Bible Query – Early Manuscripts of Galatians

January 18, 2018 version

 

Q: In Gal, what are early New Testament manuscripts we have preserved today?

A: Here are many of them.

p46 Chester Beatty II 100-150 A.D. contains 140 verses. Specifically it has Galatians 1:1-8; 1:10-2:9; 2:12-21; 3:2-29; 4:2-18; 4:20-5:17; 5:20-6:8; 6:10-18 and other parts of Paul's letters and Hebrews. The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts has a photograph of part of p46 on p.192. It also says on p.197-198 that the quality and the stichiometric marks show that a professional scribe wrote this. A quite readable photograph of the page of the Chester Beatty papyrii of Galatians 6:10-18 and the start of Philippians is in Paul : Apostle of the Heart Set Free.

First half of 3rd century - 1936 - Frederic G. Kenyon according to The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts.

2nd century, 200 A.D. - 1935 - Ulrich Wilken according to The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts.

200 A.D. - 1968 - The Text of the New Testament.

81-96 A.D. - 1988 - Young Kyu Kim according to The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts.

About 200 A.D. - 1975 - Aland et al. Third edition.

About 200 A.D. - 1998 - Aland et al. Fourth revised edition.

Early to middle 2nd century - 1999 - The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts. This is based in part on the handwriting being very similar to Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 8 (late first or early second century) and Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 2337 (late first century).

p51 (=Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 2157) Galatians 1:2-10,13,16-20 c.400 A.D.

c.400 A.D. - 1968 - The Text of the New Testament.

About 400 A.D. - 1975 - Aland et al. Third Edition

About 400 A.D. - 1998 - Aland et al. Fourth Revised Edition

Vaticanus 325-350 A.D.

Sinaiticus 340-350 A.D.

Bohairic Coptic 3rd/4th century

Sahidic Coptic 3rd/4rth century

Gothic 493-555 A.D.

Palestinian Syriac [Syr Pal] from c.6th century

Peshitta Syriac [Syr P] 411-435 A.D. Over 350 manuscripts.

Harclean Syriac [Syr H] 616.A.D Thomas of Harkel

062 Fifth century Gal 4:23 and other verses

0176 Fifth century Gal 3:17,19 and other verses

0261 Fifth century Gal 4:28 and other verses

 

Q: In Gal, what are the textual variations with the Textus Receptus, the basis for the KJV?

A: Jay P. Green, Sr. in the Interlinear Bible records variations in approximately 10 words between the Textus Receptus and the majority text. These are in 8 places (Galatians 1:4,17; 2:2; 3:8; 4:11,24; 5:7; 6:13). In addition, he also records approximately 2 words (2 places) of alternates.

 

Q: In Gal, what are some of the textual variations?

A: Paul's Letter to the Galatians has a total of 2,230 Greek words in 149 verses. This is the count in both Aland et al. 3rd edition and Aland et al. 4th revised edition, including 11 words in brackets. The text of the 3rd edition is on-line at http://www.greekbible.com. Galatians has an estimated word-for-word accuracy of 98.1%, with 43 words in question. These are in 31 verses (34 places). Of these, 28 are single word, 5 and double word, and 1 is four words.

   Below are the variations with the primary choice and the top alternate choice. Aland et al. 4th revised edition and 3rd edition, from which this primarily is based, also give a judgment of the degree of certainty per variation. The list below does not include many places where the evidence for a particular reading is so strong that the alternatives are very unlikely. See the next question for which manuscripts support which variants.

Gal 1:3 "our Father and Lord" vs. "Father and our Lord"

Gal 1:6 "Christ" vs. "Jesus Christ"

Gal 1:8 "preach a gospel to you" vs. "preach to you a gospel"

Gal 1:11 "for" different Greek words

Gal 1:15 "when God pleased" vs. "when pleased" (2 words)

Gal 1:18a "then after three years I went up" vs. "then after I went up" (only in Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus, so 2 words not counted in the totals)
Gal 1:18b "Cephas" vs. "Peter" (both are names for the same person.) The second is only in Becae Cantabrigiensis, corrected Sinaiticus, and later manuscripts, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

Gal 2:1 fourteen years again "I went" vs. "consumed"

Gal 2:5 "to whom" (most manuscripts) vs. "whom" (Bezae Cantabrigiensis (=D)) so not counted in the totals

Gal 2:9 "Cephas" vs. "Peter" (p46, Bezae Cantabrigiensis, Italic D, Marcion, Origen, )

Gal 2:11 "Cephas" vs. "Peter (only in Bezae Cantabrigiensis, Harclean Syriac, and apparently some Vulgate, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

Gal 2:12a case of "some"

Gal 2:12b case of "they came"

Gal 2:14 "Cephas" vs. "Peter (only in Bezae Cantabrigiensis, Harclean Syriac, and apparently some Vulgate, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

Gal 2:20 "Son of God" vs. "God the Son" (2 words)

Gal 3:1a "you bewitched you" vs. "you bewitched you not to obey the truth" (only in Ephraemi Rescriptus , apparently the Vulgate, and Harclean Syriac, so 4 words not counted in the totals)

Gal 3:1b "was written crucified" vs. "was written crucified among you" (only in Bezae Cantabrigiensis, Italic d, Harclean Syriac so 2 words not counted in the totals)

Gal 3:12 "shall live in them" vs. "man shall live in them" (only in some Vulgate, later italic, and corrected Becae Cantabrigiensis, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

Gal 3:14 "blessing vs. "promise"

Gal 3:16 "who is Christ" vs. "of whom is Christ" (only in F and G, so 1 word not included in the totals) (The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture p.241)

Gal 3:17 "God" vs. "God to Christ"

Gal 3:19 "for the sake of it was added" vs. "for the sake of it was appointed" vs. "for action of it appointed" (2 words)

Gal 3:21 "promises of God" vs. "promises of Christ"

Gal 3:28 "for to be" vs. "to be" vs. "in to be in" (Italic) vs. "to be" (p46, Alexandrinus) vs. "to be in" (original Sinaiticus)

Gal 4:4 "come from woman" vs. "having been made" (only in Latin texts so 3 words not counted in the totals (The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture p.239)

Gal 4:6 "your (plural) hearts" vs. "our hearts"

Gal 4:7a "by God" vs. "God"

Gal 4:7b "through God" vs. "of God through Christ" (2 words)

Gal 4:14 "my" vs. "our" temptation

Gal 4:23 "he of the slave-woman" vs. "he indeed of the slave-woman"

Gal 4:25a "Now/And (δὲ )" vs. "But/For (γάρ)"

Gal 4:25b "Now Hagar is Mount Sinai" vs. "For Sinai is a mountain" approximately (4 words)

Gal 4:26 mother of all of us" vs. "mother of us"

Gal 4:28 "we… we are" vs. "you … you are" (2 words)

Gal 5:1 "with which Christ us made free" vs. "with which us Christ made free"

Gal 5:7 "you do not obey the truth" vs. "you do not obey truth"

Gal 5:9 "a little leaven all the lump leavens" vs. "a little leaven all the lump corrupts" (only in Bezae Cantabrigiensis, Italic d, and Vulgate, so 1 word not counted in the totals. This is also in 1 Cor 5:6)

Gal 5:11 "scandal of the cross" vs. "scandal of the cross of Christ" (Alexandrinus, Ephraemi Rescriptus, Coptic, Ethiopic)

Gal 5:20 "fighting" vs. "fightings"

Gal 5:21 absent (p46, Siniaticus, Vaticanus, Sahidic Coptic, some Georgian, Clement of Rome, Marcion ) vs. "murders" Alexandrinus, Ephraemi Rescriptus, Bezae Cantabrigiensis, Byzantine Lectionary, Italic, Bohairic Coptic, Armenian, Ethiopic, some Georgian, Chrysostom, Priscillian, Pelagius)

Gal 5:23 "self-control" (p46, Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, Ephraemi Rescriptus, Byzantine Lectionary, Syraic, Sahidic Coptic, Bohairic Coptic, Armenian, Ethiopic, some Georgian, Chrysostom) vs. "self-control, chastity" (original Bezae Cantabrigiensis, Priscillian) vs. "self-control, patience" (later manuscripts) (no reliable early manuscripts differ, so not counted in the totals)

Gal 5:24 "Christ Jesus" (Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, Ephraemi Rescriptus, Sahidic Coptic, Bohairic Coptic, some Georgian) vs. "Christ (p46, Bezae Cantabrigiensis, Byzantine Lectionary, Syriac, Armenian, some Georgian, Chrysostom) vs. "Lord Jesus Christ" (original Sinaiticus)

Gal 6:2 "you will/shall fulfill" vs. "you fulfill" vs. "you will satisfy"

Gal 6:10 "we should work" vs. "we shall work"

Gal 6:13 "are circumcision" vs. "have been circumcision"

Gal 6:14 "God forbid that I should glory/boast except in the cross of Christ" vs. ""God forbid that I should glory/boast in anything except in the cross of Christ" (only in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.3.5 p.320 so 2 words not counted in the totals)

Gal 6:15 "And not/neither/nor for" vs. "In/by for"

Gal 6:17 "Jesus" vs. "Christ" vs. "Lord Jesus" vs. "Lord Jesus Christ" vs. "our Lord Jesus Christ" vs. "my Lord Jesus Christ" (counted as 1 word)

Postscript in some manuscripts:, "To Galatians written from Rome." (5 words)

Bibliography for this question: The Greek New Testament Third Edition by Kurt Aland et al., The Greek New Testament Fourth Edition by Kurt Aland et al., Interlinear Greek-English New Testament by George Ricker Berry, the Interlinear Bible by Jay P. Green, The Expositor's Bible Commentary volume 8, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament 2nd edition by Bruce M. Metzger, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture by Bart Ehrman, The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts edited by Philip W. Comfort and David P. Barrett, The Expositor's Greek Testament edited by W. Robertson Nicoll, and footnotes in the NASB, NIV, NKJV, and NRSV Bible translations. Manuscripts of the Greek Bible : An Introduction to Paleography by Bruce M. Metzger also has interesting information on the characteristics and quality of the copying of each manuscript.

 

Q: In Gal, how do the early manuscripts compare with each other?

A: The table below shows each of the places in question, and the number says which variant is in each manuscript.


This chart shows variants of early writers and manuscripts of Galatians. The darker the shading the later the writing. Shaded verses mean we are virtually certain of the correct reading. For each verse, the variant Aland et al. views as correct is labeled as "1", the next choice "2", and so on. Corrections to manuscripts by later scribes are not included. "A" after a choice simply means the choice with the fewest words. A question mark means it is probably but not certain the manuscript had these words. Parentheses means fragmentary or hard to read. Where there is more than one number, such as "1 /2?", this means that one or more manuscripts in the family give the first choice, and one or more manuscripts are not clear, but appear to give the second choice. A parenthesis, such as (6), means that through translation or loss of letters are not sure, but it appears to support reading 6. Writers not shown here are Eusebius, Cyril, Ambrosiaster, Victorinus-Rome, Basil, Epiphanius, Didymus, Ambrose, Jerome, Niceta, Priscillian, Cassian

Place of variant

words

p51

p46

062

0176

0261

Sah

Fay

Boh

Iren

Clem A

Tert.

Origen

Cyp

Adam

B

Si

Hilary

Lucif.

Chrys.

Pelag.

Ital b

Ital d

Vulgate family

Eth

A

C

D

I

Arm

Geo

Syr Pal

Syr P

Syr H

Byz

Gal 1:3

1 (order)

1?

2

-

-

 

2

-

(2)

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

1

-

-

2/3

3

1

2

1?/2/ 3?

(2)

1

-

2

-

2

3

2

2

2

2

Gal 1:6

1

1

4A?

-

-

 

3

-

-

-

-

-

3

4A

-

1

1

-

-

1

4A

4A

2

1/ (2?)

1?

1

-

2

-

1

1

1

1

2

1

Gal 1:8

1 (order)

2?

-

-

-

 

-

-

-

-

-

4/5/6

4

6

4

2

5

4

5

1

1

5

4

1

-

4

-

1

-

3

3

-

-

-

1/ 3

Gal 1:11

1

-

2

-

-

 

1

-

2

-

-

-

2

-

-

1

2

-

-

-

1

2

1

1/ 2?

-

2

-

1

-

3A

2/ 3A

2

2

2

2/ 3A

Gal 1:15

2

-

2

 

-

 

1

-

1

2/ 3

-

 

1

-

1

2

1

-

-

1

3

3

1

2

1

1

-

1

 

1

1

1

2

1

1

Gal 1:18a

2

-

1

 

 

 

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

-

 

1

2

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

-

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gal 1:18b

1 Ceph/Pet

1

1

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

 

 

 

-

 

1

1

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

-

2

 

 

 

1

1

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gal 2:1

1 (order)

-

1

-

-

 

1

-

3

3

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

-

 

1

2

2

1/ 3?

2

1

4

2

-

1

1/3

-

-

-

1

Gal 2:5

1

-

1

-

-

 

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

-

1

4

4

4

1

(1)

1

1

4

-

1

 

1

-

1

1

Gal 2:9

1 Ceph/Pet

 

3

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

4

 

 

1

1

 

 

 

4

 

4

1/ 4?

 

2

1

4

1?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gal 2:11

1 Ceph/Pet

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

1/ 2?

 

 

1

2

1?

 

 

 

 

2

 

Gal 2:12a

1

-

2

-

-

 

1

-

1

2

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

-

1

1

(1)

2

1

1

1

1

1

-

1

1

-

1

1

1

Gal 2:12b

1

-

2

-

-

 

1

-

1

2

-

-

-

 

-

2

2

-

-

1

1

2

2

1

1

1

1

2

-

1

1/ 2

-

1

1

1

Gal 2:14

1 Ceph/Pet

-

1

-

 

 

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

-

 

2

 

 

1/ 2?

 

1

1

2

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

Gal 2:20

2

-

2

-

-

 

1

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

2

1

-

-

1

1

(2)

2

1

1

1

1

2

-

1

1

-

1

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gal 3:1a

4

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

2?

 

1

2

1

-

 

 

 

1

2

 

Gal 3:1b

2

 

 

 

 

 

1

-

1

 

 

 

 

-

 

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

1

1

1

2

 

1

 

 

1

2

 

Gal 3:12

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gal 3:14

1

-

2

-

-

 

1

-

1

-

-

-

1

-

-

1

1

-

-

1

1

2

2

1/ 2?

1

1

1

2

-

1

1

1

1

1

1

Gal 3:17

1

-

1

-

2

 

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

-

2

1

2

2

1/ 2?

1

1

1

2

-

2

1

-

2

2

2

Gal 3:19

2

-

4

-

1?

 

1

-

1

3

(1)

-

1?

-

-

1

1

-

-

-

2

3

2

2

-

1

1

2

-

1

1

-

-

-

1

Gal 3:21

1

-

3A

-

-

 

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

3A

1

-

-

1

1

1

3

1

-

1

1

1

-

1

1

1

1

1

1

Gal 3:28

1

-

4

-

-

 

-

-

-

-

1

-

3

-

-

1

5

3

-

1/3

3

3

3

3/(5?)

(1)

4

1

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gal 4:6

1

-

1

-

-

 

1

-

1pt

-

-

-

1

-

-

1

1

1

-

2

1

1

1

1/ 2

2

1

1

-

-

1

1

1

2

2

1/ 2

Gal 4:7a

1

-

1

 

 

 

3

-

1

 

 

 

 

-

 

1

1

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

6

1

1

 

 

4

1/5

3

6

6

5

Gal 4:7b

2

-

1

-

-

 

3

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

-

5

1

1

5

1

6

1

1

-

-

4

1/5

3

6

6

5

Gal 4:14

1

-

4

-

-

 

5

-

1

-

-

-

2

-

-

1

1

-

-

5

1

1

1

1/ 4?

-

1

5?

1

-

3

3

-

3

5

5

Gal 4:23

1

-

2

1?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

2

1

 

 

 

2

 

 

2

 

1

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Gal 4:25a

1

-

-

-

-

-

3/ 4

-

1

-

-

-

5

-

-

1

5

-

-

2

5

5

3

-

5

1

5

-

-

2

2/4

1

2

2

1/ 2

Gal 4:25b

4

 

3

 

 

 

3

 

1?

 

 

 

 

-

 

1

4

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

4

1

4

1

 

2

2/4

1

2

2

2

Gal 4:26

1

-

1

1?

-

 

1

-

1

1

-

-

1/ 2

-

-

1

1

1

-

1

1

2

1

1/ 2?

1

2

1

1

-

2

1/ 2

2

1

2

2

Gal 4:28

2

-

1

-

-

1?

1

-

2

1

-

-

1

-

-

1

2

-

-

2

2

1

1

1?/2

2

2

2

1

-

2

2

1

2

2

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gal 5:1

1 (order)

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

(1)

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

-

-

(7)

2

(7)

(7)

-

1

2

2

-

-

4

-

-

-

2/5

Gal 5:7

1

-

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

2A

2A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2A

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gal 5:9

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gal 5:11

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gal 5:20

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

1

2

1

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

Gal 5:21

1

-

1

-

-

-

1

-

2

1

1

-

1

2

-

1

1

-

2

2

2

2

2

1?/ 2

2

2

2

2

-

2

1/ 2

-

(2)

2

2

Gal 5:23

1

-

1

-

-

-

1

-

1

2

-

-

1/ 2

2

-

1

1

-

-

1

2

2

2

1/ 2

1

1

1

2

-

1

1/ 2

-

1

1

1

Gal 5:24

1

-

3

-

-

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

3

2

-

1

2

2

-

3

3

3

3

2

(1)

1

1

3

-

3

1/ 3

(1)

3

3

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gal 6:2

1

-

2

-

-

-

1

-

1

-

3

-

-

1

-

1

3

-

-

1/ 2

1

1

1

1

1

3

3

3

-

3

3

-

-

-

3

Gal 6:10

1

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

1

1

-

1

1

-

-

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

-

 

 

-

-

-

1/ 2

Gal 6:13

1

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gal 6:15

1

-

1

-

-

-

1?/2?

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

2

-

-

1

2

2

2

2

-

2

2

2

-

1? / 2?

1/ 2

(1)

(1)

2

2

Gal 6:17

1

-

1

-

 

 

1

 

2

 

 

 

5

-

 

1

3

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

2

1

1

4

 

2

 

1

4

 

 

postscript

5

-

1

-

 

 

 

(2)

 

-

-

-

 

-

-

2

2

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

(2)

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

Place of variant

words

p51

p46

062

0176

0261

Sah

Fay

Boh

Iren

Clem A

Tert.

Origen

Cyp

Adam

B

Si

Hilary

Lucif.

Chrys.

Pelag.

Ital b

Ital d

Vulgate family

Eth

A

C

D

I

Arm

Geo

Syr Pal

Syr P

Syr H

Byz

by Steven M. Morrison, PhD.