakkuk Pesher col.5 lines 13-16 p.205

Live for 1,000 generations. Habakkuk Pesher col.3:1 p.204 col.4:3 p.205

Some annihilated forever. Habakkuk Pesher col.4 line 1 p.205

Teacher of Righteousness mentioned in the Habakkuk Pesher. 1:13 p.198; 2:2 p.198; 5:10 p.199; 7:4 p.200; 8:3 p.200; 9:9-10 p.201; 11:5 p.201

Wicked Priest mentioned in the Habakkuk Pesher. 1:13 p.198; 8:8 p.200; 9:9 p.201; 11:4 p.201

"... the wicked priest who persecuted the Righteous Teacher at the house of his exile in order to engulf him in the anger of his wrath; and at the time of the festival of rest, the Day of Atonement, he appeared to engulf them and to make them stumble on the day of fasting, their Sabbath of rest. 1 QpHab 11.4-8 (Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls p.144)

Man of Lies mentioned in the Habakkuk Pesher. 2:1-2 p.198; 5:11 p.199

Spreader of Deceit mentioned in the Habakkuk Pesher. 10:9 p.201

Priest whose shame has exceeded his glory in the Habakkuk Pesher. 11:12 p.202

Psalm Pesher (Commentary)

(2 entries)

"Its interpretation concerns the Priest, the Teacher of [Righteousness, whom] God chose to stand [in front of him, for] he installed him to found the congregation [of his chosen ones[ for him," Psalms Pesher 4Q171 Col.3 lines 13-16 p.205

Mention of the Teacher of Righteousness. Psalms Pesher 4Q173 frag.1 col.2 p.206

Pentateuch Paraphrase

(7 entries)

Test for a false prophet. p.220

In the 7th year, a non-Hebrew wife who was a slave whose husband was a Hebrew slave, the wife did not have to be set free if the owner got the wife for the man. p.221

Mention of David's catapults. 2Q22 p.224

Lamech's wife, named Bitenosh, claimed her child was from him, not a foreigner, or a watcher, or a son of God. Genesis Apocryphon 2:15-16 p.230

War of the Kings in Genesis. Arioch was mentioned as a king of Cappadocia though. Genesis Apocryphon 21:21-24 p.235

Mention of Damascus in the Genesis Apocryphon (2 times) 12:6 p.236

Mention of Melchizedek of Salem. Genesis Apocryphon 12:13-15 p.236

Other Documents

(39 entries)

The Aramaic Apocylapse (4Q246) contains the phrase "sons of God" referring to a future Messianic king. A photograph of it is in The Mystery and Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls by Hershel Shanks p.71. The text on p.69 says "he will be called great ... and by his name he will be designated ... "Son of God" will he be called and "Son of the Most High" they will call him.... His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom and all his ways will be truth. He will jud[ge] the earth in truth and all will make peace. The sword will cease from the earth and all provinces will worship him. The great God will be his patron.... His sovereignty is everlasting sovereignty."

1QH was probably written by the Righteous Teacher according to Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls p.141

Adam had a daughter name Azura, and Cain had a wife who was his sister, named Awan. 11Q Jubilees (=11Q12) p.241

Cain had another wife, named Muhalelet frag. 2:2 p.241

A Day with the Lord is as 1,000 years, so when God told Adam the Day he ate of the fruit he would die, Adam lived less than 1,000 years after that. (Adam died when he was &&& years old.) Book of Jubilees 4:29-30 frag.4 p.241

No blood money is accepted for murder. 4QJublilees-d p.242

Mention of watchers. 4Qpseudo-Jubliees line 4 p.245

Everlasting curse. 4Q201 col.2 line 16 p.246

Mention of watchers (2 times) p.246; p.248; p.249; everlasting watchers (2 times) p.251; (1 time) p.252

Quote from 1 Enoch 1:9 (=4Q204) "... the myriads of his holy ones ... flesh for all their ... arrogant and wicked ..."

Mention of Michael 2 times p.249, 250

Mention of Sons of Darkness. p.275

Mention of Sons of Heaven p.251-252

Annihilation p.275

Mention of community p.322

Day of annihilation col.21 p.323

The bag of life vs. the traps of the pit. P.329

Mention of Belial. 3x p.333; 2x p.334; 1x p.338 1x p.339

Poison and wormwood p.334; 4Q430 line 2 p.369

Nothing happens but what God allows. P.350

Who is like you [God] among the gods p.361

Mention of the female demon named Lilith. 4Q510 frag.1 line 5 p.371; 4Q510 frag.10 line 1 p.373

Sons of Light 4Q510 frag.1 line 7 p.371

Quote of Psalm 91 in 11Q11 col.5 lines 3-14 p.377-378

The inheritance of the wicked is in eternal fire. 4Q184 line 7 p.179

Mention of the Sons of Dawn. 4Q298 col.1 line 1 p.382

Mention of the Sons of Heaven. 4Q416 frag.1 line 12

Sons of Seth frag.2 col.15 p.387

Adam is in God's image, and made to govern. p.417

Mention of debirim (spirits of eternal divinities) p.428; 3x p.430

The holy ones have woven clothes with splendid pictures. Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice (4Q404) frag.23 col.2 line 7 p.430

Sons of Zadok p.432

The Lord will lay waste the earth with His scepter, and kill the wicked with His breath. P.433

Mention of the community. P.430

Sons of Light. P.434

Mention of Belial (2x) plus Sons of Belial p.435

The Qumran Community had horoscopes predicting future calamities (p.444), and characteristics of individuals p.452; p.456; p.457. It was basically Greco-Roman-western astrology.

Neice marrying an uncle was not allowed at Qumran (CD 5.7-9), while the Pharisees tolerated it (Yebamoth 62b). The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English p.70.

Both Essenes and the Qumran community felt it was wrong to defecate (go #2) on the Sabbath. Understanding the Dead Sea Scrolls p.102-104


A Portrait of the Teacher of Righteousness

(3 entry counted)

Here is a Summary of what the Dead Sea Scrolls say:

After 20 years, God raised up for the Community the Righteous Teacher. Damascus Document 1.11

Here is part of the conclusion of Florentino Garcia Martinez (p.liii). "it can be deduced that the Qumran community, instead, has its origins in a rift which occurred within the Essene movement. This rift was to cause those siding with the Teacher of Righteousness to set themselves up with him in the desert, until 130 B.C.E." In other words, The Teacher of Righteousness was the founder of the Qumran community. Martinez is a professor by special appointment at the Theological Faculty of the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. He was one of the team members working on the Dead Sea Scrolls. The back cover of the Book says "Florentino Garcia Martinez deserves out gratitude for having compiled the most comprehensive one-volume edition of the Dead Sea Scrolls every attempted ... James C. Vanderkam - University of Notre Dame"

Here is part of the conclusion of James Charlesworth: "Over forty years of labor on over three hundred scrolls and fragments and archaeologic work on Khirbet Qumran and the Qumran caves have produced the following widely recognized portrait of the Righteous Teacher, which may be an honorific title (it appears in CD, 1 QpHab, 4QpPs 37). Sometime before 150 B.C.E. he had been an influential priest in the Jerusalem Temple. He may perhaps have even been once an officiating high priest. He and his group claimed to be (and probably were) the legitimate heirs to the high priesthood. They were conscious of being the descendants of Zadok and Aaron. Perhaps the precursors of the Qumran covenanters survived in Jerusalem for "twenty years" (CD 1) before they became coherent theologically and sociologically through the charismatic leadership of the Righteous Teacher. Some of the group who follow the Righteous Teacher were Levites who officiated in the Temple. ... the Righteous Teacher eventually was forced out of the Temple, perhaps sometime before 150 B.C.E. ...Subsequently they were harassed by a rival and illegitimate priest in the Temple cult. They called him "the Wicked Priest." He is most likely one of the Maccabees, either Jonathan (c.160-154 B.C.E.) or Simon (143-c.135 B.C.C.). ..." James Charlesworth is a professor of New Testament Language and Literature and editor of the Dead Sea Scrolls Project at Princeton Theological Seminary. The back of the book cover says "'These balanced and excellently document discussion swill go a long way in undermining some rather fanciful views which journalists and less critical and careful students of the matters under review have in recent years fed to the public.' - Shemaryahu Talmon - The Hebrew University of Jerusalem"

Geza Vermes in The Dead Sea Scrolls in English p.32 does not give a complete description, but shows the Teacher of righteousness came on the scene before Chrsit. He says "As it happens, if to this figure of 390 years is added, firstly twenty (during which the ancestors of the Community 'groped' for their way until the entry on the scene of the Teacher of Righteousness), then another forty (the time span between the death of the Teacher and the dawn of the messianic epoch), the total stretch of years arrived at is 450. And if to this total is added the duration of the Teacher's ministry of say, forty years - customary round figure - the final results is the classic seventy times seven years [of Daniel 9:20-27]." Geza Vermes taught at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Oxford, and is now Professor Emeritus at Wolfson College.

How Many Messiahs?

(1 entry)

Here is the conclusion of James Charlesworth: They [the Qumran Community] held firmly to the belief that God would soon vindicate them by sending one or, most likely, two Messiahs." (Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls p.144)

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