John – Jesus Christ, I Am

Oct. 24, 2019 version

 

With four gospels, the story of Jesus is given to us in “quadraphonic stereo”, with four evangelists giving us four perspectives. Matthew emphasizes the prophecies of our coming King, Mark emphasizes Jesus as the servant, Luke emphasizes the humanity of Christ, and John emphasizes the deity of Christ. The early church thought of the four gospels as the four faces of the cherubim: a lion, an ox, a man, and an eagle. The first three gospels are more similar to each other than they are to John. It is thought that John wrote his gospel last, and it is likely he was aware of the other gospels and made sure to include things the others did not. For example, John mentions John the Baptist in John 1:19mwith an assumption the reader already knows who he is.

 

   John emphasizes that Jesus is God. Jesus Christ, God and God the Son, came and died so that his sheep will believe, and believing may have the light and life through the Son. He uses the verb “believe/belief/put faith in” 98 times, which is more than Matthew, Mark, and Luke combined. Curiously the noun form is not present in the Greek of John. Christ is the only hope. For those who hope in Christ, He restores the Samaritan woman, the adulterous woman, Peter, and other guilty of greater sins than these.

   It is generally agreed that John is the last gospel written, likely even after Clement of Rome wrote in 96-98 A.D. In John 20:30, John indicates he did not write many things that Jesus did. John probably was aware of the other gospels and his gospel has less emphasis on the doings of Jesus and fills in the gaps on the teaching not in the other gospels. A key verse is John 20:31, where these are written that we might believe.

   As for cults, John 5:23 (honor the Son as you honor the Father) and John 20:28 (said to Jesus my Lord and My God, physical body), stand out as good verses to use with Jehovah’s Witnesses.

 

Pre-Nicene writers who refer to the Gospel of John

Elders (Papias?) (95-117 A.D.)

Treatise Against Novatian (254-267 A.D.)

Ignatius of Antioch (c.100-117 A.D.) allusion

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.)

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) allusion

Roman Elders to Cyprian (250-251 A.D.)

Letter to Diognetus (c.130-200 A.D.) allusion

Firmilian of Caesarea (256 A.D.)

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.)

7th Council of Carthage (c.256 A.D.)

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) 853 verses

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) (Jn 20:1)

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (177 A.D.)

Letter of Hymenaeus (268 A.D.)

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.)

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.)

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (Jn 1:6)

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.)

The Muratorian Canon (180-210 A.D.)

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.)

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.)

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.)

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.)

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.)

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.)

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (Jn 9:39)

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.)

Novatian (250-257 A.D.)

 

Writings up through 325 A.D. quote 96.7% of the 879 verses of the Gospel of John: every single verse of John except for 28.78 verses.

 

 

 

Early manuscripts of the Gospel of John

p5 (=Pap. Oxy. 208 1781) John 1:23-31,33-40;16:14-30;20:11-17,19-20,22-25 early 3rd century

p6 John 10:1-2,4-7,9-10; 11:1-8,45-52 (4th century) Agrees with Vaticanus.

p22 (=Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1228) (c.250 A.D.) John 15:25-27; 16:1-2, 21-32

p28 (=Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1596) (3rd century) John 6:6-12, 17-22

p39 (=Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1780) John 8:14-22 first half of 3rd century.

p45 Chester Beatty I Much of all four gospels and Acts. It includes John 4:51,54; 5:21,24; 10:7-25; 2 complete out of 16 letters of 10:30; 10:31-11:10; 11:18-36,42-57. It was copied 100-150 A.D.. (formerly thought late 2nd or early 3rd century.)

p52 John Rylands papyrus (2 1/2 by 3 1/2 fragment of parts of John 18:31-33; 37-38) 117-138

p66 Bodmer II Papyrii (808.5 verses: John 1:1-6:11, 6:35b-14:26,29-30; 15:2-26; 16:2-4; 16:6-7; 16:10-20:20; 20:22-23; 20:25-21:9; 21:12,17 (fragments of John 19:16) (John 7:53-8:11 were never present.) (dates of c.175 or c.125-150 A.D.)

p75 Bodmer 14/15 Papyrii (most of Luke and John. John 1:1-11:45; 11:48-57; 12:3-13:1; 13:8-9; 14:8-15; part of 14:16; 14:17-29; 15:7-8) 175-200 A.D., or 175-225 A.D. (John 7:53-8:11 were never present.)

p80 John 3:34, followed by interpretation. middle 3rd century.

p90 John 18:36-19:7 (c.175 A.D.)

p95 John 5:26-29, 36-38. 3rd century.

p106 (= Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 4445) John 1:29-35; 40-46 (3rd century)

p107 (=Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 4446) John 17:1-2; 11 (3rd century)

p108 (=Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 4447) John 17:23-24; 18:1-5 (3rd century)

p109 (=Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 4448) John 21:18-20; 21:23-35 (3rd century)

Bohairic Coptic [Boh] 3rd/4th century

Sahidic Coptic [Sah] 3rd/4rth century

0162 (=Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 847) John 2:11-22. Late 3rd or 4th century.

Vaticanus [B] (325-350 A.D.) and Sinaiticus [Si] (340-350 A.D.) have all of John except for John 7:53-8:11.

Note that manuscripts up through 200 A.D. (p45, p52, p66, p75, p90), contain 844 out of the 879 verses of John (96%). That is every verse except for 35: John 7:53-8:11; 14:31-15:1; 15:27-16:1; 16:5; 16:8-9; 20:21; 20:24; 21:10-11; 21:13-16; 21:18-22; 21:23-25.

John 21:23-25 are in p5 (early 3d century) and p109 (3rd century)

 

Main Message of the Gospel of John

In the gospel of John Jesus uses seven signs to make seven “I am” declarations.

I am the bread of life. - John 6:35-51

I am the light of the world. - John 8:12

I am the door of the sheep. - John 10:7-9

I am the good shepherd. - John 10:11-14

I am the resurrection and the life. - John 11:25

I am the way, the truth, and the life. - John 14:6

I am the true vine. - John 15:1-5

Consider how Jesus is recognized in each of these ways in your life. Are there some aspects that are not really emphasized in your life as much as they should be?

 

 

Here is an outline of the Gospel of John. The seven signs were completed before Passion Week.

Jn 1:1-18 Prologue: The Word made flesh

Jn 1:19-51 The beginning of Ministry: John the Baptist and the first disciples

Jn 2-11 Public Ministry in Seven Signs

- Jn 2:1-11 Sign 1: First miracle: turning water to wine in Cana

 - Jn 2:12-25 First cleansing of the Temple

 - Jn 3:1-21 Nicodemus asks Jesus

 - Jn 3:22-4:3 Parallel with John the Baptist

 - Jn 4:4-42 Woman at the Well

 - Jn 4:43-54 Sign 2: At Cana healing the official’s son in Capernaum

 - Jn 5 Feast in Jerusalem

 - - Jn 5:16-47 Sign 3: Healing the invalid at the Pool of Bethesda in Jerusalem 5:1-15

 - - Jesus and the Father

 - Jn 6:1-14 Sign 4: Feeding the 5,000 near the Sea of Galilee

 - Jn 6:15-21 Sign 5: Walking on water

 - Jn 6:25-71 Declaration 1: I am the bread of Life

 - Jn 7-8 Opposition: The Feast of Tabernacles in Jerusalem

 - - Jn 7:1-52 Jewish unbelief

 - - Jn 7:53-8:11 Forgiveness: The woman caught in adultery

 - - Jn 8:12-59 Declaration 2: I am the light of the World

 - Jn 9 Sign 6: Healing the man born blind in Jerusalem

 - Jn 10:1-21 Declarations 3 and 4: I am the Gate for the sheep and the Good Shepherd

 - Jn 10:22-39 Debating at the Feast of Dedication

 - Jn 10:40-42 Ministry in Perea

 - Jn 11 Sign 7: Raising Lazarus in Bethany. Declaration 5: I am the Resurrection and the Life

Jn 12-19 Passion Week of Jesus’ Glory

 - Jn 12:1-11 Anointing Jesus’ feet

 - Jn 12:12-19 The Triumphal entry

 - Jn 12:20-36 Coming of the Greeks

 - Jn 12:37-50 Continued Jewish unbelief

 - Jn 13-17 Private ministry

 - - Jn 13-14 Last Supper

 - - - Jn 13 The Last Supper

 - - - Jn 14 Declaration 6: I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life

 - - Jn 15-16 Declaration 7: I am the true Vine

 - - Jn 17 Jesus’ high priestly prayer

 - Jn 18-19 The Passion

 - - Jn 18:1-12 Jesus betrayed and arrested

 - - Jn 18:13-19:15 Trials of Jesus

 - - Jn 19:16-42 Crucifixion, death, and burial

Jn 20 The Triumph of the Resurrection

Jn 21 Epilogue: Fish and Feed

 - Miraculous catch of 153 fish 21:1-14

 - Peter reinstated 21:15-25

Others would put John 12 with John 2-11.

 

The Gospel of John is very similar in style to 1, 2, and 3 John. John does not attempt to meekly answer the question: “Who is Jesus”. Rather John is bold in thunderously proclaiming: “This is Jesus!” My prayer is that we be bolder in our proclamation of the gospel too.


John 1:1 – In the Beginning was the Word

 

1. In Jn 1:1, should this be translated as “was divine”, “was God”, or “was a God” as Jehovah’s Witnesses say?

 

 

2. In Jn 1:1, what are some other examples of how Jehovah’s Witnesses corrupt their scripture?

 

 

3. In Jn 1:1, what did the early church teach about this verse and the Word being God?

 

 

4. In Jn 1:1, is it true that the doctrine that Jesus was God in human form was not finalized until after 300 A.D.?

 

 

5. In Jn 1:1, how could the Word both be God and with God?

 

 

6. In Jn 1:1, how could God be incarnated as a man?

 

 

7. In Jn 1:1 I have been struggling understanding the theanthropic nature of Christ. Was Jesus mentally fully mature, knowing all things even as an infant? Even though he became a man did he still have the infinite mind of God, Luke 2:52 says "Jesus grew in wisdom and in stature, and in favor with God and man" If Jesus did not change who He was when he came into flesh than why did he grow in knowledge, wisdom, and favor with God, when he was already the infinite God?

 

 

8. In Jn 1:1, how else do we know that Jesus is God?

 

 

9. In Jn 1:1, was this concept of an eternal word borrowed from Greek philosophy?

 

 

 

10. In Jn 1:1, was there a time before Jesus existed?

 

 

11. In Jn 1:1 did Jesus merely preexist only in God’s foreknowledge, as the Way International teaches?

 

 

12. In Jn 1:1, since the Word (Logos) is God, does this mean that God is impersonal, as Mary Baker Eddy, founder of the Christian Science cult taught in Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures p.117?


John 1:2-18 – The Glorious Incarnation - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 1:2, if all things were created by the Word, does that include time, space, science, natural laws, and mathematics?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 1:4, how is Jesus the life of men?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 1:4, did Jesus complete His mission even before he was even crucified as Muslim apologist Jamal Badawi asserts in his Tape Series 9 table 3?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 1:6,19, is the John mentioned here the writer of this book?

 

 

 

5. In Jn 1:8 were those some after the crucifixion who thought John the Baptist was the Messiah, as Asimov’s Guide to the Bible p.965 says?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 1:9, how is Jesus the true light which gives light to every man?

 

 

 

7. In Jn 1:13, is it not our will that makes us born again?

 

 

 

8. In Jn 1:14, how could Almighty God, with Everlasting Life, become a mortal man who died?

 

 

 

9. In Jn 1:14, how did they see the glory of Jesus, since Jesus emptied Himself in Php 2:6-7?

 

 

 

10. In Jn 1:14, how could God’s nature be mingled/synthesized/place alongside Jesus’ human nature?

 

 

 

11. In Jn 1:14, when Jesus came to earth did He lose His deity, as Herbert W. Armstrong said?

 

 

 

13. In Jn 1:17, did Moses give the Law, or did God give it?

 

 

 

14. In Jn 1:18, since no man has seen God, how could Jesus be God, since people saw Jesus?

 

 

 

15. In Jn 1:18, since no man has seen God, how could Jesus have seen God?

 

 

 

16. In Jn 1:18 is Jesus the only Son of God, or can we be sons of God too, as Jn 1:12 says?


John 1:19-51 – The Forerunner John the Baptist

 

1. In Jn 1:21, why did John the Baptist say he was not Elijah, since Jesus said he was in Mt 11:14?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 1:21, was John the Baptist wrong to say he was not Elijah, as the heretic Rev. Moon teaches in the Divine Principle (fifth edition 1977)?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 1:29, why did God demand a sacrifice to forgive our sins, since we should forgive others without requiring more than repentance?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 1:31,33, how did John not know Jesus, since their mothers were cousins?

 

 

 

5. In Jn 1:32-33, how could the Holy Spirit have a localized presence and rest on Jesus in the form of a dove?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 1:38-39, why did Jesus not complain when they called him Rabbi (Master), since Jesus said in Mt 23:7,8 to have no man call you master?

 

 

7. In Jn 1:39, when was the tenth hour?

 

 

8. In Jn 1:39, Jesus why do you think Jesus simply said “come and you will see” instead of saying the entire picture, “Please be my disciple, and later my apostle, and lead God’s church and die for your faith? Why don’t we always get the complete picture?

 

 

 

9. In Jn 1:42, did Jesus first call Simon “Cephas / Peter” here, or later in his ministry at Capernaum, as in Mt 16:18?

 

 

10. In Jn 1:51, when will Nathanael see the angels ascending and descending upon Jesus?

 

 

11. In Jn 1:51, why does Jesus frequently call Himself the Son of Man?

 


John 2:1-11 – Water to Wine

 

1. In Jn 2:1, what were the jars like?

 

 

 

2. In Mk 1:12-13, did Jesus go in the wilderness for 40 days after His baptism, or did He go to the wedding feast in Cana on the third day as Jn 2:1 says?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 2:3-10, I see always that Jesus never does things without purpose or at random. Why is the first recorded miracle turning water to wine at a wedding? Could it have to do with wine = His blood, ceremonial cleansing, or a new marriage covenant with all who believe in Him? These are things I have pondered and I wonder how off base I am, I don’t want to reach beyond the Scriptures like is soooo popular these days.

 

 

 

4. In Jn 2:3, metaphorically speaking, how do we invite Jesus to our wedding, and our marriage?

 

 

 

 

5. In Jn 2:3-10, was this wine alcoholic?

 

 

6. In Jn 2:1-11 was this Jesus’ own wedding, and from Lk 8:3-4, did Jesus marry one or more of the women who accompanied the disciples as polygamous Mormons and some other cults believe?

 

 

 

7. In Jn 2:4, why did Jesus say His hour had not yet come?

 

 

 

8. In Jn 2:4, why did Jesus call His mother “woman”, using the same word He called a prostitute “woman” in Jn 8:10? (The Muslim Ahmad Deedat brought this up.)

 

 

 

9. In Jn 2:10, how does God give us fulfillment like wine today?

 

 

 

10. In Jn 2:11, what does this say about Jesus performing an prior miracles?


John 2:12-25 – The First Temple Cleansing

 

1. In Jn 2:12-22 what was so wrong with the money changers?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 2:14 what is an important difference between the moneychangers and those who sold animals?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 2:15 how might a church need cleansing like this today?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 2:16 in what way were the moneychangers and animal sellers very similar?

 

 

 

5. In Jn 2:17 what are some ways Christians lose their awe of God, and how can they get it back?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 2:20, why did they say the temple took 46 years to build, when it did not?

 

 

 

7. In Jn 2:20, how did it take 46 years to build the temple?

 

 

 

8. In Jn 2:20, why do you think Jesus even brought up the temple here?

 

 

 

9. In Jn 2:12-22, did Jesus cleanse the temple at the beginning of His ministry, or in the last week in Mk 11:1-19; Mt 21:12-13; Lk 19:45?

 

 

10. In Jn 2:12-22, what do you suppose the money changers after Jesus left the first time? – and the second? What was the point?

 

 

11. In Jn 2:12-22, why do you think most did not change?

 

 

12. In Jn 2:12-22, if Jesus came to declare Himself as the Messiah, why did He get bogged down with people selling in the Temple?


John 3:1-12 – Do You Know How to be Born Again?

 

1. In Jn 3, how does Jn 2:13-3:21 contrast with Jn 2:13-3:21?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 3:1-21, whatever happened to Nicodemus?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 3:3, does the Greek say “born again” or “born from above”?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 3:1-21, Bart Ehrman mentions that in conversation with Nicodemus, Jesus uses a Greek double entendre (play on words): “from above” and “second time” would be different in Aramaic. Ehrman does not believe that Jesus could speak Greek.

 

 

 

5. In Jn 3:3, was Jesus teaching reincarnation when He mentioned being born again?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 3:5, are only a small “anointed class” of 144,000 born again and live forever in heaven, as the Jehovah’s Witnesses teach (Watchtower Magazine, February 15, 1986 p.14)?

 

 

 

7. In Jn 3:3-21, could you please explain the difference between create and recreate, born and reborn, made and made new?

 

 

8. In Jn 3:3-8, what does it mean to be born again?

 

 

9. In Jn 3:5, is it impossible to go to Heaven unless one has the Holy Spirit?

 

 

10. In Jn 3:5, very briefly, what is the water here?

 

 

11. In Jn 3:5, is “baptismal regeneration” true, the belief that water baptism is necessary for salvation?

 

 

12. In Jn 3:5, if someone did believe in the error of baptismal regeneration, would that be a soul-perishing heresy?


John 3:13-22 – How to be Born Again

 

1. Since Jn 3:13 seems to say that no one has ever ascended into heaven, what about Elijah and Enoch, etc? Or what about all the saints of the Old Testament? Where were they, if not in heaven? (The Muslim Ahmad Deedat brought this up.)

 

 

 

2. Compare Jn 3:13 (“And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man...) to 2 Ki 2:11 (“. . . and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven”). Did Jesus err, because 2 Ki 2:11 shows Elijah went up earlier?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 3:13 and Jn 6:38,42, is Christ’s coming down from heaven only a spiritual symbolic fact, not a material fact as Baha’is teach in Some Answered Questions p.103-105?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 3:14, how did a bronze serpent in the wilderness relate to Jesus?

 

 

 

5. In Jn 3:16, is it contradictory that the death of Christ is both a sacrifice and a cosmic event? (Rudolph Bultmann taught this)

 

 

 

6. In Jn 3:16, does God love every single person in the world, or just the people who will be going to Heaven?

 

 

 

7. In Jn 3:16, since Jesus is not a created being, how can He be begotten of God? Muslims deny that Jesus is begotten of God.

 

 

 

8. In Jn 3:16, why can people reject Jesus and go to Hell?

 

 

 

9. In Jn 3:18, are all people really born in a condemned or estranged state?

 

 

 

10. In Jn 3:17; 8:15; 12:47 did Jesus not come to judge the world, or will He judge the world according to Jn 5:22,27; 9:39?

 

 

 

11. In Jn 3:18, is that justice, that we are born in an estranged state?

 

 

 

12. In Jn 3:1-18, Nicodemus came to Jesus at night; either because he was fearful of being seen during the day, or else he did not have any other time. What are some ways we are too busy or too fearful to come to Jesus when we should?

 


John 3:22-36 – John the Baptist Making Christ Famous

 

1. In Jn 3:25-26, why do you think the arguing man asked John about Jesus?

 

 

 

 

2. In Jn 3:27-30, why did John answer the way he did?

 

 

 

 

3. In Jn 3:27, how can we apply “a man can receive only what is given him from heaven” today?

 

 

 

 

4. Hoes does the message of Jn 3:31-36 differ from Jn 3:27-30?

 

 

 

 

5. In Jn 3:32, since no man received Christ’s testimony, how come John the Baptist and others accepted Christ?

 

 

 

 

6. In Jn 3:34-35, since God is Spirit, how can Jesus be the Son of God?

 

 

 

 

7. In Jn 3:36, are all who do not reject Christ going to Heaven, or do you have to actually believe in Christ?

 

 

 

 

8. In Jn 3:36, what about those who have not heard of Christ? Does a just God condemn them to Hell with no chance whatsoever?

 


John 4:1-42 – The Samaritan Woman

 

1. In Jn 4:1-2, why did Jesus not baptize anyone?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 4:1-2, did Jesus ever baptize anyone?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 4:4, did Jesus really have to go through Samaria?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 4:4, why was the Samaritan woman surprised that Christ spoke with her?

 

 

5. In Jn 4:6, since Jesus got tired, and God does not get tired in Ps 121:4, does that mean that Jesus was not God?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 4:9, how did the woman at the well know Jesus was a Jew?

 

 

7. In Jn 4:14, since whoever has drunk Jesus’ water of eternal life will never thirst, how come some Christians do not live contentedly like they should?

 

 

 

8. In Jn 4:23, what does it mean to worship God in “spirit and in truth”?

 

 

9. In Jn 4:23, since we are to worship God the Father, does that mean we are not to worship Jesus as Jehovah’s Witnesses say (Watchtower Magazine February 15, 1983 p.18)?

 

 

10. In Jn 4:24, since God is Spirit, and Jesus is God, how could Jesus really have a physical body? Did Jesus just seem to be a man, as the early heresy of Docetism taught?

 

 

 

11. In Jn 4:26, why was Jesus quick to tell the Samaritan woman He was the Messiah, when Jesus seemed reluctant to do so elsewhere, such as in Mt 16:13-20?

 

 

12. In Jn 4:34, is Jesus saying he was supernaturally fed here?


John 4:43-5:1-24 – Testimony by Deeds and Words – Part 1

 

1. In Jn 4:44; Mt 13:57; and Mk 6:4, since a prophet has no honor in his own country, what about Moses, Ezekiel, and Daniel?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 4:54 how is healing the official’s son the second miraculous sign, since Jn 2:11 was the first miraculous sign of turning water to wine, and in Jn 2:23 in Jerusalem at the Passover many people saw the miraculous signs (plural)?

 

 

 

 

3. In Jn 5:1, which feast was this?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 5:2, is there any archaeological evidence for the Pool of Bethesda in Jerusalem?

 

 

 

 

5. In Jn 5:6, why did Jesus ask the man that obvious question?

 

 

 

 

6. In Jn 5:10, was the healed man breaking the Sabbath, since he was obeying Jesus in carrying his mat?

 

 

 

 

7. In Jn 5:14-15 why did Jesus tell him to stop sinning?

 

 

 

 

8. In Jn 5:14-15 what is the difference between having a false faith, a faith that truly believes in God, and a saving faith?

 

 

 

 

9. In Jn 5:18, when Jesus called God His father, how was this making Himself equal with God?

 

 

 

 

10. In Jn 5:18, is it OK for us to call God our Father, since we are not equal with God?

 

 

 

 

11. In Jn 5:19-20, since Jesus had free agency, why was Jesus unable to do anything except what He saw the Father do?

 

 

 

 

12. In Jn 5:19-22, exactly how did the Father first do everything Jesus did?

 

 

 

 

13. In Jn 5:23, how are we to honor the Son just as we honor the Father who sent Him?

 


John 5:25-47 – Testimony by Deeds and Words – Part 2

 

1. In Jn 5:26, what does it mean “to have life in Himself”?

 

 

 

 

2. In Jn 5:27, how does being a “Son of Man” provide a reason for the Father to give Jesus the authority to judge us?

 

 

 

 

3. In Jn 5:28-29, since those who did good will be resurrected to live, does this mean salvation by works is true?

 

 

 

 

4. In Jn 5:30, how can Jesus be God if by Himself He could do nothing? Even his casting out of devils was by the finger of God in Lk 11:20. (The Muslim Ahmad Deedat brought this up.)

 

 

 

 

5. In Jn 5:30, what is the key different in our own life, between serving God  because of and when it pleases ourselves, and serving God when it does not please ourselves?

 

 

 

 

6. In Jn 5:31, if Jesus bore witness of Himself, would that make His witness untrue?

 

 

 

 

7. In Jn 5:33-34, what is so important about testimony?

 

 

 

 

8. In Jn 5:34, is Jesus using an ad hominem argument, that He Himself did not accept?

 

 

 

 

9. In Jn 5:37, why did Jesus tell the Jews they had not heard God’s voice nor seen His form at any time?

 

 

 

 

10. In Jn 5:39, do we have eternal life from believing the Bible or not?

 

 

 

 

11. In Jn 5:42-43, was the main problem of the Pharisees?

 

 

 

 

12. In Jn 5:43, since Jesus came in His Father’s Name, does that mean that Jesus has the same name as the Father, and thus Jesus is the Father?

 

 

 

 

13. In Jn 5:44, how does receiving honor from others relate to not believing?

 

 

 

 

14. In Jn 5:45-46, how do all who believe Moses believe Jesus? Many Jews today would disagree.


John 6:1-27 – Feeding the 5,000 and Walking on Water

 

1. In Mt 14:15-21; Mk 6:30-44; Lk 9:12-17; and Jn 6:1-14, some skeptics have claimed that is a duplicate of feeding the 4,000 in Mt 15:32-38; Mk 8:2-9. But how are they different?

 

 

 

 

2. In Jn 6:5-6, why did Jesus ask a question, since he already knew the answer?

 

 

 

 

3. In Jn 6:5-6, why did Jesus ask Philip instead of one of the others?

 

 

 

 

4. In Jn 6:13, since Jesus could multiply the food so easily, why pick up the leftovers?

 

 

 

 

5. In Jn 6:19, how 6:19, how could Jesus walk on water?

 

 

 

 

6. In Jn 6:23, what do we know about the town of Tiberias?

 

 

 

 

7. In Jn 6:14-15,26-27, why did Jesus apparently turn away people who truly wanted to follow Him, and what implications does this have for our evangelism?

 

 

 

8. In Jn 6:14-15,26-27, how do people today want to follow Jesus for reasons that are not so good?

 

 

 

9. In Jn 6:15, when we do works of charity that greatly benefit non-believers, there is a danger that non-believers will be interested in Christianity solely for the physical benefits they get. How do we best handle this?


John 6:27-44 – Jesus is the Bread of Life

 

1. In Jn 6:27, Jesus said not to work for food that spoils. How do we work for food that spoils today?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 6:27b, what did Jesus mean by “the Father has placed His seal of approval”?

 

 

3. In Jn 6:31-36,48-51, how is Jesus the bread (or manna) of life?

 

 

4. In Jn 6:37, since all the Father gives to Jesus come to Jesus, and since some do not come to Jesus, then does that mean the Father did not give them to Jesus?

 

 

5. In Jn 6:38, did Jesus have a distinct will from God the Father or not?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 6:42, is the virgin birth true, since the Jews said they knew Joseph, the father of Jesus?

 

 

 

7. In Jn 6:44,65 and Jn 6:37,39, what does it mean that no one can come to Jesus unless the Father draws him?

 

 

 

8. In Jn 6:44,65 and Jn 6:37,39 does the Father draw some people, or does Jesus draw all to Himself as Jn 12:32 says?


John 6:45-70 – Jesus the Bread of Life and the Grumbling Deserters

 

1. In Jn 6:45, since everyone who is taught of God comes to Jesus, does that mean all who never heard of Jesus had no opportunity to escape Hell?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 6:50-51, since one who eats the bread of heaven (Jesus) will live forever and not die, why do Christians still die?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 6:51-56, what did Jesus really mean here?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 6:52-56, why did Jesus not clear up the crowd’s confusion?

 

 

 

5. In Jn 6:53a, was Jesus teaching that the bread actually became His body, as the Roman Catholic Church teaches, calling it transubstantiation?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 6:60-66, why does Jesus seem almost fatalistic here? - If they come, they will come. If they do not, they do not.

 

 

 

7. In Jn 6:67, why did Jesus test the twelve disciples, asking if they would leave too?

 

 

 

8. In Jn 6:70, since Jesus chose the twelve disciples, and Judas was one of these, was Judas one of the elect chosen by Jesus?

 

 

 

9. In Jn 6:43-70, why do people grumble about God, and what can you say to help them?

 

 

 

10. In Jn 6:43-70, if somebody thinks someone about God is unacceptable, how do you answer them?


John 7 – Jesus and the Opposition in Jerusalem

 

1. In Jn 7:5, who are Jesus’ “brethren” who did not believe Him?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 7:7, did the world not hate the disciples, or did the world hate them in Jn 15:20-21?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 7:8, why did Jesus say that He was not or not yet going to the feast?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 7:8, why did Jesus say here that His time was not yet come?

 

 

 

5. In Jn 7:10, why did Jesus apparently change His mind and go to Jerusalem, after Jesus told his brothers He was not going?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 7:13, why did the people fear the Jews? They were all Jews!

 

 

 

7. In Jn 7:28, why did Jesus preach in the Temple, since He went to Jerusalem secretly in Jn 6:10 in order not to be noticed?

 

 

 

8. In Jn 7:38-39, “where in scripture does it say “streams of living water will flow from him”?

 

 

 

9. In Jn 7:38-39, how do streams of living water flow from Jesus?

 

10. In Jn 7:39, was the Holy Spirit in the world prior to Jesus coming to earth?

 

 

11. In Jn 7:46, what precisely does the Greek mean here?

 

 

12. In Jn 7:52, why did they say a prophet never came from Galilee, when Jonah came from that region, Gath-Hepher, about three miles from Nazareth? (The skeptical Asimov’s Guide to the Bible p.971 brings this up.)


John 8:1-30 – The Woman Caught in Adultery

 

1. Should Jn 7:53-8:11 be in the Bible?

 

 

2. In Jn 8:3-4, why did the Pharisees bring the woman caught in the very act of adultery to Jesus and not the man?

 

 

 

3. Does Jn 8:3-4 show that Jesus did not accept capital punishment?

 

 

4. In Jn 8:3-4, where in the Old Testament does it command that the woman be stoned to death for adultery (a Muslim brought this up)?

 

 

5. In Jn 8:6, in the story of the adulterous woman, what did Jesus write in the sand?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 8:11, since Jesus followed the Mosaic Law, why did Jesus not condemn the woman?

 

 

7. In Jn 8:12, how is Jesus the light of the world?

 

 

8. In Jn 8:13-14, why did the Pharisees claim Jesus bearing record of himself meant his record was not valid?

 

 

9. In Jn 8:14-18, why did Jesus answer the Pharisees the way He did?

 

 

10. In Jn 8:17 and Jn 10:34, did Jesus say “your” law?

 

 

11. In Jn 8:18-19, Jesus was talking about His Father, so what is wrong with asking Jesus where His Father was?

 

 

12. In Jn 8:24,58, Jn 13:19, and Jn 18:5,6, in addition to “I am”, what other titles do the Father and Jesus share?

 

 

 

13. In Jn 8:29, how would the Father [allegedly] never leave Jesus, since Jesus said “My God, My God why have you forsaken me in Mt 27:26 and Mk 15:34?


John 8:31-59 – Who is the Father?

 

1. In Jn 8:31, is continuing in Jesus’ word a condition of being Jesus’ disciple?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 8:32, what did Jesus mean by “set you free”?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 8:37, how can it be that they had no place in their hearts for Jesus’ word?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 8:44, why did Jesus tell people who valued their ancestry that their father was the devil?

 

 

 

5. In Jn 8:47, how do those who are of God hear God’s word?

 

6. In Jn 8:48, why did they try to “insult” Jesus by accusing Him of being a Samaritan?

 

7. In Jn 8:48, does this somehow teach that all people have the “I Am” presence in them, as Mark and Elizabeth Clare Prophet teach?

 

8. In Jn 8:50 how is the Father the judge, since Jn 5:22 says that the Father judges no one, but has entrusted all judgment to the Son”?

 

 

 

9. In Jn 8:57, could this mean Jesus was rally about 50 years old, as Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) taught?

 

 

 

10. Does Jn 8:58 mean that Jesus pre-existed, but He was not eternally pre-existent, as Jehovah’s Witnesses teach (Reasoning from the Scriptures 1989 p.418)?

 

 

 

11. Does Jn 8:58 means that all human beings have the “I Am” presence of God within them, as New Agers Mark and Elizabeth Claire Prophet (Lost Teachings of Jesus p.87) and Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science (Science and Health with the Key to the Scriptures p.333-334) teach?

 

 

12. In Jn 8:59, why did Jesus, who is God, hide here?


John 9 – Two Kinds of Blindness

 

1. In Jn 9:1, was this man born blind because of sins he committed before he was reincarnated, as the Unity school of Christianity teaches?

 

 

2. In Jn 9:1-3, why exactly was this man born blind?

 

 

3. In Jn 9:4, what did Jesus mean, that night is coming when no one can work?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 9:6, why did Jesus make clay out of his spittle, since He simply could have spoken the words?

 

 

 

5. In Jn 9:7, why did Jesus send him to the Pool of Siloam?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 9:7 why is it significant that the word for the pool, Siloam, means sent?

 

 

 

7. In Jn 9:14-16, why did the Pharisees say Jesus did not keep the Sabbath?

 

 

8. In Jn 9:24, why did the Pharisees say “give God the praise”?

 

 

9. In Jn 9:26-27 why were the Pharisees asking again? How do you tell when someone’s questions are sincere?

 

 

10. In Jn 9:27-32, the Pharisees were in effect forbidding God from doing this. How do people try to forbid God from doing things today?

 

 

11. In Jn 9:34, if a child or someone we did not look up to told us to do something, and we knew it was the right thing to do, should we do it?

 

 

12. In Jn 9:34, why did the Pharisees say the blind man was born in sin?

 

 

13. In Jn 9:40, why did the Pharisees ask if Jesus thought they were blind?


John 10:1-29 – Jesus is the Shepherd and the Gate

 

1. In Jn 10:1-2, what is Jesus saying figuratively about thieves and robbers?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 10:2,7, in this parable, is Jesus the shepherd or the gate?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 10:8, who were the thieves and robbers who came before Jesus?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 10:11 did Jesus lay down His life for His sheep, or for His enemies too, as Rom 5:6,10 and 2 Pet 2:1 indicate?

 

 

 

 

5. In Jn 10:14-33, at what point would Jesus’ words have been blasphemy if they had been spoken by an ordinary man?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 10:16, who are the other sheep to which Jesus is referring?

 

 

 

7. In Jn 10:23, what was the Feast of Dedication, which took place in winter?

 

 

 

8. In Jn 10:26, were some of the Jews not Jesus’ sheep because they did not believe, or did they not believe because they were not Jesus’ sheep?

 

 

 

 

9. In Jn 10:28-29, what does this say about the possibility of one of Jesus’ sheep losing his or her salvation and going to Hell?

 

 

 

 

10. In Jn 10:28-29, what is your view on eternal security (once-saved-always-saved)?


John 10:30-42 – Jesus’ Announcement: He and the Father are One

 

1. In Jn 10:30, does this prove Modalism is true, since Jesus and the Father are One?

 

 

 

 

2. Does Jn 10:30 show that Jesus is God?

 

 

 

 

3. In Jn 10:30, how are the Father and Jesus one?

 

 

 

 

4. In Jn 10:31, how could they pick up stones to stone Jesus, in Solomon’s colonnade?

 

 

 

 

5. In Jn 10:34, are human beings gods, too?

 

 

 

 

 

6. In Jn 10:34-36, why did Jesus refer to Ps 82:6 here?

 

 

 

 

7. In Jn 10:37-38, why is Jesus saying to at least believe in His works, if they are not going to believe in Him?

 

 

 

 

8. In Jn 10:40, why did Jesus go to where John used to baptize?

 


John 11 – Lazarus: A Demonstration of Power over Death

 

1. In Jn 11:3, what was the basis of the appeal to Jesus here?

 

 

2. In Jn 11:4, why did Jesus say Lazarus was not sick unto death, since Lazarus later died in Jn 11:11-14,17?

 

 

3. In Jn 11:6, why did Jesus delay before seeing his sick friend Lazarus?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 11:16, why did Thomas say to go, so that we may die with him?

 

 

 

5. In Jn 11:23-25, what is Jesus saying here about the resurrection?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 11:26, why did Jesus say those who believe in Him would never die?

 

 

7. In Jn 11:33,38, why was Jesus troubled?

 

 

 

8. In Jn 11:35, how could we have a God so powerless that He weeps, as well as thirsts in Jn 19:28? (The Muslim Ahmad Deedat brought this up.)

 

 

 

9. In Jn 11:42, why was Jesus saying things to God in His prayers that were for the sake of the people?

 

 

10. In Jn 11:43, why did Jesus say, “Lazarus, come forth?

 

 

11. In Jn 11:47-51, why did the Pharisees act the way they did?

 

 

12. In Jn 11:49-52, why did Caiaphas give a true prophecy, since He rejected Jesus?

 

 

13. Does Jn 11:49-52 support the Roman Catholic claim of papal infallibility, as When Cultists Ask p.179-180 says some Catholic scholars claim?


John 12 – Preparation for Passion - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 12:3, why did Jesus permit the expensive perfume to be used on Him?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 12:6, why did Jesus permit Judas to be a disciple, since Judas was a thief and a future traitor?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 12:7, how were Mary and Judas opposites here?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 12:9-11, what did Lazarus do wrong (in the eyes of the priests), that they wanted to kill him?

 

 

 

5. In Jn 12:12-13, what are the implications of the crowd’s reaction?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 12:21-22, of the many details that John did not mention, why would the Holy Spirit have John mention this small one?

 

 

 

7. In Jn 12:23-24, what do you think of the point that for Him “death is necessary for harvest”?

 

 

 

8. In Jn 12:31 and Jn 16:11, who is the prince of this world?

 

 

 

9. In Jn 12:32, how are all drawn unto Jesus?

 

 

 

10. In Jn 12:34, why did the people say the law said the Messiah would abide forever?

 

 

 

11. In Jn 12:35f, what does walking in the darkness mean and how to people do that?

 

 

 

12. In Jn 12:38-41, why did God appear not to want many to believe in Jesus?

 

 

 

13. In Jn 12:42-43, since many among the rulers believed in Jesus, why did they not follow Jesus?

 

 

14. Jn 12 told of preparations for Jesus passion. What can we do, in our lives, to prepare for being more passionate about Jesus today?


John 13 – Footwashing and the Last Supper

 

1. In Jn 13:1, how did Jesus love His disciples to the end?

 

 

2. In Jn 13:6f, where is the emphasis in Peter’s sentence?

 

 

3. In Jn 13:5, what two things are unusual about Jesus washing His disciple’s feet?

 

 

4. In Jn 13:18, what is fascinating about Jesus quoting Psalm 41:9 here?

 

 

 

5. In Jn 13:1-17, should foot washing be a ceremony we do today?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 13:4-17, why exactly did Jesus wash the feet of His disciples?

 

 

 

7. In Jn 13:19, was Jesus calling Himself by the Divine name here?

 

 

 

8. In Jn 13:21, why was Jesus troubled here, since Jesus had already known Judas would betray Him?

 

 

 

9. In Jn 13:27, what does it mean that Satan entered into Judas?

 

 

 

10. In Jn 13:30, what does “And it was night” mean?

 

 

11. In Jn 13:34 and 1 Jn 2:7-8, how is loving one another a new command?

 

 

 

12. In Jn 13:35, how will the world know we are Christ’s disciples by us loving one another?

 

 

13. In Jn 13:38, why do you think Jesus responded to Peter the way He did, rather than just saying nothing?


John 14:1-14 – When Trouble Comes, God’s Grace is Even More

 

1. In Jn 14:1, why does your heart sometimes get troubled and what can you do about it?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 14:2, how are there many mansions in Heaven?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 14:6, is it just Jesus, and not His words, that are the way, truth and life, as Rev. Moon taught?

 

 

 

 

4. In Jn 14:6, how is Jesus the way, the truth, and the life?

 

 

 

 

5. In Jn 14:6, can anyone go to Heaven apart from Jesus?

 

 

 

 

6. In Jn 14:6, can anyone go to Heaven who never heard the name of Jesus?

 

 

 

 

7. Does Jn 14:6-11 prove that Jesus is God the Father, as Oneness Pentecostals claim, such as David K Barnard (The Oneness of God: Series in Pentecostal Theology, vol.1 p.68)?

 

 

 

 

8. In Jn 14:10-11, how did the Father dwell in Jesus?

 

 

 

 

9. In Jn 14:12, how do Christians do greater works than Jesus did?

 

 

 

 

10. In Jn 14:13-14, why is this statement on asking in Jesus’ name [allegedly] not qualified?


John 14:15-31 – The Helper

 

1. In Jn 14:16, what does the term “Helper” mean?

 

 

 

 

2. In Jn 14:16, exactly why can’t the world accept the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of Truth?

 

 

 

 

3. In Jn 14:16, is the Helper here “Divine Science” as Mary Baker Eddy, founder of Christian Science claimed in Science and Health with the Key to the Scriptures p.55,271?

 

 

 

 

4. In Jn 14:16-17, did a Christian from Asia Minor around 160 A.D. named Montanus claim to be the incarnation of the comforter, as the skeptical Asimov’s Guide to the Bible p.988 claims?

 

 

 

 

5. In Jn 14:16-26; 15:26; 16:5-15, was Mohammed prophesied in the New Testament as the Paracletos, or Holy Spirit like some Muslims claim?

 

 

 

 

6. Does Jn 14:18 show that Christ is God the Father, as Oneness Pentecostals claim?

 

 

 

 

7. In Jn 14:22-24, how is Jesus revealed to Christians and not to the world?

 

 

 

 

8. In Jn 14:27, how does the peace of Jesus, the prince of peace, differ from the peace of the world?

 

 

 

 

9. In Jn 14:27-28, how is the Father greater than Jesus?

 


John 15:1-12 – Abiding in the Vine

 

1. In Jn 15:1, what other metaphor was there of the vine prior to this?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 15:1, what is the difference between seeing Jesus being the vine that holds the branches together, and seeing men as holding the branches together?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 15:3, how could Jesus say they were all clean, since Judas betrayed Jesus?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 15:4, what does the word remain/abide mean?

 

 

 

5. In Jn 15:4, how do Christians abide in Jesus?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 15:6, how does a gardener tell that a branch is dead?

 

 

 

7. If a Christian were alone on a small island, or in a place where they could not share the gospel with non-believers, that would be an unusual spot for a Christian. But would a Christian then be a useless branch in God’s eyes?

 

 

 

8. In Jn 15:6, does a branch being cast away mean a genuine believer can lose their salvation?

 

 

 

9. In Jn 15:6, what harm do dead branches do? Why not just leave them?

 

 

 

10. In Jn 15:8, how do believers bear fruit in Christ?

 

 

11. In Jn 15:8, are people unfruitful unless then bring others to Christ, as one unusual group has taught?

 

12. In Jn 15:9, what can we do so that Christ will love us more?


John 15:13-27 – Love each Other as Jesus Loved Us

 

1. In Jn 15:14-15, should we still call ourselves servants of Christ?

 

 

 

 

2. In Jn 15:15, what are some ways we should act as servants or Christ, and what are some ways we should act as friends of Christ?

 

 

 

 

3. In Jn 15:16, in what sense did they not choose Christ but Christ chose them?

 

 

 

 

4. In Jn 15:16, what is fruit that remains versus fruit that does not remain?

 

 

 

 

5. In Jn 15:17, what is the difference between having a special love for other believers and forming a clique?

 

 

 

 

6. In Jn 15:18, how did the world hate Jesus?

 

 

 

 

7.  In Jn 15:18,20, what if the world does not hate you at all?

 

 

 

 

8. In Jn 15:22,24, how did the coming of Jesus make some more liable for their sin?

 

 

 

 

9. In Jn 15:23, why cannot anyone hate Jesus without also hating the Father?


John 16 – Love each Other as Jesus Loved Us

 

1. In Jn 16:2-3, how could someone think they were doing God a service by killing the disciples of Jesus? (See the handout)

 

 

2. In Jn 16:2, do you think “putting you out of the synagogue includes putting Christians out of the church?

 

 

3. In Jn 16:5, why did Jesus say no one asks where Jesus was going, since Thomas [allegedly] asked in Jn 14:5?

 

 

4. In Jn 16:5, why did Jesus say no one asks where Jesus was going, since Peter actually did ask that in Jn 13:36?

 

 

5. In Jn 16:8-11, how does the Comforter convict the world of sin, righteousness, and judgment?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 16:12, why did Jesus not tell them everything they would need to know?

 

 

7. In Jn 16:12-13 is the Spirit of Truth here Baha’u’llah as Baha’is claim?

 

 

 

8. In Jn 16:13, how does the Holy Spirit guide into all truth?

 

 

 

9. In Jn 16:13, since the Holy Spirit guides into all truth, how come there have been many disagreements among genuine Christians?

 

 

10. In Jn 16:23, are we supposed to pray to Jesus for things, or only ask the Father?

 

 

 

11. Does Jn 16:24 mean we can get anything we want in prayer, as some Word-Faith teachers suggest?

 

 

12. In Jn 16:32, what three things does this tell us about Jesus and His disciples?


John 17 – The High Priestly Prayer of Jesus

 

A piece of historical trivia is that this was first called the High Priestly Prayer by David Chytraeus in the 16th century according to the New International Bible Commentary p.1258.

Emphasizing “the hour has come” sounds like Jesus sees some urgency here. Do we think our prayer and teaching might have “urgency”. You pray for yourself, but do you also prayer for your ministry and the people you touch?

 

1. In Jn 17, why is the content of this prayer totally different than the prayer about this cup passing in the Garden of Gethsemane in Mt 26:36-46; Mk 14:32-43; and Lk 22:39-47?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 17:1, what does the phrase “the hour has come” mean precisely?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 17:3, since Jesus said, “Now this is eternal life: that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent”, how can we call Jesus God?
 
 

4. In Jn 17:4, why did Jesus say He had finished His work, prior to the crucifixion?

 

 

 

5. In Jn 17:5, since Jesus Himself had to ask the Father for things, does that mean He was less than the Father?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 17:9, why did Jesus explicitly decline to pray for the whole world?

 

 

 

7. In Jn 17:11,21-22, how are Christians one as the Father and Son are one?

 

 

 

8. In Jn 17:11,14,21, how should Christians be in the world but not of it?

 

 

 

9. In Jn 17:19, how could Jesus sanctify Himself since He was already sinless?

 

 

 

10. In Jn 17:20-21, when Jesus prayed that all may be one, does this refer to one organization?


John 18 – The Arrest

 

1. In Jn 18:2, how did Jesus go here often, since He was only in Jerusalem that week?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 18:3, why did the soldiers bring lanterns?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 18:12, who exactly was the high priest?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 18:12-19:16, the skeptic Bart Ehrman asks why Jesus was flogged in the middle of the trial, not after it was over. (Jesus, Interrupted p.44)

 

 

5. In Jn 18:28, why did the priests think they would be defiled if they went into Pilate’s judgment hall?

 

 

6. In Jn 18:31 since the Jews were not allowed to execute Jesus, why did they say, “according to our law he must be put to death”?

 

 

7. In Jn 18:31, why was the Jewish council unable to execute Jesus?

 

 

8. In Jn 18:36, was Jesus’ Kingdom was not of this world because the Jews rejected Jesus?

 

 

 

9. In Jn 18:37, can anyone be of the truth and not hear Jesus’ voice?

 

 

 

10. In Jn 18:38, what did Pilate mean by saying, “what is truth”?

 

 

 

11. In Jn 18:38, how do you help someone who does not care for truth to have a hunger to find the truth?

 

 

12. In Jn 18:38; 19:4,6 Bart Ehrman thinks it significant that it is in John that Pilate declares Jesus innocent on three occasions. He says that if the Romans declared Jesus innocent, the implication is that the Jews that killed Christ. (Jesus, Interrupted p.45)


John 19:1-16 – The Sentencing

 

1. In Jn 19-20 Ehrman writes, “The gospel of John blames ‘the Jews’ in quite graphic terms for rejecting and killing Jesus (chapters 19-20); and in one frightful passage he actually indicates that the Jews are not children of God but the children of the Devil (John 8:42-44). It’s hard to be saved if Satan is your father.” (Jesus, Interrupted p.243)

 

 

 

2. In Jn 19:1, what was a Roman scourging like?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 19:2, why did they put a purple robe on Jesus?

 

 

 

4. In Jn 19:8,12, why was Pontius Pilate afraid here?

 

 

 

5. In Jn 18:9-9, when else have people seen there was no wrong, but did not have the moral courage to stand up for what was right?

 

 

 

 

 

6. In Jn 19:11, are some sins greater than others?

 

 

 

 

7. In Jn 19:14-15, Pilate showed contempt for the Jews. Why do people sometimes show contempt for others? Are there times when we should or not?

 

 

 

 

8. In Jn 19:15, what do we know about crucifixion?

 

 

 

 

9. In Jn 19:15 what often happens when someone switches loyalties?

 

 


John 19:17-42 – The Crucifixion

 

1. In Jn 19:17-18, what is symbolic about Jesus carrying His own cross out of the city?

 

 

 

2. In Jn 19:22, why did Pilate not agree to the priests’ request not to write “King of the Jews”?

 

 

 

3. In Jn 19:23, was this cloak rare since it was seamless?

 

 

 

4. Does Jn 19:26, imply that we can consider Mary our mother, too?

 

 

 

5. Does Jn 19:26 give Mary the role of “Mediatrix” (co-mediator) and “Redemptrix” (co-redeemer) as the Roman Catholic Church holds Mary to be?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 19:28, how could we have a thirsty God? (The Muslim Ahmad Deedat brought this up.)

 

 

 

7. In Jn 19:29, why would hyssop be nearby?

 

 

 

8. In Jn 19:30, why did Jesus say, “It is finished” here?

 

 

 

9. In Jn 19:28, if Joseph of Arimathea had not asked for the body of Jesus, what would normally happen?

 

 

 

10. In Jn 19:33 did they often break the legs of executed criminals?

 

 

 

11. In Jn 19:38, should we accept “secret believers” like Joseph of Arimathea was?


John 20 – The Resurrection

 

1. In Jn 20:10-15, don’t angels usually appear with wings and halos?

 

 

2. In Jn 20:14-16, why did Mary Magdalene not recognize Jesus?

 

 

3. In Jn 20:17, why did Jesus tell Mary not to cling to Him?

 

 

4. In Jn 20:17, since Jesus called the Father “my God”, does that prove that Jesus is not God?

 

 

 

5. In Jn 20:17, why did Jesus says “my Father and your Father and my God and your God”

 

 

 

6. In Jn 20:19, since Jesus had a physical body after the resurrection, how did Jesus get into closed rooms?

 

 

 

7. In Jn 20:19, what is so strange about this vs. Acts 2:1-13?

 

 

8. In Jn 20:22, when Jesus said “peace be with you” and sent them out, did they receive the Holy Spirit prior to Pentecost?

 

 

9. In Jn 20:23, how did the disciples have power to forgive or not forgive sins?

 

 

10. In Jn 20:22-23, does this show that priests have the power to forgive sins?

 

 

11. In Jn 20:23, did the Popes throughout history have the power over forgiving sins?

 

 

12. In Jn 20:24-25, was this really the same body that Jesus had on earth?

 

 

13. In Jn 20:25, what does this say about Jesus being nailed to a cross?

 

 

14. In Jn 20:28, did Thomas call Jesus God?


John 21 – What Now? - Fish and Feed

 

1. Was Jn 21 added later, as a Muslim suggested based on liberal skeptics?

 

 

2. In Jn 21:5-6, how did Jesus take charge of their fishing, and how do you we Jesus take charge of ours?

 

3. In Jn 21:7, what three things did John excel in, and how should we do the same?

 

 

4. In Jn 21:11, what is the significance of the 153 fishes?

 

 

 

5. In Jn 21:11, what is the “code” for numerology in the new Testament?

 

 

 

6. In Jn 21:15-17, why did Jesus use this way of reconciling with Peter?

 

 

 

7. In Jn 21:15-17, why did Jesus ask Peter if he loved Him three times?

 

 

 

8. Does Jn 21:15-19 show that Peter was the first Pope as some Roman Catholics claim?

 

 

 

9. How did Jn 21:18 prophecy Peter’s death?

 

 

 

10. In Jn 21:20-23, how do some people today get distracted by unnecessary questions?

 

 

p.25”

 

11. In Jn 21:22-23, what is Jesus saying here about John?

 

 

 

12. In Jn 21:24 what is interesting about the Greek here?

 

 

 

13. In Jn 21:25, why do we not have a record of all the other things that Jesus did?


John 1:1 – In the Beginning was the Word - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 1:1, should this be translated as “was divine”, “was God”, or “was a God” as Jehovah’s Witnesses say?

A: It should be “was God”. Here is a summary of the linguistic and other evidence.

Not just “a” god: The same grammar, theos without the ho in Greek, refers to Jehovah-God in Luke 20:38. Even the Jehovah’s Witnesses do not translate the same Greek words as “a God” in John 1:6,12,13,18. See When Cultists Ask p.159 and When Critics Ask p.403 for more info.

   While the Jehovah’s Witnesses from 1962 to 1983 used to quote the translation of Johannes Greber to support their translation, they knew even back in 1956 that Greber’s wife acted as a spirit medium to produce the translation! See Sixty Question Every Jehovah’s Witness Should be Asked p.23 for more info.

Not just divine: The Complete Book of Bible Answers p.108-109 points out that if John had intended merely to say that Jesus was divine, John could have used the adjective theios. However, John emphasized that Jesus is actually God.

The word was God:

   Please note that there is even stronger evidence than modern linguistic study available to show that John 1:1 meant that the Word was God. There is another approach. What if we could ask Christians who were the native speakers of New Testament Greek what John 1:1 meant? We can do so. See the question after the next for the answers, though you probably might not like how the early Christians understood their own language if you are a Jehovah’s Witness.

 

2. In Jn 1:1, what are some other examples of how Jehovah’s Witnesses corrupt their scripture?

A: Here are a few examples.

John 1:1 Added “a” in the Word was a god.

Luke 23:43 “Truly I tell you today, you will be with me in Paradise.” (This made it appear like Jesus was speaking today, rather than the Greek meaning of the repentant thief being in Paradise today.)

Acts 10:36 added the word “other” putting it in square brackets.

Rom 8:32 Added “other” with no italics or brackets.

Colossians 1:16-20 added the word “other” four times.

Philippians 2:9 added the word “other” with no italics or brackets.

 

3. In Jn 1:1, what did the early church teach about this verse and the Word being God?

A: It is sometimes interesting to hear what modern scholars, 2000 years later, say the Greek meant. However, what is more interesting what church leaders who lived 1700-1800 years ago, many of whom spoke New Testament Greek since they were babies, interpreted what John 1:1, in their own language, meant to them.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.)

“for when we give out some word, we beget the word; yet not by abscission, so as to lessen the word [which remains] in us, when we give it out; and just as we see also happening in the case of a fire, which is not lessened when it has kindled [another], but remains the same;... The Word of Wisdom, who is Himself this God begotten of the Father of all things, and Word, and Wisdom, and Power, and the Glory of the Begetter, will bear evidence to me...” Dialogue with Trypho ch.61. See also chapters 55,56,59,62-64,66,74-78.

Theophilus bishop of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) “For the divine writing itself teaches us that Adam said that he had heard the voice. But what else is this voice but the Word of God, who is also His Son?” Letter to Autolycus book 2 ch.22 p.103

Irenaeus (182-188 A.D.)

“But that He [Jesus] is Himself in His own right, beyond all men who ever lived, God, and Lord, and King Eternal, and the Incarnate Word, proclaimed by all the prophets, the apostles, and by the Spirit Himself, may be seen by all who have obtained to even a small portion of the truth.” (Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.19.2 p.449).

“Know thou that every man is either empty or full. For if he has not the Holy Spirit, he has no knowledge of the Creator; he has not received Jesus Christ the life; he knows not the Father who is in heaven;...” (Irenaeus fragment 26 p.572)

“She [the church] also believes these points [of doctrine] just as if she had but one soul.... For the churches which have been planted in Germany do not believe or hand down anything different nor do those in Spain nor those in Gaul, nor those in the East nor those in Egypt nor those in Libya, nor ...” Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.10.2 p.331

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) (Latin) “The Word, therefore, is both always in the Father, as He says, ‘I am in the Father;’ and is always with God, according to what is written, ‘And the Word was with God;’ and never separate from the Father, or other than the Father, since ‘I and the Father are one.’” Against Praxeas chapter 8 p.603.

Hippolytus (225-235/6 A.D.) after quoting part of John 1:1 “If, then the Word was with God and was also God what follows? Would one say that he speaks of two Gods? I shall not indeed speak of two Gods but of one; of two Persons however and of a third economy (disposition), viz., the grace of the Holy Ghost. For the Father indeed is One but there are two Persons because there is also the Son; and then there is the third the Holy Spirit. The Father decrees, the Word executes and the Son is manifested, through whom the Father is believed on. The economy of the harmony is led back to one God; for God is One. It is the Father who commands and the Son who obeys and the Holy Spirit who gives understanding; the Father is above all, and the Son who is through all and the Holy Spirit who is in all. And we cannot otherwise think of one God, but by believing in truth in Father and Son and Holy Spirit.” Against the Heresy of One Noetus chapter 14 p.228

 

4. In Jn 1:1, is it true that the doctrine that Jesus was God in human form was not finalized until after 300 A.D.?

A: No. Karen Armstrong categorically stated this in A History of God p.81, and it is amazing what some printed books can get away with saying. There are no Orthodox Christians or Arians who said Jesus was not God, though Arians said Jesus was a different substance, and God in a different and lesser way. Prior to 300 A.D. the five early church writers quoted in the previous question certainly did not think the doctrine of Jesus being God in human form needed any finalizing. Ignatius, who was a disciple of John the apostle, was fond of saying that “Jesus is God”. Thomas the apostle did not need any council when he said to Jesus in John 20:28, “My Lord and My God!”

   While it is true that Gnostics were heretics who had very strange views of God, they were never accepted as Christians by Orthodox Christians. Regardless, even they accepted Jesus was God, though in a very different and strange sense.

   Arians were another heretical group that were condemned at the Council of Nicea in 325 A.D.. They had a “low” opinion of Jesus, believing there was a time when He was not, and that Jesus was of a different substance than the Father. However, even they agreed that Jesus was God; it was that they wrongly believed Jesus was not of the same nature as the Father.

   I suppose a shortcoming of creeds is that some can misinterpret what they are for. The Nicene Controversy over Arianism was not whether or not Jesus was God, but over how Jesus was God.

 

5. In Jn 1:1, how could the Word both be God and with God?

A: In the same way as the Son could be both God and have a God in Hebrews 1:8,9. Besides referring to false gods, the word “God” has at least four meanings with respect to the true God. “God” can mean just the Father, just the Son, just the Spirit, or the three in Trinity.

   Here is what the early church writer Hippolytus (225-235/6 A.D.) said in Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.14 p.228 “If, then the Word was with God and was also God what follows? I shall not indeed speak of two Gods but of one; of two Persons however and of a third economy (disposition), viz., the grace of the Holy Ghost. For the Father indeed is One but there are two Persons because there is also the son; and then there is the third the Holy Spirit.”

 

6. In Jn 1:1, how could God be incarnated as a man?

A: On one hand the answer is simple: God Almighty can appear however He wishes. On the other hand, this is a profound miracle. Melito of Sardis (170-180 A.D.) pondered the mystery of the incarnation in his Discourse on the Cross (vol.8) p.756 “On these accounts He came to us; on these accounts, though He was incorporeal, He formed for Himself a body after our fashion, appearing as a sheep, yet still remaining the Shepherd; being esteemed a servant, yet not renouncing the Sonship; being carried [in the womb] of Mary, yet arrayed in [the nature of] His Father; treading upon the earth, yet filling heaven; appearing as an infant, yet not discarding the eternity of His nature; being invested with a body, yet not circumscribing the unmixed simplicity of His Godhead; being esteemed poor, yet not divested of His riches; needing sustenance inasmuch as He was man, yet not ceasing to feed the entire world inasmuch as He is God; putting on the likeness of a servant, yet not impairing the likeness of His Father.”

   Justin Martyr in his Dialogue with Trypho the Jew chapter 61 p.227 gave the analogy of how fire is kindled from fire. The original fire is not lessened in any way.

 (Note that early church quotes in this Web Sites are all from the Ante-Nicene Fathers and Post-Nicene Fathers I and II.)

 

7. In Jn 1:1 I have been struggling understanding the theanthropic nature of Christ. Was Jesus mentally fully mature, knowing all things even as an infant? Even though he became a man did he still have the infinite mind of God, Luke 2:52 says "Jesus grew in wisdom and in stature, and in favor with God and man" If Jesus did not change who He was when he came into flesh than why did he grow in knowledge, wisdom, and favor with God, when he was already the infinite God?

A: Many things about God can be more easily understand by comparison with an analogy of nature. However, the mystery of the incarnation has no analogy with anything in nature.

   While we cannot know everything about the incarnation, we can learn what scripture has revealed about it. So summarize, there are five key points to know.

1. Jesus is 100% God. He was 100% God before He was born, on earth, and now in heaven. (John 1:1; 20:28; Colossians 1:5-20; 1:6,8,9)

(Of course heaven was not empty when Jesus came to earth. However I don't include this as a point, as this the inseparableness of God, along with the distinctness of the Father, Son, and Spirit are points of the Trinity, not the Incarnation.)

2. Jesus was 100% man from the time he was in the womb onwards. He was like us in every way, except without sin. (Hebrews 2:14-18; 4:15; 5:1-2)

3. Jesus was just one person. (There were not two distinct beings, a God-Jesus and a man-Jesus) like extreme Nestorianism leans towards.)

4. Jesus had two distinct natures. (There humanity of Jesus was not subsumed by the divinity of Jesus. When it says Jesus suffered, He really suffered. When it says Jesus was tempted, He was really tempted. These things are denied by the more extreme parts of the error of Monophysitism.)
   But if you get these four things, there is still one thing missing, which you have to see to fit these together.
5. Most of Jesus' glory was veiled. Jesus voluntarily emptied Himself of many of His divine attributes according to Philippians 2:6-7. That is why Jesus specifically prayed to the Father to restore to Him the glory Jesus had before the world began in John 17:5. So to answer the first part of your question, on earth Jesus grew in wisdom, stature or height, and in favor, not only being the perfect infant, but then the perfect little boy, perfect bigger boy, and then perfect man. Jesus learned obedience, suffered, and died, which He could only have done if part of His power was voluntarily and temporarily relinquished.

 

8. In Jn 1:1, how else do we know that Jesus is God?

A: 1001 Bible Questions Answered p.27 says this is proven by seven points.

1. All Old Testament names for God are merged into Jesus Christ.

2. Jesus received human worship. Either He was wrong to do so, or else He was correct to do so.

3. Jesus forgave sins against God.

4. Jesus showed God’s power.

5. Jesus showed omniscience (perhaps he did not have this on earth prior to his resurrection though.)

6. Jesus asserted omnipresence.

7. The New Testament says that Jesus is God, and is to be honored as the Father.

   See Hard Sayings of the Bible p.490-492 for more on John 1:1 and the Trinity.

 

9. In Jn 1:1, was this concept of an eternal word borrowed from Greek philosophy?

A: No, there is no evidence for this. The Greek philosopher Plato did write of an eternal word logos prior to John’s Gospel, and Heraclitus of Ephesus (ca.500 B.C.) used logos to represent rational principle. Philo the Jew also used the term logos. However, there is no evidence that John borrowed from this.

   Rather than John borrowing from Greek philosophy, even a secular person could make a case that the concept of a powerful and living Word was borrowed from Old Testament thought, such as Genesis 1:1 in Hebrew.

   The Old Testament was not borrowed from Greek thought, as Moses and the Israelites preceded all written Greek literature we are aware of. Theophilus of Antioch, written (168-181/188 A.D.), was the first to point this out in his Letter to Autolycus book 3 ch.30 p.121

   The Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.441 says that the Dead Sea scrolls indicate that the Gospel of John, rather than being a second century Hellenistic document, “is shown more clearly than ever to be a product of First Century Palestine by virtue of its many parallels with the Qumran texts.”

 

10. In Jn 1:1, was there a time before Jesus existed?

A: No. Arian heretics thought this, but Orthodox Christians more or less unanimously said that Jesus was begotten of the Father before time began. One exception to this was the early church writer Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) However, even though Jehovah’s Witnesses appeal to Justin Martyr to try to support their beliefs, their appeal is deceptive. In his Dialogue with Trypho, Justin devotes thirteen chapters (55-56,59,61-64,66,74-78) to prove that Jesus is God.

   The Bible does not conclusively answer many questions about what it was like before time began. Even if it did, would we understand the answers? Titus 1:2 says that God promised eternal life “before the beginning of time”. All things were created through Christ (Colossians 1:16; John 1:3). If all things include time (an assumption here), then Jesus existed before there was time.

 

11. In Jn 1:1 did Jesus merely preexist only in God’s foreknowledge, as the Way International teaches?

A: No. We all were foreknown by God, but Jesus was different than us in that He pre-existed in Heaven from before time began.

 

12. In Jn 1:1, since the Word (Logos) is God, does this mean that God is impersonal, as Mary Baker Eddy, founder of the Christian Science cult taught in Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures p.117?

A: No. Just because God has some characteristics we do not have (infinite, invisible, three-in-oneness, etc.) does not exclude God from also having some characteristics that we also have, though often in a lesser degree (ability to love, intelligence, will, emotions, etc.). So just because the Word is God, does not mean we have to deny the many Bible verses that show God has personality.

   So what Bible verses show that God has personality? Personality includes mind, will, and emotions. While a computer can store knowledge without personality, a computer does not have love, wrath, and other emotions, and a computer does not have a will.

   When we cry “Abba”, or “Daddy” in Galatians 4:6; Mark 14:36; and Romans 8:15, praise God we are crying out to a personal being.

 


John 1:2-18 – The Glorious Incarnation - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 1:2, if all things were created by the Word, does that include time, space, science, natural laws, and mathematics?

A: Probably so, though this verse was not written to prove that. However, a logical truth, like a = a, and a logical contradiction, such as a not equal a, are not things, and this verse is not talking about those.

 

2. In Jn 1:4, how is Jesus the life of men?

A: Jesus is the life of men in at least three ways.

Physically, All things are held together by Jesus, according to Colossians 1:17.

Eternally, it is only Jesus through which we are saved, as Acts 4:12 shows.

Life in Christ Today: Jesus gives meaning, joy, and fullness to the life of Christians on earth today.

 

3. In Jn 1:4, did Jesus complete His mission even before he was even crucified as Muslim apologist Jamal Badawi asserts in his Tape Series 9 table 3?

A: No. John 1:4 was indeed written before the account of Jesus’ crucifixion. However, anyone should see that Badawi is fishing for objections here: John 1:4 was even written before the account of Jesus’ birth.

 

4. In Jn 1:6,19, is the John mentioned here the writer of this book?

A: No. The John mentioned here is John the Baptist, while the writer is John the Apostle, brother of James.

 

5. In Jn 1:8 were those some after the crucifixion who thought John the Baptist was the Messiah, as Asimov’s Guide to the Bible p.965 says?

A: There is no direct evidence of this. However, there was one group, known in later times, called the Mandaeans, who believed this. The Mandaeans lived in the marshes in southern Iraq, but it is not known when or where they started.

 

6. In Jn 1:9, how is Jesus the true light which gives light to every man?

A: In at least two ways.

For all: The truth and offer of the Gospel of Jesus Christ is proclaimed to all. Jesus is the only true light. Some choose to live as children of the light, wanting to know what pleases the Lord (Ephesians 5:8-10) and others do not.

For believers: Jesus is the light of our life. He gives us joy, contentment, meaning, and purpose that makes everything worthwhile.

 

7. In Jn 1:13, is it not our will that makes us born again?

A: It is God’s grace. God is very merciful, gracious, and just. However, these facts should make us forget that the prerogative on us being born again belongs with God, not us.

 

8. In Jn 1:14, how could Almighty God, with Everlasting Life, become a mortal man who died?

A: Since the Triune God is Almighty, God can make a distinct person of Himself become a mortal man. When Jesus was on earth, that does not mean Heaven was empty. When Jesus died on the cross, that does not mean the Father or the Holy Spirit ever died.

 

9. In Jn 1:14, how did they see the glory of Jesus, since Jesus emptied Himself in Php 2:6-7?

A: Jesus’ glory is not a binary state. Also, Philippians 2:6-7 says that Jesus emptied himself, but it does not mention glory per se. Philippians 2:9 says that God exalted Jesus to the highest place, which implies an exalted, “glorified” position of Jesus, but not any internal change.

 

10. In Jn 1:14, how could God’s nature be mingled/synthesized/place alongside Jesus’ human nature?

A: Many heresies have answered this incorrectly. Christ was not a God who only appeared to be a man (Docetists), a man and God in name instead of Almighty God (Ebionites), a phantom (Gnostics), a man upon whom Christ settled (Paul of Samosata), separated/divided (Nestorians), or confounded (Monophysites). There is probably no analogy from life on earth that is really sufficient as an example of the divine nature and human nature of Jesus Christ. Here are two errors.

Nestorianism (two wills): Nestorius taught that Jesus had two separate wills: a divine one and a human one. While Nestorius was merely in error, some of his later followers went even more extreme. It is almost as if in the Garden of Gethsemane Jesus’ human will and divine will struggled against each other, and the divine will won. The 200 or so bishops at the Council of Ephesus condemned Nestorianism in 431 A.D.

Monophysitism (only one nature): The opposite of Nestorianism, Monophysitism said the two were merged as if a drop of honey of human will falling into the ocean of divine will. Monophysitism can lead to some ugly scenarios. At the extreme, Jesus placidly went through life, and all of Jesus struggles, against temptation during the 40 days, at the Garden of Gethsemane, and at the cross, were almost a mere show. Monophysitism was condemned by 250 to 350 bishops at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 A.D. In modern times, the Catholic church and the Coptic (Monophysite) church restored their relationship with each other.

The Orthodox (Common) Christian position: After these two traumatic councils, the final position was “Jesus Christ, God’s logos made man, is a single person in two natures, which exists in this one Person without confusion, without change, without division, and without separation.”

The Bible gives the following clues about Jesus’ human and divine natures.

a. Emphasized that Jesus was the son of man: Luke 5:24; 6:4; 6:22; 8:31; 22:22,69; John 12:34; Revelation 1:13

b. Ancestry: Luke 1:32; Romans 1:3; 9:5; 2 Timothy 2:8; Hebrews 7:14; Matthew 1:1.

c. Physical body: Luke 24:39; John 4:2; Hebrews 10:5,10; 1 John 1:1; 1 Timothy 3;16; 2 John 7.

d. A man (with humanity) while on earth: Acts 2:22,23; Philippians 2:7,8; Hebrews 2:14.

e. Still man in Heaven: 1 Timothy 2:5; implied by Hebrews 13:8.

f. Our brother: Mark 3:35; Luke 8:21; Hebrews 2:11,12,17

g. Suffered like men: Hebrews 2:9,18; 5:8; Romans 8:17; 1 Peter 1:11; 4:13; 5:1.

h. Tempted like us: Hebrews 2:18; 4:15; Matthew 4:1-10; Mark 1:13; Luke 4:1-12.

i. Jesus was a man in every way, except without sin: Hebrews 2:17.

 

11. In Jn 1:14, when Jesus came to earth did He lose His deity, as Herbert W. Armstrong said?

A: No. Jesus emptied Himself (Philippians 2:7) and temporarily gave up much of His glory (John 17:5), but Jesus was still worshipped on earth prior to His crucifixion as God by the wise men (Matthew 2:11-12), the disciples (Matthew 14:33), and the blind man (John 9:38). Jesus called Himself by God’s most holy Name in John 8:58.

 

13. In Jn 1:17, did Moses give the Law, or did God give it?

A: Both. God gave the Law to Moses to give to the people, and that is what Moses did. God is the writer, and Moses was the “postman” delivering the letter.

 

14. In Jn 1:18, since no man has seen God, how could Jesus be God, since people saw Jesus?

A: Jesus’ deity was present but “veiled”. When Jesus came to earth, as Philippians 2:7 says, Jesus emptied Himself of much of His glory. Jesus prayed that the Father would return the glory to Him in John 17:5.

   When Moses was with God, he put a veil over his face in Exodus 34:33-35; 2 Corinthians 3:13-16. They still saw Moses, but not the glory that was shown on his face after he was with God. This is a type of Jesus’ coming to earth a God in veiled form.

 

15. In Jn 1:18, since no man has seen God, how could Jesus have seen God?

A: Jesus was not a human being before He was conceived of Mary; Jesus existed from eternity past. So, curiously, John the Baptist was a few months older than the humanity of Jesus, but Jesus Himself was much older than John the Baptist.

 

16. In Jn 1:18 is Jesus the only Son of God, or can we be sons of God too, as Jn 1:12 says?

A: We can be sons of God, but Jesus is the only begotten Son of God. The Bible gives two metaphors concerning us: we are adopted into God’s family, and we are born again into God’s family. Jesus was neither adopted nor born again. Jesus was God the Son from eternity past, and Jesus was incarnated as a man with no biological father.

 


John 1:19-51 – The Forerunner John the Baptist - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 1:21, why did John the Baptist say he was not Elijah, since Jesus said he was in Mt 11:14?

A: Four points to consider in the answer.

1. Malachi 4:5 said that Elijah would come before the great and dreadful day of the Lord. Elijah himself (not John the Baptist) came in the transfiguration and is almost certainly on of the two witnesses in Revelation 11:1-12.

2. If John had simply said he was Elijah, they would have interpreted that he was literally the same person as Elijah, and John would have spoken incorrectly.

3. John could have explained that he was not the literal Elijah, but he came with the role and purpose of Elijah, as was Jesus’ meaning in Matthew 11:14.

4. However, though John knew he was the forerunner of the Messiah, perhaps John himself did not know that he was the fulfillment of the Elijah who was to come. Thus, John might have been speaking only based on what he knew.

   See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary volume 8 p.269 for more info.

 

2. In Jn 1:21, was John the Baptist wrong to say he was not Elijah, as the heretic Rev. Moon teaches in the Divine Principle (fifth edition 1977)?

A: First here is what Rev. Moon, who allegedly is Christ returned says, and then the answer.

Rev. Moon’s Divine Principle p.161 “...John the Baptist who had offended Jesus. How did John the Baptist offend him? John failed to carry out his mission of serving and ministering to Jesus.”

Refuted: 1. If John failed in his teaching, then why in Matthew 21:32 did Jesus say the people were to believe John the Baptist?

2. John 10:41-42 shows that John’s testimony led many to believe in Jesus. We should be cautious in condemning a martyr who died for God as failing and offending God. Jesus saying the one who is least in the kingdom heaven is greater than [John the Baptist] refers to the fact that Jesus had not opened the way to heaven, and John the Baptist was actually the last prophet under the old covenant.

3. If John the Baptist really was Elijah reincarnated, then of all people, John would know that. Yet, John the Baptist was correct to say that he was not Elijah come back from the dead.

4. John did preach in the spirit and power of Elijah, but Jesus never said that John and Elijah were the same individual.

   John the Baptist was great in the Lord’s eyes in Luke 1:15, and the Lord knows the future.

 

3. In Jn 1:29, why did God demand a sacrifice to forgive our sins, since we should forgive others without requiring more than repentance?

A: We forgive our brothers without requiring more than repentance, because a sin against us is different in kind than a sin against God.

 

4. In Jn 1:31,33, how did John not know Jesus, since their mothers were cousins?

A: The Greek word here, oida, means fullness of knowledge. John was saying that naturally he would not know Him. John immediately added that he did know because God revealed it to him.

   When Critics Ask p.404-405 points out that John knew Jesus by reputation, and perhaps by personal acquaintance, but it was only through the Holy Spirit that He knew Jesus by divine manifestation.

 

5. In Jn 1:32-33, how could the Holy Spirit have a localized presence and rest on Jesus in the form of a dove?

A: The Holy Spirit having for a time a special localized presence does not restrict Him in general, from being anywhere else He wishes. As an over-simplification analogy, there was a science fiction TV series called Dr. Who. When one character had an accident with a time-traveling machine, he had a local presence in three different times at once. Since we can conceive of that, why can’t God have multiple local presences, or even an infinite number of localized presences?

 

6. In Jn 1:38-39, why did Jesus not complain when they called him Rabbi (Master), since Jesus said in Mt 23:7,8 to have no man call you master?

A: Jesus, being God the Son, has an authority and honor we do not have. We should not call anyone else our God, Savior, or Lord either, and it is proper to call Jesus all of these.

 

7. In Jn 1:39, when was the tenth hour?

A: In their culture, the day started at sunrise about 6:00 A.M. The tenth hour was after 4:00 P.M.

 

8. In Jn 1:39, Jesus why do you think Jesus simply said “come and you will see” instead of saying the entire picture, “Please be my disciple, and later my apostle, and lead God’s church and die for your faith? Why don’t we always get the complete picture?

A: Rather than dump on him more than Nathanael could take, Jesus simply piqued his curiosity so that he would move forward. There is a time to dump all the knowledge, on an experienced, avid learner, and there is a time to just pique the curiosity of the not yet committed.

 

9. In Jn 1:42, did Jesus first call Simon “Cephas / Peter” here, or later in his ministry at Capernaum, as in Mt 16:18?

A: A simple explanation is that Jesus called him Peter here, but Jesus told him the significance of this name in Matthew 16:18.

 

10. In Jn 1:51, when will Nathanael see the angels ascending and descending upon Jesus?

A: While it is possible that Nathanael could have had a dream, it is more likely that Nathanael will see this in Heaven. Jesus imagery here is reminiscent of Jacob’s ladder in Genesis 28:11-13. See Hard Sayings of the Bible p.493-494 for more info.

   However, why would Nathaniel be sitting still under a fig tree? The Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1472 says that it is likely Nathaniel was studying God’s Word or meditating on Jacob’s vision of the ladder (or stairway).

 

11. In Jn 1:51, why does Jesus frequently call Himself the Son of Man?

A: Probably for the following reasons

1. To emphasize his common humanity

2. People could agree with this, regardless of whether or not they recognized Him as the Son of God.

3. Jesus had not yet revealed Himself as the only-begotten Son of God.


John 2:1-11 – Water to Wine - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 2:1, what were the jars like?

A: Nathanael was from Cana according to John 21:2. While there is some disagreement over where ancient Cana was, pottery shards from the first century A.D. have been found at two locations: modern-day Cana between Nazareth and Capernaum, and a second site about nine miles north between Nazareth and the administrative capital of Sepphoris. The pottery shards indicate that the vessels were about 12 to 16 inches in diameter. See the Associated Press article “Experts say they may have found biblical Cana” in The St. Louis Post Dispatch December 22, 2004. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary p.42 says that each one would have held about 20 gallons; so six would be 120 gallons. The Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1274 the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible  p.850 and The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.278 say 20 to 30 gallons.

 

2. In Mk 1:12-13, did Jesus go in the wilderness for 40 days after His baptism, or did He go to the wedding feast in Cana on the third day as Jn 2:1 says?

A: Both. The “third day” was the third day after coming to Galilee, not the third day after baptism as Bible Difficulties & Seeming Contradictions p.196 and the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1473 say. A different answer is that “the third day” was the third day of the week.

   The Expositor’s Bible Commentary volume 9 p.42 says the third day might be the third day from leaving John the Baptist. While it says, “the next day” in John 1:29-35,43 might all refer to the same day, this is unlikely this meaning would be more clear if “the next day” were not used multiple times.

 

3. In Jn 2:3-10, I see always that Jesus never does things without purpose or at random. Why is the first recorded miracle turning water to wine at a wedding? Could it have to do with wine = His blood, ceremonial cleansing, or a new marriage covenant with all who believe in Him? These are things I have pondered and I wonder how off base I am, I don’t want to reach beyond the Scriptures like is soooo popular these days.

A: You ask an interesting question. If Jesus changing water to wine were a miracle to symbolize His blood, death on the cross, or ceremonial cleansing, nobody at that time, after His death, or even in early church writings got that message. Rather, I think this miracle was done because of circumstances, but in that we can see a deeper appreciation of God’s character, and an application for us.

   There was a simple human need, the banquet wine ran out. When Mary asked Jesus to take care of this supernaturally, Jesus’ initial response was that “My time is not yet come.” In other words, it was not a point of His ministry that He needed to do that to show something. However, there was a need, and He was asked to do so, so He departed from what He originally planned and did that. Likewise, when the woman with the flow of blood touched Jesus' robe, Jesus did not have that on his “to-do list” for that day.

   Many times God meets us where we are at. As a sad example, God had Isaiah tell King Hezekiah to get everything in order because Hezekiah was going to die. Faithful king Hezekiah became so bitter about that, that God relented and granted him 15 more years of life. However, during those fifteen years, King Manasseh, perhaps one of the most evil kings of Judah, was born. It is not that God did not know, or that God is fickle or changed His mind. Rather, many times God's perceived will for us changes when our attitude changes (for better or for worse). When Pharaoh was with Abraham's wife Sarah, God told Pharaoh in a dream that he was going to die, no if's, and's or but's about it. But when Pharaoh said he acted in ignorance, God said He knew that, and that is why He warned Pharaoh. Pharaoh restored Abraham's wife to him, and Pharaoh did not die. Likewise, Jonah prophesied that Nineveh would be destroyed in 40 days. However, they repented and Nineveh was not destroyed.

   When we are busy with our ministry, our plans, and our life, many times people come to us with needs that are important, or sometimes are unimportant, but they think are important. We might think of those as distractions and interruptions, but we too are to meet people where they are at. Playing ball, going to a movie, or spending a little time “goofing off” with someone may not seem very important to us in what we think of as God's scheme of things, and indeed perhaps it might not be. But even so, it might be the one and only thing God wants us to do right now, if we want to be in the center of his will.

 

4. In Jn 2:3, metaphorically speaking, how do we invite Jesus to our wedding, and our marriage?

A: We don’t want the wine of love to run out; and quite frankly of ourselves we only have a finite supply. Jesus provides you with truth, but you do allow Jesus to supply your with fulfillment and life? Is the thing you look forward to, more than the football game, your hobbies, your kids, your boyfriend or girlfriend, spending time with God?

 

5. In Jn 2:3-10, was this wine alcoholic?

A: It was not like hard liquor, but the wine of this time was alcoholic. If you let grape juice sit in a jar unrefrigerated for a year it will have alcohol in it. Even “new wine” was alcoholic in Acts 2:13. However, as Difficulties in the Bible p.147-149 points out it does not say the miraculous wine was intoxicating.

   The children’s book, Jesus’ First Miracle by Vivian Dede (Concordia 1990) has an excellent summary of a lesson from this miracle: “When something is needed, Be it new life or wine, Jesus solves every problem In His own good time.”

 

6. In Jn 2:1-11 was this Jesus’ own wedding, and from Lk 8:3-4, did Jesus marry one or more of the women who accompanied the disciples as polygamous Mormons and some other cults believe?

A: No. First, here are the women we know of who accompanied Jesus and the disciples. According to Luke 8:3-4, the women who traveled with Jesus were Mary Magdalene, Joanna wife of Cuza, Susanna, and others. Other passages mention Salome (Mark 15:40), Mary mother of James (Mark 15:40, Luke 24:10), and Martha, Mary Magdalene’s sister.

   John 2:2 says that Jesus was invited as a guest to the wedding. A groom is never invited to his own wedding.

   There is no basis to say that Jesus ever got married, or had any kids, or any kids were born without a sinful nature. While no verse actually says Jesus was never married, no verse ever says Jesus did not fly to Mars either. An argument from silence no more proves one than another.

Here are all the other pre-resurrection passages about the women:

Joanna and Salome are mentioned no where else.

Martha (with Mary) were only mentioned in three pre-Resurrection passages, a dinner (Luke 10:38-41), healing of their brother Lazarus (John 11:1-45), and a second dinner with Lazarus (John 12:1-8).

   Since there is no other mention, one could have almost no stronger argument that Jesus married Mary than he married her sister Martha. However, Jesus obeyed the Mosaic Law, and marriage of one man to two sisters, while both were living, was forbidden in Leviticus 18:18. Mormons who teach this probably are not aware they are teaching that Jesus allegedly broke the Old Testament marriage laws here.

   See When Cultists Ask p.163 for more info.

 

7. In Jn 2:4, why did Jesus say His hour had not yet come?

A: Jesus was telling His mother that the time had not yet come for Him to start His ministry of miracles. But even though He was not ready to perform many miracles yet, He performed this miracle at the request of His mother.

 

8. In Jn 2:4, why did Jesus call His mother “woman”, using the same word He called a prostitute “woman” in Jn 8:10? (The Muslim Ahmad Deedat brought this up.)

A: Deedat seems to imply that Jesus had the same disrespect for His mother that he had for the prostitute. This is the opposite of what is true though. Jesus respected His mother, and He also respected the prostitute. Hard as it might be for some to believe, Jesus had respect for the poor, the lost, and guilty sinners who needed a savior.

   The term “woman”, or “ma’am” was a polite form of address according to The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.42, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.278, and the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.849. The Greek word gynai is the same word Jesus spoke to His mother while on the cross in John 19:26 and to Mary Magdalene after His resurrection in John 20:15.

 

9. In Jn 2:10, how does God give us fulfillment like wine today?

A: As we spend time worshipping God we are honoring Him; but God gives us joy and contentment resting in Him too. In Psalm 4:6-8 David said that God had filled his heart with greater joy than when others’ grain and new wine abound. If you believe God, and have trusted your life over to Him, then God has your mind and will. But does God have your heart?

 

10. In Jn 2:11, what does this say about Jesus performing an prior miracles?

A: This rules out miracles Jesus allegedly did in His childhood according to some apocryphal gospels and the Qur’an. See the Believers Bible Commentary p.1475 for more info.

 


John 2:12-25 – The First Temple Cleansing - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 2:12-22 what was so wrong with the money changers?

A: The Torah specified that they could only sacrifice an animal without defect. How can you be sure that a good animal you brought from somewhere else would remain scrape free and uninjured by the time you got to Jerusalem? It would be simpler just to buy an animal there. But the Jews added the stipulation that you could not use impure money. Most Roman and Greek coins had a picture of a person on it. The Jews at the temple said money was impure if it had a picture of a person, on it, especially a Roman Emperor who claimed to be a god. So you had to change your money for “pure money” and use that money to buy and animal. Also the temple priests required “pure money” to pay the temple tax.

   Every time a devout worshipper wanted to go to Jerusalem, either just to worship or else to fulfill his obligations, we say these money-grubbing people and he was forced to get ripped off. The Court of the Gentiles was open for non-Jews who wanted to go to the temple, but it would be hard to get in because of all the stands there for the money-changing and animals. So when a Gentile came, that is all they saw of God’s holiness. – pretty sad!

   Today when someone wants to come to Christ they can encounter some TV preachers (not all) who are just preaching positive thinking or are just in it for the money. When they desire to learn about God by watching TV that is what they can see. – pretty sad too!

   Have you ever been bothered by someone else talking or not be reverent in church? Now let’s bring in some bleating sheep and lowing cattle! Unfortunately we have to learn not to be annoyed by what some people do in a service. If you take your eyes off the Lord, and look around to see who is worshipping and who is not, invariably you will always find one person who is not worshipping, - You!

 

2. In Jn 2:14 what is an important difference between the moneychangers and those who sold animals?

A: The moneychangers were telling people they needed to do something God never said they had to do, and doing so for a profit. God said they were not to worship other gods or make graven images; He did not say they could not use regular money. And even if they were not supposed to use coins with an image on them, then they should not use those at all, not just for sacrifices.

   The people who sold animals were not doing anything wrong in selling animals for sacrifice; but they were doing it in the wrong place. They should not be doing that at the temple. The Court of the Gentiles was for non-Jews to come; and there was little room for them; with all the stalls for commerce.

 

3. In Jn 2:15 how might a church need cleansing like this today?

A: It is fine and proper for ministers of the gospel to make their living from the gospel, as 2 Corinthians 9:13-14 says. However, their motive should not be to get rich. Those who think of the church primarily as a way to enrich themselves should not be church leaders, and should not be followed as church leaders. On one hand the fault lies with the wicked church leaders. On the other hand the fault lies with those in the church who continue to follow those church leaders after they are aware of what is happening.

 

4. In Jn 2:16 in what way were the moneychangers and animal sellers very similar?

A: They both turned God’s temple into a house of merchandise, because both had lost their sense of awe towards God. While the animal sellers were making money doing a proper thing in the wrong place, and the moneychangers were forcing people to follow their own rules, they two differed in the degree, not in kind. For the animal sellers to not accept the regular money they both had to be working together in collusion.

 

5. In Jn 2:17 what are some ways Christians lose their awe of God, and how can they get it back?

A: One frequent part of human nature that is bad is that “familiarity breeds contempt.” In other words, people tend to be ungrateful, and take for granted good things if they experience them all the time. We actually have been given the privilege to make request of the Almighty Lord of the Universe. Though God is perfect, He actually condescended to come to earth and die for our sins. To stay in awe of God, spend time in prayer with Him, read His word, and gather in fellowship with other believers who also have the awe of God.

 

6. In Jn 2:20, why did they say the temple took 46 years to build, when it did not?

A: First two things that are not the answer, and then the answer.

Not the answer: The second temple, started when the Jews returned home in 538 B.C. did not take 46 years to build, even though construction was not continuous. It was completed on March 12, 516 B.C., according to Ezra 6:15. See also Haggai 1:14-2:3. That would be 23 years, not 46.

Not the answer: The Bible did not say the temple took 46 years to build, only that the Jews said it took 46 years to build. The Jews could be mistaken and the Bible could simply be recording what they said. While this could potentially be true, there is a much simpler explanation: the Jews were correct.

The Answer: King Herod the Great started restoring the temple in 19 B.C. and it was not completed until 63 A.D. 19 B.C. plus 46 years, remembering that 1 B.C. to 1 A.D. is 1 year, would be would around 27 A.D., as Asimov’s Guide to the Bible p.449,977 says.

 

7. In Jn 2:20, how did it take 46 years to build the temple?

A: A better translation is “it has taken 46 years so far. Herod started work on restoring the temple in 20 B.C.. At this point, around 27 A.D., it was functional, but it was not finally finished until 64 A.D. See the NIV Study Bible p.1597 and the New International Bible Commentary p.1237 for more info.

 

8. In Jn 2:20, why do you think Jesus even brought up the temple here?

A: The Jews asked Jesus for a miraculous sign. Jesus could have said He was not going to give a sign to them, or Jesus could have pointed to water to wine at that He just did. Jesus could also have pointed to a future sign.

  Jesus could have directly said the greatest sign of all: Jesus would rise from the dead. But instead, Jesus indirectly mentioned His resurrection by saying “destroy this temple…”. Finally, Jesus could have referred to His resurrection indirectly as He did, except using another metaphor instead of a temple.

  Many of the Jews were all about the Temple, not about God. Furthermore, they themselves probably did not realize that. Jesus was much more important than the temple in Jerusalem, Jesus’ answer probably was viewed more negatively by them than if He had just used another metaphor.

   Jesus related to them on the topic they thought was most important. Jesus was saying this is not normal; this must change. Sometimes we can be so focused on something that is important, that we completely lose sight of things that are most important. As one pastor said, don’t let doing good things keep you from doing the best things.

 

9. In Jn 2:12-22, did Jesus cleanse the temple at the beginning of His ministry, or in the last week in Mk 11:1-19; Mt 21:12-13; Lk 19:45?

A: There were two cleansings; certainly Jesus would not have cleansed the temple once, and then when He came three years later pass by in silence. The first time was accompanied by sign and wonders, so Jesus would have been hard to arrest without arousing the people. The cattle, sheep, and doves were mentioned in the first cleansing in John 2:14-15, but only doves in the second in Mark 11:1-19; Matthew 21:12-13, and Luke 19:45. Even the second time, the authorities would not arrest Jesus, - unless they could find Him apart from the crowds, such as at night.

   See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.44 for more info.

 

10. In Jn 2:12-22, what do you suppose the money changers after Jesus left the first time? – and the second? What was the point?

A: Most obviously did not change after the first time, because Jesus drove out the money changers a second time.

   They probably did not change after the second time either; at least for forty years. However, in 70 A.D., the temple was destroyed, and then there were no moneychangers or sellers of animals at the temple, because there were no sacrifices to make.

 

11. In Jn 2:12-22, why do you think most did not change?

A: We can hope that a few stopped; but we don’t know if that was the case. There was too much profit to make, and it was too easy of a job. Imagine going home and telling your parents, spouse, or kids, who thought what you were doing was just fine, and telling them that you are quitting your easy job because someone said it was wrong. You don’t know where the money for the family is going to come from, but you will look for something.

   In a sense, that was what Jesus was asking the moneychangers to do. The animal sellers could have moved their stall to outside the temple, but then who would buy from them when it was more convenient to buy from someone right inside the temple? Sometimes God might ask us to quit a stable, good-paying job, that we might even like doing, because the purpose of the company or job is only to advance evil.

   There is an organized crime boss that has an opening for a administrative secretary; they even have some profit-sharing. Is anybody interested?

 

 

12. In Jn 2:12-22, if Jesus came to declare Himself as the Messiah, why did He get bogged down with people selling in the Temple?

A: Actually there is an important point here. Having an awe of God was sort of prerequisite to wanting to obey and follow Him. They attitude had to change before they would want to listen. For the people around us, we should try to help them have an awe of God; but we don’t need to use any whips, just our life and words.


John 3:1-12 – Do You Know How to be Born Again? - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 3, how does Jn 2:13-3:21 contrast with Jn 2:13-3:21?

A: In the Galilee Jesus found people who wanted to believe and believed. In Jerusalem Jesus found the money-changers who did not want to believe. Then Jesus found Nicodemus found someone who wanted to believe but couldn’t understand yet. In Galilee, where they believed, Jesus preserved their ceremony of a wedding, and transformed their work. In Jerusalem Jesus was disruptive, both of their temple finances, and their rabbinic teaching.

   See the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.850-851 for more info.

 

2. In Jn 3:1-21, whatever happened to Nicodemus?

A: Later, John 7:50-51 says that Nicodemus rebuked the Sanhedrin for condemning Jesus without first hearing him. This shows both that Nicodemus was on this elite body of 70 men, and that he still supported Jesus. John 20:39 says that after the death of Jesus, Nicodemus helped Joseph of Arimathea put Jesus’ body in the tomb. In Pre-Nicene church history Tatian’s Diatessaron, Tertullian, and Origen all mention Nicodemus, but they do not add anything besides what is in the gospels. After Nicea Athanasius and John Chrysostom both discuss Nicodemus, but they do not add anything beyond what the gospels have. Nicodemus might have been an older man when he met Jesus.

 

3. In Jn 3:3, does the Greek say “born again” or “born from above”?

A: The Greek word anothen can mean both, according to The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.281 and Hard Sayings of the Bible p.495.

 

4. In Jn 3:1-21, Bart Ehrman mentions that in conversation with Nicodemus, Jesus uses a Greek double entendre (play on words): “from above” and “second time” would be different in Aramaic. Ehrman does not believe that Jesus could speak Greek.

A: Ehrman is an American, and Americans tend to have fewer bilingual speakers than European and other cultures. Nazareth, where Jesus was raised, was only 15 to 20 miles from non-Jewish, Greek-speaking people in the west, north, or east. Galilean coins typically had Greek on them. East of Galilee was a region they called “The “Decapolis”, which is Greek for “ten-cities” in Acts 9:36. Tabitha (Hebrew was also called Dorcas (Greek), both meaning Gazelle.

   Nicodemus comes from nike and demos. This does NOT mean a non-Republican voter wearing athletic shoes! Rather, it is a Greek name, meaning “victor of the people.” Now suppose for sake of argument that someone with a traditional Greek-name, talking with someone from a small region surrounded on three sides by Greek-speaking people, decided to converse in Aramaic, or Hebrew, or even some other language besides Greek. Now suppose that even though both would have knowledge of Greek, do you really think there is no possibility that they would say a single sentence or phrase in that language?

  On the other hand, even if the original meaning was “born again” in Aramaic and not a double entendre with “born from above”, the passage would still make perfect sense if there were no double entendre.

 

5. In Jn 3:3, was Jesus teaching reincarnation when He mentioned being born again?

A: No. He was teaching a “second” birth, not hundreds or thousands of multiple births. Jesus was teaching a birth by the Spirit, not physical birth. Reincarnation would contradict man only dying once in Hebrews 9:25-28, and would not make sense for people who are sent to heaven or Hell after their one death. See the extensive discussion on Hebrews 9:25-28, When Critics Ask p.405-406 and When Cultists Ask p.163-164 for more info.

 

6. In Jn 3:5, are only a small “anointed class” of 144,000 born again and live forever in heaven, as the Jehovah’s Witnesses teach (Watchtower Magazine, February 15, 1986 p.14)?

A: No. First what Jehovah’s Witnesses teach, and then why part of their teaching is so dangerous.

Jehovah’s Witnesses teach that those Jehovah’s Witnesses who are not a part of the 144,000 will live forever, but it will be in paradise on earth in heaven.

   However, Romans 8:9 says, “You, however, are controlled not by the sinful nature but by the Spirit, if the Spirit of God lives in you. And if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Christ. But if Christ is in you, your body is dead because of sin, yet your spirit is alive because of righteousness.” (NIV). So if Christ is not in you, you do not belong to Christ. 1 John 1:12 and 1 Peter 1:23 have similar teaching.

   See When Cultists Ask p.164-165 for more info.

 

7. In Jn 3:3-21, could you please explain the difference between create and recreate, born and reborn, made and made new?

A: “Re-” just means again. There are three aspects to your question.

Past: All of us, both believers and unbelievers, were created by God, in the image of God. Everything that exists was created by God the Father through Jesus Christ. There is nothing and no one that was not created, except that The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit were never created but always existed as God in trinity.

Present: But we were created fallen, with a sinful nature, and outside of God's redemption. We need to be “recreated” or “born again”, not from our mother's womb, but spiritual rebirth by the Holy Spirit (John 3:3-21). This occurs when we put our faith in Jesus.

Future: When mankind fell and lost dominion over the earth, creation itself was subjected to corruption (Romans 8:20-21). God will clear everything with fire (2 Pet 3:10) and create a new heavens and earth (Rev 21).

 

8. In Jn 3:3-8, what does it mean to be born again?

A: Billy Graham wrote an entire book on this subject, called How to Be Born Again. In one sentence though, “Born again” is what God does to you through the Holy Spirit when you put your faith in Him. This means to

1. Believe in the One, True God, that He is the Creator of all, and acknowledge His right over you. Believe that He revealed His truth to us in His word, the Bible.

2. Confess that you are separated from God because of sin, and you are powerless to be reconciled to Him. The problem is not just the external actions we have done or failed to do, but also who we are on the inside.

3. Trust in the true Christ. When it was impossible for sinners like us to come to God, God made it possible by sending Jesus Cross to come to earth in the flesh, born of the Virgin Mary, to live a sinless life. He died on the cross, with His body and blood being an atoning sacrifice for our sin. He was bodily raised on the third day and ascended to Heaven.

4. Call out to God. All who call on the Lord will be saved, and if you repent of your sins and ask Jesus to be the Lord and Savior of your life, you will be saved. He will give you a new life, and will begin the process of making you more Christ-like. After you die, you will go to Heaven and be with God forever.

 

9. In Jn 3:5, is it impossible to go to Heaven unless one has the Holy Spirit?

A: No, Jesus did not actually say that. Jesus said that unless one is born of water and the spirit, he is not able to enter into the kingdom of God.

The kingdom of God and Heaven are not identical. Heaven is where believers go when they die. The Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.991 says that many teach the kingdom of God refers to the spiritual rule of Christ within the heart of those who are saved. The International Dictionary of the Bible p.568 says that in general, the word “kingdom” can be a) the realm over which the king reigns, b) the people over whom the king reigns, or c) the actual reign itself. The New International Bible Dictionary (1962 IVP) says the kingdom of God as present as well as future aspects. So clearly, the kingdom of God is broader than Heaven, as it includes present earthly aspects. Heaven can be broader than the kingdom of God, as it is possible that infants and others do not join the kingdom of God until they get to Heaven.

Infants do not have the Holy Spirit, yet it is generally agreed that nothing in the Bible says they cannot go to Heaven.

Most Old Testament believers did not have the Holy Spirit, yet they were not permanently barred from Heaven.

Neither group could be said to live on earth as part of the kingdom of God (with Christ reigning), yet they can still be in Heaven.

In summary, the Spirit is required for someone on earth to be a part of the kingdom of God. However, “God’s hands are not tied” in regard to Old Testament saints, infants, the severely retarded, and those with no opportunity to hear the Gospel.

 

10. In Jn 3:5, very briefly, what is the water here?

A: Five points to consider in the answer.

1. The Greek can mean “water and Spirit” or “water even the Spirit. Thus this could mean “water, symbolizing the Spirit” the Aland et al. Greek New Testament (3rd edition 1975) says that kai means “and, also, but, even; that is, namely;” Kenneth S. Wuest’s expanded translation also uses the word “even”.

2. Water accompanying physical birth is what some, starting with Augustine, have thought. However, Jesus appears to be speaking of only one birth, not two, this metaphor is absent in the rest of the Bible and the Jewish culture up to this time. The Greek indicates only one birth, by water and spirit, not two. No imagery of water for physical birth was used by the Jews until centuries after Jesus. We do not know of any early Greek-speaking Christians who understood the verse this way.

3. Others say “water” means the word of God, (based primarily on Ephesians 5:26). The only merit of this view is that it avoids any problems saying water baptism is essential. Does this mean Nicodemus and the Pharisees were halfway born again, because they knew the word of God in the Old Testament? - Of course not. This interpretation also opens the door to the error called ultra-dispensationalism, that water baptism is not to be practiced today. Moreover, not a single Greek-speaking Christian is known who understood John 3:5 this way, and this requires Jesus to chide Nicodemus for failing to understand a New Testament that was not written yet.

4. Application to baptism is what early church writers unanimously taught up until c.400 A.D., though complementary meanings were not excluded. The many washing basins in the Temple were there so people could obey the Old Testament rules for washings. Was the powerful ministry of John the Baptist meaningless? -Only in the closed minds of some Pharisees. It could be expected that Jesus would chide Nicodemus, the teacher, for failing to understand the repentance, need for cleansing, and required internal purification represented by baptism, before a person could be acceptable as a part of God’s kingdom. According to the Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.441, the Jewish sect at Qumran also practiced baptism by immersion.

5. The kingdom of God is not Heaven, because it includes what believers can be a part of while living on earth. Water baptism is an important part of joining God’s Church on earth today. However, infants, Old Testament saints, the severely retarded, and possibly others should be glad that it is God who sends people to Heaven, not baptismal water.

 

11. In Jn 3:5, is “baptismal regeneration” true, the belief that water baptism is necessary for salvation?

A: No. The Gentiles who were filled with the Holy Spirit and spoke in tongues in Acts 10:44-48, prior to being baptized with water, probably did not think so. Jesus apparently did not think so either when He spoke to the thief on his right. One could try to argue that the thief on the cross was prior to Jesus’ resurrection, but then Jesus’ words to Nicodemus were spoken, and were true, prior to Jesus’ resurrection, too. Of course all of this was prior to the Holy Spirit at Pentecost and there being Christian baptism; John’s baptism and Old Testament washings were all they knew.

   However, if an interpretation of a verse makes part of the verse without any meaning whatsoever, then that interpretation undoubtedly is incorrect. So what is the meaning of Jesus’ words here?

   The answer is implied in Luke 7:29-30, where it was said the Pharisees and experts in the Law had rejected God’s purpose for themselves. The reason given is that they had not been baptized by John. Water baptism is neither a meaningless ritual nor merely an optional thing, like choir practice, to show special love to God. If a person with full knowledge rejects water baptism, and the truth it represents, they have rejected God. Unless they turn around, they are not going to Heaven.

   See also 1001 Bible Questions Answered p.118-119, When Critics Ask p.406, When Cultists Ask p.165-166, and the Complete Book of Bible Answers p.210-211 for more info.

 

12. In Jn 3:5, if someone did believe in the error of baptismal regeneration, would that be a soul-perishing heresy?

A: No. This question is important, not to teach us truth, but to give us perspective on the kinds of errors we should and should not divide over. Since we should take seriously the command in Romans 15:7, that we should accept one another just as Christ excepted us, we have to know what kinds of errors people can have and still be genuine Christians.

   Early Campbellite groups taught baptismal regeneration, and most Church of Christ groups believe in baptismal remission. Other Protestant denominations do not. Both Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican have taught a kind of baptismal regeneration, though very different from the Church of Christ denomination. However, if you thought only unsaved heretics could believe in baptismal regeneration, then you should no longer refer to Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Basil, Gregory Nanzianzus, Ambrose of Milan, Augustine, Prosper of Aquitaine, Cyprian, and probably Athanasius as Christians. Here is what they said on John 3:5 and baptism.

Justin Martyr, who wrote about c.138-165 A.D. in his First Apology ch.61 p.183 “Then they are brought by us where there is water, and are regenerated in the same manner in which we were ourselves regenerated. For, in the name of God, the Father and Lord of the universe, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit, they then receive the washing with water. For Christ also, said, ‘Except ye be born again, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven…. And for this [rite] we have learned from the apostles this reason.”

Irenaeus in fragment 34 p.574 said, “It was not for nothing that Naaman of old, when suffering from leprosy, was purified upon his being baptized, but [it served] as an indication to us. For as we are lepers in sin, we are made clean, by means of the sacred water and the invocation of the Lord, from our old transgressions; being spiritually regenerated as new-born babes, even as the Lord has declared: ‘Except a man be born again through water and the Spirit, he shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven.’”

Tertullian in On Baptism ch.12 p.674-675, “When, however, the prescript [true in Tertullian’s view] is laid down that ‘without baptism, salvation is attainable by none’ (chiefly on the ground of that declaration of the Lord, who says, ‘Unless one be born of water, he hath not life’), there arise immediately scrupulous, nay rather audacious, doubts on the part of some, ‘how, in accordance with that prescript, salvation is attainable by the apostles, whom - Paul excepted - we do not find baptized in the Lord? … And now, as far as I shall be able, I will reply to them who affirm ‘that the apostles were unbaptized.’”

Cyprian in Epistle 71 ch.1 p.378, “…unless they receive also the baptism of the Church. For then finally can they be fully sanctified, and be the sons of God, if they be born of each sacrament; since it is written ‘Except a man be born again of water, and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God”. (Also Epistle 72 ch.22 p.385)

Gregory Nanzianzus (330-391 A.D.) in Oration on Holy Baptism ch.8 p.362, “And since we are double-made, I mean of body and soul, and the one part is visible, the other invisible, so the cleansing also is twofold, by water and the spirit; the one received visibly in the body, the other concurring with it invisibly and apart from the body;… For, to say it all in one word, the virtue of Baptism, is to be understood as a covenant with God for a second life and a purer conversation.”

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) On the Spirit chapter 15:35 p.22 “Hence it follows that the answer to our question why the water was associated with the Spirit is clear: the reason is because in baptism two ends were proposed; on the one hand, the destroying of the body of sin, that it may never bear fruit unto death; on the other hand, our living unto the Spirit, and having our fruit in holiness…”

Athanasius, an architect of the Nicene Creed, had a high view of baptism, though he did not comment on John 3:5 per se. I have not yet been able to find if he believed in baptismal regeneration or not.

John Chrysostom (392-407 A.D.) did not mention baptismal regeneration, but for reference, here is what he said in his sermon on John 3:5. John Chrysostom’s Homilies on St. John Homily 25 ch.2 vol.14 p.89. “What then is the use of the water? This too I will tell you hereafter, when I reveal to you the hidden mystery. ... In Baptism are fulfilled the pledges of our covenant with God; burial and death, resurrection and life; and these take place all at once.”

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) in Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.10.64 p.144 said on John 3:5, “Who is he who is born of the Spirit, and is made Spirit, but he who is renewed in the Spirit of his mind? This certainly is he who is regenerated by water and the Holy Spirit, since we receive the hope of eternal life through the laver of regeneration… For who is he that is baptized with the Holy Spirit but he who is born again through water and the Holy Spirit?”

   Ambrose also believed that baptism had power, in that for infants, baptism opens the kingdom of heaven to them (On Abraham 2:79)

Augustine of Hippo also believed in the efficacy of baptism. They believed the error that baptized babies went to Heaven, and unbaptized babies went to Hell.

Prosper of Aquitaine also believed the same error, that water baptism takes away original sin and previous personal sins of both the elect and reprobate. (Answer to the Gauls Articles 2 and 3).

   As a final note, the opposite error, that Christians should not practice water baptism, is a part of the error called “ultra-dispensationalism”. For more discussion on this, see the three questions relating to 1 Corinthians 1:17.


John 3:13-21 – How to be Born Again - some brief answers

 

1. Since Jn 3:13 seems to say that no one has ever ascended into heaven, what about Elijah and Enoch, etc? Or what about all the saints of the Old Testament? Where were they, if not in heaven? (The Muslim Ahmad Deedat brought this up.)

A: While Elijah was taken up into the sky, nobody on their own ascended from earth into heaven proper, until Jesus did. First let’s observe what the Bible shows about Elijah and Enoch, and then about Old Testament believers in general.

Elijah and Enoch: Genesis 5:24 says that Enoch walked with God, and then God took him away. It does not say precisely where God took Enoch, though I am sure Enoch was very glad to be there. 2 Kings 2:1,11 says that Elijah was taken up to heaven. The Hebrew word for heaven here, shameh (Strong’s 8064) means sky as well as heaven. For example, it is used to mean sky in Genesis 15:5; Genesis 26:4 (where the stars are); Genesis 16:4; 1 Kings 18:45 (where the rain comes from). But we know that Elijah left this world to be with God.

   The Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1479 mentions that the Bible does not say Elijah and Enoch ascended [on their own power] into Heaven; rather they were taken up into heaven.

Believers Before Christ: All people went to Sheol, which is translated as “the grave”. However, the Jews distinguished between two parts: prison and paradise. When Jesus was dying on the cross, He did not say to the thief on the right, “today you will be with me in heaven”. Rather, he said, “today you will be with me in Paradise.” This is the same place as Abraham’s side in Luke 16:22-26 When Jesus rose from the dead, Paradise was emptied, and Jesus led all of them to Heaven with Him.

Conclusion, While Moses and Old Testament believers were in Paradise before Jesus came, and Elijah was even taken up into the sky in a fiery chariot, nobody on their will own ascended from earth, and nobody had ascended to heaven proper until Jesus did. See When Critics Ask p.407 for more info.

 

2. Compare Jn 3:13 (“And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man...) to 2 Ki 2:11 (“. . . and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven”). Did Jesus err, because 2 Ki 2:11 shows Elijah went up earlier?

A: Jesus ascending to Heaven was fundamentally different from Elijah’s whirlwind and chariots in two ways.

1) A minor point is that the Greek word in John 3:13 (anabebukun, a form of anabaino) means to arise, climb, rise up, etc. Jesus ascended Himself, while Elijah was carried in a whirlwind.

2) More importantly, believers before Christ’s resurrection did not go to the same place Jesus was talking about. When Jesus was on the cross, He did not say the thief on his right would see Jesus today in Heaven; rather the thief would today would be with Jesus in paradise. In Luke 17 Jesus spoke of “Abraham’s bosom” a place of rest. In Ephesians 4:8, when Jesus rose from the dead, He opened the gates of Heaven, so that the Old Testament saints from Paradise went with Him. No one entered Heaven apart from Jesus or prior to Jesus.

   See the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1479 for more info.

 

3. In Jn 3:13 and Jn 6:38,42, is Christ’s coming down from heaven only a spiritual symbolic fact, not a material fact as Baha’is teach in Some Answered Questions p.103-105?

A: No. ‘Abdu’l-Baha claims this because John 3:13f says, “…but He that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven,” at the time that Jesus was on earth. (p.103).

First of all, this last phrase is a manuscript variation that is not present in the earliest manuscripts, though it is in the later Byzantine Lectionary. It is strange to base a doctrine on just one variant.

Second, Jesus’ divine nature can still be considered in heaven as well as earth according to the New Geneva Study Bible p.1665.

Finally, and most importantly, even if you do accept the manuscript variation, within the same verse it says that Jesus came down from Heaven. It is trivial to show from the Bible that Jesus existed in Heaven prior to the incarnation, and that same Jesus “came down” is a material fact.

 

4. In Jn 3:14, how did a bronze serpent in the wilderness relate to Jesus?

A: In Numbers 21:4-9, God punished the Israelites for their sins with being bitten by poisonous snakes. However, God made a way for their healing. God instructed them to make a bronze image resembling the snakes they were bitten by. When they looked up to a bronze snake, they would live.

   God’s setting up this analogy seems especially excellent here. We suffer the guilt and consequences for our sins. Jesus, who was sinless, took upon Himself the punishment for our sins. When we look to Jesus, we will live.

 

5. In Jn 3:16, is it contradictory that the death of Christ is both a sacrifice and a cosmic event? (Rudolph Bultmann taught this)

A: No. Imagine for a moment, that a tiny ant were suddenly given the body, some of the intelligence, but only a little of the knowledge of a human being. Either the ant would figure out that there are situations and things beyond his former understanding, or else the ant would see contradictions everywhere. For example, how could a beetle eat a person without harming him? And what difference does it make that the “beetle” was manufactured by Volkswagen? How could bugs live inside computer software? - and so forth. If you say something is a contradiction, of course you have to have a basis for why it is a contradiction. What is difficult for Bultmann (or any other non-believer) to show, is that the assumptions and requirements that we apply in our time to everyday life on earth, apply to a timeless, infinite God who fills the Heavens.

   Many people have idols that are simply, crude statues. Some modern “theologians” have a more sophisticated idol, who lives entirely within their own mind. When people make up restrictions on God, instead of believing what God has revealed about Himself in the Bible, idolatry is an apt description of the god they are describing.

 

6. In Jn 3:16, does God love every single person in the world, or just the people who will be going to Heaven?

A: Genuine Christians disagree on this. In my opinion, there are three parts to this answer.

To All: God has love and some mercy to everyone, as Psalm 145:9,13 shows. No matter how evil and vile a person might be, God still asks and invites them to believe in His Son, ask forgiveness and cleansing for their sin, and live together in holiness with God in Heaven. As God’s servants, we are messengers sent to communicate this message to everyone.

The Elect: God shows special love towards some that He did not show toward others. This is prior to their being saved. Some examples are Jacob and Esau in Romans 9:10-12, elect and reprobate in general in Romans 9:22-25, and David and Bathsheba’s two sons in 2 Samuel 12:15-25.

Believers?: Does God love a Christian more after he or she is saved than before they are saved? No scripture indicates this, or how this would relate to a timeless God.

 

7. In Jn 3:16, since Jesus is not a created being, how can He be begotten of God? Muslims deny that Jesus is begotten of God.

A: Begotten does not mean created, as we can create many things but we beget children. Many Muslims have a slight similarity in their belief about the Qur’an being from Allah without being created by Allah. Before the beginning of time, Jesus, who is also called the Word of God, came from God the Father. So, in different ways, both Christians and many [non-Mutzalite] Muslims say the Word of God came from God but was uncreated. See 1001 Bible Questions Answered p.26-27, the Complete Book of Bible Answers p.109, and When Cultists Ask p.166 for more info.

 

8. In Jn 3:16, why can people reject Jesus and go to Hell?

A: Jesus said that all who reject Him will go to Hell, in John 3:36. Why did God give us this responsibility, both awesome and awful, to choose to accept or reject Jesus, and have our eternal destiny determined accordingly? The answer might have to do with the value God places on us. God created us in His image, not as robots. He so values our free agency, that He allows us to choose our destiny and live with our choice. He allowed Adam and Eve to do the same, with the awful consequences for them, and their descendents. Perhaps God could have gone back in time and “uncreated” Adam and Eve, but for whatever reasons, God chose not to and let man’s choices stand.

 

9. In Jn 3:18, are all people really born in a condemned or estranged state?

A: An estranged state, yes. A condemned state, not necessarily. While Augustine of Hippo and Prosper of Aquitaine taught that all babies who die before baptism automatically go to Hell, the Bible does not say that, and few Christians today believe that. People are born without the Holy Spirit inside of them, and yes, all are born separated from God. However, in Old Testament times God could choose to save people who did not have the Holy Spirit, and nothing restricts God from saving babies today.

 

10. In Jn 3:17; 8:15; 12:47 did Jesus not come to judge the world, or will He judge the world according to Jn 5:22,27; 9:39?

A: Both are true.

The first time, Jesus did not come to judge the world, but rather He came as a lamb to save it by dying for our sins. However, an effect of Jesus coming is that those who rejected Him will fall under future judgment.

On the Second Coming, Jesus will come as a lion to judge those who reject Him. Believers are covered by virtue of the blood of Christ, and they have nothing to fear from the Great White Throne Judgment. However, unbelievers should be very fearful of Christ’s Judgment of their works when He comes again.

   See When Critics Ask p.407 for more info.

 

11. In Jn 3:18, is that justice, that we are born in an estranged state?

A: God is just, but that does not require us to have been born in any particular state. Perhaps an illustration can help. Say that we were born and lived all our life aboard one ship. Suppose this ship was about to sink, and a lifeboat was available for us to get off the ship. If we stay on the ship and drown, we are responsible for our own death. We were not responsible for being born on the ship, but we were responsible for not choosing to get off the sinking ship. It would not only be improper, but also tragic and useless for a person to blame the circumstances of their birth for their own choice to refuse the offer of the lifeboat.

   Thus, we had no influence or responsibility on how we were born, and the fact that we have a sinful nature. However, people are responsible for not choosing to come to God for cleansing of their sinful nature and forgiveness of their sins.

   See also Hard Sayings of the Bible p.561-563 for more info.

 

12. In Jn 3:1-18, Nicodemus came to Jesus at night; either because he was fearful of being seen during the day, or else he did not have any other time. What are some ways we are too busy or too fearful to come to Jesus when we should?

A: Most Christians see Nicodemus coming at night because as a respected rabbi in his position we did not want to be seen coming to Jesus. Some have said perhaps it was a different reason; Nicodemus was too busy during the day. Remember, being a rabbi, while an honorable position, was an unpaid one; so rabbis had regular jobs too. But either way, Nicodemus did not come at a normal time. Sometimes we don’t want to come to Jesus or do His will at the normal time either, due to being too busy or too fearful. But at least Nicodemus still came. And if a person comes to follow Christ late, or fearfully, at least they still come.

   In Matthew 21:28-32 Jesus told a parable of a father who told his two sons to work in the field. The first said no, but then did it. The second said yes but did not go. Jesus said the first did his father’s will. Obedience is best if it is prompt, cheerful, and complete, but even a delayed obedience is still better than no obedience.

   Likewise we might have told God “I’m too busy”, “I’m too scared”, “or just plan “no” in our life. That is said, and you might never know what you missed out on. But it is not too late. Like the first son in Matthew 21:28-32, you can still say “yes” now, and go. God will still accept your obedience, despite your past hesitation or disobedience.


John 3:22-36 – John the Baptist Making Christ Famous - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 3:25-26, why do you think the arguing man asked John about Jesus?

A: We don’t see any evidence that the Jew was followed John, Jesus, or had any intention of wanting to follow either one. Perhaps he saw John’s teaching as wrong, and was trying to point out what he saw as a contradiction between John’s teaching and Jesus’.

   But beyond that, perhaps the Jewish person wanted to sow discord between John and Jesus. If he could use John’s disciple to get John and Jesus to disagree, both would be discredited, since John affirmed Jesus and Jesus affirmed John. Today, if someone can get Christians to publicly go against each other, it can tend to discredit both of them in the eyes of the world. So don’t ever belittle other Christians, either publicly or privately. Be very careful in criticizing other Christians, unless they are Christian involved in serious error or sin, or are not really Christians.

 

2. In Jn 3:27-30, why did John answer the way he did?

A: When you are a friend of the bride or groom in a wedding, you want the couple to be honored; not get honor for yourself. John’s mission was to bring glory to God. Sometimes that meant speaking boldly which would increase his fame. Sometimes that would mean stepping out of the way, so that Jesus could be followed. John was comfortable with both.

… I hope that is not a deal-breaker

 

3. In Jn 3:27, how can we apply “a man can receive only what is given him from heaven” today?

A: Be happy with the blessings, gifts, and skills God has chosen to give you. Do not be unhappy with all the things God has not given you. Even when non-believers have more ability to make money, better health, can be more famous, etc., be content that God has given you all that you need. There are times when the best place to be is in the background.

 

4. Hoes does the message of Jn 3:31-36 differ from Jn 3:27-30?

A: In John 3:27-30 John said that Jesus was much greater than him. But in John 3:31-36 says that if they are comparing John the Baptist and Jesus, they have absolutely no idea how great Jesus is.

 

5. In Jn 3:32, since no man received Christ’s testimony, how come John the Baptist and others accepted Christ?

A: Verse 32 is qualified by verse 33. In modern writings, people often write, “No one …. Except …”. Ancient writing is similar except that the “except” sometimes is implied.

   John’s statement here relates to Jesus’ statement in John 6:44, that no one can come to God, unless the Father draws Him. Without God’s help, people left to their own do not want to seek God, as Romans 3:11 says.

 

6. In Jn 3:34-35, since God is Spirit, how can Jesus be the Son of God?

A: Christians do NOT believe Jesus was the Son of God in a crude physical or sexual sense. Rather this term is an expression of deep meaning of how Jesus is different from every created being.

 

7. In Jn 3:36, are all who do not reject Christ going to Heaven, or do you have to actually believe in Christ?

A: Two points to consider in the answer.

All who reject Jesus will “indeed die in their sins” according to Jesus in John 8:24. John 3:36 is also very clear, those who reject Jesus will go to Hell. Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) was an early Christian who also taught similarly, that all Jews who reject Christ go to Hell in Dialogue with Trypho the Jew chapter 26.

All babies who die are never said to go to Hell. Of course babies do not have the understanding to accept Jesus, so unless all babies go to Hell, this shows that God is not restricted to working within this limitation. See also the next question.

 

8. In Jn 3:36, what about those who have not heard of Christ? Does a just God condemn them to Hell with no chance whatsoever?

A: No. God is just and fair, as well as merciful. God says He does not count sin where there is no law (Romans 4:15; 5:12). We know that God will provide a way to judge them fairly. Excluding Purgatory, Limbo, and some extreme Calvinist positions, here are various speculations on way God might choose to do so.

God ensures that all who would accept hear: People who reject God have greater condemnation, based on greater knowledge (see 2 Peter 2:2:21). A person’s only hope is if they hear the Gospel and accept before death, but God makes sure all who need to hear it do.

Some hear the Gospel and accept after death:

This view hinges on the interpretation of three Bible passages: 1 Peter 3::19-20; 1 Peter 4:5-6, and Ephesians 4:8-10. 1 Peter 4:5-6 says that after Christ died he preached to the spirits in prison. Prison is not a term that describes where the righteous dead (like Abraham) went before Christ. Rather it describes either where lost human souls went before Christ or else other souls (some demons and/or Nephilim) were before Christ. Rather than simply informing them of what happened on earth, this view says Jesus preached so they could make the same choice they would have made on earth. It does not mean there is a second chance after death; instead, there is a first chance for those who never had a chance.

Some hear the Gospel accept in the millennium:

This answer is very similar to the Post-Death Salvation View. If you put the question “what happens those who never heard” next to “why will God resurrect people who have not made a decision for him”, the two questions appear to answer each other.

Seekers can be saved through a Christ:

Could someone today be saved like Abraham and Job? They sought the Creator instead of a creature, realized their need for forgiveness, sought God’s mercy and salvation, and obeyed what they knew. This view does not say all go to Heaven or that there are many ways to God. It says that even if you are on a wrong road that does not lead to God, God may still honor your sincerity if you are truly seeking the True God and you have not rejected the available truth. This does not apply to those who could have investigated Christ, but they never chose to or thought it important enough.


John 4:1-42 – The Samaritan Woman - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 4:1-2, why did Jesus not baptize anyone?

A: Scripture does not say, but we can speculate. In the context of Ephesians 4:3, the foundation is not Jesus but the apostles and prophets, and Jesus is the chief cornerstone upon which the foundation is based. If Jesus had baptized many people, some could think they could bypass the foundation. Spiritually, genuine Christians are all baptized with Christ. However, our faith rests on the foundation of the apostles and prophets. (Of course, these are New Testament apostles, and not unsubstantiated modern impersonators.)

 

2. In Jn 4:1-2, did Jesus ever baptize anyone?

A: Scripture does not actually say. We have only two places in the New Testament where it said Jesus did or did not baptize. John 3:22 says that Jesus and His disciples were out in the countryside and baptized without specifying who was doing the baptizing. John 4:1-2, clarifies that though the Pharisees heard that Jesus was baptizing, it was actually the disciples following Jesus who were doing the baptizing.

   Perhaps Jesus did not personally baptize anyone because He did not want someone to be tempted to think they were “better” in the faith because they were baptized directly by Him instead of someone else. This might also be the same reason why Paul had others baptize instead of himself (except that he baptized Crispus, Gaius, and Stephanas’ household). Others could handle the baptism, but Paul was to do the preaching (1 Corinthians 1:17).

 

3. In Jn 4:4, did Jesus really have to go through Samaria?

A: Samaria was on the most direct route from Judea to Galilee, but most self-respecting Pharisees would go out of their way to take a detour to bypass that land. During the time of the Maccabees, when Jews were choosing to die rather than worship any other god or eat pork, Samaritans dedicated their temple on Mt. Gerizim to Zeus Xenios. This is according to The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.54.

   Jesus did not have to take the most direct route, but He chose to do so. Of course once he started by the most direct route, then He had to go through Samaria.

 

4. In Jn 4:4, why was the Samaritan woman surprised that Christ spoke with her?

A: Jews did not associate with Samaritans, because Samaritans

1. Believed the center of worship should be at Mount Gerazim in Samaria, not Jerusalem.

2. Were only half-breeds and not of pure Israelite descent. Since they were not true Jews, Jews would not eat with them.

3. Did not accept any of the Old Testament except for the first five books.

4. Resented Jews.

Samaritans resented Jews because

1. Nehemiah, Ezra, and others excluded them from helping build the wall of Jerusalem and from worship at Jerusalem.

2. Jews resented Samaritans.

   See Today’s Handbook for Solving Bible Difficulties p.57-59 for more info.

 

5. In Jn 4:6, since Jesus got tired, and God does not get tired in Ps 121:4, does that mean that Jesus was not God?

A: No, it means that Jesus voluntarily gave up some of His power when He came to earth, as Philippians 2:3-4 and John 17:5 show. Jesus had to be human like us in every way, according to Hebrews 2:14-17. Psalms 121:4 was written when Jesus was in Heaven. On earth, Jesus experienced tiredness, suffering, learned obedience, and did not know everything, such as the time of His second coming.

   Here is what the Christian writer Hilary (355-367/368 A.D.) said: “The deeds of God therefore are beyond the understanding of our human nature and do not fit in with our rational process of thought because the operation of a limitless eternity demands an infinite comprehension of measuring things. So it is not a conclusion of reason but a limitation of power when God became man, when the Immortal dies, when the Eternal is buried. Again, on the other hand it does not depend on our manner of thinking but on omnipotence that He appears as God from a man, as immortal from one who is dead, and as eternal from one who is buried. Hence we are revivified by God in Christ through his death.” (On the Trinity book 1 ch.13 p.44)

 

6. In Jn 4:9, how did the woman at the well know Jesus was a Jew?

A: Scripture does not say, but there are three possible reasons.

1. A traveler passing through Samaria would likely be a Jew.

2. Apparently people from Galilee had a distinctive accent (Matthew 26:73), which Jesus likely had. Galileans tended to use elisions. Examples in English are O’er and ya’ll. Galileans did not differentiate between certain sounds, such as q and k.

3. Perhaps by his clothing, though the Bible passage gives no evidence of this.

 

7. In Jn 4:14, since whoever has drunk Jesus’ water of eternal life will never thirst, how come some Christians do not live contentedly like they should?

A: Three points to consider in the answer.

1. Christians can always be content and never “thirst” in this life. However, Christians who are not abiding in Christ might be discontent. As a famous Christian hymn says, “Oh what peace we often forfeit, oh, what needless pain we bear, all because we do not carry, Everything to God in prayer.”

2. One can debate whether this verse includes an implied condition of the Christian choosing to abide in Christ or not.

3. Point 2 is a moot point for the truthfulness of this verse. Regardless of how a Christian abides in Christ on earth, this verse is unconditionally true of believers in Heaven.

 

8. In Jn 4:23, what does it mean to worship God in “spirit and in truth”?

A: Jesus here was contrasting this with both Samaritan worship and Old Testament worship.

Samaritan worship: The Samaritans were descended from a mixture of Israelites and other peoples who lived in the land after the exile. Samaritan worship was based on tradition, including Mount Samaria being the most holy mountain. They had many errors, including not accepting any of the Old Testament except the Torah. The anonymous work Against All Heresies ch.1 p.649 says Dositheus was the first to repudiate the prophets.

Jewish worship: The Jews were following the rituals God instituted in the Old Testament, but they too did not have the Holy Spirit, who was not poured out yet. While the Jews had the truth from the Old Testament, even they did not have the complete truth that Christ came to reveal.

   See Now That’s a Good Question p.353-354 for more info.

 

9. In Jn 4:23, since we are to worship God the Father, does that mean we are not to worship Jesus as Jehovah’s Witnesses say (Watchtower Magazine February 15, 1983 p.18)?

A: No. What would Jesus say? Jesus accepted Thomas calling Him Lord and God in John 20:28. Jesus was worshipped by the Magi in Matthew 2:11), however Jesus was a baby and had no choice in the matter. However, as an adult Jesus was worshipped by the disciples (Matthew 14:33), the formerly blind man (John 9:38), the women at the tomb (Matthew 28:9), the angels (Hebrews 1:6) and the hosts of heaven (Revelation 5:12)

   See When Cultists Ask p.166-167 for more info.

 

10. In Jn 4:24, since God is Spirit, and Jesus is God, how could Jesus really have a physical body? Did Jesus just seem to be a man, as the early heresy of Docetism taught?

A: No. Jesus wept real human tears in the Garden of Gethsemane. Jesus’ suffering was for real on the cross. God being spirit does not restrict Christ from being incarnated as a man, any more than we being flesh and blood restrict us from wearing clothes. While there is no earthly analogy that quite fits the incarnation, perhaps the analogy of an artificial organ is as close (and as far) from an accurate analogy as wearing clothes.

 

11. In Jn 4:26, why was Jesus quick to tell the Samaritan woman He was the Messiah, when Jesus seemed reluctant to do so elsewhere, such as in Mt 16:13-20?

A: There are two complementary answers: Timing and Audience.

Timing: Early in His ministry Jesus did not emphasize to the Jews publicly that He was God and He was the Messiah. Many Jewish leaders had trouble accepting the Messiah not coming in power the first time. Jesus seemed to want His miracles and teaching to speak for Him first, and then later in His ministry emphasize that He was the Bread of Life, the great “I Am”, the way, the truth and the life, and the Messiah. However, Jesus speaking to the Samaritan woman was very early in His ministry.

Audience: The Samaritans would not have the same difficulties accepting Jesus as the Messiah. So he told the Samaritan woman plainly. Also, there was little chance the Samaritans would tell a lot of Jews.

   See When Critics Ask p.408 for more info.

 

12. In Jn 4:34, is Jesus saying he was supernaturally fed here?

A: Probably not. Rather, his mission and purpose was concerned with doing God’s will. In this case, talking with the fallen Samaritan woman was a higher priority than his hunger for his regular meal. Will you be willing to miss a meal in order to do God’s will?

 

13. In Jn 2-4, what needs did Jesus meet?

In John 2 the jars were empty. Jesus met a societal need when Mary went to Him; there would be embarrassment if the wine ran out. It was not a physical need, they could have just drunk water instead; but a need to avoid embarrassment.

In John 3 the religion was empty. Jesus met a religious need when Nicodemus came to Him.

In John 4 the relationships were empty. Jesus met an emotional need.


John 4:43-5:1-24 – Testimony by Deeds and Words – Part 1 - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 4:44; Mt 13:57; and Mk 6:4, since a prophet has no honor in his own country, what about Moses, Ezekiel, and Daniel?

A: None of these three prophets lived in their own country while they were prophets, but that is actually not the point. This verse is saying that prophets are not universally respected in the place they came from, and Jesus was no different in this regard.

   In Jesus’ cases, He is not saying that not a single person in the region of Galilee respected him. (After all, the disciples did.) Rather, the majority of the people had difficulty in believing a common-looking man from their own region could be a great prophet of God, much less the Messiah.

   In Jn 4:45, Jesus could have fixed that by putting on a “miracle show” in Nazareth. However, Jesus was not interested in miracles just for miracles’ sake to an unbelieving people.

   Even today, we should not forget that God often uses ordinary Christians to do great things.

 

2. In Jn 4:54 how is healing the official’s son the second miraculous sign, since Jn 2:11 was the first miraculous sign of turning water to wine, and in Jn 2:23 in Jerusalem at the Passover many people saw the miraculous signs (plural)?

A: First what is not the answer, and then the rationale for the answer.

Not the answer: John did not explicitly show that John 2:23 was chronological with what was before and after it. So John 2:23 could be after John 4:54. However, they are most likely chronological.

The answer: John 4:54 does not just say this was the second sign; rather, it was “the second miraculous sign that Jesus performed, having come from Judea to Galilee.” John could not have intended this as the second sign overall, because of John 4:45: “The Galileans welcomed him. They had seen all that he had done in Jerusalem at the Passover Feast, for they also had been there.” (NIV)

   John numbering the first two miracles in Galilee shows it is all the more galling because many Galileans rejected Jesus. In contrast, even the Samaritans believed in Jesus without any miracle. A faith built only on miracles is not a complete faith, but many Galileans did not even have that. But the Galileans later tried to stone Jesus even after these miracles were done there. The Expositor’s Greek Testament vol.1 p.735 and the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1488,1489 also say this is the second sign in Galilee.

   John 21:25 says that Jesus did many other signs too. But of all of Jesus’ miraculous signs, John only chose to explicitly mention seven prior to Jesus’ resurrection:

Jn 2:1-11 – water to wine, showing that Jesus satisfies our thirst, and has power over natural processes

Jn 4:46-54 – raising the official’s son, showing that Jesus is our healer with power over sickness

John 5:1-9 – Jesus heals the 38-year paralytic on the Sabbath, showing that Jesus is Lord of the Sabbath

John 6:5-13 – Feeding the 5,000, showing that Jesus is the bread of life

John 6:19-21 – Jesus walks on water, showing that Jesus is greater than all our fears

John 9:1-7 – Jesus heals the man blind from birth, to say that He came so the blind will see and the seeing become blind (John 9:39)

John 11:1-44 – Jesus raised Lazarus, showing that Jesus is the resurrection and the life

After the resurrection there was the miraculous catch of fish in John 21:1-11, showing that Jesus was the same, and they were to follow Him the same.

   The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.59-61 tell us this is the only place in John was a rapid succession of miracles. It reminds us that we don’t know if this official of Herod’s Court was a Jew or not. If not, then John shows miracles to Jews, a Samaritan, and a Gentile in rapid succession.

 

3. In Jn 5:1, which feast was this?

A: Exodus 23:14-17 says three times every year all Jewish men were to go to a feast in Jerusalem: the feasts of Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles. John did not say which feast this was, perhaps because John himself did not remember. While we can speculate which feast it was, there is not much point in doing so. The Bible is the word of God written down by men. God was under no obligation to have them remember every detail, only the details He wanted them to remember and communicate. Many of Jesus’ works and key events in his life coincided with Jewish feasts, as the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.853 points out.

 

4. In Jn 5:2, is there any archaeological evidence for the Pool of Bethesda in Jerusalem?

A: Yes. This was actually twin pools in the northeast portion of the Old City. This section was called “Bezetha”, or “new town” in the time of Christ. The Dead Sea scrolls mention the pools, a Christian pilgrim described them in 333 A.D., and modern archaeologists found these in 1888. Most manuscripts have “Bethesda”, which means “House of Mercy”. See the New Testament Documents : Are They Reliable? P.94 by F.F. Bruce (IVP 1943) for more info.

 

5. In Jn 5:6, why did Jesus ask the man that obvious question?

A: First what is not the answer, and then the answer.

Not the answer: Some handicapped people don’t want to get well. There have been cases in leper colonies where parents have deliberately given leprosy to their children, so that they can live with free food and care for the rest of their life. However, the man did actually want to get healed, and Jesus would know that already.

The answer: Though Jesus already knew, Jesus wanted the man to verbalize it, and ask. Sometimes Jesus does not give us some things if we don’t ask. When the man publicly asked Jesus to heal him, Jesus was responding to his request. We don’t see Jesus healing anybody who did not want to be healed.

   Sometimes we need to ask non-believers basic things like, “do you want to go to heaven”, or ask drifting Christians, “do you want to love and obey God.” We need to get a commitment from them that this is what they want.

   See the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1490 for more info.

 

6. In Jn 5:10, was the healed man breaking the Sabbath, since he was obeying Jesus in carrying his mat?

A: No. The man was only disobeying the Pharisees’ added restrictions to the Sabbath. This restriction is in Mishnah Shabbath 7:2 according to the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.854. This is actually rather humorous. It specifically prohibits moving beds or furniture on the Sabbath. However, it says that moving a patient lying on a bed is OK. However, it does not handle the case where a patient moves himself because he was miraculously healed. It is sort of like a an ambulance company having a rule that paralyzed ambulance patients are not allowed to carry their own stretcher. Also, the man was carrying his mat, not a bed. So basically God told him to pick up his mat, and the Pharisees God [Jesus] is wrong to break their rules. See the New International Bible Commentary p.1242 and the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1490 for more info.

   The Old Testament says people were not to work on the Sabbath. It never said someone could not carry their mat, and it was on the Pharisees who interpreted that as work. A second miracle is that if someone were bedridden for 38 years, even if they were healed they would physically be too weak to walk, much less carry a mat. He had to have his muscles strengthened too. In a sense Jesus did not just one but two miracles here.

  “But Jesus, couldn’t you have waited until Sunday to do this?” There would have been almost no opposition if you had just humored the Pharisees and their traditions. But the timing of the healing was important to give the Pharisees and the people a clear choice: follow the Messiah or follow their tradition. The Pharisees plainly saw this choice: that is why they first plotted to kill Jesus in John 5:18.

   I knew of a non-Jewish Christian who was paid by strict Orthodox Jews to live with them. On Saturdays, they believed they could not do anything that created something. Turning on a light switch completes a circuit and creates a current flow. So, among his other duties, he had to turn on light switches for them on Saturdays.

 

7. In Jn 5:14-15 why did Jesus tell him to stop sinning?

A: While scripture does not say which specific sins, there are a lot of sins an invalid cannot commit, at least until he gets well. His being an invalid was not because of some specific sin though. However, John 5:14-15 does not give us any indication of any gratitude the man had towards Jesus. When God does something for some people today, they have no gratitude. If you expect to be thanked every time you sacrifice for someone else, you will be disappointed in this life. See The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.290 for more info.

 

8. In Jn 5:14-15 what is the difference between having a false faith, a faith that truly believes in God, and a saving faith?

A: The man truly believed that God healed him; after all, he was walking around. But knowing that it is true does not mean you have abandoned your life of sin and you want to trust your life to God. If an agnostic, who is an alcoholic, on drugs, immoral, and robs banks, comes to truly believe that Jesus is real and died on the cross for our sins, and continues to be an alcoholic, on drugs, immoral, and robs banks, will their faith do them any good or get them to heaven? James 2:17-20 says no.

   See the New International Bible Commentary p.1241 for more info.

 

9. In Jn 5:18, when Jesus called God His father, how was this making Himself equal with God?

A: Within a family, a father and son have different roles, and the son obeys the father, but the two are equal in nature. A good father does not consider his life more valuable than his sons, and vice versa. Within the Trinity, the same is true. God the Son is subordinate in role, but not inferior in nature, titles, or honor.

   The Nelson Study Bible p.1991 also gives the example of the wife not being inferior to the husband but having a different role.

   While Jesus did assert His equality with the Father, Jesus also asserted that He was dependent on the Father in John 5:18-19. See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.64 for more info.

 

10. In Jn 5:18, is it OK for us to call God our Father, since we are not equal with God?

A: Not unless God gave us permission. God does give us permission to call Him our Father, in reverence. It was a great privilege Jesus gave us, when He started the first two words of His prayer as “Our Father”.

 

11. In Jn 5:19-20, since Jesus had free agency, why was Jesus unable to do anything except what He saw the Father do?

A: Jesus chose to obey everything the Father had Him do. On earth Jesus learned obedience, according to Hebrews 5:8. Jesus said He came not to please Himself but His Father in John 5:30. By the way, the word for “love” in John 5:20 says the Father has brotherly love/ friend love (phileo) toward the son.

   Jesus said He was sent by the Father is a key point: Jesus mentioned that 25 times in the book of John. Jesus did not come independently, and He did not do anything on earth independently. See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.66 for more info.

 

12. In Jn 5:19-22, exactly how did the Father first do everything Jesus did?

A: While Jesus said the Father dwelled in Jesus, that is not the main point Jesus was making here.

   Obviously, everyone understood that the Father was not born on earth, and the Father was not baptized by John the Baptist. Rather, Jesus is saying He would only do the kinds of works that His Father would plan for Him to do.

 

12. In Jn 5:23, how are we to honor the Son just as we honor the Father who sent Him?

A: Jesus said that the Father has entrusted all judgment to Him. This fits well with Acts 4:12, where there is no other name under Heaven by which men may be saved. The followers of Jesus honor him in the following ways.

1. We worship Jesus, as angels do in Revelation and Hebrews 1:6.

2. We pray to Jesus, as Stephen did in Acts 7:59.

3. We call Jesus God as it says in Hebrews 1:8,9.

4. We call Jesus “my God” as Thomas did in John 20:28.

5. We believe and obey what He taught, as well as what His apostles taught about God and about Himself.

   Following these verses of the Bible is one of the key things that separates the cults of Jehovah’s Witnesses, the Way, and other cults on one side, from modern and early Christians on the other side. Here is what the early Christians said.

Hilary (355-367/368 A.D.) remarked on John 5:23, “Since unless things are of the same nature they are never accorded equal honor, and equality of honor does not bring about a separation in those who are being honored. But the mystery of the birth demands equality of honor.” On the Trinity book 9 ch.23 p.162

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) said, “Therefore these words testify explicitly that He [Jesus] is witnessed to by Him [the Father] who established these things, as deserving to be worshipped as God and as Christ.” Dialogue with Trypho ch.63 p.229

   Ignatius, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Novatian, Hippolytus, and others also spoke on the honor of Jesus being God.

 


John 5:25-47 – Testimony by Deeds and Words – Part 2 - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 5:26, what does it mean “to have life in Himself”?

A: While we have eternal life in Heaven, it is a derived eternal life that was both made possible and sustained by God. However, Jesus does not have derived eternal life, but intrinsic eternal life.

 

2. In Jn 5:27, how does being a “Son of Man” provide a reason for the Father to give Jesus the authority to judge us?

A: Scripture does not explicitly say, but it does imply an answer. Hebrews 2:14-17 says that since we have flesh and blood, Jesus had to share in our humanity so that his death would atone for us. Jesus had to be one of us to become our High Priest.

 

3. In Jn 5:28-29, since those who did good will be resurrected to live, does this mean salvation by works is true?

A: No. It does not say the good works caused them to live. The good works of believers, limited though they may be, are evidence of being one of God’s children who will live forever in Him. See Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p.369-371, Hard Sayings of the Bible p.496-498, When Cultists Ask p.167-168 and When Critics Ask p.408-409 for more info.

 

4. In Jn 5:30, how can Jesus be God if by Himself He could do nothing? Even his casting out of devils was by the finger of God in Lk 11:20. (The Muslim Ahmad Deedat brought this up.)

A: Three points to consider in the answer.

a) The context of the verse is important. Jesus did not say He could never do anything. Rather, Jesus would not do any miracles in their town, not because of God’s lack of power, but because of their lack of faith.

b) As for casting out devils by the finger of God, Jesus is God and does NOT act independently or against God the Father or Holy Spirit.

c) When Jesus was incarnated on earth, He voluntarily and temporarily gave up much of His power and glory, and in His earthly state, especially relied on the Father and Holy Spirit.

 

5. In Jn 5:30, what is the key different in our own life, between serving God  because of and when it pleases ourselves, and serving God when it does not please ourselves?

A: Obedience can be fickle, haphazard, and incomplete when it is done depending how we feel about doing it. Some emphasize that God will always do what is best for them; others like the prayer of Jabez in 1 Chronicles 4:9-10, want to serve God with no pain. God may honor that request, but where would the New Testament church be if Paul only wanted to serve with no pain? Do you think Paul endured those beatings, and imprisonment to please himself? So it is so much better when we obey not to please ourselves.

   On the other hand, we do feel pleasure and joy from God when we obey. It was not fun for Paul and Silas to be beaten and put in the Philippian jail, but on the other hand, Paul saw his beloved Philippians as his joy and crown in Philippians 4:1. So Paul did not suffer to preach the gospel for the pleasure of it, but paradoxically, Paul got joy out of it at the end.

 

6. In Jn 5:31, if Jesus bore witness of Himself, would that make His witness untrue?

A: No, that is not what Jesus is saying here. Jesus is answering the Pharisees’ charge, that if Jesus is the only one bearing witness of Himself, in a court of Law that would not establish his authenticity. One witness not being sufficient is in Deuteronomy 17:6 and in the rabbi’s Mishnah Kethuboth 2:9 according to the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.854.

   Jesus provided four witnesses: John the Baptist, His miracles, Scripture, and God the Father. When Critics Ask p.410 points out that Jesus’ testimony was actually and personally true in itself. However, Jesus’ testimony was not officially and legally sufficient to the Jews.

 

7. In Jn 5:33-34, what is so important about testimony?

A: In a negative way the Jews, applying a double standard claimed to reject Jesus because of a lack of testimony, despite, John the Baptist, the miracles, and messianic prophecies of scripture. In a positive way, a key purpose of Jesus and of us is to be a testimony. According to The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.291-293 “testimony” or “testify” occurs as a noun in 60 places in the New Testament, and as a verb in 76 place sin the New Testament. 30 times as a noun, and 47 times as a verb are in the Gospel of John, 1, 2, and 3 John, and Revelation.

   We are to teach and provide reasons for the hope that we have (1 Peter 3:15b), and we are to pray and help others. But let’s not forget that another key reason why we are still on this earth is to provide a testimony. We do that with our words and our lives. An Arab proverb says: “The greatest crime in the desert is finding water and keeping silent”. (The quote was from a 4/29/2018 talk by KayLyn Hopper)

 

8. In Jn 5:34, is Jesus using an ad hominem argument, that He Himself did not accept?

A: No. First we will discuss what an ad hominem argument is, and then what Jesus said.

ad hominem in Latin means “to the man”. It is an argument the speaker himself does not believe, but the speaker mentions it to persuade the listeners. For example, if a politician goes back on a promise, then someone who cares nothing about broken promises might mention this to persuade people who do care about keeping promises, in order to get them to vote for him. (Presumably this other guy would keep his promises better, but that is only an unstated assumption)

   It is interesting that Jesus, who healed on the Sabbath, stirring up opposition when He could have waited until Sunday, takes great pains here to explain his justification in ways they can relate to.

Jesus did fully accept what John the Baptist said. However, Jesus basically said He was using an ad hominem argument, in that while the Pharisees wanted multiple witnesses before believing something was true, Jesus did not agree with that approach. But, if they were going to use that approach, John the Baptist’s did corroborate Jesus’ testimony about Himself. John’s words did not “make” Jesus’ testimony true; his words only showed that it was true.

Today, people often can lose this distinction in a court of law. A judge or jury can pronounce the defendant “not guilty”. Actually the verdict does not make the defendant guilty or innocent. They are guilty if they committed the crime, regardless of the correctness of the verdict. In the United States, in a criminal trial, if the jury thinks the defendant probably did it, but there is reasonable doubt, they are instructed to find the defendant “not guilty”. Does that make the defendant innocent? -no.

   See When Critics Ask p.410-411 for more info.

 

9. In Jn 5:37, why did Jesus tell the Jews they had not heard God’s voice nor seen His form at any time?

A: Of course the crowds Jesus was speaking to had not heard God’s voice nor seen His form. But, in contrast to the Old Testament prophets, the regular Old Testament Jews had not heard God’s voice nor seen His form either. But Jesus is not merely stating some factually true statements here. This is given as a rebuke to them. While they had not even experienced what the prophets experienced in the Old Testament, now God Himself was standing before Him, and they still did not recognizably hear God’s voice or see His form. See When Critics Ask p.411 for more info.

 

10. In Jn 5:39, do we have eternal life from believing the Bible or not?

A: Actually, no. Eternal life is given by God. However, the Jews were part-way correct, in that the Scriptures show us the way to God, to have eternal life. It is possible for a person to be more concerned about the scripture, than they are about God, as the Pharisees were in Jesus’ time.

 

11. In Jn 5:42-43, was the main problem of the Pharisees?

A: The main problem was that the Pharisees did not have the love of God in their hearts. A symptom that the problem was with their heart, and not with their logic, is that they had a double standard of whether or not to accept Jesus vs. accepting others in Jn 5:43.

   Likewise the Ephesian church was warned that it had forsaken its first love in Revelation 2:4. If a person has no love for God, they can still go about being religious, and they can still do many things that look good, at least in the eyes of the world, but they have missed what is vital.

   In John 5:38 also Jesus told the Pharisees that the word did not dwell in them. This would come across as quite shocking, as these Pharisees spent so much time studying the scriptures. But studying the scriptures, and believing and applying them can be two different things.

   See the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.854 and the New International Bible Commentary p.1243 for more info.

 

12. In Jn 5:43, since Jesus came in His Father’s Name, does that mean that Jesus has the same name as the Father, and thus Jesus is the Father?

A: They do share a number of titles. However, I happen to have the same last name as my parents, but that does not prove we are all only one human being. When Cultists Ask p.168-169 says that some Oneness Pentecostals, such as Campbell, 1975 actually say this. If they were consistent in this, then Oneness Pentecostals would never preach in the name of Jesus, because they would think that doing anything “in Jesus’ name” would make them Jesus, too.

 

13. In Jn 5:44, how does receiving honor from others relate to not believing?

A: Jesus is not saying they are not pleasing God, Jesus is saying something even worse. They are not even trying to please God. And as bad as this is, it looks even worse, given the effort they put out to try to please men.

 

14. In Jn 5:45-46, how do all who believe Moses believe Jesus? Many Jews today would disagree.

A: Jesus might have been referring the listeners to Deuteronomy 17:18-19. If anyone does not listen to the word of the coming prophet (Jesus), God Himself will call that person to account. John 5:46 says something similar.

   Moses was a godly prophet. But their knowledge of Moses’ law and teaching, and their not following the One it pointed to, would be even worse for them in the judgment. Read 2 Peter 2:20-22 for more on greater judgment with greater knowledge.

   The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.60 has an interesting point here. Obeying Moses was good, but their obeying Moses was a source of pride for them.  Reading the Bible, going to church, sharing the gospel, keeping away from evil, and in general obeying God are all good things we are to do. But beware if it becomes a source of pride for you.


John 6:1-27 – Feeding the 5,000 and Walking on Water - some brief answers

 

1. In Mt 14:15-21; Mk 6:30-44; Lk 9:12-17; and Jn 6:1-14, some skeptics have claimed that is a duplicate of feeding the 4,000 in Mt 15:32-38; Mk 8:2-9. But how are they different?

A: The feeding of the 5,000 was to the Gentiles on the northeastern shore of the Sea of Galilee, when there was a lot of grass, in spring during the time of the Passover. They picked up twelve basketfuls of fish, and five basketfuls of bread. The feeding of the 4,000 was to Jews on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee during the dry season. They picked up seven basketfuls.

   As an aside, six pre-Nicene church writers referenced the feeding of the 5,000, two pre-Nicene writers reference the feeding of the 4,000, and six pre-Nicene church writers referenced Jesus walking on water.

 

Middle Ministry: Mt 14:13-16:28, Mk 6:30-9:1, Lk 9:11-27, Jn 6:1-7:9

M1. Leaving Galilee, Jesus and the disciples withdraw to Bethsaida. Lk 9:10

M2a. The crowds find Jesus. Lk 9:11

M2b. On the shore opposite of Capernaum, Jesus preaches to the crowds and heals. Mt 14:13-14; Jn 6:1-4

M3. On the grass (not in Gennesaret), Jesus’ first feeding: 5,000 men plus women and kids, with 5 loaves and 2 fish. 12 baskets left over. Mt 14:15-21; Mk 6:30-44; Lk 9:12-17; Jn 6:1-14

M4. En route to Gennesaret, during the fourth watch of the night, Jesus and Peter walk on water. Mt 14:22-36; Mk 6:45-52

M5a. In Gennesaret, Jesus heals men. Mt 14:34-36; Mk 6:53-56

M5b. Jesus withdraws to a mountain. Jn 6:15

M6a1. En route to Capernaum after rowing 3 or 3 1/2 miles, the disciples see Jesus walking on water. Jn 6:16-24a

M6a2. Immediately the boat arrives. Jn 6:24b

M6a3. On the lake by Capernaum, Jesus is the bread of life. Jn 6:25-71

M6a4. Until Feast of Tabernacles Jesus stays in Galilee. Jn 7:1-9

M6b. Pharisees criticize Jesus’ disciples; clean and unclean. Mt 15:1-20; Mk 7:1-23

M7. In Tyre and Sidon, Jesus heals a woman’s daughter. Mt 15:21-28; Mk 7:24-30

M8. In Decapolis Jesus heals the deaf and mute man. Mk 7:31-37

M9. In Galilee Jesus heals and teaches crowds. Mt 15:29-31; Mk 8:1

M10. On the ground along the Sea of Galilee, Jesus’ 2nd feeding of another large crowd: 4,000 men plus women and kids with seven loaves and a few small fish. 7 baskets left over. Mt 15:32-38; Mk 8:2-9

 

2. In Jn 6:5-6, why did Jesus ask a question, since he already knew the answer?

A: John 6:6 says that Jesus asked the question to test Philip. Using what today is called the Socratic method, and asking a disciple a question to which the teacher already knows the answer, is fine. Apparently, the disciples were not unfamiliar with this, as when Peter answered Jesus’ question in John 21:17, saying, “Lord, you know all things: you know that I love you.” (NIV)

   Specifically Philip could have answered with an attempt to feed the people, his answer (hopelessness to naturally meet this need), or faith in that Christ could supply them.

 

3. In Jn 6:5-6, why did Jesus ask Philip instead of one of the others?

A: While scripture does not say for certain, it might give a hint. John 1:44 says that Philip, as well as Andrew and Peter, were from Bethsaida, which was in this region.

 

4. In Jn 6:13, since Jesus could multiply the food so easily, why pick up the leftovers?

A: God’s bounty that He has given us should not be wasted. Jesus would not always be with them, and the bread would be handy for others.

   In addition, there was a significance to the twelve baskets of fish and five barley loaves. God is signaling the union of Gentiles and Jews in Christ. Twelve represents the tribes of Israel, as well as the twelve disciples, and five represents God’s grace towards all people, such as the 5,000 men plus women and children.

 

5. In Jn 6:19, how 6:19, how could Jesus walk on water?

A: Three points to consider in the answer.

The Sea of Galilee was very deep, so Jesus was not playing some kind of trick, by walking on stones.

Jesus was a real person with flesh and blood, so it was not some kind of phantom with no weight.

God, who created natural law, can supersede natural law whenever He chooses. We call that a miracle, but perhaps to God it is merely an alternate method of operation.

A scientific observation

To understand this supernatural miracle scientifically, you have to first understand why water can hold any weight at all, such as a floating boat. In Statistical mechanics an ensemble is a probability distribution of the states of a system. On a liquid surface, water molecules traveling up at higher speeds are continuously “jumping out” of the liquid and escaping into the atmosphere. We call that evaporation. More do not do so for three reasons:

1) Surface tension makes water molecules “sticky” and resist breaking free,

2) Only a certain percentage of the water molecules that have a high enough speed

3) Only a certain percentage of the high speed water molecules are traveling in an upwards direction.

We can change 1) by coating the surface with something.

We can change 2) by increasing the speed of the water molecules: we call that heating up the water.

We do not have the power to do three (unless we have a magnetic liquid and we apply magnets), and this alone could hold up anything.

If a comic-book super-hero had no super power except the power to alter statistical probability, they could do almost anything, including float on air walk through walls, and make disorganized dead cells come alive again.

 

6. In Jn 6:23, what do we know about the town of Tiberias?

A: It was a new town in Jesus’ time, since Herod Antipas built it between 16 and 22 A.D. as his administrative capital. The Romans renamed the Sea of Galilee to the Sea of Tiberias in honor of Tiberias in 26 A.D. Tiberias was a Gentile town, Asimov’s Guide to the Bible p.822-823 says Jews avoided it because it was built on a cemetery.

   However, the Encylopaedia Britannica and the Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.1704 say that in the second century the editor of the Mishnah (c.198-220 A.D.), Judah hak-Kadhosh came from there. Also, the Talmud was edited there about 400 A.D.. Famous rabbis buried there include Maimonides, ‘Akiba (Akiva), Yohanan Ben Zakkai, and Eliezer the Great.

   See The New International Dictionary of the Bible p.1014 for more info.

 

7. In Jn 6:14-15,26-27, why did Jesus apparently turn away people who truly wanted to follow Him, and what implications does this have for our evangelism?

A: They were very genuine and sincere in wanting to follow a good source of food. While there sincerity was there, the reason for their sincerity was not accepted by Jesus.

   When we share the gospel, we need to be careful we don’t give the impression “Poor Jesus. He died for you, will you do Him a favor and accept Him?” Rather, God is offering you the greatest gift, and you can ever receive. God is the one giving us favor, not that we are doing God a favor.

Jesus did not actually turn them away though; He only turned away from them making Him an earthly king. While Jesus did not accept their willingness to follow Him, Jesus did not reject them; rather He encouraged them to follow for real reasons.

 

8. In Jn 6:14-15,26-27, how do people today want to follow Jesus for reasons that are not so good?

A: Here are four things to think about.

Materially they want to go to church for the aid they get, or for the customer sales leads they might be able to get. IF a person wants to con other people, in America he or she might want to find a church to join, the better to gain people’s trust before ripping them off.

Relationally I know of a Muslims woman in America who regularly went to a church solely for the purpose of finding a good husband. She said she figured it would be a better place than a bar.

Socially people go to church to see friends and make friends.

Respect-wise, people go to church to increase their respect or status. For example, during the 2016 Republican primary Donald Trump used this in his speeches. Trump said that he was a Presbyterian, a middle of the road denomination, while Ben Carson was a Seventh-Day Adventist, and he did not know about trusting those.

   Now it is fine to get financial help when you need it, and it is fine for a Christian to find a spouse at church. It is wonderful that we can have good friends at church. And going to church is a good witness. But if any of those are your primary reason for being involved, then your priorities are wrong.

 

9. In Jn 6:15, when we do works of charity that greatly benefit non-believers, there is a danger that non-believers will be interested in Christianity solely for the physical benefits they get. How do we best handle this?

A: For some people this was inevitable with Jesus, and inevitable when we help others. But Jesus did it anyway, because it would show those who were open who He was.

There is a sad story I heard in Bosnia, after the war, when a Christian ministry was helping to teach and rebuild, and there was a young man who was coming to church who had some graphic-design skills but no computer. So the organization set him up with a good computer, and he had internet, and he was able to support himself doing freelance graphic design. He went from being a poor person who needed help to someone who not only was self-supporting, but actually doing quite well financially. He divorced his wife, had a girlfriend live with him, and left the church. He apparently got all he thought he needed form the church.

   Perhaps one way to mitigate this is through community. When people have a small group of other believers they know well, are accountable to, and share their lives with, then they might be less likely to look at Christianity as just “what can I get out of it”.

 


John 6:27-44 – Jesus is the Bread of Life - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 6:27, Jesus said not to work for food that spoils. How do we work for food that spoils today?

A: First of all we have to do some things by necessity, such as get food to eat. But Jesus is saying that should not be the purpose and focus of our life. We should put our life energy into eternal things; and what is eternal, yet all around us, are the souls of people.

   Perhaps an analogy can help. If you commute to work in the morning, does your boss pay you for your travel time? If you are not commuting for pleasure, and your boss is not paying you, then why don’t you stop commuting to work? The answer is typically “because I have to, if I want to get paid.” The idea of doing something that is not productive, yet necessary to do what is productive is called “excise”. There are a lot of things we need to do in this life that are excise, in  fact, so much that we can inadvertently slip into the mode of thinking that life is only about excise and entertainment. But those things are only necessary to enable us to do the things that are really important: glorify God, love others, bring people to Christ, help people grow in Christ.

 

2. In Jn 6:27b, what did Jesus mean by “the Father has placed His seal of approval”?

A: Jesus was pleasing to the Father, Jesus was sent by the Father to earth, and Jesus was currently doing the Father’s will. The Father’s seal of approval was obvious, demonstrated by Jesus’ miracles. If someone wanted to worship the Father, they would not reject one on whom the Father has placed His seal of approval. Jesus repeatedly mentioned that He came down from heaven in John 6:33, 38, 41, 50, and 58.

   Even if you are already a believer, you need to ask, does your life have God’s seal of approval? Are you pleasing to God in how you are living?

 

3. In Jn 6:31-36,48-51, how is Jesus the bread (or manna) of life?

A: The word for “true” as in true bread in alethinos, which means genuine or original. Jesus is the bread of life in at least two ways.

For all: Jesus sustains everything in the universe, according to Colossians 1:17

For believers: It is sweet to have life in Jesus, who nourishes us, protects and preserves us, and prepares us to dwell eternally with Him.

As Jesus gives living water in John 4:15, Jesus is the bread of life here.

   See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.75 for more info.

 

4. In Jn 6:37, since all the Father gives to Jesus come to Jesus, and since some do not come to Jesus, then does that mean the Father did not give them to Jesus?

A: Yes. The Gospel of salvation is sincerely offered to all. However, Hebrews 4:2 says the Gospel is of no use to those who do not combine it with faith. Luke 7:30 is a second example, and see the discussion on Luke 7:30 for more info.

 

5. In Jn 6:38, did Jesus have a distinct will from God the Father or not?

A: To rephrase the question as a fourth grader asked, how many brains do the Trinity have? Except for the fact that God is not limited to cells, one could say they have their own brains. Jesus had a distinct will, as shown by His prayer in the Garden of Gethsemane. However, Jesus always chose to have His will be in accord with the Father’s will, as also indicated by His prayer in the Garden of Gethsemane.

 

6. In Jn 6:42, is the virgin birth true, since the Jews said they knew Joseph, the father of Jesus?

A: This does not deny the virgin birth.

First, since Joseph was the husband of Mary, Joseph was the legal father of Jesus in the eyes of the law.

Second, many Jews assumed Joseph was also the biological father of Jesus. Every assumption that people make is not necessarily true.

 

7. In Jn 6:44,65 and Jn 6:37,39, what does it mean that no one can come to Jesus unless the Father draws him?

A: The Greek can mean compel, draw as in draw water, or woo/persuade. See Now That’s a Good Question p.27-29 for more on the Greek. Since the Greek word has a range of meeting, various Christians have this verse as a part of their theology in various ways.

Moderate Non-Calvinists say that Jesus draws all externally, and the offer of salvation is available to every individual. Internally, the Holy Spirit (also called the Spirit of Christ), convicts the world (both elect and reprobate) of sin. However, all the Father predestines are drawn to Heaven, and those who are not the elect do not come to God. Some non-Calvinists would say that predestination and foreknowledge work hand-in-hand, and other non-Calvinists would say that foreknowledge precedes predestination, since the two times they are mentioned together in scripture foreknowledge is always mentioned first.

Calvinists do not deny that the Gospel is to be offered to all, but the Father draws only the elect, and neither the Father nor Holy Spirit work in a salvific way for the reprobate, since Jesus did not die for them.

Hyper-Calvinists believe the same as Calvinists here, except that they teach the Gospel can be proclaimed to all, but it is wrong to offer to all.

   See also the next question for more info.

 

8. In Jn 6:44,65 and Jn 6:37,39 does the Father draw some people, or does Jesus draw all to Himself as Jn 12:32 says?

A: In the Greek it simply says that Jesus draws “all”. It does not actually say that Jesus draws “all men” or “all people”. There are three views.

The Father draws every individual: We are so sinful that no one can come to the Father unless the Father draws him (enables him). However, the Father draws everybody. When John 6:37,39 say that all the Father gives Jesus will come to Him, the Father draws all, but only gives to Jesus those he foreknew (and thus predestined) to come to Jesus. However, this interpretation violates the plain sense of John 6:64-65, which indicates the Father must draw people was a reason why some did not believe.

Jesus draws externally and the Father chooses internally: Jesus draws both elect and reprobate to Him. Both the elect and reprobate make a decision to trust Jesus or not. However, the Father predestined the elect, and thus only the elect are drawn by the Father.

All kinds of people, the Father and Jesus both draw only the elect. Not drawing every individual is the Calvinist view, advocated in the New Geneva Study Bible p.1688.

   See also the previous question for more info.

 


John 6:45-70 – Jesus the Bread of Life and the Grumbling Deserters - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 6:45, since everyone who is taught of God comes to Jesus, does that mean all who never heard of Jesus had no opportunity to escape Hell?

A: The Bible never says that. On the contrary, Hebrews 11 shows that Abel, Enoch, Noah, and many others apparently never heard of Jesus (while on earth), yet they presumably went to Heaven. There are two other points to consider in the answer:

2. Babies who die never hear of Jesus. The Bible never says that those below the age of accountability go to Hell.

3. Jesus did say that all who reject Him will indeed die in their sins in John 8:24.

   See also the discussion on John 3:36 for more info.

 

2. In Jn 6:50-51, since one who eats the bread of heaven (Jesus) will live forever and not die, why do Christians still die?

A: There are two ways this can be understood.

1. Christians will live forever in Heaven, and so we will reach a state where our glorified bodies will never die. See the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1505 for more on this point.

2. In addition, while our bodies die once, from the time we first believe, our spirits never die. Revelation refers to the Lake of Fire as the second death.

   Physical death is “only a small detail” compared to either eternal life or the second death. This verse is important in telling us that once a believer goes to Heaven, there is no fear that he or she will sin and fall.

 

3. In Jn 6:51-56, what did Jesus really mean here?

A: There are at least three views.

1. Jesus gives believers spiritual nourishment

The Believer’s Bible Commentary : New Testament p.297 points out that since the Lord’s Supper did not come until a year later, this refers to the spiritual food and drink Jesus would give believers.

2. An illustration of spiritual union

Jesus was speaking to the crowds, who at this time would know nothing of the Lord’s Supper, as the New Geneva Study Bible p.1673 points out. Hard Sayings of the Bible p.498-500 clearly says it is this view, while also suggesting a combination with the third view, too.

3. In addition to both of the previous, a foreshadowing of the Lord’s Supper

When Jesus said “…my flesh, which I shall give for the life of the world”, Jesus was foretelling his death on the cross. Likewise, Jesus was foretelling their remembrance of that in the Lord’s Supper.

   See the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1505 for more on this view. Hard Sayings of the Bible p.498-500 suggests this view plus the previous because John does not record the Last Supper, and this would be his counterpart teaching on the importance of communion.

   The issues here are somewhat similar to the interpretation issues of “water and spirit” in John 3:5.

 

4. In Jn 6:52-56, why did Jesus not clear up the crowd’s confusion?

A: Jesus apparently wanted to say these words this way and showed no surprise that some left at this point. To speak to a Jew about drinking blood would sound offensive to them. Each person had a choice here. They could trust God, but only up to the limits of what they fully understood, or else they could trust God wholly, knowing that God would be, and do things beyond their understanding. As one Christian said, we are to be unoffended by the unexplained. Since the Pharisees were listening to His words only to oppose them, Jesus gave them something to latch on to.

   Scripture does not give all the reasons why Jesus spoke this way, but here is a speculation. People who saw the miracles might believe in Jesus whether they wanted to follow God or not, because they have living proof right in front of them. Jesus also killed the hopes of those who were looking to Jesus as a political messiah. Jesus spoke this way so that those who wanted to follow Jesus, on his terms, would later understand, and those who did not want to follow would have an excuse for leaving.

 

5. In Jn 6:53a, was Jesus teaching that the bread actually became His body, as the Roman Catholic Church teaches, calling it transubstantiation?

A: No, because Jesus (as well as Paul often used metaphors. For example, we are the body of Christ, yet we do not physically turn into Christ’s body. Jesus once addressed Peter as Satan, but that does not mean Peter turned into Satan; rather Satan was using Peter’s words to tempt Jesus. When Jesus said he was the wine in John 15:1, did Jesus physically turn into a vine? Was Jesus holding His “second body” in His hands? – only in a metaphorical sense. This is more than a trivial point, because the application of this determines if someone thinks they should worship bread and wine or not.

   From the Letter of 1 John, John was well aware of proto-Gnostic teachers that denied Jesus had a real body.

   See When Cultists Ask p.168-173, When Critics Ask p.412-413, and the New International Bible Commentary p.1244 for more extensive answers.

 

6. In Jn 6:60-66, why does Jesus seem almost fatalistic here? - If they come, they will come. If they do not, they do not.

A: Jesus deliberately said something that offended people (skandalezei in Greek). Jesus was not a fatalist, but He knew well the limitations of speech. If someone never wants to trust their life over to Christ, he or she will never be accepting of the things they cannot show to be true or false. If people do not want to follow the truth, they will almost always be able to find some excuse for not doing so.

 

7. In Jn 6:67, why did Jesus test the twelve disciples, asking if they would leave too?

A: Jesus knew they wouldn’t leave, but Jesus asked the question for at least two reasons. He wanted them to have the opportunity to leave; it would be clear to them that their staying was their own choice. Second, he wanted them to step back and make, or rather remake, that decision again. They needed to “draw a line in the sand” and decide whether or not they would go throw everything with Jesus, thick and then. In a similar fashion, Naomi had Ruth make a decision in Ruth 1:15-18. Of course, as John 6:70 indicates, Jesus already knew their decision; but they still had to make that decision.

   When someone like Peter made a wrong decision, in denying Christ, Christ could reinstate Peter in John 21:15-19. If you had a decision you needed to make, and you blew it, don’t stay away from God out of guilt, but come back to God for forgiveness.

 

8. In Jn 6:70, since Jesus chose the twelve disciples, and Judas was one of these, was Judas one of the elect chosen by Jesus?

A: No. Like other men, Jesus had the freedom to make many choices. Jesus’ choice to eat a certain fig does not make that fig one of the elect. Likewise, Jesus choosing the twelve disciples was different from choosing the elect who go to Heaven. See Now That’s a Good Question p.133-134 for more info.

 

9. In Jn 6:43-70, why do people grumble about God, and what can you say to help them?

A: It usually boils down to one root cause: God did not meet their expectations. Job grumbled about God; because Job did not see what was going on behind the scenes, nor the ultimate outcome. People likewise grumble because they do not know what is going on behind the scenes or see the ultimate outcome.

 

10. In Jn 6:43-70, if somebody thinks someone about God is unacceptable, how do you answer them?

A: God actually did not ask for your approval. He is God, so that He can do as He pleases. God is offering you a way to enjoy eternal life, and if you do not want that, then there is only the alternative. Some people need to be freed of their preconceived notions about God. Perhaps that is why Jesus said we had to come to God as a little child in Luke 18:16-17 and Matthew 19:14.


John 7 – Jesus and the Opposition in Jerusalem - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 7:5, who are Jesus’ “brethren” who did not believe Him?

A: Mary was a virgin, and Joseph knew not Mary when Jesus was born, and Joseph had no union with Mary “until she gave birth to a son.” according to Matthew 1:25. Matthew 12:46; 13:55-56; Mark 6:3-4; John 2:12; Acts 1:14; 1 Corinthians 9:5 also mentions Jesus’ brothers, and Paul mentions “James the Lord’s brother” in Galatians 1:18,19. 1001 Bible Questions Answered p.39-40 also points out that the Messianic Psalm 69:7-9 where is says “brethren … my mother’s children”.

    If they had faith in Jesus, is would only seem logical to them for Jesus to reveal anything now. However, this verse says that at this time they did NOT believe Jesus, so their comment is out of doubt and perhaps sarcastic: “if you really think yourself that you are the Messiah, you would show everybody now.”

   There is a spiritual point here. Closeness to Jesus, in and of itself, does not mean you are saved. You have to believe on Jesus and be close to Him.

   See The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.299 and the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1508 for more info.

 

2. In Jn 7:7, did the world not hate the disciples, or did the world hate them in Jn 15:20-21?

A: Two points to consider in the answer.

In John 7:7, the disciples were still learning, and the world did not yet hate them, because they were not yet consistently preaching to turn to Jesus. The Jews and Romans had not reached to point of wanting to persecute Christians, yet.

In John 15:20-21, Jesus prophesied that the time would soon come when the world was going to hate them because they belonged to Christ.

 

3. In Jn 7:8, why did Jesus say that He was not or not yet going to the feast?

A: Five points to consider in the answer.

1. Some manuscripts say “not going”. These manuscripts include Sinaiticus, Cantabrigiensis, Bohairic Coptic, Armenian, and the Diatessaron.

2. Other manuscripts, such as Bodmer II (125-175 A.D.), Bodmer 14,15 (third century) and Vaticanus says “not yet”.

3. Even if one knew the exact Greek, one cannot make too much out of the precise words, as it is not known whether Jesus was speaking here in Greek or Aramaic.

4. Regardless, Jesus was not making a promise, but stating his intentions, so either manuscript reading is fine.

5. Perhaps manuscript variations serve God’s purpose. They might show us the ways we are not to take the words of scripture at too high a level of precision.

 

4. In Jn 7:8, why did Jesus say here that His time was not yet come?

A: It was not yet time for Jesus to start His public ministry, culminating in Him dying on the cross for our sins.

 

5. In Jn 7:10, why did Jesus apparently change His mind and go to Jerusalem, after Jesus told his brothers He was not going?

A: Jesus did not break a promise, rather Jesus changed his mind on what He intended to do. However, behind this simple answer is an important point to learn. There is a difference between an expression of intent and a promise.

   When Critics Ask p.414 gives a different answer. Jesus’ brothers wanted Jesus to go to Jerusalem and “openly show Himself as the Messiah.” Jesus did go later, but not in the way His brothers suggested He go.

 

6. In Jn 7:13, why did the people fear the Jews? They were all Jews!

A: The people here feared the Jewish authorities. It often makes sense to distinguish the beliefs and practices of the common people from the official religious teaching. Furthermore, Matthew and Mark, written to a more Jewish audience distinguish between Jews who are Pharisees, and Sadducees. John, apparently writing to primarily Gentile [non-Jewish] audience, typically does not differentiate, but just calls them Jews. John only mentions Pharisees in John 3:1.

 

7. In Jn 7:28, why did Jesus preach in the Temple, since He went to Jerusalem secretly in Jn 6:10 in order not to be noticed?

A: If Jesus went openly as an individual, the authorities could arrest him easily. However, once there, while Jesus was in the middle of a large and sympathetic crowd, they would not be able to arrest him. They would want to wait until there were as few other people as possible. Jesus and the disciples spent the night outside of Jerusalem in a spot where they would never be found, - that is, unless they were betrayed.

 

8. In Jn 7:38-39, “where in scripture does it say “streams of living water will flow from him”?

A: Ancient literature did not distinguish between an exact quote, a paraphrase of one sentence, and a paraphrase of the common concept of multiple sentences. The New Geneva Study Bible p.1676 says that while this is not an exact quote of any Old Testament Scripture, it can be a general reference to both Isaiah 44:3 and Ezekiel 36:25-27.

   According to the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.857 and the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1512, the Jews had a custom of bringing water from the Gihon Spring/Pool of Siloam and pouring it in a silver basin by the altar of burnt offering as Psalms 113-118 were sung. The eighth day they did not do this.

 

9. In Jn 7:38-39, how do streams of living water flow from Jesus?

A: Just as water gives life, growth, cleansing, and quenches thirst, Jesus gives us that spiritually. It is the Holy Spirit according to John 7:39. Just as regular water can make brown and wilted plants spring back to life, so living water from Jesus is important for our life.

 

10. In Jn 7:39, was the Holy Spirit in the world prior to Jesus coming to earth?

A: Yes, but in a more limited way. In Old Testament times, the Holy Spirit was with the prophets, but the average believer then did not have the Holy Spirit.

 

11. In Jn 7:46, what precisely does the Greek mean here?

A: In John 7:46 the Greek here is very emphatic. While “No one ever spoke this way…” (NIV) is an accurate translation, a more precise translation is  “never did a man speak in such a manner…” (Wuest), “Never spoke thus a man” (The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.302),  or “Never did any man talk in this fashion” (The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.88).

 

12. In Jn 7:52, why did they say a prophet never came from Galilee, when Jonah came from that region, Gath-Hepher, about three miles from Nazareth? (The skeptical Asimov’s Guide to the Bible p.971 brings this up.)

A: Notice the speakers are unbelieving Jews. While Jonah probably came from Gath Hepher in Nazareth it is not certain. The Bible does not say “no prophet ever came from that Galilee”. Rather, they said, “no prophet ever came from Galilee.” The speakers who rejected Jesus were probably incorrect here.

   Why did Jesus speak in the way he did? He was not just trying to stir up trouble for the sake of stirring up trouble, and He certainly was not doing it just to boost his popularity. Some might think Jesus should have responded more congenially. But apparently Jesus was pushing the people to make a decision, either way. They were claiming to reject Him for the flimsiest of reasons. If Jesu had just done one more miracle for them to see, after all the other miracles, would it have made a big difference? No. The issue was not lack of information or lack of credentials, the issue was getting them to make a decision.


John 8:1-30 – The Woman Caught in Adultery - some brief answers

 

1. Should Jn 7:53-8:11 be in the Bible?

A: Here is what modern English translations have.

The KJV has it with no comment.

The NKJV has it in the text with the footnote, “NU brackets 7:53 through 8:11 as not in the original text. They are present in over 900 mss. of John.”

The NASB has it in brackets with a footnote saying, “Most of the ancient authorities omit John 7.53-8.11. Those which contain it vary much from each other.”

The uNASB has it in brackets. A footnote says, “Later mss add the story of the adulterous woman, numbering it as John 7:53-8:11”

Wuest has it translated with no comment.

The NIV has it set up by lines and a comment saying “[The earliest manuscripts and many other ancient witnesses do not have John 7:53-8:11]”

The RSV has it in the text with a footnote “Some ancient authorities insert 7.53-8.11 either at the end of this gospel or after Lk 21:38, with variations of the text. Others omit it altogether.”

The NRSV has it in brackets with a footnote saying, “The most ancient authorities lack 7.53-8.11; other authorities add the passage here or after 7.36 or after 21.25 or after Luke 21.38, with variations of text; some mark the passage as doubtful.”

Williams translates it with two footnotes at the bottom both saying that the best mss. omit it.

   See When Critics Ask p.414-415 for more info.

   Here is what early manuscripts have.

Jn 7:53 - 8:11 (absent) (Absent in Bodmer II (=p66) (125-175 A.D.), Bodmer 14,15 (=p75) as an unbroken, continuous line (early 3rd century), (Christian News 11/20/98) Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus (no space), Ephraemi Rescriptus (no space), L, N, T, W, X, Delta, Theta, Psi, 0141, 0211, 22, 33, 157, 209, 565, 892, 1230, 1241, 1253, 1333*, 2193, 2768, family 1424, Diatessaron, Old Syriac, Sahidic Coptic, some early Armenian, Gothic, Clement, Tertullian, Origen, Chrysostom, Nonnus (431 A.D.), Cyril, Cosmas, Theophylact) vs. include here (Byzantine Lectionary, Cantabrigiensis (5th-6th century), some early Armenian, Apostolic Constitutions book 2 ch.14 (c.380 A.D.) vs. include after John 7:36 (f1 family, standardized Armenian). The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.91 says that no early commentator mentions it until Irenaeus, and it is only in the Latin translation of Irenaeus. (168 words).

The following manuscripts included it, but with obelisks showing a question about its authenticity. E, S, Lambda, Pi, l 077, l 443, l 445, l 69m, l 170m, l 185m, l 211m, l 1579m, l 1761m. See Bruce Metzger Textual Commentary 2nd edition p.219-223 for more information on why some think it should be excluded. For the other view, Zane C. Hodges in Greek New Testament, Introduction p.xxiii-xxxii says that more than 900 manuscripts include it.

   Many commentaries say this appears to be an authentic story of Jesus, but this might not originally have been in this place. See the New International Bible Commentary p.1264, the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.858, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.302-303, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.89, and The Expositor’s Greek Testament p.770.

 

2. In Jn 8:3-4, why did the Pharisees bring the woman caught in the very act of adultery to Jesus and not the man?

A: That is a good question, especially since Deuteronomy 22:22-24 says that both were to be brought. It seems they were less interested in the man seeing justice than the woman. Or, perhaps they were not interested in justice at all, only in trapping Jesus. Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p.372, When Critics Ask p.415, and Josh McDowell (in a talk) noticed this illegality, too.

   In the interpretation of the law, Jewish scholars were aware of a husband having his wife “set up” with a false witnesses in order to have her executed. If they divorced he would not get her property; but if she was executed he would get her property. In the apocryphal story of Susannah, she was set up by two evil men after she turned down their sexual advances. So sometimes they would even ask the accusers the color of the bed sheets. See the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.858 for more info.

 

3. Does Jn 8:3-4 show that Jesus did not accept capital punishment?

A: No, but the proceedings were not proper, as the man was not also brought. See the previous question for more info.

 

4. In Jn 8:3-4, where in the Old Testament does it command that the woman be stoned to death for adultery (a Muslim brought this up)?

A: Execution was proscribed for adultery in Leviticus 20:10 and Deuteronomy 22:22-24. The form of execution, stoning, is given in Deuteronomy 22:24 in the example of a man who sleeps to a virgin betrothed to a husband in the city.

 

5. In Jn 8:6, in the story of the adulterous woman, what did Jesus write in the sand?

A: Six points to consider in the answer.

1. Most Bible manuscripts say “wrote on the ground” These include Cantabrigiensis, the Byzantine Lectionary, Bohairic Coptic, and others.

2. However, the Armenian manuscripts (5th and 9th century) say, “wrote on the ground the sins of each of them”.

3. However, other manuscripts and authors do not have this part of John. These include: Bodmer 2, Bodmer 14,15, Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus, Sahidic Coptic, Gothic, Diatessaron.

4. Assuming most manuscripts are correct, Scripture is silent on what Jesus did with the stick on the ground. Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p.371-373 says that whatever it was, it convicted them of their own sins. Some speculate that Jesus was writing their sins, or the names of the girlfriends of some of them.

5. They only brought the woman caught in the act; they never brought the man. Perhaps some of the men the woman had committed adultery with were in the crowd.

6. On the other hand, Now That’s a Good Question p.586-587 says that not only do we not know, but we do not know for sure that Jesus wrote anything. He might have just been doodling while he was thinking. However, there was something that caused all the men to abruptly leave.

 

6. In Jn 8:11, since Jesus followed the Mosaic Law, why did Jesus not condemn the woman?

A: There are two points to consider in the answer.

Jesus was not compelled to bring punishment on the woman he knew was guilty, because 1) Jesus was not a government authority here, 2) Jesus was the one who gave the law, and 3) the procedure was not proper, as the man was not brought also.

However, Jesus actually did follow the Mosaic Law. There had to be an accuser, and there were no accusers. In addition, the whole situation was strange, as she was caught in the act, and yet there was no man brought forth.

 

7. In Jn 8:12, how is Jesus the light of the world?

A: Light is indispensable to our life. Not only does it attract people, it keeps people from stumbling in the dark, let’s us examine ourselves, recognize each other, and enjoy beauty. Even back then, people could figure out that without light, indoor plants do not grow. Jesus is more important to us than even physical light.

 

8. In Jn 8:13-14, why did the Pharisees claim Jesus bearing record of himself meant his record was not valid?

A: If someone made a claim with no evidence, the claim would be suspect. Jesus thought that it would be strange to try to apply to Him. After all The Father in a sense testified to everyone about Jesus, by the prophecies written hundreds to a thousand years before, and by having Jesus perform many miracles at that time.

 

9. In Jn 8:14-18, why did Jesus answer the Pharisees the way He did?

A: There probably are a variety of reasons.

1. Being a part of that culture, Jesus understood the preconceptions of the Pharisees in general.

2. Jesus understand these Pharisees individually.

3. Jesus often spoke figuratively by choice (John 16:25,29).

4. It could be merciful not to say too much to those who rejected Him, as 2 Peter 2:21-22 and John 15:22-25 show.

   Also in Jn 8:17, Jesus said “your law” because Jesus’ relationship with the law was different than theirs, just like Jesus would say “my Father” and “your Father” but not “Our Father” except when teaching them the Lord’s prayer. See Lenski, R.C. The Interpretation of St. John’s Gospel p.605 for more info.

 

10. In Jn 8:17 and Jn 10:34, did Jesus say “your” law?

A: Three points to consider in the answer.

In John 8:17, Aland’s Greek New Testament (1975) does not mention any Greek manuscripts that say “the law of you”. They say “the law”

On John 10:34, most manuscripts on John 10:34 says “the law”. They include: Bodmer II 125-175 A.D. Bodmer 14,15 early 3rd century, Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus, Byzantine Lectionary, Sahidic Coptic, Bohairic Coptic, Gothic, Armenian, Athanasius

However, some manuscripts on John 10:34 say, “the law of you”. They include Chester Beatty I Papyrii 100-150 A.D., Sinaiticus (corrected), Cantabrigiensis, and the writers Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) and Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.).

 

11. In Jn 8:18-19, Jesus was talking about His Father, so what is wrong with asking Jesus where His Father was?

A: While Jesus was talking about God the Father in Heaven, the questioner was not. The questioner was accusing Jesus of being born illegitimately. The questioner was not looking for an answer from Jesus; he just wanted to remind the crowd of “uncertainties” about Jesus’ birth to discredit Jesus in the eyes of the crowd. But he asked it as a question so he would not look as obvious as to what he was trying to do.

 

12. In Jn 8:24,58, Jn 13:19, and Jn 18:5,6, in addition to “I am”, what other titles do the Father and Jesus share?

A: Here is a partial list of Old Testament titles of God and the new Testament titles of Jesus.

Old Testament reference

Title

New Testament Reference

Job 33:4; Isaiah 40:28

Creator

John 1:3; Colossians 1:16-17

Psalm 106:21; Isaiah 45:21-23

Savior

John 4:42; Eph 5:23; Acts 4:12

Isaiah 7:14; 9:6; 10:21

God

Mt 1:23; Jn 1:1; Rom 9:5; Col 2:9

Exodus 3:14; Dt 32:39

I AM

John 8:24,58; 13:19; 18:5,6

Isaiah 41:4; 44:6; 48:12

First and Last

Revelation 1:17; 2:8; 22:13

Dt 32:4; Psalm 28:1

Rock

1 Corinthians 10:4; Mt 16:18

Psalm 27:1; Micah 7:8

Light

Luke 2:32; John 1:9; 8:12

Gen 18:25; Ps 58:11; Joel 3:12

Judge

Rev 14:10; 2 Cor 5:10; 2 Tim 4:1

 

13. In Jn 8:29, how would the Father [allegedly] never leave Jesus, since Jesus said “My God, My God why have you forsaken me in Mt 27:26 and Mk 15:34?

A: John 8:29 does NOT say the Father would never leave Jesus. It says “has not left me alone” (NIV) or “did not leave me alone” (Wuest’s Expanded translation), the KJV says “hath not left me alone”. The Father did forsake Jesus at the cross, but on the other hand, as Jesus died he said, “Into your hands I commit my spirit.” in Luke 23:47.


John 8:31-59 – Who is the Father? - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 8:31, is continuing in Jesus’ word a condition of being Jesus’ disciple?

A: It is evidence, not a precondition. An analogy can help answer this question. Is breathing a condition of being alive? Breathing is evidence of being alive. However, while one can perform artificial respiration endlessly on a corpse, that will not make the corpse alive. Furthermore, a living person can hold their breath for a few minutes, but then they will feel a strong urge to breathe again and they will do so.

   In a similar way, continuing in obedience to Jesus’ word is evidence of new life in Christ. A non-Christian can follow the same commands, for a while, but that does not mean they have asked Jesus to be the Lord and Savior of their life. A Christian could choose not to obey Jesus for a while, but if they are a genuinely saved, they will feel a strong urge to return to Christ and they will do so.

 

2. In Jn 8:32, what did Jesus mean by “set you free”?

A: Jesus sets us free in at least four wonderful ways.

Judicially: God pronounces all our sins “paid in full” because of the gift of Jesus dying on the cross

In this life, we being set free from the bondage of sin and the compulsion to sin.

Eternally, we are set free from the Second Death and will live forever eternally with God, without fear of falling.

Day-to-day, we can live a life of hope, love, and joy in the freedom of Christ.

   See Now That’s a Good Question p.578-579 for more info.

 

3. In Jn 8:37, how can it be that they had no place in their hearts for Jesus’ word?

A: Jesus gave a very appropriate description. They had no place in their peculiar logic for the Messiah to come in their midst. They had no desire in their hearts to see the Messiah. They had no intention of waiting for the Messiah, or following Him if He came and did not conform to their wishes. The were unteachable, not because they could not understand, but because they would not understand; they were not unable, but unwilling.

   Jesus was not merely criticizing their conclusions. Rather, he was criticizing their apathy to find out what was true.

   Today, Christians, who sought the truth, can naively think that everyone else, whether in a right or wrong way, is seeking the truth too. Many have to first desire to find the truth, before finding the truth will do them any good.

 

4. In Jn 8:44, why did Jesus tell people who valued their ancestry that their father was the devil?

A: I suppose it was because Jesus never took a course on “How to Win Friends and Influence People”. The political correctness of Jesus is highly questionable here, as well as elsewhere. Of course in Genesis 21:8-21, Isaac was the son of Promise, and Ishmael was not; it was Ishmael that was thrown out.

   Seriously, Jesus was more concerned about them and their eternal destiny than whether or not they liked His words.

   Today, one reason some Christians (myself included) have been guilty of not sharing the Gospel as much as they should is that they loved the friendship more than they cared about the friend.

 

In Jesus’ time a major spectacle of the Feast of was the lighting of giant lamps in the woman’s court in the temple. . The wicks of the lamp were made from the priest’s worn out garments. See The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament p.303 for more info.

 

5. In Jn 8:47, how do those who are of God hear God’s word?

A: Those who are of God hear God’s word in two different senses.

Believers have already heard God’s word, received it with joy, and trusted their lives over to God.

The elect may not be saved yet. However, the term “elect” means that they will be saved sooner or later.

 

6. In Jn 8:48, why did they try to “insult” Jesus by accusing Him of being a Samaritan?

A: They would see this as a great insult, and Jesus would clearly understand what they communicated about their degree of despising Him. However, Jesus did not consider these words an insult, and apparently He did not even bother to respond to this.

 

7. In Jn 8:48, does this somehow teach that all people have the “I Am” presence in them, as Mark and Elizabeth Clare Prophet teach?

A: No. Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of the Christian Science cult, had a similar idea in Science and Health p.333-334.

   However, just as Jesus was worshipped does not mean we should be worshipped, Jesus saying He was the “I Am” does not mean we can say that. It seems the height of arrogance to say for yourself what Jesus said only of Himself. Since no Scripture says that we have this alleged “I Am” principle, God might find people rather insolent who automatically assume for themselves what Jesus said about only Himself.

   See When Cultists Ask p.174 for more info.

 

8. In Jn 8:50 how is the Father the judge, since Jn 5:22 says that the Father judges no one, but has entrusted all judgment to the Son”?

A: First what is not the answer, and then the answer. There are two judgments, the Great White throne judgment, and the bema-seat judgment of Christ for believer’s rewards. There are different Greek words for judgment, meaning discerning and condemning. However, understanding the differences in tense, the Greek word in both verses are the same: krinei.

   The answer is that for the judgment of all people, the Father is the ultimate judge and authority, but the Father judges nothing except through Jesus. The Bible speaks of only the Father as predestining us, but we are predestined and saved through Christ. John 5:22 does not merely say the Father lets Jesus judge some people; rather the Father does no judging apart from what He has entrusted to Christ.

   Here is how it plays out in Revelation 20:11-15. The one sitting on the great white throne is most probably the Father. There are two books, the book of deeds, and the Book of Life. The Book of Life is the “Lamb’s Book of Life” according to Revelation 21:27. The Father sends all to the Lake of Fire who not written in the Lamb’s Book of Life.

 

9. In Jn 8:57, could this mean Jesus was rally about 50 years old, as Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) taught?

A: No. Irenaeus was a great early Christian teacher, but even good Christian teachers can still make mistakes, and Irenaeus was completely wrong here (Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.22.6 p.392). It was the Pharisees that said Jesus was less than 50 years old. Perhaps they wanted to exaggerate His youth. When you look at a verse in the Bible, it is crucially important that you identify the speaker.

 

10. Does Jn 8:58 mean that Jesus pre-existed, but He was not eternally pre-existent, as Jehovah’s Witnesses teach (Reasoning from the Scriptures 1989 p.418)?

A: No. John 8:58 says that Jesus existed before Abraham was born, but it does not specify how long Jesus existed before Abraham was born. John 1:1 tells us though: “In the beginning was the Word…”, and nothing was made except through Christ. When Cultists Ask p.173-174 that this is the same term used of God the Father, and that use does not at all mean God the Father had a point where He first existed.

 

11. Does Jn 8:58 means that all human beings have the “I Am” presence of God within them, as New Agers Mark and Elizabeth Claire Prophet (Lost Teachings of Jesus p.87) and Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science (Science and Health with the Key to the Scriptures p.333-334) teach?

A: No. Notice the subject of Jesus’ speech, and the Jews reaction. Jesus was speaking of Himself, not us. The Jews reacted negatively because they saw that Jesus claimed that He Himself was God. Nobody in the Gospels, and no early Church writer ever made up the idea that Jesus was saying the “I Am” referred to all human beings. See When Cultists Ask p.174 for more info.

 

12. In Jn 8:59, why did Jesus, who is God, hide here?

A: Jesus hid because they were trying to stone Him. Jesus was God, even on earth, but as Philippians 2:7 shows, Jesus voluntarily emptied Himself and made Himself nothing when He came to earth. A person can be doing God’s will and hiding from evildoers.


John 9 – Two Kinds of Blindness - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 9:1, was this man born blind because of sins he committed before he was reincarnated, as the Unity school of Christianity teaches?

A: If Jesus had said, “this man was born blind because of sins he committed before he was born in this life”, then the Unity School of so-called Christianity would have a point.

   However, Jesus not only did not say this, Jesus said the opposite. As a matter of fact, this verse can be used to show that reincarnation was NOT a factor in this man’s blindness. Specifically, when Jesus was asked if this man or his parents sinned, Jesus answered: neither.

   See When Cultists Ask p.174-175 and Todd Ehrenborg’s book Mind Sciences: Christian Science, Religious Science, Unity School of Christianity (Alan W. Gomes editor) p.7 for more info.

 

2. In Jn 9:1-3, why exactly was this man born blind?

A: Jesus said it was not because of his sin or his parents’ sin. People in general suffer in this life, including birth defects, because we are born as fallen creatures living in a fallen world. However, in this man’s particular case, his blind eyes would serve to glorify God, as Jesus healed Him and his eyes would be a testimony so others could see the truth of Jesus.

 

3. In Jn 9:4, what did Jesus mean, that night is coming when no one can work?

A: There are two aspects to the answer.

Soon, this phase of God’s working, when Jesus walked on the earth, would be over.

For a short time, between the crucifixion and the Resurrection, they would all be scattered. They would not work again in ministry, in a major way, until Pentecost, 50 days after Passover.

Most importantly, the Jews had an openness to hear Jesus’ new teaching, and this openness would soon be gone after the first days of the early church.

Today, a sense of timing is still required in ministry work. Countries open and close to the Gospel based on the political regime in power. Entire cultures become more open and closed based on their prosperity, their media, and other earthly (and not only earthly) influences.

 

4. In Jn 9:6, why did Jesus make clay out of his spittle, since He simply could have spoken the words?

A: There are a great many ways Jesus could have used to heal the man. Perhaps Jesus wanted to use this way to emphasize that, as God’s word, He was the One who had made man, including his eyes, from the dust of the ground. Technically Jesus did not restore his sight, because he never had sight in the first place. One theory is that the man had no eyeballs, so Jesus as Creator was making eyeballs. Also, Rabbinic traditions prohibited kneading clay on the Sabbath, and Jesus was breaking the Rabbinic tradition. See The Bible Knowledge Commentary : Old Testament p.307 and the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1520-1521 for more info.

 

5. In Jn 9:7, why did Jesus send him to the Pool of Siloam?

A: Jesus could have healed him right then and there without going to the pool, and Siloam was at the extreme southeast corner of the city, some distance away. They blind man, who probably had people do everything for him in life, would have to take the initiative and have someone lead him to the pool. Many people in Jerusalem would all see this blind man, with mud in his eyes, walking though the city to go to a pool to be healed. It would be an unusual sight. See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.101-102 for more info.

 

6. In Jn 9:7 why is it significant that the word for the pool, Siloam, means sent?

A: John thought it was significant, because he especially points it out to us. On one level, the man went there to wash because he was sent there by Jesus. Jesus Himself was a “sent one”, sent by the Father. As believers, we are “sent” to various locations and sets of circumstances by God. It is not always to the most pleasant places that God sends us, but the places where God wants us to go.

   On another level, the only large pool around was called Siloam, and “it sure seems like an unusual coincidence” that there would be this pun of the man sent to the pool of the sent? – except that there are no coincidences with God. God can look through and change history to make a pun, except this pun was not for humor, but for providing yet another clue that Jesus was who He claimed to be. While Jesus was in history, Jesus was not really made for history; history was made for Jesus.

 

7. In Jn 9:14-16, why did the Pharisees say Jesus did not keep the Sabbath?

A: Three points to consider in the answer.

No Old Testament law prohibited healing, saving a life of an animal, or saving the life of a person on a Sabbath. No law said you could not demonstrate love for others and care for them on that day. It was only that you could not work.

The Pharisees added to God’s work by saying that you could not do many things (like you could walk one mile but not two), and you could not create things. They apparently considered healing to be “creating” and thus forbidden according to their interpretation.

Today, as back then, it is very important to differentiate between what God said, and your interpretation of what God said, as 1 Corinthians 4:6 and Proverbs 30:5-6 show.

 

8. In Jn 9:24, why did the Pharisees say “give God the praise”?

A: This was a solemn charge to tell the truth. Joshua 7:19 uses a similar phrase.

 

9. In Jn 9:26-27 why were the Pharisees asking again? How do you tell when someone’s questions are sincere?

A: On the surface it sounded like they genuinely wanted to know, or that they did not hear the first time. However, even the man born blind was not fooled; he knew that was just a smokescreen. They were not asking because they wanted to learn the truth; they were asking to find some hole or flaw in either the man’s testimony or Jesus’ actions.

   Not every question is a sincere question; even some that are stated in a sincere way are not, but have an alternative agenda behind them.

   One time I was talking with a guy who said he was an atheist who asked about predestination and free will. After we had talked for an hour, I finally asked him, “if I could show you that Jesus was who He claimed to be, would you follow Him.” Without any hesitation at all he said “No way! I want to live my life how I want.” I thought flashed through my mind; maybe it was the Holy Spirit or maybe it was just me. But the though was: “one hour, just wasted.” What if I had asked him that question at the beginning of the conversation, and if this conversation would have no effect on him coming to Christ we could talk instead about something that would?

   When you discuss an issue with a non-believer, you should ask, at the beginning, if seeing this resolved would take them closer to putting their faith in Christ or not. If they say yes, then continue. And at the end of the conversation, if they see that it is resolved, then asked them what would keep them from moving forward, and making a commitment to Christ.

   They acted like they wanted to know the truth, yet they would not even affirm that someone who did miracles that could only be done through God could be from God. The former blind man’s response is in summary : “Shame on you!” Sometimes when someone has a hardened heart, that should be what we say too. See the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1522-1523 for more info.

 

10. In Jn 9:27-32, the Pharisees were in effect forbidding God from doing this. How do people try to forbid God from doing things today?

A: They do that in many ways, though they are not always self-aware that this is what they are doing.

Muslims believe that God does not have a Son, but many Muslims believe God Almighty could not have a Son.

Latter Day Saints (Mormons) believe that their god, the god of this world, became god by following the laws and ordinances. The laws and ordinances are in a sense greater than their gods.

Many Seventh-Day Adventists believe that God could not change the Sabbath from Saturday.

Some Calvinists believe that if God gave any being free will, then God would not be God. You can read R.C. Sproul’s teaching on “one maverick molecule” for more on this. They don’t or wont’ see it as possible that the all-knowing God could give a degree of freedom, knowing with certainty what would be chosen, and even that freedom being under His sovereignty. The all-powerful God has the power to “allow”. Fortunately many Calvinists, such as Francis Shaeffer, see that.

Some Arminians believe that God could not predestine, because that would not be “fair”. They need to consider that thought he Bible says that God is just, it never says that God is “fair” or “equitable” by some human standard.

There are other examples too.

 

11. In Jn 9:34, if a child or someone we did not look up to told us to do something, and we knew it was the right thing to do, should we do it?

A: Yes, though the Pharisees in John 9:34 did not think so. But if we want to follow God and do what is holy, we should what is right regardless of who is telling us. James 4:17 says, “Therefore, to him who knows to do good and does not do it, to him it is sin. (NKJV) It makes no mention that this can be disregarded if the person informing you is a child or anyone else.

 

12. In Jn 9:34, why did the Pharisees say the blind man was born in sin?

A: They were probably not commenting on their view of human nature in general. Rather, they thought that the man being born blind proved that unlike other people, he was born in sin. Jesus contradicted this false teaching in John 9:1-3.

  The Jewish Midrash on Deuteronomy 31:14 says that a pregnant woman who sins makes her unborn child sin according to the New International Bible Commentary p.1248, taken from (cf. N.P. Williams, Ideas of the Fall and Original Sin, 1927 p.98).

   The man could no longer worship anymore in the synagogue, because he was driven out by the Pharisees. But not having this location did not matter, because he worshipped Jesus instead.

 

13. In Jn 9:40, why did the Pharisees ask if Jesus thought they were blind?

A: Their physical ability to see had nothing to do with their question, or with Jesus’ answer. They were comfortable with metaphors, and they were asking Jesus His opinion of them. Did Jesus think the top spiritual leaders of the people were actually spiritually blind?

   Jesus did not actually say “you can see or you cannot see”. He said if they were genuinely insensitive to spiritual things (blind) they would not be guilty of sin. But since they claimed they could see spiritual things, regardless of if they really could or not, they were not only blind, but guilty against God. The Pharisees were not just blind, but guilty of willful blindness. See The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.309 and R.C.H. Lenski The Interpretation of St. John’s Gospel p.711 for more info.


John 10:1-29 – Jesus is the Shepherd and the Gate - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 10:1-2, what is Jesus saying figuratively about thieves and robbers?

A: Any person, then or now, who tells people he is the way, or can show them the way, and he does not come from the true God, is a thief and robber. Sheep thieves usually did not come and forcibly pick up each sheep one by one. They would open the gate and try to lead the entire flock. Thieves try to take secretly, and robbers take by violence. Regardless though, anyone who got into the sheep pen by climbing over the wall was up to no good. How you enter is just as important as whether or not you enter.

   They would often mix sheep from multiple flocks in the same pen, and they did not brand sheep to tell who owned each one. Rather the shepherd would call the sheep, and only those under that shepherd’s care would go with him.

   Now sheep cannot be expected to do too much, because they are not very bright, but they still know to follow their shepherd and no one else. But what is amazing, is the number of human beings who think they can follow Christ, and yet at the same time dabble in following thieves and robbers.

 

2. In Jn 10:2,7, in this parable, is Jesus the shepherd or the gate?

A: Both. While ancient writers were not against mixing metaphors, both are a part of the same metaphor in this case. A sheep pen, built of mud or stone walls often did not have a wooden gate. The shepherd himself would lie down in front of the opening as the gate.

 

3. In Jn 10:8, who were the thieves and robbers who came before Jesus?

A: These were false messiahs and false prophets. False messiahs, in general, persuade people to put their trust in them instead of the true messiah. False prophets would say to trust a false messiah or a false god.

   Also, this was spoken during the time of Hanukkah, which commemorates the re-consecration of the temple under Judas Maccabeus. There were corrupt leaders of Israel, who sold out to the Seleucids in that time, and there were corrupt leaders, the Sadducees, who sold out to the Romans at this time.

 

4. In Jn 10:11 did Jesus lay down His life for His sheep, or for His enemies too, as Rom 5:6,10 and 2 Pet 2:1 indicate?

A: Jesus laid down His life not just for those who were His friends prior to His crucifixion, but He laid down His life for enemies of His, such as Saul of Tarsus who hated the name “Christian”. But Saul later repented and changed His name to Paul. Romans 5:10 tells us that Christ did not die for people who wanted salvation, He died even for those who initially want no part of Christ’s salvation, but later change and repent.

   Did Christ die for even those who would never repent? Yes, Christ’s offer of salvation is for all, as 1 John 2:2. However, Christ’s salvation is “of no value to them, because those who heard did not combine it with faith.” (Heb 4:2). It does no good for those “who deny the Lord who bought them” (2 Peter 2:1), “Deny God’s purpose for themselves” (Luke 7:30) and “forfeit the grace that could be theirs” (Jonah 2:8)  (NIV)

   See When Critics Ask p.416 for a different but complementary answer.

 

5. In Jn 10:14-33, at what point would Jesus’ words have been blasphemy if they had been spoken by an ordinary man?

A: While Scripture does not say, any other person saying John 10:1 on would be a false prophet, if he or she said these words about themselves. When Jesus talks about “His sheep”, and “His authority”, He is asserting His claims of being God, even prior to John 10:33-42.

 

6. In Jn 10:16, who are the other sheep to which Jesus is referring?

A: Jesus is referring to Gentiles (non-Jews). It does not refer only to people of the New World as Mormons teach. It does not refer to all who believe and are not of the Jehovah’s Witness 144,000 as Jehovah’s Witnesses teach. See The Complete Book of Bible Answers p.57-58, When Cultists Ask p.175-176 and Jehovah’s Witnesses Answered Verse by Verse p.78-79 for more extensive answers.

 

7. In Jn 10:23, what was the Feast of Dedication, which took place in winter?

A: This is the same as the Feast of Lights, or Hanukkah, according to The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.310 and the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1527. Hanukkah commemorated the rededication of the Temple after it was desecrated during the time the Maccabees freed Israel. It is important to note that Hanukkah that is not mentioned as a feast in the Old Testament, but Jesus celebrated it with other Jews. It is OK to celebrate a feast not in the Bible.

 

8. In Jn 10:26, were some of the Jews not Jesus’ sheep because they did not believe, or did they not believe because they were not Jesus’ sheep?

A: First a simple word study, and then three views.

Word studies: The Greek word rendered “for” here is gar. Strong’s Concordance gives the primary meaning as “reason”. Strong’s also says it can mean “and, as, because (that), but, even, for, indeed, no doubt, seeing, then, therefore, verily, what, why, yet. Aland’s Greek New Testament says it means, for, since, then; indeed, certainly; What! Why!. Thus, the Greek word gar has a range of meaning. Also, Jesus might have spoken this in Aramaic, not Greek, so one cannot pin down one definition with precision. Anyway, here are three possibilities, and the third possibility is most likely.

Therefore: They were not Jesus’ sheep because they did not believe. However, Greek has much stronger words for “therefore”, such as oukoun, which were frequently used in the New Testament, and those words were not used here.

On account of: They did believe because they were not Jesus’ sheep. While the Greek word is similar to the English for “for” in that it could be this way or the previous way, the sentence structure favors this view over the previous view. People naturally emphasize the aspect that they were not Jesus’ sheep because they did not believe. However, this scripture says the opposite. The New Geneva Study Bible p.1683 mentions this view, though not necessarily excluding the other view.

Both: Saying either-or is an artificial simplification. It is similar to asking whether people are alive because they breathe, or do they breathe because they are alive? The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.311 mentions that this “is a simple statement of their conduct. It also reminds one of the ultimate mystery of God’s election.”

 

9. In Jn 10:28-29, what does this say about the possibility of one of Jesus’ sheep losing his or her salvation and going to Hell?

A: This verse clearly teaches that God will ensure that nobody, be it demons or humans, can forcibly take our salvation away from us. Romans 8:35-36 also says that nothing can separate us from God’s love. The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.311 says the Greek is “they will indeed not ever perish”. It also says that the word for snatch, harpasei, is related to the word for ravenous wolf: harpax. See the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1527 for more on eternal life not being conditional a person’s behavior.

Nevertheless, a non-elect person can convince the world, and even himself, that he is a Christians, and later choose to fall away from a profession of faith in Christ.

However, some Christians say that while nobody can take away our salvation, genuine Christians can choose to jump out of God’s hand themselves and go to Hell. This verse neither confirms nor denies that view.

   David O’Brien in Today’s Handbook for Solving Bible Difficulties p.307-310 says that a believer can never “misplace” their salvation, meaning no believer can sin so bad that, unknown to them, their salvation is lost. Our staying saved is not maintained by works any more than our getting saved is by works. However, a genuine believer could consciously choose to “give back” his or her salvation to God. Then, they would be like those who knew the truth, and crucified Jesus.

On the other hand, see Ron Rhodes’ book, the Complete Book of Bible Answers 190-193 for the view that once a person is saved, nothing or nobody, (not even himself) can separate that person from what God has promised.

 

10. In Jn 10:28-29, what is your view on eternal security (once-saved-always-saved)?

A: I believe in once-saved-always-saved for two reasons:

a) From a timeless perspective, it is an intrinsic contradiction for God to “know” that a person is saved, and then find out that He was wrong and the person is not saved. Actually, this could be summarized as “once an elect always and elect”. (By the way, I am not a Calvinist).

b) From a perspective within time, God promises to set His seal of the Holy Spirit on us guaranteeing our inheritance. No one can snatch us out of God’s hand (John 10:28). All who have been “... justified will be glorified” (Romans 8).

Here are some verses on that.

- - - - - - -

Salvation is a gift of grace, not earned by works. No merit on our part can save us. Eph 2:8-9; 2 Tim 1:9; Tt 3:5; Acts 26:20; Rom 3:23-24; 4:5; 6:14-15; 9:32; 11:5-6; Gal 3:2,3,10-14

Real faith bears fruit, because faith without works is dead. Jms 2:14-26; ~1 Jn 3:17-19

All true believers work to obey God and express love for God and people. 1 Jn 3:14-15

Believers can be confident of their eternal life. 1 Jn 4:17; 5:11-19; 3:24; 4:13; Eph 3:12

God not only saves us, He also seals and preserves us. Eph 1:13-14; Jude 24; 1 Tim 1:14

   On the other hand, I have seen the doctrine of once-saved-always-saved used in a false, unbalanced way. A lady told me one time about her college son who left home and went to live in California with his girlfriend. She knew that he was going to Heaven anyway though, because he walked the aisle in a church.

   Once-saved-always-saved is true, but one must also know the “balancing doctrine” of counterfeit conversion. Some people who are not saved will be able to fool others, and even themselves, in thinking they are saved. Here are verses on that.

- - - - - - -

We must examine ourselves, for counterfeit Christians can be deceived. 2 Cor 13:5

Believers must be diligent to the very end in order to make their hope sure. Heb 6:11

Some can have a false assurance of salvation Jer 17:10, even if they:

• Have the form of godliness; know the scriptures. 2 Tim 3:5; Jn 5:39-47

• Believe (in an intellectual, not a saving sense), are baptized. Acts 8:13,20; Jms 2:19

• At least themselves believed they prophesied in Jesus’ name, drove out demons, and performed many mighty miracles. Mt 7:21-23; 2 Th 2:9-10

• Once escaped the world’s corruption by knowing our Lord and Savior.2 Pet 2:17-22

   We can have confidence in our salvation, we can KNOW we have eternal life (1 John 5). Yet we also have a responsibility to examine ourselves and be on our guard.

- - - - - - -

We are responsible to watch our life and doctrine closely. 2 Tim 1:14; Col 1:23; Prov 22:5

Not to follow wisdom of this world. Col 2:8-9; Jms3:15; 1 Cor 1:17-27; 2:6,8,14; 2 Cor 1:12

Persevere. Heb 10:23,36; 12:1,12-13; 1 Jn 2:24; 1 Cor 13:7; Rom 5:3-4; Jms 1:3-4,12; 5:11; 2 Pet 1

   Though I am not a Calvinist (I affirm universal aspects of the atonement), I do hold to perseverance of the saints, which I consider to be a blend of these two doctrines.

a) Once-saved-always-saved: God will not let anyone get unsaved

b) Counterfeit conversion: All the truly saved, even if they stray, will come back to God. Otherwise, they were not truly saved.

 


John 10:30-42 – Jesus’ Announcement: He and the Father are One - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 10:30, does this prove Modalism is true, since Jesus and the Father are One?

A: No: if you say that you and another are one “thing” that does not mean you are the same man or woman. According to both Novatian’s Treatise on the Trinity ch.27 p.637, and Greek grammar, the Greek word is One (neuter), not One (masculine, so they are one in character and essence but not one in person. See When Cultists Ask p.176-177, The Complete Book of Bible Answers p.149, and the New International Commentary on the Bible p.1249  for more info.

 

2. Does Jn 10:30 show that Jesus is God?

A: It shows that Jesus is God in a greater way than humans who were so-called gods. See The Complete Book of Bible Answers p.120-121 for more info.

 

3. In Jn 10:30, how are the Father and Jesus one?

A: Scripture reveals many ways in which they are one.

One: Here are a few of the ways.

1. They share common titles

Old Testament reference

Title

New Testament Reference

Job 33:4; Isaiah 40:28

Creator

John 1:3; Colossians 1:16-17

Psalm 106:21; Isaiah 45:21-23

Savior

John 4:42; Eph 5:23; Acts 4:12

Isaiah 7:14; 9:6; 10:21

God

Mt 1:23; Jn 1:1; Rom 9:5; Col 2:9

Exodus 3:14; Dt 32:39

I AM

John 8:24,58; 13:19; 18:5,6

Isaiah 41:4; 44:6; 48:12

First and Last

Revelation 1:17; 2:8; 22:13

Dt 32:4; Psalm 28:1

Rock

1 Corinthians 10:4; Mt 16:18

Psalm 27:1; Micah 7:8

Light

Luke 2:32; John 1:9; 8:12

Gen 18:25; Ps 58:11; Joel 3:12

Judge

Rev 14:10; 2 Cor 5:10; 2 Tim 4:1

Jesus is called Everlasting Father, which may refer to being the source of everlasting life (Isaiah 9:6).

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) in his work, Of the Holy Spirit book 1 ch.13.132-139, wrote more on the sharing of the divine names. See The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.10 p.110-111 for more on what Ambrose wrote.

2. They have the same nature. Philippians 2:5

3. They are the same honor. John 5:23

4. The Father and Jesus “own” all in common. John 16:15;17:10.

5. On earth the Father lived in Jesus. John 10:38;14:10-11.

6. On earth Jesus was in the Father. John 10:38;14:11

7. If you really know Jesus, then you know the Father and have seen the Father. John 14:7-9

8. No one comes to the Father except through Jesus. John 14:6;6:45;~8:24; Acts 3:12

9. Both are rightfully worshipped. Hebrews 1:6

10. Both are rightfully called God. John 1:1; 20:28, Hebrews 1:8,9

11. Both are prayed to. Acts 7:7:59-60

12. Everything in the world was created through both of them. John 1:3, 10, Colossians 1:16

13. The fullness of deity is in Jesus. Colossians 1:19

14. They are one in spirit, love, and purpose. To truly obey one is to obey the other. ~John 14:23-24

However, they are not the same in every way.

1. They are distinct. Jesus was not a ventriloquist. Matthew 3:16; John 8:18.

2. The Father, Jesus, and us all share some things, like eternal life. John 16:13-15

 The Father does not have some things we share with Jesus after His human birth. Hebrews 1:6-10;2:14;7:3

3. The Father did not become, progress, or turn into Jesus. Hebrews 13:8;1:9; John 14:10,24,26; 15:1; 16:27-8,32; 17:5

4. Jesus did not become, progress, or turn into the Father. Hebrews 13:8; ~Revelation 5:13; John 20:17; 14:10,24,26; 15:1

5. Jesus was forsaken at Calvary. Mark 15:34; Matthew 27:46

6. As close as they were on earth, Jesus still would be going to the Father. John 14:12; Mark 16:19; John 20:11

This has been summed up as: “United without confusion, … distinguished without separation, Indivisible and without degrees.” Parts of this are from Athanasius’ Sermon on Luke 10:22 ch.2 p.90

   The Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1528 has a slightly different answer. While saying that they are one in all their attributes, it says that in this passage, Jesus is referring to the Father and Him being one in power.

 

4. In Jn 10:31, how could they pick up stones to stone Jesus, in Solomon’s colonnade?

A: Solomon’s colonnade probably did not have any loose stones; however, this was adjacent to the east side of the temple, which was currently being rebuilt by Herod, so there would be ample stones for construction. But these means that these stones were not pebbles but at least as big as a person’s hand. The Greek here means “to carry”, not only “to pick up” according to The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.112-113.

 

5. In Jn 10:34, are human beings gods, too?

A: No. There are five points to consider in the answer.

Countless numbers of people have falsely claimed to be gods.

No human being is true God, besides Jesus.

Some men were appointed as elohim in the Bible. Moses was as God (elohim) to Pharaoh (Exodus 7:1), in that Pharaoh was expected to obey God’s message given through Moses.

   The Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.309 and the NKJV also say Elohim refers to Judges in Exodus 21:6. In 1 Samuel 2:25, the Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.309 and the KJV says this refers to judges, and the NKJV says this refers to God. The NIV used “judges” but puts “God” in the footnote. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.3 p.586 says on 1 Samuel 2:25. “As the NIV margin indicates, we cannot always be sure whether (elohim) means “God” or “(the) judges” in certain contexts. … Here in verse 25, and in the Exodus passages, it is perhaps best to leave the question moot, since in any case the “judges” (if such they be) are viewed as God’s representatives who reflect his will and carry out his desires.”

In Psalm 82:6 elohim refers to mere people, and it is translated as judge in the KJV, NKJV. It is also mentioned to be judge in The Bible Knowledge Commentary : Old Testament p.142 and the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.111. Christians disagree as to whether Psalm 82:6 is speaking in irony, calling evil men [so-called] “gods”, or whether it is saying the appointed judges (elohim) were corrupt.

Regardless, the “elohim” in Psalm 82:6 judge unjustly, walk in darkness, and die like men.

   See The Complete Book of Bible Answers p.58, When Cultists Ask p.177-178, and Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p.373-374 for more info.

 

6. In Jn 10:34-36, why did Jesus refer to Ps 82:6 here?

A: There are other ways Jesus could have constructed his argument, but the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.862 says that Jesus here was making His case like a rabbi would. This is an “a fortiori” argument, i.e. arguing from the lesser to the greater. Jesus was using three concepts of Scripture as a “lever” to try to pry open the minds of the Jews.

For the fulcrum (pivot) of the lever, Jesus relied upon their correct understanding that there was only One God.

On the high side of the lever, Jesus used the concept that in Scripture even wicked men were called elohim in Psalm 82. Now some see Psalm 82 as written in irony (sarcastically) about these men who stood as “gods’ but will still die in the dust. However, others see that men who stood as judges were called the title of elohim, because they stood in God’s place, dispensing God’s justice. Psalm 82 was referring to corrupt judges. As to exactly what was meant when people were called Elohim in the Old Testament, see the previous question. Regardless though, mortal men in Psalm 82 were called elohim, in some sense of the word.

On the low side of the lever, since it was OK for people to read out loud this Psalm, and call these men elohim, undeserving though they be, how much more fitting is it to call Jesus Elohim, since Jesus is the only begotten son of God. Jesus was not explaining all the details of the relationship between Him and the Father here, nor did He go into detail about how the Trinity is One God (the fulcrum) but Three Persons. Rather, Jesus is simply saying here that if these wicked guys were called elohim, ponder that Jesus might be elohim in a greater sense.

   As When Cultists Ask p.177-178 mentions, a “how much more” type of argument is called an “a fortiori” argument.

   See also Hard Sayings of the Bible p.279-280 and the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1528 for more info.

 

7. In Jn 10:37-38, why is Jesus saying to at least believe in His works, if they are not going to believe in Him?

A: Jesus never said that believing in His works was sufficient for salvation. In Acts 8:13,18-19, Simon the Magician believed in the truth of the miracles, yet he was not saved.

   Rather, Jesus was astonished, that seeing what Jesus did, they did not even take the first step and believe in the reality of the miracles. This would not be sufficient, but it would be a bridge so that perhaps later they would believe the one who performed the miracles.

   If they can at least believe in Jesus’ works, and believe in them being from God, that is a first step to believing in Jesus. Sometimes you have to take things step-by-step.

 

8. In Jn 10:40, why did Jesus go to where John used to baptize?

A: Jesus withdrew because of the strong opposition of the Pharisees and other Jews. Jesus went here because this is where his ministry started. Of course things were different now; John the Baptist had been beheaded, and people were wanting to kill him too. However, the followers who came to him could remember their previous pledge of baptism by John the Baptist. Sometimes it is good to be nostalgic and go back to a well-remembered place to remind others (and ourselves) of our previous pledge and love.


John 11 – Lazarus: A Demonstration of Power over Death - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 11:3, what was the basis of the appeal to Jesus here?

A: Mary and Martha did not say to come because Lazarus loves You, or because we love You. Rather they said to come because the one You love is sick. 1 John 4:19 says that we love God because He first loved us, not the other way around. When we pray to God, do not ask God to grant our request because of our righteousness, love, or works. Rather, ask Him because of His promises and His love for us. Of course, God can still say no to what is not best of us or in His will.

 

2. In Jn 11:4, why did Jesus say Lazarus was not sick unto death, since Lazarus later died in Jn 11:11-14,17?

A: Jesus here obviously had a different perspective than the disciples. God in general has a different perspective, both on death and what is possible. In this case, Jesus knew Lazarus would come back to life, and Jesus spoke the way He did to emphasize that fact. See When Critics Ask p.417-418 for a complementary answer.

 

3. In Jn 11:6, why did Jesus delay before seeing his sick friend Lazarus?

A: The ultimate answer is in John 11:15. Because of Jesus’ delay, Lazarus died, and raising Lazarus from the dead would be a greater demonstration of his power.

   Did Jesus, knowing all of this, deliberately choose to delay for this reason? Or, did Jesus not deliberately choose this, but delayed going until the Father guided Him to go, and this was the result. Scripture does not say, and it could be either way.

 

4. In Jn 11:16, why did Thomas say to go, so that we may die with him?

A: Thomas was committed but confused. In addition to Thomas’ courage, Scripture does not say what other reasons prompted Thomas to make this strange but remark. Here are two speculations.

Despair: Perhaps Thomas thought that the authorities would probably find Jesus and arrest the disciples. Today, even in despair we still are supposed to follow Jesus, even unto death. Paul also felt despair in 2 Corinthians 1:8-10.

Lack of Faith: Perhaps Thomas thought that while Jesus could do miracles, not even Jesus could raise the dead. When Thomas said, “let us die with him”, Thomas obviously had no expectation that Jesus would raise Lazarus from the dead. Today, even when we have doubts, we should be like the convulsing boy’s father who told Jesus, “Lord, I believe, help my unbelief.” in Mark 9:24.

 

5. In Jn 11:23-25, what is Jesus saying here about the resurrection?

A: To say that the resurrection is just an event, is to truthfully speak of its secondary meaning, but neglect the primary reason behind the meaning. Jesus is the resurrection means that as Jesus had the power to raise Himself from the dead, in Jesus is the power for our resurrection from death too.

 

6. In Jn 11:26, why did Jesus say those who believe in Him would never die?

A: They would have eternal life, first on earth and then in Heaven. Jesus did not say they would never die, but “he will live, even though he dies” (NIV). See When Critics Ask p.419 for more info.

 

7. In Jn 11:33,38, why was Jesus troubled?

A: Four points to consider in the answer.

1. Jesus was visibly troubled, because John 11:36 shows the crowd noticed this.

2. John 11:36 also implies the crowd assumed Jesus was troubled because of His love of Lazarus and his sorrow at Lazarus’ “permanent” death.

3. While Jesus did greatly love Lazarus, Scripture does not actually state the real reason why Jesus was visibly troubled.

4. Jesus might have been troubled, not because of Lazarus’ physical condition, but because of the fragile spiritual condition of his sisters and others.

 

8. In Jn 11:35, how could we have a God so powerless that He weeps, as well as thirsts in Jn 19:28? (The Muslim Ahmad Deedat brought this up.)

A: Let’s talk about weeping first, then thirsting. Jesus wept: Deedat does bring up an interesting contrast. When someone leaves Islam or disobeys Allah, it never says that Allah weeps, or shows any concern for that matter, except anger. But Jesus wept over Jerusalem, He wept over Lazarus. Psalm 116:15 says, “Precious in the sight of the Lord Is the death of his saints” (NKJV). Deedat did not bring up anywhere that this would be true for Allah.

Jesus thirsted: God in Heaven would never lack, hunger or thirst, so how could God ever empathize with us, or understand our human situation? But what if God Almighty, who can do anything, decided to became man? Jesus not only tells us to be faithful and persevere, but He knows how difficult it is some times, and He understands our suffering. Now Muslims would say that Allah would be aware of everyone’s pain, but it is Jesus, not Allah, who would understand firsthand what our suffering, because He suffered too, and He experienced pain for us.

 

9. In Jn 11:42, why was Jesus saying things to God in His prayers that were for the sake of the people?

A: Rather than being insincere, Jesus was being very candid and honest. Jesus was not saying “please hear me better than you usually do”, or even “please hear me”, but rather thanking the Father who already promised to hear him. If Jesus had not said “I know you hear” me, the people might have misunderstood and that He was asking God to hear Him.

   Today, there is a difference between praying and praying in faith. As someone once said, if ever you feel that a little prayer will not do much harm, it probably will not do much good either. It is not disrespectful to “stand on the promises of God”, and pray with assurance that God keeps His promises.

 

10. In Jn 11:43, why did Jesus say, “Lazarus, come forth?

A: God created everything by His word. If Jesus had simply said, “come forth”, then perhaps everyone who had died who come to life at that time. Jesus will not say that until later. I suppose that Jesus, being who He was, had to be very careful of His words.

 

11. In Jn 11:47-51, why did the Pharisees act the way they did?

A: The “snitches” probably did not tell the Pharisees due to any love to Jesus. They may have been acting as the “eyes and ears” of the Pharisees. But the Pharisees clearly were at a loss on what to do. Their goal was to maintain their position, not follow God. They wanted to see public support for Jesus taken away, but they could not do so with Jesus performing these miracles.

 

12. In Jn 11:49-52, why did Caiaphas give a true prophecy, since He rejected Jesus?

A: Four points to consider in the answer.

1. Caiaphas was someone who rejected Jesus and wanted Jesus dead; Caiaphas was displeasing to God.

2. The words Caiaphas said were a true prophecy, though the meaning (Christ’s atoning for the world), was not Caiaphas’s intended meaning.

3. God can use whom He wishes to reveal prophecy and truth; even evil men who displease Him.

4. Thus, if someone gives a prophecy, that does not automatically prove he or she is a godly person. Two other passages that support this conclusion are Numbers 22:32-33 (Balaam) and 1 Samuel 19:18-24 (Saul and his men).

 

13. Does Jn 11:49-52 support the Roman Catholic claim of papal infallibility, as When Cultists Ask p.179-180 says some Catholic scholars claim?

A: No, this is quite a stretch, how a single inadvertently correct statement from one Jewish leader, supports that all the seven to fourteen or so ex cathedra statements made popes are somehow infallible. Caiaphas said wrong things too, so does this prove popes say wrong things?

   But to be fair, it should be noted that many Catholics do NOT try to force-fit this verse to prove papal infallibility.


John 12 – Preparation for Passion - some brief answers

 

This chapter shows that the Jewish leadership is firm in their rejection of the Messiah, but many people, including even some Jewish leaders did believe in Him.

 

1. In Jn 12:3, why did Jesus permit the expensive perfume to be used on Him?

A: Since Jesus is God, Jesus is worthy of worship and adoration. Jesus accepted her love and reverence toward Him, and Jesus allowed others to see and learn from her example. This nard perfume was expensive, it was imported from northern India according to the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.864 and The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.316. Judas said that it might be sold for three hundred denarii, and a workman made one denarius per day.

   The Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.865 says that a host having a servant wash the dinner guests’ feet would not be uncommon, but the host would not do it himself.

   Normally anointing would be a happy occasion, but here it was a tender, sad occasion, according to The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.316.

 

2. In Jn 12:6, why did Jesus permit Judas to be a disciple, since Judas was a thief and a future traitor?

A: After he became a disciple, Judas was a thief according to John 12:4-6. God can use whatever means He chooses to carry out His plan. The betrayal of Jesus was a part of God’s plan, as Psalm 41:9, Acts 2:23, Matthew 26:24,54, Mark 14:21, Luke 22:22, and John 13:18 show.

   Judas betraying Jesus was an evil thing, but God used this bad thing as a part of His plan to accomplish good, in this case, Jesus dying on the cross for our sins. This is an example of what is called “concurrency”.

 

3. In Jn 12:7, how were Mary and Judas opposites here?

A: This is quite a contrast. Mary gave this expensive gift in worship, and Judas wanted to take this expensive gift to steal. Mary gave out of sacrificial love, Judas was practical and “utilitarian”.

   Today some are involved in a church only for what they can get, either physically or spiritually. Others are also involved for what they can give. Now we all get from the church good teaching, fellowship, friends, etc., and desiring to get those things is good. But what are you giving? It does not have to be in a position in the church, but rather, what are you giving to God? A full cup cannot receive any more liquid. But as you pour out what you have received for others, God can refill your cup, with fresh good things.

   See The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.316 and The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.125 for more info.

 

4. In Jn 12:9-11, what did Lazarus do wrong (in the eyes of the priests), that they wanted to kill him?

A: Coming back to life was something Lazarus had no control over; even the chief priests would admit that Lazarus did not do anything wrong when Jesus raised him. But the chief priests were totally unconcerned about fairness and justice for Lazarus; they were defensive, in “round up your wagons” mode, they would do whatever it takes to accomplish their goal. They were alarmed that “the whole world has gone after him” in John 12:19f. Sometimes when people feel like they are in a precarious situation today they will do the same. Actually many in the crowd would turn away from Jesus later, but the chief priests did not know that.

   There was a sign at work I saw on a manager’s desk. It said, “I am not saying it’s your fault; I’m saying I’m blaming you.” The sign was humorous but the point behind it was not, sometimes a person only survives in a position by deflecting blame. But to do that effectively, they have to be heartless and not care what undeserving people get hurt while they are protecting themselves.

 

5. In Jn 12:12-13, what are the implications of the crowd’s reaction?

A: Hosanna is the first part of Psalm 118:25. Jesus could have come in on a chariot like many kings, or on a horse indicating he was a mighty conqueror, but Jesus came on a donkey symbolizing peace. Donkeys can carry people, but donkeys were never any good for use in fighting. They were only good for carrying things, because while a horse, being larger, could carry more, donkeys and mules could carry more compared to the amount of food they ate. In their eyes, their conquering Messiah might have finally come?

 

6. In Jn 12:21-22, of the many details that John did not mention, why would the Holy Spirit have John mention this small one?

A: First of all, this detail about the Greeks does nothing to advance the narrative or explain later things in the gospel. But this tiny detail illuminates a huge contrast. While the chief priests, who knew the law, stayed away from Jesus and plotted how to kill Him, these Greeks (either non-Jews or more likely Greek-speaking Jews and Jewish converts), made the effort to make a special request to see Jesus. The Jewish leadership rejected Jesus but the Greeks accepted him as the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.865 says.

   Finally, Jesus message in their presence emphasized the necessity of Jesus dying. Perhaps they had suggested that Jesus could take the easy way and escape by going abroad with them. The Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1538 surmises that this might be the case.

 

7. In Jn 12:23-24, what do you think of the point that for Him “death is necessary for harvest”?

A: Jesus’ physical death was necessary for there to be a resurrection to conquer death. But for us, sometimes our aspirations, hopes, and dreams need to die before there is a fruitful harvest. Sometimes they die and are taken away, because God wants us to focus on other things. Sometimes they might die, but then God resurrect them, perhaps in a different and greater form. While we might not want to see something that we cherish die, we should remember that Jesus told us in John 15:2f  that God prunes things in our life. We should not act surprised. We should praise God for pruning us, preparing us for greater things. We should praise the Lord for His pruning, - even when we do not feel like it.

   Do you exercise regularly for your health? If you do, do you know that exercise actually breaks down your muscles. When you just finish exercising you are less strong than before. But it is a good thing, not to be mourned, because your muscles come back as strong or stronger. We don’t mourn due to muscle loss from exercising, and we should not mourn from God’s pruning either.

   Finally, do you know that God is not the only one pruning us? We should be pruning ourselves! We should die to our sinful nature in Colossians 3:3-10, Romans 6:12-14, and Galatians 6:14.

   See The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.317, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.129, and the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1538 for more info.

 

8. In Jn 12:31 and Jn 16:11, who is the prince of this world?

A: This is Satan, whom Jesus drove out. Other verses that refer to Satan as having influence over this world are 1 John 5:19, Ephesians 2:2, and 2 Corinthians 4:4.

 

9. In Jn 12:32, how are all drawn unto Jesus?

A: The Greek simply says, “all”. It does not specify either “all people” or “all the elect”, and perhaps both were in mind.

All people: After Jesus’ crucifixion and resurrection, the Holy Spirit came into the world to testify of Christ (John 15:26), and to convict the world with respect to sin, righteousness, and judgment (John 15:8-11). The offer of the Gospel is sincerely and freely given to everyone, for all have a responsibility to obey it (2 Thessalonians 1:8).

All the Heaven-bound (elect): Everyone who goes to Heaven, even before Christ lived, goes to Heaven through Jesus (John 14:6). There is no other name (Acts 14:12), by which we can be saved.

   See 1001 Bible Questions Answered p.36-37 for a more extensive answer.

 

10. In Jn 12:34, why did the people say the law said the Messiah would abide forever?

A: Four points to consider in the answer.

1. As The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.318 says, Daniel 7:13-14 says the Son of man will reign forever. However, the book of Daniel is not apart of the Law (Torah).

2. John 12:34 does not say this was a part of the law. It only says that the crowd spoke out that this was a part of the Law. In John 7:49, the Pharisees accused the crowd of knowing nothing of the Law.

3. However, if the crowd meant the Old Testament, when they used the word “Law”, then this would be correct, though imprecise.

4. Regardless, of the correctness of what the crowd said, John is merely recording what they said.

 

11. In Jn 12:35f, what does walking in the darkness mean and how to people do that?

A: While being in sin is being in darkness, walking (peripateite) in darkness, is actually more specific than that. You can’t see what you ought to do, you can’t help, you can’t see what is good and what is dangerous, or right and wrong, and you are stumbling around anyway. You would not want to walk in a dense forest at night with no light. You would not want to drive down a country road with your lights off. Likewise, at least if you are in darkness you could sit still, and not walk and probably make things worse. But even better, see the urgency and get to where you need to go while you have daylight. Praise God for the Light! See The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.318 for more info.

 

12. In Jn 12:38-41, why did God appear not to want many to believe in Jesus?

A: In most times and cultures, believing in Christ has been an “uphill” struggle.

John 12:40 says that God did not want some to turn and be healed.

John 12:41 gives an example, that while many Pharisees believed in Jesus, they loved the praise of man more than the praise from God.

John 12:47-48 says that God does approve of those who hear Christ’s words (and even believe them) if they do not keep Christ’s words.

Apparently, God does not place great value in the faith of those who prefer the approval of men more than God’s approval.

However, John 12:40 and 12:46 also shows that God will ensure that absolutely nobody who truly believes in Christ will remain in darkness. This not only relates to eternal darkness, but it also relates to darkness in this life, as 1 John 3:6,9 and 1 John 4:20 show.

 

13. In Jn 12:42-43, since many among the rulers believed in Jesus, why did they not follow Jesus?

A: There is a difference between merely intellectually believing He could do the miracles, and trusting your life over to following Him.

 

14. Jn 12 told of preparations for Jesus passion. What can we do, in our lives, to prepare for being more passionate about Jesus today?

A: On the positive side, we can spend more time with God, meditating on His scripture, praying to Him, and dedicating each day to Him. We can understand the importance of sharing the gospel with others and do it.

On the negative side, we can root out of our lives whatever tends to deaden our passion towards God. Any besetting sins, or large time drains, that make us “too busy” doing trivial things to do the most important things God wants us to do.


John 13 – Footwashing and the Last Supper - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 13:1, how did Jesus love His disciples to the end?

A: John 13:1 should be translated “to the fullest extent” not “up until the end” according to The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.135. Jesus loved them enough to die for them. He loved them even though He knew they would abandon Him. He even showed honor to Judas, whom He knew would be lost and betray Him.

 

2. In Jn 13:6f, where is the emphasis in Peter’s sentence?

Q: John 13:6 the Greek is constructed to emphasize two words. So it could be translated, “Lord! YOU are washing MY feet?” See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.136 for more info.

The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.320 also says that “you” is emphatic in Greek. When Jesus took off His outer clothing to wash His disciple’s feet, it is similar to Jesus taking off His outer clothing (His body), when dying on the cross for our sins. See the New International Bible Commentary p.1253 for more info.

 

3. In Jn 13:5, what two things are unusual about Jesus washing His disciple’s feet?

A: First, in the dry, dusty roads of Palestine people needed their feet washed. According to The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.320 children would wash their parents’ feet, and wives would wash their husband’s feet. When there were servants they would wash people’s feet, but there were no servants here. Probably no disciple would want to wash the other disciples’ feet, because it would be like admitting you were inferior to all of the others. Jesus showed that is was not about power, but about love and humility. When we recognize that even He was willing to be humble to this extent, how much easier should it be for us to be humble!

   Second, Jesus was in a very stressful situation here. A friend of his, for three and a half years, was about to betray Him to death. Jesus was about to be tortured and suffer an agonizing death on the cross, and He knew that. It is not just that He decided to serve others here. But, rather, in the middle of His present anguish and great stress, He still decided to serve others and focus on them, even though He knew they would later abandon Him too. We are called to love, but we are also called to love under stress. Maybe when we are under stress, the best thing we can do (for us), is to praised God, serve Him, and love others.

 

4. In Jn 13:18, what is fascinating about Jesus quoting Psalm 41:9 here?

A: Jewish people did not recognize this Psalm as Messianic. This psalm was when David’s trusted advisor and close friend, the wise man Athiophel, abandoned David in Absalom’s rebellion. Athiophel even gave wise counsel to Absalom on how to capture and kill his former friend. So while Psalm 41 is not explicitly messianic, the historical situation it described was emotionally very similar to how Jesus felt then as Jesus was washing all of His disciples’ feet, - including Judas. Psalm 41:9 says a close friend would lift up his heel against him. Jesus was washing the heels of Judas. Would you do something for someone who is ungrateful to you?

   See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.138, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.320-321, the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1543, and the New International Bible Commentary p.1253 for more info.

 

5. In Jn 13:1-17, should foot washing be a ceremony we do today?

A: It is a good thing to wash each other’s feet. It can be a way of humbly demonstrating that you esteem others as better than yourselves. However, nothing in Scripture says it should be a ceremony, or an institution, as the Mennonites practice. Five pre-Nicene writers (Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, and Cyprian) quote this or mention Jesus washing His disciples feet, but none mention this as an early church practice.

 

6. In Jn 13:4-17, why exactly did Jesus wash the feet of His disciples?

A: It is interesting that Jesus performed this service prior to explaining its meaning in John 13:12-17.

   Jesus said He did this as an example for us. While most Christians don’t see the need to wash each other’s feet literally, we all should agree we should serve one another with the sincerity, humility, and sacrifice that Jesus set for us in His example.

 

7. In Jn 13:19, was Jesus calling Himself by the Divine name here?

A: Yes. The Greek here is ego eimi, and Aland and Green do not show any manuscript variations here. Jay P. Green’s Literal Translation says, “before the happening, that when it happens you may believe that I AM.” The NASB, KJV, and NKJV say “…believe that I am He.” (italics in the original). The NRSV says “…believe that I am he.” The Believers Bible Commentary p.1543 also points out that Jesus was calling Himself by the Divine name here. Williams translation says “I am the Christ” with a footnote saying “Grk., that I am He.”

 

8. In Jn 13:21, why was Jesus troubled here, since Jesus had already known Judas would betray Him?

A: Jesus had intellectually known what would happen, and how it would turn out. However, as the time approached, He was emotionally upset at what He knew He would happen and what He would have to endure.

   The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.321 points out the interesting paradox that in giving food to Judas, Jesus honoring Judas with this expression of friendship signaled Judas’ betrayal of friendship.

 

9. In Jn 13:27, what does it mean that Satan entered into Judas?

A: From Jesus’ perspective, Jesus knew that Judas would betray Him at least a year earlier, way back in John 6:70. But from Judas’ perspective for the choice that he made, this was the point of no return. Peter asked who it was, perhaps in order to physically stop this from happening. Jesus knew there was no point to that, but showed Peter and the other disciples anyway who it was.

   See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.139-140 for more info.

 

10. In Jn 13:30, what does “And it was night” mean?

A: On the surface, it simply means that it was night time. John 13:2 also says it was after supper ended, so saying it was night in John 13:30 would seem superfluous, - on the surface.

   However, John’s Gospel uses the metaphors of light and darkness frequently. Indeed it was night time, it was night time for Judas’ soul. One would had been in close to the light of Christ for three and a half years was now going to be in the light no more, - ever.

   While Judas betraying our Lord is a unique case, many people can be in somewhat similar situations. There are people who grow up close to the church, hear the gospel, and like Christianity, and maybe even make a commitment to Christ in words, but they have the life of Christ living in them that they claim to have. But it might not be too late, they still have the light around them, and then can still come to Christ. However, there can come a time when it is too late, and it is night time for their soul.

   I wonder why in John 12:35 Jesus urgently said, “…Walk while you have the light, lest darkness overtake you;…”?  (NKJV) He also said in John 9:4f, “night is coming when no one can work.”

   See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.140 for more info.

 

11. In Jn 13:34 and 1 Jn 2:7-8, how is loving one another a new command?

A: We are not just to like one another. Jesus commands us to love one another as He loved us. By his impending crucifixion, Jesus was finally showing just how much He loved them. In 1 John 2:7-8, John acknowledges that loving one another is an old command, but John also wants us to acknowledge that loving one another, as Christ loved us, is a new command. John also emphasizes love being an old and new command in 2 John 5. The Old Testament also said “love your neighbor”, but the New Testament also said, “love your enemies”, as the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1545 points out.

   According to The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.321, the words “my children” could be more precisely translated as “my little children.” The word for children (tekna) is used in many places, but “little children” (teknia) is only used here  and seven places in 1 John. (2:1,12,28; 3:7,18; 4:4; 5:21)

 

12. In Jn 13:35, how will the world know we are Christ’s disciples by us loving one another?

A: If someone is looking for a reason NOT to love someone else, they usually don’t have to look far. For an excuse, they can say they don’t have a lot in common with the person, or they have a different cultural background, different race, age, gender, religion, has different politics, or a different theology or denomination. They have messed up due to an error in judgment or other bad decision. They are not a perfect person, and they have sinned. They have let you down at one point or another. They made you made at one time or another. Of course all those rationalizations you can come up with for not loving someone else, could be used by others as reasons not to love you.

   But, leaving all of that “trash” behind, Jesus, who though He was perfect, loved us anyway, enough to shed His blood for our sins, commands us to love others. He does not ask us to love others, He commands us. With bitterness, an unforgiving spirit, or just plain mistrust, this might be difficult for some people to do. But as Christians, the world will see the contrast when as believers we love each other. We are not to be selective about this, and only love other believers who are the easiest for us to love. We are to be complete in our obedience, and love even other believers that are harder for us to love. They might be harder for us to love because of our own prejudices, or they might be harder to love because they make themselves harder to love. Either way though, we are to show our love to people, especially all believers. The world will look back and say “Wow, how could they be like that?” And a few of them might even say, “how can I be like that!”

 

13. In Jn 13:38, why do you think Jesus responded to Peter the way He did, rather than just saying nothing?

A: If Jesus had said nothing, and then Peter had done that Peter in his surprise at Himself, might easily have thought Jesus would be shocked too, and not love him anymore. Jesus did nothing to excuse Peter’s sin, but Jesus told Peter the sin Peter was going to do beforehand, to show that Jesus knew, and that Jesus still loved Him anyway. God’s love for us, His children is great. But specifically God’s love for us is greater than our sin, and greater than our times of doubting Him.


John 14:1-14 – When Trouble Comes, God’s Grace is Even More - some brief answers

 

Riddle: What Old Testament prayer is NOT suitable for us to pray today?

Answer: In Psalm 51:11f, David asked God not to take His Holy Spirit from him.

 

1. In Jn 14:1, why does your heart sometimes get troubled and what can you do about it?

A: The word for “you” in John 14:1 is plural, so Jesus was talking to all of them, and they might be troubled for different reasons. We can be troubled because we have been told we cannot be trusted to be faithful like Peter (John 13:38), because we really feel we don’t know what is going on like Thomas (John 14:5), we don’t see God [the Father] in what we are doing like Philip (John 14:8), or God’s ways do not seem to be the best for getting his message out like Judas (not Iscariot) (John 14:22).

   During this time of testing, when circumstances could tend to make us far from God, we can instead choose to draw closer to God anyway, even though we have faults, confusion, or lack of vision. As the father of the demon-possessed child said in Mark 9:24 “Lord, I believe; help my unbelief!” (NKJV)

 

2. In Jn 14:2, how are there many mansions in Heaven?

A: There probably are many types of mansions in Heaven, as well as many mansions in Heaven.

1. There are differing levels of rewards in Heaven; one could think of this as differing types of mansions. Basil (357-379 A.D.) taught this view, saying there were “differences of dignities”. (On the Spirit 16.40 p.25)

2. In addition, there is a place in Heaven for every single person who is going to be saved, without any overcrowding. While the offer of salvation is made to all people without exception, there will be no empty mansions in Heaven.

 

3. In Jn 14:6, is it just Jesus, and not His words, that are the way, truth and life, as Rev. Moon taught?

A: No. First here is what the alleged Messiah Rev. Moon said, and then what the Bible says in opposition.

Rev. Moon’s Divine Principle p.131 “Jesus did not say that His word was the truth but that he himself was the truth, way and the life (John 14:6). This is because His words were only a means of expressing himself as the truth... We can understand that the New Testament was given as a textbook for the teaching of truth to the people of 2,000 years ago... In consequence, today the truth must appear with a higher standard and with a scientific method of expression in order to enable intelligent modern men to understand it.”

Refutation: Jesus said, “Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away.” Luke 21:22

“Jesus replied, ‘If anyone loves me, he will obey my teaching. ... He who does not love me will not obey my teaching.” John 14:23-24

   You cannot claim to follow and obey Jesus and yet reject His words.

 

4. In Jn 14:6, how is Jesus the way, the truth, and the life?

A: Jesus’ choice of words is fascinating here.

A way is the path to follow to a destination. It is not a “point” but rather a series of points. We are supposed to be on one of the series of points, progressing in the correct direction.

Truth includes correct facts and logic, but it also means much more than that. Truth is what lives inside us, what is to characterize our life, what we are to love, and what we are to practice. A life built on a lie is no truth of all. The western conceptions of “correctness” and “reality” both are combined in the Biblical concept of truth.

Life is both our experience in living, the reality of our living, and that which sustains our living. Elsewhere the Bible uses metaphors of the water of life, and a creature’s life is in its blood.

 

5. In Jn 14:6, can anyone go to Heaven apart from Jesus?

A: No. Many in the Old Testament went to Paradise without hearing the name of Jesus. Today, nothing hinders God from having babies who die, and never had the Holy Spirit inside of them, from going to Heaven.

   However, no one can come to the Father except through Jesus, according to Jesus in John 14:6. Obviously one would think that Jesus would be in a good position to know.

   Also, Acts 4:12 says that there is no other name under Heaven given to men by which we may be saved. Philippians 2:10-11 says that in the end every know will bow and every tongue confess that Jesus is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. See Hard Sayings of the Bible p.500-502 for more info.

 

6. In Jn 14:6, can anyone go to Heaven who never heard the name of Jesus?

A: Babies who die, the severely retarded, and old Testament believers never heard of Jesus. Yet God is not restricted from having them go to Heaven through Jesus.

 

7. Does Jn 14:6-11 prove that Jesus is God the Father, as Oneness Pentecostals claim, such as David K Barnard (The Oneness of God: Series in Pentecostal Theology, vol.1 p.68)?

A: No. No one comes to the Father except through Jesus would be nonsensical if it said no one comes to the Father except they come to the Father, or through the Father. Jesus said He and the Father are One, but that statement does not specify how they are one; you have to look though the rest of scripture for that. They are inseparable, one in nature, glory, and honor. However, Jesus’ baptism, Jesus learning obedience in Hebrews, etc. show that they are distinct and differ in role and rank.

   See When Cultists Ask p.180-181 for a complementary answer.

 

8. In Jn 14:10-11, how did the Father dwell in Jesus?

A: Perhaps in a way somewhat similar to how Jesus dwells in us. The Father, Son, and Spirit are still distinct, but nothing in Scripture says there is a separation between them. As Patrick of Ireland (c.389-461 A.D.) points out, if the lobes of a three-leaf clover can be distinct but not separate, then the Trinity can have three distinct, but not separate persons.

 

9. In Jn 14:12, how do Christians do greater works than Jesus did?

A: The greater works we are to do is not to be understood as us “showing off”, but rather greater and more numerous works for the kingdom. Christians did greater works than Jesus had done up to that time in at least four complementary ways.

Significance: While Jesus fed 4,000 and 5,000 people, Acts 2:41 records that with the apostles preaching over 3,000 were saved. Surely getting people saved is more important than just feeding them for a day. Certainly since that time Christians have fed many more than 5,000.

Numbers: The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.145 mentions that more people are mentioned as saved in Acts 2:41 than in all of Jesus’ entire ministry on earth.

Method: The Holy Spirit was not poured out on all peoples until Pentecost. The promise that they would do greater things is wrapped up in Jesus’ promise of the Comforter coming to them in John 14:15-18, 25

Area: While Jesus never left a fairly small geographic area while on earth, Jesus sent his followers not only to Judea and Samaria, but to the ends of the earth in Acts 1:8.

   See The Complete Book of Bible Answers p.58-59, Hard Sayings of the Bible p.502-503, Now That’s a Good Question p.48-49, and the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1546 for more info.

 

10. In Jn 14:13-14, why is this statement on asking in Jesus’ name [allegedly] not qualified?

A: It is qualified in two ways.

Explicitly: Jesus used the word “you” here, and Jesus was speaking directly to the disciples, not everyone who claimed to follow God.

Implicitly: We are praying to our Heavenly Father, and our Heavenly Father knows what is best for us even more than our earthly fathers.

 


John 14:15-31 – The Helper - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 14:16, what does the term “Helper” mean?

A: Among other things, the Greek word “helper” here meant a legal advocate for the defense, according to the New Geneva Study Bible p.1692 and the New International Bible Commentary p.1255. Also, Greek can distinguish between “another of the same kind” and “another of a different kind.” The Greek here, allon, means another of the same kind as Jesus according to The Expositor’s Bible Commentary p.9 p.146. It also says that in Greek parakletos meant a person who helped along side as an advisor, lawyer, intercessor, or mediator.

   According to the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1547, the word for “pray” here does not mean an inferior person asking a superior person for a favor. It is a word for someone making a request of his equal.

 

2. In Jn 14:16, exactly why can’t the world accept the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of Truth?

A: Jesus said a number of related reasons.

The world is ignorant as Jesus said in John 16:3. But as Romans 1:18-19 shows, ignorance is not always innocent ignorance; when they suppress the truth.

Some in the word literally “hate” Jesus, as Jesus said would happen in John 15:18,24.

Some are liars as Jesus said in John 8:55. Some can lie to others, but they can also lie to themselves.

Some have “other things going on”, because they are worshipping other idols, whether they are other religions, money, alcohol, etc. “Those who worship worthless idols forfeit the grace that could be theirs” Jonah 2:8 (NIV)

Some people are not God’s sheep, as Jesus said in John 10:26.

No room for my word, as Jesus said in John 8:37

Related to the previous, if someone does not believe Jesus is the one He claims to be, they will die in their sins, as Jesus said in John 8:24.

The world is hostile to judgment on its materialism and sin. They don’t want the Holy Spirit, who will convict them of sin and lack or righteousness, as Jesus said in John 12:8-10.

Finally, no one can come to Jesus unless the Father draws him, as Jesus said in John 6:44.

 

3. In Jn 14:16, is the Helper here “Divine Science” as Mary Baker Eddy, founder of Christian Science claimed in Science and Health with the Key to the Scriptures p.55,271?

A: No, the Helper is the Holy Spirit in verse 26, and referred to as a “He”, not an “it” as Divine Science would be. See When Cultists Ask p.183 for more info.

 

4. In Jn 14:16-17, did a Christian from Asia Minor around 160 A.D. named Montanus claim to be the incarnation of the comforter, as the skeptical Asimov’s Guide to the Bible p.988 claims?

A: Asimov should have stuck to writing science fiction, as he got his facts wrong here. Montanus did claim to be a prophet, though whom the Comforter (parakletos) spoke, but nobody (except Asimov) said Montanus was the incarnation of anything or anyone. Tertullian was the most prominent member of the Montanist “denomination”, and Tertullian’s extensive writings were considered orthodox and used extensively by orthodox Christians after him. In fact, Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) used to says “bring me my master” when he wanted someone to bring Tertullian’s books to him for study.

 

5. In Jn 14:16-26; 15:26; 16:5-15, was Mohammed prophesied in the New Testament as the Paracletos, or Holy Spirit like some Muslims claim?

A: No. If this were true, then Muslims would believe these five things (which they generally do not).

1. Mohammed glorified Jesus. (John 16:14)

2. Allah sent Mohammed in Jesus’ name. (John 14:26)

3. Mohammed was also sent by Jesus too. (John 16:7)

4. Mohammed took Jesus’ wisdom and made it known to us. (John 16:15)

5. Mohammed was “in” the apostles. (John 16:17)

Thus, no knowledgeable Muslim would believe these verses refer to Mohammed. These verses must refer to another, who was sent from God.

On the other hand, maybe Muslims should glorify Jesus, if they think that Mohammed did, based on these verses. However, one imam told me that Muslims should praise and glorify Jesus, though not worship Him.

   By the way, the word is parakletos/on is in John 14:6 in p75 (Bodmer 14/15) dated late second or possibly third century, p66 dated middle second century, and Sinaiticus.

Also, Tertullian taught that the paraclete, the Comforter was working in people’s hearts in his time (193 A.D.) in On Monogamy ch.3 p.61

Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) also discussed how the Paraclete in John 14-16 is the God the Holy Spirit in Disputation with Manes ch.34-35 p.208-209

   See When Cultists Ask p.182-183 and When Critics Ask p.419-420 for more info.

 

6. Does Jn 14:18 show that Christ is God the Father, as Oneness Pentecostals claim?

A: When Cultists Ask p.183-184 points out the Oneness Pentecostals confuse Jesus’ actions with Jesus’ identity. Because Jesus will not leave us as orphans does not mean He is the same being as the Father. When Jesus was baptized, He was not deceiving or confusing people, or putting on a ventriloquism act when the Father spoke from Heaven. The Father did not say “This is myself, with whom I am well-pleased.” Rather, the Father said, “This is My Son, with whom I am well pleased.”

 

7. In Jn 14:22-24, how is Jesus revealed to Christians and not to the world?

A: Admittedly everyone can know something about Jesus. However, only Christians know Jesus personally, because Jesus lives in our hearts.

   Disciples who lost their rabbi were called “orphans” according to the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.869.

 

8. In Jn 14:27, how does the peace of Jesus, the prince of peace, differ from the peace of the world?

A: The peace of the world is external, and temporary because it depends on external circumstances. The peace of Jesus is internal as well as external, and it is long-lasting because it is independent of external circumstances.

   In a sense, just like someone about to die leaves his or her will to provide for and give blessing to their children, Jesus is giving His blessing and promise of provision to His children. See the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1548 for more info.

 

9. In Jn 14:27-28, how is the Father greater than Jesus?

A: On earth, Jesus had emptied Himself, and of course the Father was greater than Jesus then. In Heaven, Jesus has a subordinate role to the Father. The God of Jesus is the Father. See 1 Corinthians 11:3; 15:25-28; Matthew 12:18; Ephesians 1:3,17; John 1:33; 14:16,26,28; Romans 8:26-27.

 The Father is not greater than Jesus in two ways:

Nature (Philippians 2:6). (For more info, see Hilary’s work On the Trinity 9:2 and 7:27.)

Honor. See John 5:18; 5:23; Colossians 2:9-10; (Isaiah 44:6; Revelation 1:8 vs. Revelation 1:17-18; 22:13)

   As John 5:18 shows, a father is equal in nature to the son he begets. Otherwise, your father must be greater than you, your grandfather greater than him, and your hundredth ancestor must have been superman. People make things but “beget” only people. God made created things but “begets” only God, his only begotten Son. They both receive honor and praise in Revelation 5:9,12-14.

   Now That’s a Good Question p.43-44 distinguishes between the falsehood of “inferiority” of the Son, and the true concept of the “subordination” of the Son. R.C. Sproul adds, “This is one of the reasons the church has always confessed a doctrine called the subordination of Christ.” For more info, see 1001 Bible Questions Answered p.27, Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p.375, When Critics Ask p.420, The Complete Book of Bible Answers p.110, Bible Difficulties & Seeming Contradictions p.240-241,  Hard Sayings of the Bible p.503-505, and When Cultists Ask p.184.


John 15:1-12 – Abiding in the Vine - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 15:1, how would a “true vine” differ from just a vine?

A: The Greek word for true here is not so much true vs. false, as true or original vs. an imitation or copy. See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.152 for more info.

 

1. In Jn 15:1, what other metaphor was there of the vine prior to this?

A: Jesus might have spoken this either while in the upper room, walking from the upper room to the Mount of Olives, or else at the Mount of Olives west of Jerusalem. If they passed the temple, the front of it had a large golden vine with its branches, symbolizing the people of Israel. Psalm 80:8-16, Ezekiel 17:1-6, Jeremiah 12:10-11; and Isaiah 5:1-7 both compare God’s people to a fine. God said, “For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, And the men of Judah are His pleasant plant. He looked for justice, but behold, oppression, For righteousness but behold a cry for help.” (Isaiah 5:7 (NKJV))

    See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.150 and the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.869 for more info.

 

2. In Jn 15:1, what is the difference between seeing Jesus being the vine that holds the branches together, and seeing men as holding the branches together?

A: Israel was the vine in Jeremiah 2:21. But Jesus has a different metaphor here: He, not Israel, is the vine in John 15:1. If your church organization places more emphasis on the men who hold it together than Jesus who holds it together, you should ask if you are in the right organization.

   What do you think of this quote? “God is in the still small voice. In all these affidavits, indictments, it is all of the devil--all corruption. Come on! ye prosecutors! ye false swearers! All hell, boil over! Ye burning mountains, roll down your lava! for I will come out on the top at last. I have more to boast of than ever any man had. I am the only man that has ever been able to keep a whole church together since the days of Adam. A large majority of the whole have stood by me. Neither Paul, John, Peter, nor Jesus ever did it. I boast that no man ever did such a work as I. The followers of Jesus ran away from Him; but the Latter-day Saints never ran away from me yet. You know my daily walk and conversation. I am in the bosom of a virtuous and good people. How I do love to hear the wolves howl! When they can get rid of me, the devil will also go. For the last three years I have a record of all my acts and proceedings, for I have kept several good, faithful, and efficient clerks in constant employ: they have accompanied me everywhere, and carefully kept my history, and they have written down what I have done, where I have been, and what I have said; therefore my enemies cannot charge me with any day, time, or place, but what I have written testimony to prove my actions; and my enemies cannot prove anything against me.” Joseph Smith, founder of Mormonism. History of the Church, vol.6, p.408-409

   Or how about this quote, which is milder? In Dictatus Papae (probably 1075 A.D.), Pope Gregory VII said, “The Roman Church was founded by God alone; the Roman pope alone can with right be called universal; he alone may use the imperial insignia; his feet only shall be kissed by all princes; he alone may depose the emperors; he himself may be judged by no one; the Roman Church has never erred, nor will it err in all eternity.” Austin’s Topical History of Christianity p.165.

 

3. In Jn 15:3, how could Jesus say they were all clean, since Judas betrayed Jesus?

A: Remember, by this time, Judas had already left and was not present when Jesus was speaking.

 

4. In Jn 15:4, what does the word remain/abide mean?

A:   The word remain/abide (meno in Greek) is very significant in all of John’s writings. It appears 11 times in John 15, 40 times in the Gospel of John, and 27 times in John’s epistles.

   Like a branch on a vine it means just one thing: to live attached to the vine. A branch can be totally detached by being cut off. Or the life of a branch could not be connected to the vine, and the branch die. It is interesting how trees lose their leaves in fall. The tree produces cork, which stops the flow of water and nutrients to the leaf or branch. With no nutrients they die, lose their hold, and fall off. Trees sometimes lose branches in summer too. When the branch does not receive sunlight, it does not produce any sugars or fruit and the tree cuts it off. Of course a branch can have some twists and turns due to past stress to the tree, but even with a few twists the branch can be proved to still be alive if it bears fruit.

   So this command for us, to abide in Christ, can be understood in both a positive and negative sense. Positively, by drawing near to a close fellowship with God, we are to have a rich channel of nutrients from the vine, We do this by taking time to devote to God in prayer, reading the Word, worship and serving others.  Negatively we need remove the cork, acknowledge and remove the blocks to our getting nutrients, and would try to cut off the living connection to the vine, leaving only a dead shell of a branch.

   See the Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.325 for more info.

 

5. In Jn 15:4, how do Christians abide in Jesus?

A: Abide means to remain, to stay where you are. Believers abide in Jesus in a number of ways.

Trust Him to guide us step by step.

Obeying Jesus, not just because of duty, but prompt, complete, and joyful obedience because we know that God’s way is the best way.

Prayer should be a key distinguishing characteristic of our lives.

Longing for Jesus, to be with Him, and praying for His return.

Not denying His Name: Even under persecution not denying Christ or that you are a Christian.

 

6. In Jn 15:6, how does a gardener tell that a branch is dead?

A: First let’s look at branches and then answer this question. How do you tell if a branch is dead? Secondary ways to indicate it is dead are that it has no fruit, and also that it does not even have leaves. But in this verse Jesus emphasized that the dead branch is withered. Besides the lack of fruit and leaves, a withered branch looks skinny, “gnarly” and stunted. It is skinny because there is no sap flowing threw it giving it internal flow. It does not need to be straight because it is not concerned about reaching out and growing any more. It is gnarly, going in different directions, because it no longer has the direction to bear fruit. It is stunted because it is no longer concerned with being healthy or bearing fruit.

 

7. If a Christian were alone on a small island, or in a place where they could not share the gospel with non-believers, that would be an unusual spot for a Christian. But would a Christian then be a useless branch in God’s eyes?

A: All Christians should bear fruit. It could be that they need to get involved where they are not involved. If not, they might need to move their location. But sometimes an obedient Christian can do neither, and no they are not a useless branch. But if they don’t have “the fruit of their hands”, they can abide, and bring the “fruit of their mouth” (Proverbs 12:14; 13:2). We can still praise God and pray for others, especially Christian leaders.

 

8. In Jn 15:6, does a branch being cast away mean a genuine believer can lose their salvation?

A: This verse says that one who does not remain in Jesus can be cast away and burned. Beyond this, Christians have two ways of interpreting this verse.

1. All should agree that since God knows everything, and God knew who would go to Heaven (the elect) before anyone was born, some will go to Hell even though they were in the church and had the appearance of being Christians. However, none of the elect will be lost, and all of the reprobate will be, because the Omniscient God knew beforehand.

2. Genuine Christians disagree on whether a person can be truly born again and later either lose their salvation, or choose to walk away from their salvation and go to Hell. See the discussion on Hebrews 6:4-14 and Ephesians 1:14 for more on this issue.

   But all Christians should agree with the sad fact that there are branches physically attached to the vine that are dead. So being in Christ, in the sense of being visibly attached to Christ, is of itself not evidence that they are alive in Christ and going to be saved. The dead branches need to be pruned.

 

9. In Jn 15:6, what harm do dead branches do? Why not just leave them?

A: Dead branches can block the sun from reaching the good branches, thus the good branches grow less and produce less fruit, being overshadowed and “distracted” by the dead branches. Thus dead branches can lead to more dead branches being dead. Finally dead branches still take up space being attached to the trunk, and prevent other branches from starting.

 

10. In Jn 15:8, how do believers bear fruit in Christ?

A: Note that the important point here is not to learn things, not to teach others and not to do ministry; it is to bear fruit. Believers bear fruit in Christ in at least three ways:

Christ-likeness: Internally we should bear the fruit of the Spirit and it should show that we are in the process of becoming more godly.

Charity and Contributions: We should help both believers and non-believers with our time, money, and helping the oppressed.

Converts and disciples: We can help by preparing the soil, sowing the seed of the Gospel, and harvesting to bring people to faith in Jesus Christ. We can also disciple other Christians and helping to bring back stragglers.

   The results are not what you do, but rather what sprouts in other people’s lives.

 

11. In Jn 15:8, are people unfruitful unless then bring others to Christ, as one unusual group has taught?

A: No. We don’t know that Jeremiah led hardly any people to God in his lifetime, but he still served God as an effective prophet and preacher. It is one kind of evidence of bearing fruit, but it is not even listed as one of the fruit of the Spirit in Galatians 5:22-23. See When Cultists Ask for a complementary answer.

 

12. In Jn 15:9, what can we do so that Christ will love us more?

A: Absolutely nothing. The Greek word here is in the aorist tense, which means past completion. Christ already fully and completely loves us, and nothing we can do can grow or diminish that love. But that being said, there are things we can do, sin, that sadden God.

   However, we can do a lot to express our love to God. If we truly love God, we will want to do that.


John 15:13-27 – Love each Other as Jesus Loved Us - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 15:14-15, should we still call ourselves servants of Christ?

A: Yes. Peter, who heard these words firsthand, would be in the best position to understand Jesus’ meaning. In 2 Peter 1:1 Peter called himself a servant (actually bondslave) of Jesus. In Romans 1:1, Philippians 1:1; Titus 1:1, and James 1:1, Paul and James also refer to themselves as slaves of Christ Jesus.

   Regardless of whether one interprets this as Jesus not calling the disciples “just servants”, or “servants”, Jesus is saying that He does not just call them servants. Jesus is not addressing what God’s children should call themselves.

 

2. In Jn 15:15, what are some ways we should act as servants or Christ, and what are some ways we should act as friends of Christ?

A: Being a servant of Christ is good, and not wanting to be a servant of Christ is wrong. But here Jesus is saying there is so much more than merely being a servant of Christ. Let’s look at things from our perspective, and then after that from God’s.

From our perspective

   If we were only servants, a servant does what he or she is told; at least when they are being watched. A servant is often not invested in the outcome or success. A servant might only be a servant for a period of time, and only care what happens short-term, before he or she moves on. Thinking outside the box, of a better way to do things, showing initiative, or innovating are not typically what servants would do.

   Unlike a servant, a friend is like a partner or family member. They willingly do what is needed, even when they are not told. They are very concerned about the outcome and success of their master’s plan. We are not just concerned with sprouting flowers, but fruit that remains vs. fruit that does not.

   However, like a servant, we still have a master. Even a son should obey his mother and father. We can innovate and come up with better ways to do things, but only within the limits of what our master has commanded. There are all kinds of tools available to accomplish a plan, violence, intimidation, coercion, deceit, cheating, stealing, and we are never to use, regardless of our opinions about how effective we think they would be in a certain situation.

From God’s perspective

A servant would not need to know what is going on, only what they are being told to do right now. As to how they are to do something, how they are to work with others, is all taken care of by their assignment.

   Unlike a servant, God often wants us to figure out how to get something done, not just going through the motions like a servant. We should show initiative. God might give us things to do that we cannot do by ourselves, and God still expects us to do them. But instead of trying at a fruitless task, failing, and telling God “I did the best I could”, God wants us to work with other believers, and together accomplish the task. What you can or cannot do by yourself, without using the tools and co-workers God is give to you is not really relevant; it is what you can or cannot do with the tools, co-workers God has given you, in the power of the Holy Spirit. We often reveal our confidential plans for the future to friends. So does God. WE want to know God’s will for us, but we should also want to know His heart.

    However, like a servant, there are still many things that will come across our path in life that God chooses not to reveal to us, or else not to reveal to us yet. There can be other things, that have already happened to us, that we still have no idea why God let that happen. As one Christian author said, “we should be unoffended by the unexplained.” God is not just our friend but our best friend; but He is still our Master.

 

3. In Jn 15:16, in what sense did they not choose Christ but Christ chose them?

A: There are two ways to view this passage.

The immediate context is the ordination as apostles. Christ could have chosen anyone to be His apostles, and He chose them. He blessed them by choosing them; they were not doing Jesus any favors.

A general context of God’s election to salvation is seen by some.

Regardless of whether you believe this particular passage has this intended meaning, the Bible teaches that God chose us before the beginning of time. Thus, it is obvious that God chose us prior to us choosing Him. Furthermore, Romans 3:11-12, and other passages show that we would not even be able to choose God were it not for God’s working in our lives.

 

4. In Jn 15:16, what is fruit that remains versus fruit that does not remain?

A: 1 Corinthians 4:12 enlightens us here. Works allegedly done for God, but done for pride, envy or other evil motives, God will not honor or reward. Likewise things done, not for ungodly motives, but for non-godly motives, such as financial wealth, will be judged appropriately too.

   There are at least three kinds of fruit.

Internal: Character has been defined as who you are when you think nobody is looking.

External: Our actions bring forth fruit, either good or bad.

Financial: Our contributions to God’s work and to the poor and needy are noted, as Simon’s were in Acts 10.

Evangelism and discipleship: In Philippians Paul said that the Philippians themselves were Paul’s joy and crown.

Our children and those we watch over in the church: Included in the previous is how we raise our children, and how elders watch over those in their charge. They are responsible for their own decisions, but we have a responsibility as we watch over them.

 

5. In Jn 15:17, what is the difference between having a special love for other believers and forming a clique?

A: It is fine to have some friends who are closer than other friends. And of course we should not only have romantic feelings, but also have a friendship with our spouse, that is closer than other friendships. But when your friendship with a small group of friends is exclusive, and not desiring of having outsiders, then than can be “Friendship gone wrong”. So ask yourself, “Is your friendship inclusive or exclusive?” Now there are some non-believers (and even carnal Christians) you should stay away from, if they keep tempting you to sin.

 

6. In Jn 15:18, how did the world hate Jesus?

A: Psalm 69:4 says that people would choose to hate the Messiah without any reasonable cause for their hatred. The world (cosmos in Greek) hates Jesus in two ways:

Guilty ignorance of Jesus: Jesus said they hated Him because they do not know Him. At first glance it would seem unfair to say they hated Jesus because they were ignorant of Him. However, while some ignorance is innocent, other ignorance is not. Romans 1:19-20 shows that some knowledge of God is obvious from creation. But Romans 1:28 shows that people suppressed and did not retain even that. For example, let’s say some people were lost in a forest. Let’s even assume they did not mean to get lost, took adequate preparations with a map and compass, but lost those somehow. Then let’s say a rescuer comes with a map and compass to take them back to civilization. They kill the rescuer, burn the map, step on the compass, and then say, “it’s not our fault we are still lost.”

Rejecting Jesus’ holy standards: In John 15:22, they rejected Jesus, and forgot about following Him, because they loved their sin. They did not want to submit to God, because they thought they would have more money, fun, fulfillment, security, etc. by doing it their own way.

Today here are two of many manifestations of hatred of Jesus.

By name: People usually do not use the names of Buddha, Confucius, or Mohammed in vain. They only seem to use “God” and “Jesus” in vain.

By character: Some reject anything to do with Christ. While some know much about Christ and then reject Him; others deliberately do not want to know anything of Christ.

The Greek word for hate here, memiseken, does not mean momentary anger, rather it is a fixed, unchanging hostile attitude. See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.154 for more info.

 

7.  In Jn 15:18,20, what if the world does not hate you at all?

A: Then perhaps you are not doing your job. If you are not sharing Christ with anyone whatsoever, and you are not standing for righteousness, then the world will not hate you. In Luke 6:22-23, Jesus says, “Blessed are you when men hate you, And when they exclude you, And revile you, and cast out your name as evil For the Son of Man’s sake. Rejoice in that day and leap for joy! For indeed your reward is great in heaven. For in like manner their fathers did to the prophets.” Jesus also said in Luke 6:26, “Woe to you when all men speak well of you, For so did their fathers to the false prophets.” (NKJV)

   Jeremiah 6:14 says of the false prophets, “They dress the wound of my people as though it were not serious. ‘Pease, peace,’ they say, when there is no peace.”

 

8. In Jn 15:22,24, how did the coming of Jesus make some more liable for their sin?

A: The good news is that God does not hold people accountable for what they do not know (Romans 4:15; 5:12). The flip-side is that 2 Peter 2:22 and other verses show that people have a more or less severe judgment when they reject the truth, based upon the truth that they knew.

In Matthew 11:1-6 and Luke 7:22-23 Jesus told Pontius Pilate that those who handed Him over to Pilate were guilty of greater sin.

 

9. In Jn 15:23, why cannot anyone hate Jesus without also hating the Father?

A: As part of the Trinity, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are the same in nature, purpose, honor, and our obedience, service, and love to One is as to another. Since the Father wants people to love the Son and Spirit, they are going against the wishes of the Father if they do not want to do so.


 John 16 – Love each Other as Jesus Loved Us - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 16:2-3, how could someone think they were doing God a service by killing the disciples of Jesus?


Some Persecutions Against Christians

 

A lot of people have had very warped views of God. The following is a partial list of persecutions of Christians by religious people, and the thousands killed, where known.

Date

Persecution

Killed

50-323 A.D.

10 Early Christian Persecutions: Nero, Trajan, Trajan again, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius/Septimus Severus, Maximim Thrax, Decius/Gallus, Valerian, Aurelian, Diocletian

50K

50 & 95/96

Nero and Domitian labeled Christians as “atheists” & killed for refusing to worship emperor/idols. Estimated Christian population: 500K

 

107-117

Emperor Trajan persecutes Christians. Answered Pliny the Younger’s letter. Christians not hunted, but killed if found.

 

118 & 134

Emperor Hadrian persecutes Christians and Jews. Hadrian loved Greek culture, and he persecuted both Jewish and Christian people.

 

135 A.D.

Christians in Israel persecuted by Jews (not Romans) under the Bar Kochba Revolt

 

162/166-180

Emperor Marcus Aurelius, Stoic philosopher persecuted mainly in Gaul (France). It ended when he died.

 

202

Emperor Septimus Severus. A Christian helped him when ill, but did not repeal existing laws. Christian population estimated at 2M

 

209 A.D.

First known martyrs in England: Alban, Julius, and Aaron

 

235-238 A.D.

Emperor Maximin Thrax persecutes Christians. First empire-wide persecution, but only of clergy. It stopped when he was killed.

 

250-251–253

Emperors Decius and Gallus had a severe persecution

 

257-260

Emperor Valerian persecutes Christians. 2nd most severe persecution. Tolerant at first, but then Macrianus influenced him.

 

270

Emperor Aurelian was tolerant at first. Aurelian died soon after he decided to persecute Christians.

 

>287-300

King Tiridates III of Armenia at first persecuted Christians, then became one through Gregory the Illuminator

 

284, 303-305

Emperor Diocletian had the most severe persecution for not sacrificing. He destroyed churches & scriptures. Christian population estimated at 5 million.

 

315-323 A.D.

Licinius tyrannizes Christians in the east (but not Palestine or Egypt). Persecution because of Christian support of his foe, Constantine.

 

>287-300 A.D.

King Tiridates III of Armenia persecutes Christians. He eventually becomes a Christian.

 

315,325-381

Persian king Shapur II persecutes Christians - Persian Christians double-taxed after Constantine became a Christian.

1.15K just in  Mesopotamia

325

Persian Shapur II kills everyone in Christian Lakhmid Arab town of al-Hera s In retaliation for prior raids into Persia.

 

361-363

Julian the Apostate again makes paganism the official Roman religion until he dies in battle against the Persians. He shows some toleration yet permits persecution

 

325-381 A.D.

In Persia, Shapur II  persecutes Christians

 

361-362 A.D.

Christians killed in Alexandria and Gaza

 

370 A.D.

Arian Roman Valens kills Christians in east. Valens is finally killed in battle by Goths who are also Arian

 

369-376 A.D.

Arian Visigoth Athanaric persecutes orthodox Christian Visigoths

 

380-402

Sapor II persecutes Christians in Persia

8-9K

421-422 A.D.

Perso-Byzantine War after Narseh severely persecutes Christians.  Mazdeans persecute Christians. al-Tabari vol.5 p.102.

 

448-449 A.D.

Armenians and Georgians revolt from Persian Zoroastrian persecution. Yazdgird II imposed Zoroastrianism, persecuted the Jews, forbade the  Sabbath and closed all Jewish schools. al-Tabari vol.5 p.107,109

All Christians in Kirkuk

420-460 A.D.

Many Christians killed in Persia, Armenia, after bishop Abydos burned down a Zoroastrian temple

 

c.472 A.D.

Sharahb’il Yakuf persecutes Christians in Ethiopia al-Tabari vol.5 p.194 footnote 487

 

484 A.D.

Arian Visigoth Hunneric persecutes Christians in Tipasa, Algeria

 

499-523 A.D.

Arians persecute Christians in North Africa

 

523-525 A.D.

Jewish Ma'di Karib Ya'fur persecutes Christians in southwest Arabia until Abyssinians (Ethiopians) defeat him. al-Tabari vol.5 p.195 footnote 488

 

525 A.D.

Christians flee Ethiopian Jewish persecution

 

540-545 A.D.

Persian Khosro I persecutes Nestorians and sacks Antioch

 

527-568 A.D.

Justinian persecutes Monophysites (Copts) in Egypt

 

572 A.D.

Byzantines persecute Monophysites al-Tabari vol.5 p.251

 

589-591

Caliph Hakim persecutes Christians & Jews. The Magi martyr Golinduch and other Persian Christians

 

614/615

Persians kill thousands of Christians in Jerusalem after they captured it. Jews, who were not allowed in Jerusalem, killed many Christians too.

 

700- A.D.

Muslims persecute Christians

 

634-

Muslim conquests against non-Muslims from Syria to France, and from Persia to India

 

698-705

Buddhist Empress Wu Zetian burned down Nestorian churches and monasteries in China

 

807 A.D.

Muslim caliph Harun al-Rashid tears down churches

 

840-846 A.D.

Taoist Chinese Emperor Wu non-violently but severely persecutes Buddhists and Nestorians. Much land was tied up by Buddhist monasteries. Nestorians were never as prominent in China again.

 

849/850 A.D.

Muslim caliph al-Mutawakkil persecutes Christians.

 

978-1000 A.D.

Jewish Queen Judith of Axum persecutes Christians

 

1000-

Catholic persecution of Waldenses

 

10-12th cent.

Burning and killing heretics in Europe

 

1004-1012 A.D.

Egyptian Fatimid Caliph Hakim persecutes Christians & Jews. He terrorizes pilgrims and desecrates Jerusalem in 1009

 

1100-1300

Mongols kill most Nestorian Christians

 

1211 A.D.

At Strasbourg, Waldenses burned

80

1229 A.D.

Council of Toulouse, France. Hunt heretics. Old and New Testament forbidden except a psalter or breviary

 

Feb. 1231

Pope Gregory IX bull Excommunicamus gave life imprisonment both to heretics and those who know of them but do not denounce them.

 

Oct 11, 1231

Papal bull Ille Humani Generis against heretics

 

1252 A.D.

Pope Innocent IV papal bull ad Extirpanda approves of torture against heretics in northern Italy and in 1256 all of Italy. Later confirms by Popes Alexander IV and Clemens IV.

 

May 28, 1252

Papal bull Cum Adversus Haereticam authorized torture and burning to death at the stake to get confessions of heresy.

 

Mar. 30, 1252

Pope Innocent IV papal bull Super Extirpatione

 

1261

Pope Urban IV allowed inquisitors to absolve each other of sin when victims died under their “questioning”

 

1309 A.D.

Venice under heresy for opposing Clement V

 

1339 A.D.

Muslims massacre Christians in Almaliq

 

1401 A.D.

Muslim Tamerlane sacks Baghdad. Tamerlane massacres thousands of Muslims and Christians

 

1360-1405 A.D.

Muslim Tamerlane killed 17 million, 5% world pop. He Slaughtered Hindus, fellow Muslims, and almost extinguished Nestorians

 

1408 A.D.

In England it is illegal to translate or read the Bible in English without the bishop's consent

 

1413 A.D.

Sir John Oldcastle and many Lollards rebel against English persecution

 

1415-1416

In Czechoslovakia, the Hussites revolt

 

1414-1418

Council of Constance ends the great schism. Burns to death Jan Hus.

 

Mar 17, 1420

Pope Martin V issues papal bull for a crusade to exterminate followers of Wycliffe, Huss, & other heretics

 

1419-1434

Hussite Wars: Catholics executed Jan Hus and invaded Bohemia

 

1419-1434

Roman Catholic Crusade against Hussites in Hungary

 

1431 A.D.

Hussites scare off large Holy Roman Empire Army

 

1480 A.D.

Spanish Inquisition by Ferdinand and Isabella

 

1487-1488

Roman Catholic Crusade against the Waldenses

 

1498 A.D.

Portuguese force Nestorians to convert to Catholicism in India

 

c.1500 A.D.

Ottoman persecution of Balkan Orthodox Christians

 

1527 A.D.

Felix Manz and other Anabaptists killed in Zurich

 

July 21, 1542

Pope Paul II’s papal bull Licet ab init refounded the Roman Inquisition

 

1487-1545-

Pope Innocent VIII orders a Crusade to exterminate the Waldenses

 

1545

Roman Catholics Waldenses in Italy

 

1555-60

Roman Catholics persecute Waldenses in Italy

 

1562

At Toulouse, French kill Protestant Huguenots

4K

Aug 23, 1572

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. French Catholics treacherously kill 5K-30K French Huguenots at Spain’s insistence

 

1576-93

In France, Roman Catholics and Protestant Huguenots fight

 

1618-48

Thirty Year War kills 1/3 of Germans

7million

1600’s

Spanish Inquisition against Jews, Muslims, and Protestants

50K

1629-69

“Trample the crucifix” persecution in Japan

 

1637

Catholic revolt against persecution crushed by Japan + Dutch artillery

 

1383-1638

Ottomans devise the Devsirme system requiring each Christian family to give up one son to be a Muslim Janissary soldier

 

1655

Catholics kill many Waldenses in Italy and France

 

1742

Christians persecuted in China; Jesuits must leave

 

1808

Napoleon ends the Spanish Inquisition

 

1820-41

Roman Catholics persecuted in Vietnam

 

1801-1846

Catholicism spreads in Korea, then is persecuted

2K

1843 & 1846

Badr Khan the Kurd massacres 10K Nestorians. Ottomans respond by defeating the Kurds and exiling Badr Khan

10K Nestorians

1629-1856

Tokugawa Shoguns persecute Christians in Japan. Those who refused to trample pictures of Jesus or Mary tortured & killed.

Many 1,000’s

1828-1861

Queen Ranavalona I of Madagascar killed half of the people of Madagascar (2.5 million), especially Christians

 

1866

Catholics persecuted in Korea

8K

1885-1887

Homosexual king Mwanga II of Buganda kills 45 Catholic and Anglican Christians, and Muslims, who were against homosexuality. Muslims overthrow him in 1888.

 

1870-90

Guatemala persecutes Catholic priests; only 100 left

 

1917-

Communists persecute Christians in U.S.S.R., eastern Europe, China

 

1956

Protestants persecuted in Colombia

 

1976

Catholics murdered in Guatemala

1,000’s

1990-

Muslims severely persecute Christians and Darfur Muslims in Sudan

 

2008-

Christians persecuted in Orissa province N.E. India

 

 

2. In Jn 16:2, do you think “putting you out of the synagogue includes putting Christians out of the church?

A: Yes, it includes being kicked out of the religious assembly. Martin Luther, Anabaptists, and John Wesley were all kicked out of their churches. Many genuine Christians are not welcome in some liberal churches.

 

3. In Jn 16:5, why did Jesus say no one asks where Jesus was going, since Thomas [allegedly] asked in Jn 14:5?

A: Thomas actually did NOT ask where Jesus was going. In John 14:5 Thomas only asks how they can know the way, since he states (not asks) that they do not know. Jesus had just said they know the way, and Thomas says they don’t yet know the way.

   One gets the impression that Jesus was just waiting for someone to ask how to know the way, so that Jesus could reveal this truth about Himself in John 14:6-7. No other Jewish teacher claimed that he, himself was the way. Jesus was not just a teacher of truth showing the way, He Himself was the way.

   But after Jesus revealed this, and so people knew the way because they knew Jesus, neither Thomas nor anyone else seemed particularly interested in asking Jesus where Jesus would be going or what He would have to go through.

 

4. In Jn 16:5, why did Jesus say no one asks where Jesus was going, since Peter actually did ask that in Jn 13:36?

A: First two things that are not part of the answer, and then the answer.

X Spoke to all but Peter: Jesus could have motioned to the other 10 disciples, not including Peter, and said, “Why do none of you ask where I am going?” While this is technically possible, John was an eyewitness, and the passages give no clue that Jesus was distinguishing between Peter’s asking and the other’s non-asking.

X Jesus forgot that Peter had asked: While on earth Jesus was sinless, but as mortal man scripture does not say that Jesus was always able to remember every detail, especially under great pressure. While this explanation has the benefit of simplicity, I think there is a better explanation.

Greek verb tense and the sequence of Jesus’ teaching: When Peter and Thomas first asked their questions, Jesus could not give them a complete answer without them first knowing Jesus’ role as the way, truth, and life and introducing the Holy Spirit. After this, then Jesus asks, “yet, none of you asks me (present tense) where are you going?” The Wuest Expanded Translation says, “is asking me”.

   The Expositor’s Greek Testament vol.1 p.835 says that the disciples were so caught up in their own grief Jesus’ leaving that they did not think to ask about where Jesus would go. The New International Bible Commentary p.1257 says that this question was asked because of their dismay, not because of a real desire to know where Jesus’ was going.

 

5. In Jn 16:8-11, how does the Comforter convict the world of sin, righteousness, and judgment?

A: In at least two ways.

Directly and internally, the Holy Spirit convicts people that they should be sorry for their sins and come to God.

Indirectly and externally, the Holy Spirit works through people to bring others to Christ.

 

6. In Jn 16:12, why did Jesus not tell them everything they would need to know?

A: The answer is found in John 16:13. God eventually did tell them all they needed to ever know, they just did not learn it right then. That is why they, and us, need the Holy Spirit to leads us, giving us the guidance we need for that day.

   A beautiful story illustrates this. Once there was a wealthy king who had a son that he loved very much. Once a year, the son would come to his father and request his allowance for the year. The king would give it, and he would not see his son again for a whole year. Besides loving his son, the king was wise too. The next year when the son came, the father gave his allowance for one day. If the son wanted the allowance for the next day, he had to come and talk with his dad. In a similar way, if you are a believer, and you truly are not getting what you need from God, perhaps you need to spend more time coming to Him daily in prayer.

   See When Critics Ask p.421 for more info.

 

7. In Jn 16:12-13 is the Spirit of Truth here Baha’u’llah as Baha’is claim?

A: No, the Spirit of truth here is a spirit, not a person. It is the same Holy Spirit Jesus was just talking about in John 14-16. You cannot say in John 16:12-13 “spirit” refers to one person, and spirit refers to the Holy Spirit or something else in John 14:16-18,25-26; 15:26; 16:5-11; 16:14-15. The Holy Spirit came down at Pentecost, not in the nineteenth century when the Baha’i religion was started. See When Cultists Ask p.186 for more info.

 

8. In Jn 16:13, how does the Holy Spirit guide into all truth?

A: Westerners often think of truth primarily as in true or false statements. However, a person can be correct on many insignificant points and still be very wrong on the big points. A person can be truthful when they buy and sell, and yet be serving a religion that is a lie.

   The truth is Jesus, not just true doctrinal statements. It is abiding in the true Jesus that will guide us to true doctrinal statements, rather than doctrine taking the place of the Spirit leading us to Christ. Of course in Heaven, we will know all the true doctrinal statements as well.

Genuine Christians all agree on the following:

1. God is Holy, loving, good, just, almighty, knows all, and is everywhere.

2. We have sinned and all need a Savior

3. Jesus, by His death and physical resurrection, is the only means for salvation.

4. We must repent and believe in Jesus.

5. We all should live holy lives.

Many other important matters.

Genuine Christians disagree on the following:

The precise meaning of baptism, and whether it should be applied to only believers or infants, too.

Whether it is better to worship on Saturday or Sunday.

Whether it is OK to work on Saturday or Sunday.

The precise meaning of the Lord’s Supper.

Whether Christians should ever fight in a war, or lie to save a life from evil people.

The balance between God’s predestination and human free agency.

The millennium and the timing of the rapture.

The correct number of books in the Old Testament.

Whether or not genuine Christians can lose their salvation.

Other secondary matters and trivial matters.

 

9. In Jn 16:13, since the Holy Spirit guides into all truth, how come there have been many disagreements among genuine Christians?

A: See the discussion on Ephesians 4:4 for the answer.

 

10. In Jn 16:23, are we supposed to pray to Jesus for things, or only ask the Father?

A: The Lord’s prayer is addressed to the Father, and it seems more prayers were made to the Father than to Jesus. However, it is fine to make requests of Jesus, as Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, made two requests of Jesus in Acts 7:59-60.

 

11. Does Jn 16:24 mean we can get anything we want in prayer, as some Word-Faith teachers suggest?

A: Paul certainly did not think so, as he asked for thorn in his flesh to be taken away from him and it was not. Paul also first spoke to the Galatians on account of illness, and he probably did not want to be sick, though God used Paul’s sickness for good. John 16:24 encourages us to ask, but it is in the context of abiding in Him. So ask for everything you think God wants you to ask for, but patiently realized that God, as a wise parent, will say “no” both to the things you know God does not want you to have now, as well as things you think God does want you to have, but God knows better. See When Cultists Ask p.186-187 for a complementary answer.

 

12. In Jn 16:32, what three things does this tell us about Jesus and His disciples?

A: There are three things that were true of the disciples back then, and us today.

1) Jesus knows our limitations and weaknesses better than we do. Even when we have a false confidence of what we know and how we will stand, Jesus knows the truth.

2) When disciples are scattered and out of fellowship with each other, they are prone to “leave Jesus alone”

3) But even when a Christian is alone, he or she is not really alone, if they are abiding with God.


John 17 – The High Priestly Prayer of Jesus - some brief answers

 

A piece of historical trivia is that this was first called the High Priestly Prayer by David Chytraeus in the 16th century according to the New International Bible Commentary p.1258.

Emphasizing “the hour has come” sounds like Jesus sees some urgency here. Do we think our prayer and teaching might have “urgency”. You pray for yourself, but do you also prayer for your ministry and the people you touch?

 

1. In Jn 17, why is the content of this prayer totally different than the prayer about this cup passing in the Garden of Gethsemane in Mt 26:36-46; Mk 14:32-43; and Lk 22:39-47?

A: Because they were different prayers. John 17 was most likely in the Garden of Gethsemane, though it could have been a bit earlier. Regardless though, the prayer in the synoptic gospels was definitely after the high priestly prayer in John 17 because the guards arrested him as He was praying. See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.161 for more info.

 

2. In Jn 17:1, what does the phrase “the hour has come” mean precisely?

A: It means three different but related things.

1) The hour has come for Him to end His earthly ministry and do something more important; shed His blood on the cross for our sins. See John 12:23,27. He was the “hour” Jesus was going to leave this world in John 13:1.

2) For this to happen, God’s physical protection would be taken from Him. Nobody could touch or harm Jesus prior to this. Why? “because His hour had not yet come” (John 7:30; 8:20). It was impossible, because the Father would not allow it.

3) Finally, this would be the “hour” that darkness reigns in Luke 22:53. Jesus was not afraid of this dark hour; Jesus knew this was necessary before His greatest triumph. It is like the infantry soldiers who slowly and deliberately retreat before the enemy, before the cavalry springs the trap and surrounds the enemy to wipe them out (as happened to the Roman army at Canae).

   See the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1556 for more info.

 

3. In Jn 17:3, since Jesus said, “Now this is eternal life: that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent”, how can we call Jesus God?
A: The term “God” has different usages in the Bible. “God” refers to the Father here in John 1:1 (first occurrence) and Hebrews 1:9 (second occurrence). However, this cannot use this to prove the Jesus cannot be called God because the term “God” refers to Jesus in John 1:1 (second occurrence) and Hebrews 1:9 (first occurrence).
   There appears to me to be not one but two problems with Jehovah’s Witnesses trying to say John 17:3 says we should not call Jesus God.
1) Jehovah’s Witnesses do not appear consistent with themselves. If using the word “God” for the Father here meant Jesus is not God, then using God and Lord with Jesus being the Lord would mean the Father is not Lord.
   1 Thessalonians 4:16a mentions “Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of an archangel, and with the trumpet of God.” (KJV). Since Jesus is the Lord here, does not mean the Father is not the Lord?
   Similarly, David Reed’s Jehovah’s Witnesses Answered Verse by Verse p.82 mentions that if calling the Father God somehow excluded Jesus from being God, then calling Jesus our “only Lord” in Jude 4 would exclude the Father from being Lord. Even worse for their case, the Holy Spirit is also called Lord in 2 Corinthians 3:17.
“God [Father] and Lord Jesus” is also mentioned in James 1:1; 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 3:11,13 and other places.
2) Jehovah’s Witnesses do not appear honest with themselves here. If they say “God and Jesus” means that it is not right to refer to Jesus as God, they themselves refer to Jesus as God in their translation of John 1:1 and Hebrews 1:9. What Jehovah’s Witnesses ought to say is that Jesus is not God here by the usage of God in this verse; and we can agree with that statement.
   Jehovah’s Witnesses have to agree with Christians that there are different definitions / usages of the word God in scripture. Besides referring to false gods (1 Corinthians 8:5-6; Genesis 31:30,33), there are three usages of the word God that are true.

The Father. Galatians 1:1, Ephesians 1:2-3,17, Hebrews 1:9 (2nd occurrence) John 17:3, etc.

Jesus. Hebrews 1:9 (1st occurrence); John 1:1,19: Hosea 1:7; Isaiah 7:14; 1 John 5:11,12 vs. 21; Colossians 2:9 and Matthew 1:23

The Holy Spirit. Romans 8:9-16; Luke 1:35; 1 John 4:12,13,15-16; 1 Corinthians 3:16 vs. 1 Corinthians 6:19; Acts 5:4.

 

4. In Jn 17:4, why did Jesus say He had finished His work, prior to the crucifixion?

A: On the eve of His arrest, Jesus saw there was basically nothing left for Him to do in this life. From this point on, everything would be done to Him. Perhaps Jesus was thinking the same thing when He told Peter that Peter would be in a similar situation in John 21:18-19.

   See 1001 Bible Questions Answered p.39 and The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.162-163 for a different but complementary answer.

 

5. In Jn 17:5, since Jesus Himself had to ask the Father for things, does that mean He was less than the Father?

A: No. Three points to consider in the answer.

On earth, Jesus voluntarily emptied Himself, as Philippians 2:7 shows. He got tired (John 4:6). Jesus submitted to the Father, and learned obedience, as Hebrews 5:7-8 shows.

In nature and honor, the two are the same, as Philippians 2:7 shows. As an earthly son is the same and equal nature as His parents, Jesus is the same and equal nature as the Father. Jesus has the fullness of Godhood, according to Colossians 2:9. All should honor the Son just as they honor the Father, according to Jesus in John 5:23.

In role and rank, the Father is pre-eminent within the Trinity. Even after the resurrection, the Father has the role of God, to God the Son, as Hebrews 1:8-9 and 1 Corinthians 15:24,27,28.

 

6. In Jn 17:9, why did Jesus explicitly decline to pray for the whole world?

A: Jesus did not pray for anything to happen that the Father explicitly said was not going to happen. Neither should we. Here, Jesus did not pray for universalism, that every single person will be in Heaven, and Hell will be empty. Jeremiah was also told not to pray for the people in Jer 7:16, Jer 11:14, and Jer 14:11.

   As Jesus implied in John 17:16, the world is its own system, and God’s Kingdom is another. The people of the world often do not want to be a part of God’s Kingdom and live forever worshipping God.

   See When Critics Ask p.421 for more info.

 

7. In Jn 17:11,21-22, how are Christians one as the Father and Son are one?

A: There are a number of ways in which we are to be one with each other as Jesus and the Father are one.

Harmony: There are no arguments or fights within the Trinity. While genuine Christians disagree on many matters, we are agreed on the essentials of the faith, and we should not argue or be divisive with other genuine Christians.

Unity of purpose: The Father and Son never work at cross-purposes with each other. If we are fulfilling the purpose One has for us, it is the same purpose the Father, Son, and Spirit all have for us.

Love for each other: The Father, Son, and Spirit have complete and perfect love for each other. That is the goal of the love we should have for each other.

Not looking down on one another: We are not to claim or think we are better or more valuable than others, as Philippians 2:3 and 1 Corinthians 10:12 show.

However, the Father, Son, and Spirit are One in some ways that we are not one. See the discussion on John 10:30 for more on how the Father and Son are one God, and also on how they are distinct beings.

 

8. In Jn 17:11,14,21, how should Christians be in the world but not of it?

A: Here is a list of how we are to be in the world, followed by a partial list of how we are not to be of the world.

Voluntarily In the world:

Relate to the people of the world: Be all things to all men for the sake of the Gospel, as Paul said in 1 Corinthians 9:19-23.

Submit to worldly authorities: We should obey kings and rules (1 Peter 2:13-15,17 Romans 13:1-5) as long as they do not contradict God, the highest authority. We should pay our taxes (Romans 13:6-7, Matthew 17:24-27).

Love the people of the world, since God loves them (John 3:16).

Hope for people in the world, and desire that many would be saved.

Pray for people in the world, for their salvation.

Care for people of the world, to meet their physical and spiritual needs.

Involuntarily in the world: we have no choice in the following.

Origin: We are created by God and born of flesh in this world.

Physically, we are of the world. That includes suffering pain, hunger, death, and injustice in this life.

Consequences of others’ sins: Just as babies sometimes suffer the consequences of their mother’s drug and alcohol use, we all are subject to suffering for the sinful actions of others. Indeed, since we are born in a sinful world, we all suffer consequences for Adam’s sin, as Romans 5:12-17 shows.

Temptation is common to all in this world, as 1 Corinthians 10:12 says.

Voluntarily not of the world:

We have made a commitment to God: God gathers those who made a covenant with him (Psalm 50:5), water baptism (1 Peter 3:20; Hebrews 10:22) and a profession of faith (Hebrews10:23) and a clear conscience toward God (1 Peter 3:21).

Not love the world: Neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of eyes, nor the pride of life, as 1 John 2:15-17 says.

Not love like the world loves: We do not love only those who love us, but we love even our enemies, as Jesus commands (not merely suggests) in Luke 7:27-36.

Not have the same motivation: We do not have the same standards, aspirations, motivation, and source of strength of the world. We do not just live under the circumstances. As Gene Getz put it in his book on Philippians, most things are done for one of three reasons: hope of reward, fear of punishment, and to be thought a better person in the eyes of yourself and others. While the Bible never criticizes these motives (and neither should we), we have a higher motivation, that the world cannot understand, of agape love.

Different values: We have a different measure of significance, value, and reason for living. We were created for God’s glory (Isaiah 43:7; Ephesians 1:6).

Not yoked with unbelievers in marriage, dating, business, and other ways as 2 Corinthians 6:14-18 shows. (If you are married to an unbeliever, do not seek a divorce though, as 1 Corinthians 7:12-15 commands).

Involuntarily Not of the World: (Involuntary does not mean undesired, but rather it is not a choice or option for believers)

Destiny: The elect are Heaven-bound. We should make sure we do not make ourselves “too comfortable” here, as this is just a temporary place for us. We are aliens are strangers on this earth (1 Peter 2:9,11).

The Holy Spirit dwelling in us: All genuine believers have the Holy Spirit dwelling inside of them (Romans 8:9-16).

Children of God: While everyone was created by God, we are children of God. Scripture considers non-believers to not be children of God (John 1:12-13; Romans 8:14-16; Ephesians 2:3-5; 1 John 3:1-2).

   See Now That’s a Good Question p.249-250 for a different but complementary answer.

 

9. In Jn 17:19, how could Jesus sanctify Himself since He was already sinless?

A: Sanctify does NOT merely mean stop sinning. It actually means to be set apart for God, or to be dedicated to a specific purpose. The many (good) things that Jesus did, in talking with people, healing the sick, teaching, etc. would now fall by the side for now as He was dedicated to one thing, preparing to die on the cross. Similar to an Old Testament high priest would have a ceremony to become set apart as a high priest, Jesus was about to have a ceremony (albeit a painful one) of becoming our high priest.

   Christians are called not just to not sin, but to be sanctified to Christ. We should live our lives “sanctified”, and dedicated to God. Of course that includes staying away from sinful things, but positively it means we are to be dedicated, like a soldier, athlete, or farmer. Paul talks more about this, though without actually using the word sanctified, in 2 Timothy 2:3-6. We are sanctified, set apart by God to live and do good works for Him. But we have a responsibility to follow the Holy Spirit and live out our sanctification. Peter stresses more about the importance of us individually being sanctified (holy) in 1 Peter 1:13-22. In 1 Peter 1:18 (NKJV) Peter contrasts that with “aimless conduct”. He goes on to talk about the church being sanctified as a people in 1 Peter 2:9-12.

   Sometimes do you wonder how relevant your life is to the purposes of God? Of course you can’t evaluate your prayer, conversations, and encouragement of others by worldly standards. But do you still wonder? Perhaps God is waiting for you to wonder about that. He is patiently waiting for you to want to live a sanctified life to better express your love for Him and accomplish His purposes.

   See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.165 and the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1558 for more info.

 

10. In Jn 17:20-21, when Jesus prayed that all may be one, does this refer to one organization?

A: Jesus was speaking of believers being one in spirit and one in fellowship. We are not to simply be “One” but be “one in Christ” There have been Christians in different organizations since Tertullian’s time in 200 A.D. When something calling itself Christ’s One True Church burns believers at the stake such as Jan Huss, excommunicates believers such as Martin Luther, and launches Crusades against believers such as the Waldenses, or massacres an entire Italian town, true Christians at those times should flee, not be one, with that organization. See When Cultists Ask p.187-188 for a different but complementary answer.

 


John 18 – The Arrest - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 18:2, how did Jesus go here often, since He was only in Jerusalem that week?

A: This was not the only time Jesus and the disciples were in Jerusalem. Also, they passed by Gethsemane twice a day going to and from the Temple. There were not enough inns and houses to lodge all of the people who came to Jerusalem during Passover week. The weather was good though, so most of the people just slept outside.

 

2. In Jn 18:3, why did the soldiers bring lanterns?

A: They probably brought lanterns both to see in the dark in general, and because they thought they might have to search the garden all night for Jesus. They brought swords to arrest the prince of peace. Note that Jesus met them at the gate.

 

3. In Jn 18:12, who exactly was the high priest?

A: Annas used to be the high priest, from 6 to 15 A.D. He could be titled high priest, the same way that a former president of the United States is still called president. In the Old Testament the office of high priest was held for life. However, Annas was deposed by the Roman procurator of Judea, Valerius Gratus in 15 A.D. The current high priest was Caiaphas, one of his four sons-in-law. See the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.873 and The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.170 for more info.

 

4. In Jn 18:12-19:16, the skeptic Bart Ehrman asks why Jesus was flogged in the middle of the trial, not after it was over. (Jesus, Interrupted p.44)

A: First of all there were not one, but two trials, Jewish and Roman. Second, the flogging occurred at what Pilate thought would be the end of the Roman trial. After Pilate made up his mind John 19:6 explains what Pilate did, and John 19:12 explains why. Pilate knew the Jews wanted Jesus dead, but Pilate was trying to set Jesus free. He ordered Jesus beaten, then Pilate displayed Jesus, bloodied, to the crowds, hoping that they would be satisfied with that. But the crowds insisted on death, and pulled an argument Pilate had not anticipated: Jesus called Himself a king, and if Pilate let a self-proclaimed king go, that would look very, very bad for Pilate. Thus Pilate had no choice; to pronounce Jesus not deserving of death, would reflect poorly on Pilate if word back to the suspicious Emperor Tiberius that Pilate was soft on traitors to Rome.

   But Ehrman has the false assumption that ancient trials had to be fair, or had to follow modern standards. As an example, in 738/739 B.C. in a trial in Iraq group of men were accused of not returning money belonging to another. They were made to take an oath that they did not do that, then they were flogged, then the caliph was informed of their situation. The judgment was that they should take an oath and then be released [as innocent]. See the History of al-Tabari vol. 26 p.7 for more info.

   A second example was in 743/744 A.D., the caliph al-Walid ordered his guard to beat Khalid, saying “Let me hear his voice” (i.e. in agony). Then Khalid was imprisoned until Yusuf bin ‘Umar brought money from Iraq to buy Khalid. Khalid did not want to be sold, but he did not have the money Yusuf had, so al-Walid took the money and sold Khalid. Yusuf first tortured Khalid, then later flogged Khalid, and finally killed him with a spiked rack on his chest. This is without the caliph, or anybody else, pronouncing Khalid guilty of anything. This is in The History of al-Tabari vol.26 p.176-177.

   A third example, in the same year, Sulayman tugged so hard on Yusuf’s long beard that he pulled some of out. After that Yusuf was imprisoned in the green palace. The caliph Yazid said that he imprisoned Yusuf just so that he could be sent to Iraq and presented to the people on whom he perpetrated injustices. This is in The History of al-Tabari vol.26 p.203-204.

 

5. In Jn 18:28, why did the priests think they would be defiled if they went into Pilate’s judgment hall?

A: The Pharisees tradition was that they would be defiled not only if they ate with a Gentile, but if they went into a Gentile’s home, since Gentiles ate unclean food and the Pharisees considered Gentiles unclean. The Pharisees thought that doing that would make them defiled for seven days.

   This view was not limited to the Pharisees. Even Peter had a tendency to believe that, as Acts 10 and Galatians 2:12-15.

   However, the Old Testament had no law against eating with Gentiles. Queen Esther ate with Gentiles. Notice how the Pharisees were very concerned with ritual uncleanness, such as eating with Gentiles, while they plotted murder.

 

6. In Jn 18:31 since the Jews were not allowed to execute Jesus, why did they say, “according to our law he must be put to death”?

A: Both are correct. The Jews reasoned that according to the Jewish Old Testament Law, Jesus should be put to death. But the Romans took away their right of execution. So the figured out a way to get the Romans to execute Jesus for them. See When Critics Ask p.421-422 for more info.

 

7. In Jn 18:31, why was the Jewish council unable to execute Jesus?

A: The power of execution was taken away from them by the Romans. Following is the historical documentation.

1. Josephus in his book, Wars of the Jews book 2 chapter 8 says, “And now Archelaus’ part of Judea was reduced into a province, and Caponius, one of the Equestrian order of the Romans, was sent as a procurator, having the power of life and death put into his hands by Caesar.” Josephus also mentions that the Sanhedrin lost power over capital cases in Antiquities of the Jews 20.9. (Written about 93-94 A.D.)

2. In the Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, Chap.4 following 37, recto. Rabbi Rachman said, “When the members of the Sanhedrin found themselves deprived of the/their right over life and death, a general consternation took possession of them; they covered their heads with ashes, and their bodies with sackcloth, exclaiming: ‘Woe unto us, for the scepter has departed from Judah, and the Messiah has not come!’” This happened around 7 A.D. (Taken from Josh McDowell’s Evidence That Demands a Verdict vol.1 p.169., and Jesus Before the Sanhedrin by Augustin Lemann, 1886 translated by Julius Magath, NL#0239683, Library of Congress # 15-24973. See also Pugio Fidei, Martini, Raymundus, published by De Vosin in 1651. (p.148)

3. Talmud “A little more than forty years before the destruction of the Temple, the power of pronouncing capital sentences was taken away from the Jews.” Jerusalem Talmud, Sanhedrin folio 24. (p.147)

 

8. In Jn 18:36, was Jesus’ Kingdom was not of this world because the Jews rejected Jesus?

A: Pilate was the Roman governor of Judea (26-36 A.D.), but not even he was allowed to call himself a king. No one in Judea was to be called a king except for King Herod. Acts 2:23 reminded people that God foreknew that Jesus would be handed over to die. Nevertheless, Jesus came offering the entire nation the opportunity to be in His kingdom. The offer was sincere, and it was their own fault, not Christ’s, that they rejected it.

   Perhaps an analogy will help. If 100% of all people accept the True God, then 100% of all people would go to Heaven; Hell would be empty. However, God knows that they will not. It is the person’s own fault, not God’s, that they miss out on God’s sincere offer.

 

9. In Jn 18:37, can anyone be of the truth and not hear Jesus’ voice?

A: Ultimately, no. Could you imagine someone living in Heaven forever and never hearing Jesus’ voice? -Of course not. Likewise, contrary to Catholic legend it is not Peter that is the gatekeeper of Heaven. Rather, it is Jesus who is the gate, as John 10:7,9 shows. As Jesus emphasized in John 10:1,3,8-9, everyone who goes to Heaven, goes through the One Door. Even those who go to Heaven dying as little children go through Jesus.

 

10. In Jn 18:38, what did Pilate mean by saying, “what is truth”?

A: First a joke with a point, and then the answer. Once a scientist, engineer, and a dishonest lawyer were all asked to give the sum of 1 + 1. The scientist said 2.0, the engineer said around 2, and the lawyer replied, “what do you want it to be?”. Some people think that truth is negotiable or decided by a democratic vote, a leader, or a judge.

The answer: While Pilate could have naively asked this question because he never pondered the point, that is highly unlikely. Either he was wondering what Jesus’ view of truth was, or else Pilate was making a cynical remark, somewhat like the dishonest lawyer in the previous joke.

   Many people today have little or no interest in truth. Many think it is not relevant for them. A few are so into relative thinking that they think objective truth does not exist. It is no surprise then that Pilate did not recognize the truth, when it was right in front of him.

 

11. In Jn 18:38, how do you help someone who does not care for truth to have a hunger to find the truth?

A: This is something the Holy Spirit needs to do, but sometimes we can help.

There is eternal importance of knowing the truth. Just how long is eternity vs. this life on earth? Short term pleasure is not worth the eternal misery.

There is importance now in knowing the truth. It is great when someone becomes a Christian late in life. But think of all the joy and blessings they missed out on when they were going the wrong way, in their ill-thought out pursuit of happiness.

There is a lot you could miss out on by not knowing the truth. Some people were driving on a trip some years ago, and the driver announced that he had bad news and good news. The bad news was that they were totally lost. The good news was that they were making good time. The trouble is, when you are “making good time” going in the wrong direction, you often have to backtrack a long way to get on the right path.

Finally there is urgency in knowing the truth. We do not live here on earth forever, and none of us know for sure how much longer we have. While you are living “today”, you should make a decision to let Jesus into your heart as Lord. After death there will be no doubt, but it will be too late to change your mind.

 

12. In Jn 18:38; 19:4,6 Bart Ehrman thinks it significant that it is in John that Pilate declares Jesus innocent on three occasions. He says that if the Romans declared Jesus innocent, the implication is that the Jews that killed Christ. (Jesus, Interrupted p.45)

A: The skeptic Ehrman only mentions John, so it sounds like he is trying to pit the gospel writers against each other, showing that John was the one who emphasized that it was not Pilate who declared Jesus guilty. However, in Luke Pilate also declared Jesus innocent on three occasions in Luke 23:4,14,22. Matthew also did one in Matthew 27:24, and Mark did not have those statements, only implications. So if Ehrman were trying to present a balance, accurate picture, I don’t know why Ehrman would not mention Luke as much as he mentioned John.

   Regardless though, it would be false to claim John “let the Romans off the hook” for Jesus’ death. John 19:1 says that Pilate and the Roman soldiers scourged Jesus and put the crown of thorns on him. John 19:23 says it was the soldiers (i.e. Roman soldiers) who crucified Jesus. It was Pilate’s soldiers that were about to break Jesus’ legs, but then pierced his side with a spear in John 19:33-34.

   Finally, while the Jewish leaders as well as the Romans were involved in Jesus dying, don’t forget what is even more significant. While Jesus could have run away before his arrest in the Garden of Gethsemane, Jesus voluntarily chose to stay to die on the cross for our sins. So in a greater way, it was our sins, and Jesus loving us enough to die for our sins that put Jesus on that cross.


John 19:1-16 – The Sentencing - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 19-20 Ehrman writes, “The gospel of John blames ‘the Jews’ in quite graphic terms for rejecting and killing Jesus (chapters 19-20); and in one frightful passage he actually indicates that the Jews are not children of God but the children of the Devil (John 8:42-44). It’s hard to be saved if Satan is your father.” (Jesus, Interrupted p.243)

A: First see the previous question for a case of Ehrman unfairly blaming John. By mis-referencing scripture to try to play the race card, Ehrman’s polemics loose all pretense of being unbiased. Three points in the answer.

1) John 8:42-44 says nothing about their ability to repent and be saved.

2) John 8:42-44a speaks of their spiritual condition, not biological ancestry. In fact, probably almost 100% of Jesus’ followers at this point were Jewish. Jesus’ human ancestry was the same as theirs. I don’t believe Ehrman would seriously think Jesus was saying His mother’s genetics were from Satan.

3) Jesus was not speaking to all Jews; he was answering the Jews who questioned his ancestry. Today if someone called you (euphemistically) illegitimate offspring, and you responded, would it be fair to say you were speaking of everyone of the accuser’s race? Ehrman is no more fair.

   Finally, it is interesting to contrast Ehrman’s statement here in Jesus, Interrupted p.243 with his statement in Jesus, Interrupted p.72, where he says that unlike the other gospels, Jesus “does not have any kind of official trial before the Jewish council.” While I think John 18:12-26 indicates (though does not prove) an official trial, the point is that Ehrman does not explain why on one hand he thinks John is anti-Semitic, and on the other hand, why he thinks only the Romans and not the Jews tried Jesus in John.

 

2. In Jn 19:1, what was a Roman scourging like?

A: It was not something you would want to experience firsthand. The whip they used was not like a western bullwhip. Rather, it was called a cat-of-ninetails because it had nine ends. Tied to each end was a piece of metal or stone. The trained person who did the whipping was not trying to cause pain as much as trying to take off as much skin as possible. Many times the prisoner who was supposed to be crucified was not, because he did not survive the scourging. Usually 40 lashes were prescribed, but one less, or 39 would be delivered, to show what nice guys they were. See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.176 and The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament p.338 for more info.

 

3. In Jn 19:2, why did they put a purple robe on Jesus?

A: Purple dye was expensive, coming from murex shellfish that lived along the Phoenician coast. Purple was a color of royalty, and this would be a sarcastic expression of Jesus’ claims to be king. The thorns were from desert plants and were often over an inch long.

 

4. In Jn 19:8,12, why was Pontius Pilate afraid here?

A:   First of all, Pilate was a pagan, and the Greeks and Roman had fables of gods who came among people and judged them based on how they were treated. However, we don’t know if Pilate considered Jesus’ claims as credible or not.

   Pontius Pilate had conflicting goals. He did not view Jesus as guilty and might have set him free. However, if the Jews might report to Rome of Pilate of not being a friend of Caesar for letting a rebel king go free, then Pilate could not allow that. The Roman Emperor Tiberius was often suspicious, violent and was currently ill. If it was told that Pilate let a rival king go free, it could look really bad for him. However, Matthew 27:19 says that Pilate’s wife sent Pilate a message saying that she suffered in a dream because of Jesus. Thus, Pilate had ample reason for caution. Who was this man, only arrested last night, who could enter his wife’s dream?

   In Jn 19:8-11 Pilate said he had power, but he was actually a pawn in the hand of the Jews and Satan. The Jews wanted Jesus dead, and they wanted, Pilate, not themselves, to be blamed for it. Pilate saw through that.

   See The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament p.338-339 and The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.177 for more info.

 

5. In Jn 18:9-9, when else have people seen there was no wrong, but did not have the moral courage to stand up for what was right?

A: Unfortunately Peter did that, and led astray Barnabas, in Galatians 2:11-13. We are commanded not to do that in Romans 14:6. Unfortunately southern American Christians did that during the time of slavery in America, most southerners did not own slaves. But even the ones who did not did not stand up and say “exploiting these people as slaves is wrong.”

   The world did that with the Armenian genocide of up to 1.5 million people in Turkey in 1915. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson tried to encourage the world to take action, but both the U.S. Congress and the rest of the world would not do anything. Later Hitler said that no one would notice the Jewish Holocaust, because no one noticed the Armenian genocide. Even when the Jewish holocaust was occurring, before Pearl Harbor many in the U.S. did not care about the Jewish Holocaust; they only wanted not to fight themselves (though they sent supplies to the Allies). It was only after the U.S. was attacked itself at Pearl Harbor that a saying went around about the Americans that “The Yanks are great, when they finally show up.”

   By the way, do you know that there might be up to a million slaves in the world today. They are in Libya and the Sudan. Is anybody standing up for them?

   Unfortunately it is all too easy to not stand up for what is right.

 

6. In Jn 19:11, are some sins greater than others?

A: Some Christians are taught that all sins are the same, but this is not what Scripture teaches.

John 19:11, Jesus told Pilate that those who handed Jesus over to Pilate were “guilty of greater sin”.

Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit is different from other sins as it is unpardonable (Matthew 12:31,32; Mark 3:28-30; Luke 12:10-11).

1 John 5:16-17 speaks of a sin which leads to death (blasphemy of the Holy Spirit) and other sins which do not.

Romans 1:24-28 speaks of wicked people being given over to greater and greater depravity.

Ezekiel 8:6,13 shows that some sins are more detestable to God than others.

In Matthew 23:14 Jesus says the Pharisees will have greater condemnation.

Matthew 23:15 says that some of the Pharisees’ disciples would be twice the sons of Hell as they were.

In Luke 10:12 Jesus said that in the judgment it will be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah than for those who rejected Jesus.

  Even at the crucifixion, after Jesus was crucified at the instigation of the Jews, they did not want to sin by leaving a body on the cross during the Sabbath (commanded in Deuteronomy 21:22-23; and carried out in Joshua 8:29). What hypocrisy!

However, this being said, all sin is the same in one sense: even one sin is enough to keep you from being perfect and going to Heaven, and even breaking one law is enough to convict you as a lawbreaker (James 2:8-11)

   See Now That’s a Good Question p.150-152 for more info.

 

7. In Jn 19:14-15, Pilate showed contempt for the Jews. Why do people sometimes show contempt for others? Are there times when we should or not?

A: Apparently Pilate wanted to remind the Jews that he was over them, and did not want them to think they were respected. On the other hand, Jesus in John 18:19-23, while not showing contempt, did not defer to the High Priest’s questioning. Jesus did not bother answering the charges in Mark 14:60-61. It would not have made any difference.

   While we should not show contempt for people, we are commanded not to let what is good be spoken of as evil in Romans 14:16. Jesus could have avoid confrontation when choosing to heal right in front of the Pharisees in Mark 31-3 instead of telling him “stand up in front of everyone.” There are times when we should stand our ground.

 

8. In Jn 19:15, what do we know about crucifixion?

A: They have found the remains of a man on a cross made of olive wood in a cave northeast of Jerusalem called Giv’at ha-Mivtar. It shows that the man was crucified facing forward, and one nails was drilled through the right both of his heals, which means his legs were turned sideways. An additional peg was on the cross giving some support to the left hip. Two nails were in his wrists (not hands) where they would hold. The Greek word for “hand” includes the wrist. The legs were shattered with one blow, which had shattered the right leg and cracked the left leg.

See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.182-183 and IEJ vol.20 nos. 1, 2 (1970) p.49-59 for more info.

   The vinegar was probably a sour wine, from what the Roman soldiers had. Sour wine would be an astringent which would tend to contract the throat muscles and so that he could not cry out for pain as loudly. See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.184 for more info.

 

9. In Jn 19:15 what often happens when someone switches loyalties?

A: They loudly gave up being under God’s king to place their loyalty to Rome. Yet within 40 years they would rebel against Rome and they Jews would suffer great loss of life.

A vine that grows in two different ways is weak, as the allegory in Ezekiel 17 shows.

   Historically, did you know that at one point France had a lot of Protestants? There were many Protestants in France, called Huguenots. King Charles IX, a Catholic monarch who was tolerant of Protestants. In order to try to keep peace between Catholics and Protestants he arranged the marriage of his sister Margaret to a Protestant noble, Henry III of Navarre. Almost all the Huguenot leaders came to (anti-Protestant) Paris to celebrate the wedding. But a few days after, August 23-24, 1572, Catholic murdered 30,000 Huguenots with the king’s acquiescence at the instigation of his mother, Catherine d-Medici. This happened first in Paris, and then spread throughout the country. The fact that the king of Spain was preparing to send a large army to France might also have been a factor. Anyway, Charles IX died in 1574 of tuberculosis.

   During World War II, the allies told the leaders of the Philippines and Vietnam they would have independence for their countries if they resisted the Japanese. After the war, the U.S. decided to keep the Philippines. A guerilla war ensued, and then the U.S. decided to grant it independence. France, which was totally conquered by Germany, was allowed to keep Vietnam. Vo Nguyen Giap and Ho Chi Minh, and who was at one time was sympathetic to the U.S. and the west, turned to Russia for help in ousting the French from 1546 to 1954. If the Allies had kept their world, the Vietnam War might never have occurred.

   See The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament p.339 for more info.


John 19:17-42 – The Crucifixion - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 19:17-18, what is symbolic about Jesus carrying His own cross out of the city?

A: Jesus probably carried the heavy crosspiece, not the entire cross. Likewise Isaac carried the wood for his own sacrifice in Genesis 22:1-6. Also, under the Mosaic Law the sin offering was to be taken outside of the camp in Exodus 29:14 and Hebrews 13:11f. In this case, the thing most precious to us, Jesus’ sacrificed, was most despised by the Romans and Jews. See The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.339 for more info.

 

2. In Jn 19:22, why did Pilate not agree to the priests’ request not to write “King of the Jews”?

A: Pilate apparently saw no need to accommodate the Sanhedrin. Perhaps Pilate wanted the sign to not only discourage rebels, but also as part of a “game” to insult the Jewish authorities.

   Pilate and the priests were not on good terms. It is interesting that the one time they did work in harmony was only for a moment, when Satan used them jointly to crucify Christ.

 

3. In Jn 19:23, was this cloak rare since it was seamless?

A: No, it was not rare, but it was more valuable. According to the Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.477, the inner cloak was typically made of two pieces of cloth and sown together at the sides. On p.480 it mentions that since Jesus’ garment was seamless, it probably was more valuable than the simple seemed garment. It speculates that it might have been given to Jesus by one of the women who financially ministered to Jesus and His disciples.

 

4. Does Jn 19:26, imply that we can consider Mary our mother, too?

A: No. Everything that the Bible commands for one particular person does not necessarily mean that everyone is supposed to do it. As a ludicrous example, when God commanded Jeremiah not to marry, that does not mean all Christians are not to marry.

   Jesus entrusted John to take care of Mary as a good son takes care of his mother. We do not need to take care of Mary.

 

5. Does Jn 19:26 give Mary the role of “Mediatrix” (co-mediator) and “Redemptrix” (co-redeemer) as the Roman Catholic Church holds Mary to be?

A: Not at all. The simple fact that Jesus mentioned His mother, and even asked John to take care of His mother, does not confer on her more than Jesus said. The Bible says absolutely nothing about Mary being a co-redeemer or co-mediator. In fact, Church tradition up past 325 A.D. knows absolutely nothing about this lately invented doctrinal errors.

Here are the earliest references to Mary as Mediatrix.

St. Bernard (1090 - 1153): “[Mary is called] the gate of heaven, because no one can enter that blessed kingdom without passing through her.”

St. Bonaventure (1221 - 1274): “As the moon, which stands between the sun and the earth, transmits to this latter whatever it receives from the former, so does Mary pour out upon us who are in this world the heavenly graces that she receives from the divine sun of justice.”

Albert the Great (d.1280) “She is the Universal Dispenser of all heavenly gifts.”

St. Antoninus (died 1459): “All graces that have ever been bestowed on men, all came through Mary.” The St. Antony c.250-350 A.D. was a different person, and there is no writing that says he said anything like this.

Alphonsus Mary de Liguori, canonized as Saint Alphonsus in 1839 (1750 A.D.), wrote a book “The Glories of Mary.” It continues to be published today, under various church imprimaturs. Various chapters in the book are titled: “Mary our Help,” “Mary our Mediatress,” “Mary our Advocate,” etc.

1935: Pope Pius XI gave the title co-redemptrix to Mary during a radio broadcast. 1

1964-NOV-21: The Chapter 8 of the Dogmatic Constitution of the Church, passed by the Vatican Council II, and “Solemnly promulgated by Holiness Pope Paul VI” states, in part: 

“Rightly, therefore, the Fathers see Mary not merely as passively engaged by God, but as freely cooperating in the work of man’s salvation through faith and obedience. For as St. Irenaeus of Lyons says, she being obedient, became the cause of salvation for herself and for the whole human race. Hence not a few of the early Fathers gladly assert with him in their preaching ...’death through Eve, life through Mary.’ This union of the mother with the son in the work of salvation is made manifest from the time of Christ’s virginal conception up to his death”

   “Taken up to heaven she did not lay aside this saving office but by her manifold intercession continues to bring us the gifts of eternal salvation. By her maternal charity, she cares for the brethren of her Son, who still journey on earth surrounded by dangers and difficulties, until they are led into their blessed home. Therefore the Blessed Virgin is invoked in the church under the titles of Advocate, Helper, Benefactress and Mediatrix.”

   See When Critics Ask p.188-189 for a complementary answer.

 

6. In Jn 19:28, how could we have a thirsty God? (The Muslim Ahmad Deedat brought this up.)

A: We worship a God who personally understands our thirst and our needs. If Jesus never came to earth, God would never experience these things. So how could God ever empathize with us, or understand our human situation? But what if God Almighty, who can do anything, decided to became man? Jesus not only tells us to be faithful and persevere, but He knows how difficult it is some times, and He understands our suffering. Now Muslims would say that Allah would be aware of everyone’s pain, but it is Jesus, not Allah, who would understand firsthand what our suffering, because He suffered too, and He experienced pain for us.

 

7. In Jn 19:29, why would hyssop be nearby?

A: Hyssop was a mossy plant that everyone was to use to for sprinkling the blood of the Passover lamb on their door in Exodus 12:22. The priests also used hyssop for pronouncing lepers clean in Leviticus 14. It looks sort of like a head of broccoli and is useful as a sponge. It is common in the Sinai Desert and grows on the walls of Jerusalem according to The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.184.

 

8. In Jn 19:30, why did Jesus say, “It is finished” here?

A: The Greek word here, tetelestai, was an accounting term meaning “paid in full”. Papyri receipts have been found with tetelestai written across them according to The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.340. The testing was done, and by Jesus’ death and later resurrection our ransom to the demands of justice was secured. Jesus’ cry was one of triumph, not of failure.

   Also, the Passover meal had four cups. According to The second cup represented redemption from the death angel. After drinking it, the head of the family says “finished”.

 

9. In Jn 19:28, if Joseph of Arimathea had not asked for the body of Jesus, what would normally happen?

A: The bodies of crucified criminals, with no family to buy them or no estate to pay themselves, were typically cast into a common pit according to The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.185.

 

10. In Jn 19:33 did they often break the legs of executed criminals?

A: Of course bones would be broken when someone was executed by stoning. During crucifixion, the way this is described, apparently there was nothing unexpected or uncommon about this. Archaeologists have found a skeleton of a man who died by crucifixion in 1968, and his lower legs were broken by a single blow. The Romans called this blow the crurifragium. See The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament p.340 for more info.

 

11. In Jn 19:38, should we accept “secret believers” like Joseph of Arimathea was?

A: There is a great difference between a person who merely knows that the Gospel is true and a person who trusts their life over to Christ. Apparently there were two classes of secret believers.

Those who merely believe: The Pharisees in John 12:42-43 knew Jesus’ teaching was true, but they did not follow Jesus because “they loved the praise of men more than the praise of God”. Others who merely believed, though not in secret, include Simon Magus in Acts 8:13,18-20, the workers of iniquity in Matthew 7:21-23.

Those who followed: Joseph of Arimathea did not just believe, but he followed in John 19:38. He did not oppose Jesus, and Joseph acted on his belief. A thought to ponder is, when does God desire a believer to be open, and in what circumstances does God desire a believer to believe secretly? Of course the same person can be secretive in one situation and open in another place.

   See the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1566 for more info.


John 20:1 – The Fact of the Empty Tomb - some brief answers

 

John seems to focus on not just the physical event, but also on the reaction of the key witnesses.

 

Usual Roman practice was to leave the corpses of crucified victims on the cross to be eaten by wild animals or to rot in public view—after all, crucifixion was intended to be the ultimate degradation and humiliation ... and a warning to others!  Interestingly, there was an exception.  According to Quintilian, a first-century author, a victim's relatives were permitted to take down the body and bury it if the victim was first pierced by the executioners. In his Commentary on Matthew, Origen, one of the early Church Fathers, says the lance thrust to Jesus was administered "according to Roman custom, below the armpit."  (See Humber, Thomas.  The Sacred Shroud. New York, Pocket Books, 1977) (http://www.godonthe.net/evidence/swoon.htm 12/2/2018)

 

Q: In Jn 20, what are some “alternative theories” skeptics have come up with to explain away the resurrection, and why are they inadequate?

A: It turns out there is no shortage of alternative explanations, so let’s look at their plausibility.

1. The Jewish Sanhedrin took the body: Then why didn’t they stop Christianity in its infancy by saying “Jesus did not really rise, here is His body!”

2. The Romans took the body: Same as the previous except also why would they put the Roman soldiers in jeopardy of death.

3. The disciples took the body: Then all of them lived the rest of their lives, and most of them were killed, for something they knew was a lie.

4. Someone else took the body (such as Joseph of Arimathea): Two problems: motive and means. Who would have a motive? Not the Romans, Jews, or disillusioned followers. Who could move the heavy stone and get past the guards.

5. The swoon theory: Jesus was injured and unconscious but He did not really die. After the whipping, crucifixion, and the spear wound he had the strength to roll away a 2000 to 4000 pound stone. (This was first proposed by German Lutheran theologian and unbeliever H.E.G. Paulus). Here is one answer to that by Texas lawyer Joseph “Rick” Reinckens in his article: “A Lawyer Examines the Swoon Theory”. “Even in His weakened condition, in a quiet private cemetery, Jesus manages to push back the stone door without any of the guards noticing! Why go half-way? Jesus has been whipped, beaten and stabbed, is hemorrhaging, and hasn’t had any food or drink for at least three days. Does He just push the stone open enough to squeeze through? No, He pushes the stone door COMPLETELY out of the way!!!” See the article by Rick Reinckens.

6. Hallucination Theory: “The mind is a powerful force.” The distraught followers of Jesus collectively imagined seeing Him. Then Thomas had to hallucinate seeing Jesus, when he had already made up his mind that Jesus did not rise. Then they had to eat fish (imaginary fish?) that Jesus cooked.

7. God supernaturally had someone who was made to look just like Jesus die: Muslims believe this. This would have not only fooled the Romans and Jews, but also all of Jesus’ followers. Imagine tens of thousands of Christians being tortured and martyred prior to 4325 A.D., and when they died Allah would laugh at them and says, “ I sure fooled you.” You gave your life for believing Jesus was the Son of God who rose from the dead, and you were tricked. Certainly I am the greatest of tricksters!

8. Same as previous except that Jesus escaped to Kashmir, got married, and started a family: Ahmadiyya Muslims believe this.

9. God dissolve the body permanently, and Jesus only spiritually resurrected: Jehovah’s Witnesses, and Rev. Moon’s Unification Church believe this.

10. Jesus could do whatever He wanted with His body; after all, He was an alien: A guy who later joined the Church of Scientology thought this. A variant on this is that Jesus was an Indian guru who had great spiritual power, sort of like Obi wan Kenobi and Luke Skywalker in Star Wars.

11. Jesus never existed: Only a very small number of skeptics believe this. Isn’t it a tremendous miracle how the church grew so fast, in the midst of great persecution, from absolutely nothing!

12. A Legend: The arrest, trial, and crucifixion of Jesus did not take place. Jesus just went somewhere else (France maybe according to Michael Baigent in Holy Blood Holy Grail and Dan Brown and the da Vinci Code), and his disciples all died for something they knew they did not see. Does that make sense.

The following 13 Bible pre-Nicene manuscripts at these dates document Jesus’ resurrection.

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels plus Acts) (200-225 A.D.)

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul plus Hebrews (100-150 A.D.)

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.)

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. 1 Peter 1:3

p75 (c.175-225 A.D.) Much of Luke and John. (175-225 A.D.)

p65 1 Thessalonians 1:3-2:1; 2:6-13 (225-275 A.D.) 1 Thessalonians 1:10

p16 Philippians 3:10-17; 4:2-8 (late 3rd century) Philippians 3:10

0162 (John 2:11-22) (ca.300 A.D.) John 2:22

0220 Romans 4:23-5:3,8-13 (ca.300 A.D.) Romans 4:25

p5 John 47 verses in John (early 3rd century) John 20:14-16

p40 – Romans 1:24-27; 1:31-2:3; 3:21-4:8; 6:2-5,16; 9:17,27 (3rd century A.D.) Romans 6:5

p27 – Romans 8:8-12,17-22 (3rd century A.D.) Romans 8:11

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) (Gospels)

After Nicea: Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.), Sinaiticus (Aleph) (340-350 A.D.)

 

The following 34 pre-Nicene Church writers wrote about Jesus’ resurrection.

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.)

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.)

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.)

Novatian (250-257 A.D.)

Polycarp to the Philippians (100-155 A.D.)

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.)

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.)

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.)

Apology of Aristides (125 or 138-161 A.D.)

7th Council of Carthage (c.256 A.D.)

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.)

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.)

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) 853 verses

Anatolius (270-280 A.D.)

Meleto/Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.)

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.)

Hegesippus (170-180 A.D.)

Arnobius (297-303 A.D.) (Jn 20:1)

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (Jn 1:6)

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.)

Caius (190-217 A.D.)

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.)

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.)

Lucian of Antioch (c.300-311 A.D.)

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.)

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.)

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.)

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.)

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) (implied)

Athanasius of Alexandria (318 A.D.)

Theodotus the probable Montanist (ca.240 A.D.)

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.)

Julius Africanus (235-245 A.D.)(Jn 9:39)

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.)


John 20 – The Resurrection - some brief answers

 

1. In Jn 20:10-15, don’t angels usually appear with wings and halos?

A: Only in art, but not in the Bible, except for seraphim/cherubim.

 

2. In Jn 20:14-16, why did Mary Magdalene not recognize Jesus?

A: There are three possible reasons, and all of them may be true.

1. Mary was not expecting to see Jesus again in this life. She was not looking to recognize him.

2. Mary “knew” what Jesus looked like now. She saw his broken body, white in death. When she saw Jesus alive, that was not at all according to her expectations. As an example, sometimes, when I am expecting a call any minute from a particular friend, and another friend calls, it takes me a second or two to recognize their voice.

3. In Luke 24:16, Cleopas and another disciple were kept from recognizing Jesus. Perhaps Mary was temporarily kept from recognizing Jesus here, too.

Today, some do not recognize Jesus being from God because they do not want to look or find anyone from God. Others do not recognize Jesus because He does not fit in with their preconceived expectation. Finally, others would see and follow the true Jesus, but they are kept from doing so by things such as Satan’s deception of false religion, the cares of this world, sin, and persecution.

 

3. In Jn 20:17, why did Jesus tell Mary not to cling to Him?

A: The immediate reason Jesus said was that He had not yet ascended to His father. Later, Jesus asked Thomas to touch his side and hands in John 20:27. Perhaps it was just appropriate that the next one to “hug” Jesus was the Father in Heaven.

   1001 Bible Questions Answered p.44 indicates that for Jesus to be the fulfillment of the Old Testament sacrifices it was appropriate that as the
“first fruits” of 1 Corinthians 15:20-24 Jesus was presented to God the Father before any one else. You can read more about the first fruits in Leviticus 23:9-14.

 

4. In Jn 20:17, since Jesus called the Father “my God”, does that prove that Jesus is not God?

A: No. Hebrews 1:9 says, “…Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You…” where Jesus is God, and “Your God” refers to the Father.

   The word “God”, when it does not refer to a false god, has at least four meanings in the Bible: God the Father, God the Son, God the Spirit, and God in Trinity. In addition to the three beings all being one God, the Father also had the role of God to Jesus.

   See the discussion on Matthew 28:19, Ephesians 1:3,17, and especially John 13:3 for more info. See the Complete Book of Bible Answers p.110 and When Cultists Ask p.190 for complementary answer.

 

5. In Jn 20:17, why did Jesus says “my Father and your Father and my God and your God” instead of being less verbose?

A: This emphasizes that God the Father is the Father of us both, but in different senses. God the Father is the God of us both, but in different senses. The Father can still be called Jesus’ God in Ephesians 1:3.

 

6. In Jn 20:19, since Jesus had a physical body after the resurrection, how did Jesus get into closed rooms?

A: Even before His death, Jesus could miraculously pass through a crowd (Luke 4:28-30). Even Philip was miraculously transported in Acts 8:29-30. But now, Jesus had a glorified physical body. On one hand, Jesus had the power to go through locked doors. On the other hand, He could sit and eat fish. His glorified body was not “less” than our physical body in any way, but it was “more” than our physical body, as His glorified physical body did not suffer pain, decay, or death.

   See The Complete Book of Bible Answers p.136 and When Critics Ask p.422-423 for more info.

 

7. In Jn 20:19, what is so strange about this vs. Acts 2:1-13?

A: These disciples were not sharing about Jesus; they were hiding behind locked doors for fear. In Acts 2 these same disciples, with the same danger from the Jews, were boldly proclaiming the gospel in the Jewish Temple.

   See The Bible Knowledge Old Testament p.343 for more info.

 

8. In Jn 20:22, when Jesus said “peace be with you” and sent them out, did they receive the Holy Spirit prior to Pentecost?

A: No. Regardless of whether the Holy Spirit was with them in any way at this point, they were not filled with the Holy Spirit until the Day of Pentecost in Acts 2. See The Complete Book of Bible Answers p.89-90, Hard Sayings of the Bible p.508-510, When Critics Ask p.423-424, and When Cultists Ask p.155-157 for more info.

 

9. In Jn 20:23, how did the disciples have power to forgive or not forgive sins?

A: Three points to consider in the answer.

All Christians agree that Ephesians 2:20 says the church is build on the foundation of the apostles and the prophets. Thus the apostles were given the right to pronounce a sin forgiven or unforgiven. Beyond this, some Christians have one of two additional views.

All Christians can announce: The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.343 says that not only the apostles, but the church has “the privilege of announcing heaven’s terms on how a person can receive forgiveness. If one believes in Jesus, then a Christian has the right to announce his forgiveness. If a person rejects Jesus’ sacrifice, then a Christian can announce that that person is not forgiven.” Likewise the Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1569 said the apostles had the power to declare sins forgiven.

Only the disciples were given special authority to declare sins forgiven. They exercised this authority in Acts 5:1-11 (Ananias and Sapphira), 1 Corinthians 5:3-5,12-13, and 2 Corinthians 2:4-8 (the immoral man). The Believer’s Bible Commentary p.1569 mentions the other views but recommends this view.

 

10. In Jn 20:22-23, does this show that priests have the power to forgive sins?

A: No, unless the priest claims to be one of the twelve apostles. Prior to the New Testament being written, prior to the church being formed, and prior to the church growing in wisdom to discern the various cults, Jesus gave these men the power to forgive or not forgive sins.

1. It does not say this privilege was passed down to Popes or any other successors, and

2. It does not say priests received this privilege either.

3. However, all Christians, whether clergy or not, can communicate that God forgives our sins.

   See When Critics Ask p.424-425 and When Cultists Ask p.190-191 for more info.

 

11. In Jn 20:23, did the Popes throughout history have the power over forgiving sins?

A: No, for at least three reasons.

1. As some Catholic theologians (such as Father Fastiggi) agree, many corrupt Popes were ungodly, and they will be found in Hell. That being the case, a person who is far from God, and not a follower of God, does not have the power to forgive or not forgive sins.

2. There is no evidence of papal succession.

3. Even if there were papal succession, or apostolic succession as some in the early church believed, the chain of succession was broken. When a Pope is party to the murder of the previous Pope, that would break the chain. When a Pope is deposed against his will, and as his last act excommunicates the succeeding Pope, then how could an excommunicated person have the power to forgive or not forgive sins, and then pass it on to his successors?

 

12. In Jn 20:24-25, was this really the same body that Jesus had on earth?

A: Yes. For a simple example, a person can have an operation, and come home with the same body, yet improved. Likewise, Jesus had the same body, nail marks and all, yet it was a glorified body. Jesus was not using deception in appearing to Thomas, but Jesus was sincere and spoke the truth when He asked Thomas to see for himself by touching the wounds.

   Hippolytus (225-235/6 A.D.) in a Letter to a Certain Queen (or Princess) p.240, says, “For He [Jesus], having risen, and being desirous to show that the same (body) had been raised which had also died when His disciples were in doubt, called Thomas to Him, and said “Reach higher: handle me, and see: for a spirit hath not bone and flesh, as ye see me have.”

 

13. In Jn 20:25, what does this say about Jesus being nailed to a cross?

A: Jehovah’s Witnesses say Jesus was nailed to a “torture stake”, which they claim was a wooden pole with no crosspiece. They show pictures with just one big nail holding Jesus’ hands. The Greek, and even the Jehovah’s Witnesses own New World Translation says the word “nails” (plural), so it was more than one nail. See also Jehovah’s Witnesses Answered Verse by Verse p.82-83 for more info.

   I am sure early Christians would know how Jesus died, and here is what they said.

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.12 p.144 says that Moses made the figure of the cross when he stretched out his arms.

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.9 p.143 “For [the Scripture] saith, “And Abraham circumcised ten, and eight, and three hundred men of his household.” What, then, was the knowledge given to him in this? Learn the eighteen first, and then the three hundred. The ten and the eight are thus denoted-Ten by I, and Eight by H. You have [the initials of the, name of] Jesus. And because the cross was to express the grace [of our redemption] by the letter T, he says also, “Three Hundred.” He signifies, therefore, Jesus by two letters, and the cross by one.”

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) And shall we not rather refer the standard to the resemblance of the crucified Jesus, since also Moses by his outstretched hands, together with him who was named Jesus (Joshua), achieved a victory for your people?” Dialogue with Trypho ch.112 p.255. See also ch.111 p.254

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) “…and that lamb which was commanded to be wholly roasted was a symbol of the suffering of the cross which Christ would undergo. For the lamb, which is roasted, is roasted and dressed up in the form of a cross. For one spit is transfixed right through from the lower parts up to the head [vertically], and one across the back, to which are attached the legs of the lamb [horizontally].” Dialogue with Trypho a Jew ch.40 p.214

Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) A man adoring God with arms outstretched is a sign of the cross. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.29 p.191

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) said that in Moses’ time the people had to write a “Tau” (Greek letter t) during the first Passover for the angel of death to pass over them. They did not know it, but this was the sign of Christ’s cross. An Answer to the Jews ch.11 p.167-168

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) “At every forward step and movement, at every going in and out, when we put on our clothes and shoes, when we bathe, when we sit at table, when we light the lamps, on couch, on seat, in all the ordinary actions of daily life, we trace upon the forehead the sign.” (The Chaplet/De Corona 3.4).

Origen (225-254 A.D.) (partial) “Moses, indeed, lifts up his hands; he does not stretch them out. Jesus, however, when he had been exalted on the cross and was about to embrace the whole earth with his arms says, ‘I have stretched out my hands to a people who do not believe and who speak against me.” Homilies on Exodus. Homily 11 p.358

Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) “There, Moses, when he was assailed, stretched forth his hands and fought against Amalek; and here, the Lord Jesus, … stretched forth His hands upon the cross, and gave us salvation.” Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) mentions that Moses stretched out his arms, and Christ did the same. His outstretched hand had saved everybody. Dialogue on the True Faith First part ch.11 p.53

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) “for the birds which fly aloft, form the figure of the cross by the expansion of their wings; and man himself, also, with his hands outstretched, represents the same.” Three Fragments on the Passion of Christ fragment 1 p.399-400

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) “Moses, foreseeing the hardness of that people, on the Sabbath raised up his hands, therefore, and thus figuratively fastened himself to a cross.” On the Creation of the World p.342

Athanasius Incarnation  25:3, “For it is only on the cross that a man dies with his hands spread out. Whence it was fitting for the Lord to bear this also and to spread out His hands that with the one He might draw the ancient people, and with the other those from the Gentiles and unite both in Himself.”

Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.) “Thus the cross exalted Him both in fact and in emblem, so that His majesty and power became know to all, together with His passion. For in that He extended His hands on the cross, He plainly stretched out His winds towards the east and the west…” Epitome to the Divine Institutes ch.51 p.243.

   There is a second century pagan graffito depicting a man worshipping a crucified donkey with his arms outstretched on a cross. The inscription reads: “Alexamenos respects God,” presumed to be making fun of a Christian soldier. (From http://www.jesuswalk.com/christian-symbols/cross)

 

14. In Jn 20:28, did Thomas call Jesus God?

A: Unlike what Jehovah’s Witnesses might say, Thomas certainly did. Notice that the verse is not “Thomas said, My Lord and my God!”, but “Thomas said to him, My Lord and my God!” Notice that the verse does not say “Oh Lord”, like Thomas was looking up to Heaven and saying this. Rather, Thomas said to him, My Lord and my God!” Furthermore, Jesus neither rebuked nor corrected Thomas for saying this.

   Jehovah’s Witnesses Answered Verse by Verse p.84 also points out that in their own Kingdom Interlinear (1985) Bible, under the Greek it correctly says, “The Lord of me and the God of me”

   See also When Cultists Ask p.191-192 for more info.


John 21 – What Now? - Fish and Feed - some brief answers

 

1. Was Jn 21 added later, as a Muslim suggested based on liberal skeptics?

A: First what has been claimed and then the answer. Wikipedia says, “New Testament scholars are largely agreed that it was not part of the original text of the Gospel of John” (12/16/2018) quotes from Ehrman, Bart (13 February 2012). "Debate "Is the Original New Testament Lost?" (from around 23:40)". The Ehrman Project. Retrieved 15 January 2013

The answer: No, there is not any evidence of that. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.197 says, “There is no textual evidence for considering John 21 as a late addition to the main body of the Gospel. Every complete MS of John contains it.”

One solid piece of evidence, and no counter evidence should be sufficient to determine if it existed in early times or not. But since we have nine pieces of evidence showing it was there, and no counter-evidence, then it should be settled for any who would question this. (I count multiple counts by a single author as a single piece of evidence.)

p66 (The Bodmer II Papyrii) contains most of John, including John 21:12,17. It was thought to be c.175 A.D., but is not thought to be c.125-150 A.D.

p109 (=Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 4448) John 21:18-20; 21:23-35 (3rd century)

Vaticanus [B] (325-350 A.D.) and Sinaiticus [Si] (340-350 A.D.) have John 21 as well as the other chapters. Sinaiticus originally did not have John 21:25 but it was added later according to the New International Bible Commentary p.1263.

After this are later manuscripts, p122, Codex Bezae, Codex Alexandrinus, p59.

The writer Tatian (died 172 A.D.) in his Diatessaron, a harmony of the gospels, quotes every verse of John 21.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes from parts of John 21:4,5 as “scripture celebrates us” and “in the Gospel” The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.212.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) quotes from John 21:20 (not 13 4 not 12 words quotes) in Prescription Against Heretics ch.22 p.253.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) quotes from John 21:17 as the Lord is speaking to Peter. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 1 ch.4 p.422. He also paraphrase John 21:17, where Jesus asked Peter if he loved Him, in Epistles of Cyprian epistle 2 ch.1 p.280.

Origen (246-248 A.D.) quotes the last 14/23 words of John 21:25 in Origen’s Commentary on Matthew book 14 ch.11 p.502.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes the middle 7 words of John 21:18 (not 13 7 not 9 words quoted) as “hear the words of Jesus. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.45 p.448

 

2. In Jn 21:5-6, how did Jesus take charge of their fishing, and how do you we Jesus take charge of ours?

A: They needed to fish: Peter had a wife, and they all probably needed to support their family. Their own efforts, as experienced fishermen, were not netting anything today. But when they listened to Jesus, it exceeded their expectations.

   Sometimes when we fish for the gospel, we rely on our skills more than Jesus. We need to stop and listen to Jesus.

 

3. In Jn 21:7, what three things did John excel in, and how should we do the same?

A: First, John was the first here to recognize Jesus. John knew Jesus well and could easily recognize His voice. Jesus’ word here paidia, can be translated as “lads” or “children” as much as “friends” according to The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament p.344.

Second, John was eager to come closer to Jesus.  Someone can study and know about Jesus all they want, but are they eager to come to Jesus and stay close to Him?

Third, John jumped first: While it is good the other disciples stayed and brought the boat in, John’s impulse was to immediately go to Jesus.

 

4. In Jn 21:11, what is the significance of the 153 fishes?

A: First of all, this might weigh over 300 pounds, so Peter was a strong person, according to The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.200. There are two points to consider.

Generally, they caught a large number of fish, and they counted to verify just how many they caught. Some see this specific, precise number showing that God counts every individual who comes to Him

Specifically, people who look for numeric patterns in the Bible point to John 21:11 as a key evidence. In this passage there are many patterns that give the number 153. See the next two questions for more info. 1 + 2 + 3 + …. 17 = 153.

 

5. In Jn 21:11, what is the “code” for numerology in the new Testament?

A: One form of numerology is theomatics, and Del Washburn wrote a book called Theomatics II. Like the Romans, the Greeks used letters to represent numbers. Here is the code Washburn used. Of course, if his “code” was wrong, then all of his conclusions would not stand up.

The “code”: Theomatics II p.23 assigns numbers 1-5 to the consecutive Greek letters alpha through eta. 6 is assigned the letter “vau” which was in early Greek alphabets but not later ones. Numbers 7-10 are assigned the letters zeta through iota. Numbers 10-80, counting by tens, are assigned to the consecutive Greek letters kappa through pi. The number 90 is assigned to the Greek letter koppa, which was in early Greek alphabets but not later ones. 100 is assigned to “rho” The number 200 is assigned to both forms of the letter sigma. The numbers 300 - 800, counting by 100’s, are assigned consecutively to Tau through omega. There is, of course, a different assignment for Hebrew, since Hebrew has a different alphabet.

   (Note that according to the Encyclopedia Britannica both 1956 and 1972, (under U), the Semitic alphabet used vaw as the sixth letter. The Greeks used it as a vowel, and it was the last letter in their alphabet, right after Tau. These Greeks made digamma (F) their sixth letter. Digamma represented the “w” sound. The following Greek alphabets had “vaw”: Therean (700-600 B.C.), Attic (600 B.C.), Corinthian (600 B.C.), Chalcidian (600 B.C.), and Ionic (403 B.C.). In Attic Greek, vaw was pronounced as the German umlaut u. The letter vaw is in the New Testament as the number 6 in Revelation 13:18 (“666”).

Independent of Theomatics, The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts p.25 (Philip W. Comfort and David P. Barrett) says this was not any secret code, but a standard way scribes used letters for numbers, including page numbers, and numbers in the Bible, including the 12 disciples, 7 angels, etc. It presents the identical assignment as Washburn, except for the trivial case of calling the sixth letter “stigma” instead of “vaw”, and assigning “sampi” as 900 and “,alpha” as 1000. These last two additions are irrelevant, as no words in the Bible use sampi or “,alpha”.

   The Anchor Bible Dictionary vol.4 p.1141 also describes the way Greeks used letters to represent numbers. It says that we do not know when this system was first used, but using letters for numbers was in a marriage contract at Elephantine, Egypt in 310 B.C. on coins in Ptolemy Egypt (286-246 B.C.), and on a papyri of multiplication tables in the 3rd century B.C. The actual code of Greek letters on p.1141 is the same as given in both Theomatics II and The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts, with the following exceptions. It called the obsolete letter used for 6 “digamma” and 900 “san”. The thousands through ten thousands are signified by alpha through theta with special marks.

   The Manuscripts of the Greek Bible (Bruce M. Metzger) p.6-10 has an extensive section on Greek letters used as numbers. It has the same “code” as Washburn, with the following trivial exceptions. It says the number of 6 was an obsolete Greek letter called either “waw” or “digamma”, “sampi” was 900, and “,a” etc. representing 1,000 etc.

The Chester Beatty Papyrii (manuscript p47) in Revelation sometimes uses Greek letters to represent the numbers, instead of spelling the numbers out. (It spelled the number 72 out in John 10:1, though.) One can see a very legible transcription in The Complete Text of the Early New Testament Manuscripts p.336. It completely agrees with what Washburn says and shows in his photograph. Using this pattern of Greek letters for page numbers was done in the following manuscripts: p1, p13, p23, p30, p38, p39, p45, p46, p66, p72, uncial 0189, uncial 0232.

We have no evidence that early Christians tried or saw any benefit in using numerology to go through each word in a passage. Of course, tongue-in-cheek, we have no evidence they had the computers and calculators necessary to do so either. However, not only Washburn never claimed they did this in early times, this actually is one point of his theory. If the early Christians had recognized that the numeric totals of phrases could fit a pattern, they might be accused of changing the letters to make patterns. However, since we have no evidence anyone recognized any patterns, these patterns, if indeed they are more than coincidence, would be evidence of divine origin and preservation.

   However, Bruce Metzger in The Manuscripts of the Greek Bible p.9 says that some early Christians used a type of numerology, called gematria, to find special meanings in numbers. In the Letter/Epistle of Barnabas (100 A.D.) they used the number of Abraham’s men (318), to show that Christ was in Genesis. 300 = t, which reminded the author of the cross, and 18 is the first two letters of the Greek name for Jesus. Augustine of Hippo was even aware of this use of gematria. Metzger observes they forgot to consider that Greek was not even invented in Abraham’s time.

Conclusion: If one were use Greek letters to represent numbers, this proves that Washburn is using the same numerical shorthand Greek scribes commonly used in writing page numbers and sometimes other numbers.

 

6. In Jn 21:15-17, why did Jesus use this way of reconciling with Peter?

A: Restoring their relationship was an awkward moment for Peter. Jesus could have said, “I know you love Me, so all is good” and then left immediately. But this way, Jesus got Peter to think, and to firm his commitment to love Jesus above all else.

 

7. In Jn 21:15-17, why did Jesus ask Peter if he loved Him three times?

A: The first two times, Jesus asked Peter if he loved him, using the word agape for love. Both times, Peter answered that he loved phileo Jesus. Apparently after denying Jesus, Peter did not feel he could claim to love Jesus with agape love.

   The third time Jesus asked Peter if he loved Him using the word phileo. Peter was hurt, wondering if Jesus was believing that Peter even loved Him at all.

   Rather than trying to justify himself, Peter stopped trying to quantify the sincerity of his love and balance that with his past insincere actions of denial. Rather, Peter simply acknowledged, “Lord, you know all things, you know that I love you.”

   Jesus knew all things, at least after His resurrection, and Jesus was asking because He wanted Peter to answer, not because He did not know. God has been asking questions of people, for which He already knew the answer, ever since the Garden of Eden. See Bible Difficulties & Seeming Contradictions p.240 for more info on this.

   God knows how much we love God, even better than we know ourselves. Instead of trying to tell God the exact degree of depth of our love, let us simply acknowledge that God knows and desire to draw closer and love Him more.

 

8. Does Jn 21:15-19 show that Peter was the first Pope as some Roman Catholics claim?

A: No, rather it does show that Peter had been wrong to deny Jesus three times, Jesus was reinstating Peter, and Peter had responsibilities as an apostle. Peter denied Jesus three times, by a fire, so Jesus asked Peter if he loved Jesus three times, by a fire. See When Critics Ask p.192-193 and The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.345 for more info.

 

9. How did Jn 21:18 prophecy Peter’s death?

A: Jesus said that Peter was going to die, and the emphasis was both on the situation prior to his death and Peter’s attitude. According to church tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome. Peter was crucified upside down, at his request, because he did not feel worthy to die the same way that Jesus died.

   The work On the Twelve Apostles ANF vol.5 p.254-255 says, “Peter preached the Gospel in Pontus, and Galatia and Cappadocia [all in Asia Minor], and Betania and Italy, and Asia and was afterwards crucified by Nero in Rome with his head downward as he had himself desired to suffer in that manner.”

 

Q. In Jn 21:18, how did all the apostles die?

A: The work On the Twelve Apostles ANF vol.5 p.254-255 says, “Peter preached the Gospel in Pontus, and Galatia and Cappadocia [all in Asia Minor], and Betania and Italy, and Asia and was afterwards crucified by Nero in Rome with his head downward as he had himself desired to suffer in that manner.

   Andrew preached to the Scythians [in Russia] and Thracians, and was crucified, suspended on an olive tree at Patrae, a town of Achaia [in Greece]; and there too he was buried.

   John, again in Asia was banished by Domitian the King to the isle of Patmos in which he also wrote his Gospel and saw the apocalyptic vision; and in Trajan’s time he fell asleep at Ephesus where his remains were sought for, but could not be found.

   James his brother when preaching in Judea, was cut off with the sword by Herod the tetrarch, and was buried there. Eusebius 2:9 says beheaded.

   Philip preached in Phrygia [in Asia Minor] and was crucified in Hierapolis with his head downward in the time of Domitian, and was buried there.

   Bartholomew again preached to the Indians, to whom he also gave the Gospel according to Matthew, and was crucified with his head downward and was buried in Albanum, a town of the great Armenia.

   And Matthew wrote the Gospel in the Hebrew tongue and published it at Jerusalem, and fell asleep at Hierees a town of Parthia [Iran]. Papias (95-110 A.D.) also records that Matthew was written in Hebrew.

   And Thomas preached to the Parthians, Medes Persians Hyrcanians, Bactrians, and Margians (Magi?) [all in Iran and Afghanistan, and the former Soviet Republics], and was thrust through in the four members of his body with a pine spear at Calamene, the city of India and was buried there.

   And James the son of Alphaeus when preaching in Jerusalem, was stoned to death by the Jews and was buried there beside the temple. Josh McDowell says crucified.

   Jude, who is also called Lebbaeus preached to the people of Edessa, and to all Mesopotamia, and fell asleep at Berytus, and was buried there. Josh McDowell says killed by arrows.

   Simon the Zealot, the son of Cleopas, who is also called Jude, became the bishop of Jerusalem after James the Just (Lord’s brother), and fell asleep and was buried there at the age of 120 years. Josh McDowell says crucified.

   And Matthias, who was one of the seventy, was numbered along with the eleven apostles, and preached in Jerusalem, and fell asleep and was buried there.

   And Paul entered into the apostleship a year after the assumption of Christ; and beginning at Jerusalem, he advanced as far as Illyricum, and Italy, and Spain, preaching the Gospel for thirty-five years. And in the time of Nero he was beheaded at Rome and was buried there.”

   In addition, According to legend the apostle Thomas visited northern India under Gondophares and preached there. Gondophares reigned from c.19 A.D. to 45 A.D.

 

10. In Jn 21:20-23, how do some people today get distracted by unnecessary questions?

A: But is fine to ask questions, but if you cannot ask all of your questions, make sure to get the most important information first. When a non-believer questions something about the Bible, you might first ask him or her in return, if I answered this question, would that bring you closer to making a decision to accept Christ. If their answer is “no”, then ask them, what would bring you closer to accepting Jesus as your Lord and Savior?

 p.25”

 

11. In Jn 21:22-23, what is Jesus saying here about John?

A: Actually Jesus is saying more about Peter here than about John. Jesus is saying that Peter is being too nosy, worrying about how John is going to die. (Peter probably figured that since Jesus spoke of Peter’s death, he wanted to hear about John’s death.). Jesus is saying that even if John were to remain alive until Jesus returned, that is not a concern of Peter’s.

   Tertullian writing 198-220 A.D. in A Treatise on the Soul ch.50 p.227-228 says there had been a false expectation that John would remain alive until the coming of the Lord.

   In actual history, John died a natural death. He lived longer than any of the other apostles, and John actually did see Jesus again before he died: in a vision in Revelation.

   We should be comfortable with the fact that there are some things God does not wish us to know right now. For example, throughout the New Testament, there is the thought that Christ could return at any time, so we should be watchful of Him and careful of how we live. This doctrine, called the “imminent return of Christ” is shown in 1 Thessalonians 4:15, where Paul himself did not know if Christ would return before Paul died or not.

 

12. In Jn 21:24 what is interesting about the Greek here?

A: Manuscripts were often written in all capitals, and in many there were no spaces between words. However, this rarely gives any ambiguity in the meaning. Here is an exception know. The Greek letters could equally mean “We know” or “I surely know”. However, Greek manuscripts that have spaces between words all have it as “We know”. There is no significance in “We know” vs. “I surely know” though. See The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol.9 p.203 for more info.

 

13. In Jn 21:25, why do we not have a record of all the other things that Jesus did?

A: Many seem to have a difficult enough time reading what is recorded about Jesus. Even in Jesus’ life, there were many facts that were not important, such as which position he slept in, his height, weight, how he ate, etc. By faith, we trust that God preserved for us all that we need to know, and we should be diligent to read all of that.


 

by Steven M. Morrison, PhD.

 


 http://www.godonthe.net/evidence/swoon.htm (12/1/2018) by Joseph “Rick” Reinckens

 

God On The Net
www.GodOnThe.net

 

        CSI: Jerusalem
A Lawyer Examines The Swoon Theory

REASONS THAT SOUND GOOD
AREN'T ALWAYS GOOD SOUND REASONS!

Email the Webmaster

"C'mon.  Jesus didn't really die on the Cross.  He just passed out or went into a coma from loss of blood, stress, etc.  Later on He came to and made the appearances."

This is referred to as the "swoon" theory.  Many people believe it because on its face it sounds plausible—more plausible than believing someone came back from the dead.  However, under close examination the swoon theory falls apart.

Roman executioners knew how to tell when their victims were dead!

Consider this: Roman soldiers were among the most ruthless, cruel and knowledgeable military men of the ancient world.  When it came to knowing how to kill people they were experts. Can you really believe that an entire squad of Roman executioners couldn't tell whether a prisoner really was dead???  They would be a laughingstock among their peers if something like that happened!

Jesus was stabbed in the side, which would ensure His death.

John 19:31-35 "[31] Now it was the day of Preparation, and the next day was to be a special Sabbath. Because the Jews did not want the bodies left on the crosses during the Sabbath, they asked Pilate to have the legs broken and the bodies taken down. [32] The soldiers therefore came and broke the legs of the first man who had been crucified with Jesus, and then those of the other. [33] But when they came to Jesus and found that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. [34] Instead, one of the soldiers pierced Jesus' side with a spear, bringing a sudden flow of blood and water. [35] The man who saw it has given testimony, and his testimony is true. He knows that he tells the truth, and he testifies so that you also may believe.

Roman custom required stabbing under Jesus' circumstances.  It wasn't a coincidence.

Most people, even most theologians and historians, believe it was pure coincidence that a Roman soldier stabbed Jesus.  Most people believe the soldier stabbed Jesus to make sure He was dead.  Usual Roman practice was to leave the corpses of crucified victims on the cross to be eaten by wild animals or to rot in public view—after all, crucifixion was intended to be the ultimate degradation and humiliation ... and a warning to others!  Interestingly, there was an exception.  According to Quintilian, a first-century author, a victim's relatives were permitted to take down the body and bury it if the victim was first pierced by the executioners. In his Commentary on Matthew, Origen, one of the early Church Fathers, says the lance thrust to Jesus was administered "according to Roman custom, below the armpit."  (See Humber, Thomas.  The Sacred Shroud. New York, Pocket Books, 1977)

If you seriously examine what the swoon theory requires, you'd have to be an absolute idiot to still consider it possible.

EVENTS  DESCRIBED  IN  THE  BIBLE  OR  OTHER  HISTORICAL  SOURCES

1.     Jesus gets beaten by members of the Sanhedrin, the Jewish High Council.

2.     Jesus gets flogged ("scourged") with a Roman flagrum, similar to a "cat-o-nine tails".  It had three "tails", each with a little metal dumbbell-shaped attachment that digs into the flesh.  It was considered so cruel that it was illegal to flog a Roman citizen.

3.     Jesus is beaten with wooden reeds (like "caning").

4.     Jesus gets slapped and punched by a group of Roman soldiers.

5.     Jesus has a cap or thorns pressed onto His head.  Middle Eastern crowns of the period were not little circles like a British or French crown.  They were like the mitre worn by Roman Catholic bishops.

6.     Jesus is tied to the crossbeam that will be attached to the vertical post.  Crossbeams typically weighed about 40 pounds (20 kg).

7.     Jesus has to walk up a hill to the crucifixion site.  He falls several times and the soldiers have to force a bypasser, Simon of Cyrene, to carry the beam.

8.     At the hilltop Jesus is untied.  He is then nailed to the Cross.  The nails are put through His wrists not His palms, as commonly depicted by artists.  One foot is put on top of the other and a nail is driven through both of them.

9.     Jesus is left on the Cross for hours and dies.

10. Soldiers come to break the legs of the victims, to bring on death.

11. The body of Jesus is stabbed in the side with a Roman lancia.

12. The body of Jesus is taken down from the Cross, and wrapped in grave clothes.  Scholars disagree as to whether Jesus was wound in strips like a mummy or covered with a burial shroud, e.g., the Shroud of Turin.  The text does not resolve this issue.  For discussion we will assume a long shroud, which is easy to unwrap.

13. The body of Jesus is laid in a stone tomb provided by Joseph of Arimathea.

14. A large stone door is placed in front of the tomb.  The stone is so heavy that three women didn't think they could move it together.

15. A wax seal is put on the outside of the door and a group of guards are stationed.

Let's play detective and "reconstruct" the swoon theory's next sequence of events:

1.     "Jesus didn't die, He just passed out from stress, fatigue, shock, or exhaustion."

See Forensic Pathology Report on Jesus.

Problem:  Once Jesus passed out, He would have hung in a "Y" position, with knees bent. Experiments with volunteers have proved that in that position lung muscles become paralyzed from strain in just a few minutes.  Within 6-12 minutes a person stops breathing and will die of asphyxiation if the strain is not removed.  This isn't speculation, it's scientific fact established by direct observation.

Problem:  With the blood loss from the flogging and the further loss from the stab wound, Jesus would have gone into hypovolemic shock (shock from extremely low blood pressure caused by bleeding).  Without a transfusion and with nothing to stop the internal hemorrhaging He would have died within minutes. Prior to the stab wound, the blood loss alone would have killed him in a few hours.

Calculate: Maximum Allowable Blood Loss

Kilograms = pounds ÷ 2.2
Hct = Hematocrit—the percentage by volume of red blood cells in a sample of blood that has been spun in a centrifuge.
ml = milliliter (about 1/1000 of a quart). 1 pint = 473 ml

Problem:  With the internal bleeding and build-up of fluids Jesus would have died from congestive heart failure.  Pathologists generally agree that this was a contributing cause of Jesus' death.

Problem:  The Gospel of John says that when Jesus was stabbed blood and water came out of His side. A number of forensic pathologists have examined the descriptions (and, in some cases, information on the Shroud of Turin).  They all agree that there is no way water could have come out.  But, they agree that the heart is surrounded by the pericardium, which contains a watery fluid and a lance thrust would have extracted this fluid, which would look like water.  The thrust would also have pierced the heart, drawing accumulated blood.

Problem: Even if Jesus didn't die of asphyxiation and even if He didn't die of congestive heart failure and even if He didn't die of hypovolemic shock and even if He didn't die from the internal hemorrhaging itself, He had a large, deep, open chest wound through at least one lung and probably the heart, with internal bleeding. This would have caused internal infection and in a few days He would have died of sepsis, i.e., infection. The Bible says Jesus appeared to hundreds over a period of forty days after the Crucifixion.

2.     After Jesus "passes out" He is left on the Cross unconscious for an unknown length of time.

3.     Then Jesus is stabbed.  John 19:34

4.     John 19:38a  "Later, Joseph of Arimathea asked Pilate for the body of Jesus."

Problem:  This wasn't done with a phone call from the Crucifixion site!  Joseph or a servant has to walk or ride by donkey to Governor Pilate's office, wait to get permission to speak to the Governor, wait to be taken to an audience with the Governor.

5.     Mark 15:44 [44] Pilate was surprised to hear that he was already dead. Summoning the centurion, he asked him if Jesus had already died. [45] When he learned from the centurion that it was so, he gave [permission to take] the body to Joseph.

6.     Mark 15:46 So Joseph bought some linen cloth, ...

7.     All this time, Jesus is still hanging on the Cross!!!  (Allegedly ... unconscious, but still alive!)

8.     The Roman soldiers and various spectators are still standing around watching. And nobody realizes that Jesus is still breathing and still alive!

9.     John 19:38c "With Pilate's permission, he [Joseph of Arimathea] came and took the body away."

10. Even as they are taking Jesus down from the Cross nobody realizes He is still breathing and still alive!

11. Nobody checks for a heartbeat. If they do check for a heartbeat, they don't find one.  (If they did find one they would have known He was still alive.)  Even though there's no heartbeat and He's not breathing, somehow He's still alive.

12. Nobody thinks it odd that a body that has been hanging on a cross allegedly dead for several hoursis still warm.

13. Even as they are wrapping Jesus in burial clothes nobody realizes He is still breathing and still alive!

14. They lay Jesus in a tomb and roll a heavy stone in front of the only entrance.

15. Guards are posted outside the tomb and the tomb is sealed with a wax seal.  (The exact number that constituted "your guard" is unknown but most scholars believe it was at least four soldiers, probably more.)

16. Despite being beaten and stabbed, despite internal hemorrhaging, despite having had no food or water, Jesus somehow recovers from His coma by natural means, not by a miracle!

17. Jesus wakes up in a completely dark, completely enclosed tomb, His entire body wracked with pain.

18. Jesus feels His way around the tomb and finds the stone door.

19. Jesus manages to push the heavy stone door to the side even though there is nothing to grab onto on the inside surface of the stone.  (The stone was slid into a groove.  Hence, it has to be moved sideways, not simply out.)

20. Even in His weakened condition, in a quiet private cemetery, Jesus manages to push back the stone door without any of the guards noticing!

21. Why go half-way?  Jesus has been whipped, beaten and stabbed, is hemorrhaging, and hasn't had any food or drink for at least three days.  Does He just push the stone open enough to squeeze through?  No, He pushes the stone door COMPLETELY out of the way!!!

22. Of course, at this point, the logical thing to do is get naked!  Before leaving the tomb, Jesus strips off the burial garments.

23. Just because He has been whipped, beaten and stabbed, is hemorrhaging, and hasn't had any food or drink for at least three days is no reason to be sloppy!  So He neatly folds the garments before leaving.

24. Amazingly, while He is doing all this, the guards still don't notice anything!

25. This whipped, beaten, stabbed, bleeding, half-starved, naked, revived crucifixion victim then blithely walks away from the sealed tomb, right past a group of heavily armed guards.

26. Miraculously, ... I'm sorry, according to the swoon theory there are no miracles ... none of the guards directly appointed by the Governor even notices this whipped, beaten, stabbed, bleeding, half-starved, naked, revived crucifixion victim walking away from the sealed tomb!

I guess we just have to assume that it was a pretty common occurrence for those guards to see whipped, beaten, stabbed, bleeding, half-starved, naked, revived crucifixion victims walking away from sealed tombs ...

27. Whipped, beaten, stabbed, half-starved, naked, and still bleeding, Jesus then walks several miles.

28. No one notices the whipped, beaten, stabbed, bleeding, half-starved, naked, revived crucifixion victim walking along the road.

29. And still, not even one of the guards has noticed anything suspicious like, oh ... say, ... the fully opened tomb!

And now we come to the part that's a little hard to believe about the swoon theory ...

30. Jesus does all of this on feet that had been run through by nails!!!

AND PEOPLE SAY RESURRECTION IS HARD TO BELIEVE  ! ! !

 

TOP   QUESTIONS   HOME BECOME  A  CHRISTIAN

This site and page written by Texas attorney Joseph "Rick" Reinckens.

Email the Webmaster