Bible Query from
1 Kings

Q: In 1 Ki, what is an estimated chronology of the kings of Israel and Judah?
A: Here are both together.
Here is the chronology of the kings of Israel

Dates B.C. Ruler of Israel Years of Reign Supporting Bible Verses
931/930-910 Jeroboam 22 1 Ki 14:20
910/909-909/908 Nadab 2 1 Ki 15:25-31
909/908-887/886 Baasha 24 1 Ki 15:32
887/886-886/885 Elah 2 1 Ki 16:8,9
886/885 Zimri (7 days) 7 days 1 Ki 16:17
886/885-880 Tibni 5 1 Ki 16:21-23
886/885-874 Omri (overlapped with Tibni) 12 1 Ki 16:21-23
874-853 Ahab 22 1 Ki 16:29
853-852 Ahaziah (had no son) 2 1 Ki 22:51
852-841 Joram (=Jehoram) son of Ahab 12 2 Ki 3:1
841-814 Jehu 28 2 Ki 8:25
814-798 Jehoahaz 17 2 Ki 13:1
798-782 Jehoash 16 2 Ki 13:10
793-753 Jeroboam II (co-regent 11 years) 41 2 Ki 14:23
753-753/752 Zechariah 6 months 2 Ki 15:8
753/752 Shallum (killed Zechariah) 1 months 2 Ki 15:13
753/751-742 Menahem 10 2 Ki 15:17
742/741-742/740 Pekahiah 2 2 Ki 15:23
752-742 Pekah reigned (or rebelled) in the Transjordan 10 2 Ki 15:27 says reigned 20 years but comparison with kings of Judah shows concurrent with Menahem
742/740-732/731 Pekah reigns after killing Pekahiah 10 + previous 10 2 Ki 15:27
732/731-722 Hoshea (killed Pekah) 9 2 Ki 17:1
722 +/- 1 year Samaria falls   2 Ki 17:5-6

Dates B.C. Ruler of Judah Years of Reign Supporting Bible Verses
931/930-914/913 Rehoboam 17 1 Ki 14:21
913-911/910 Abijah 3 1 Ki 15:1-2; 2 Chr 13:1-2
911/909-870/868 Asa 41 1 Ki 15:9-10; 2 Chr 16:12
873/872-848/847 Jehoshaphat (co-regent with Asa 13 years) 25 1 Ki 22:41-42
853/852-841 Jehoram (co-regent with Jehoshaphat 5 years) 8 2 Ki 1:17; 2 Chr 21:5
841 Ahaziah 1 2 Ki 8:25-26; 2 Chr 22:1
841-835 Queen Athaliah 7 2 Ki 11:1,4; 2 Chr 23:1
835-796 Joash 40 2 Ki 11:4; 12:1; 2 Chr 24:1
796-767 Amaziah (killed Joash's assassins) 29 2 Ki 14:1-2; 2 Chr 25:1
792/790-740/739 Azariah/Uzziah (became leprous) (co-regent 23 years) 52 2 Ki 15:1; 2 Chr 26:1
751/750-736/734 Jotham (co-regent 11 years) 16 2 Ki 15:32-33; 2 Chr 27:1
744/743-720/715 Ahaz (co-regent 14 years) 16 2 Ki 16:1-2; 2 Chr 28:1
729/728-699/686 Hezekiah (co-regent 14 years) 29 2 Ki 18:1-2; 2 Chr 29:1
698/697-643/642 Manasseh (co-regent 11 years) 55 2 Ki 21:1; 2 Chr 33:1
642-640 Amon 2 2 Ki 21:19; 2 Chr 33:21
640-609 Josiah 31 2 Ki 22:1; 2 Chr 34:1
609 B.C. Jehoahaz 3 months 2 Ki 23:31; 2 Chr 36:2
609-598 Jehoiakim 11 2 Ki 23:36; 2 Chr 36:5
598/597-597 Jehoiachin 3 months 10 days 2 Ki 24:8; 2 Chr 36:9
March 16, 597 Jerusalem is captured; 10,000 exiled. 2 Ki 24:10-16
597-587/586 Governor Zedekiah 11 years 2 Ki 24:18; 2 Chr 36:11; Jer 52:1-11
589-587 Jews rebel against Babylonians.  
July 18, 587/586 Jerusalem and the temple are destroyed. Many are exiled. 2 Ki 25; 2 Chr 36:17-21; Jer 52:6-30
581 Babylonians deport more from Judah.  
538 Cyrus permits the exiles to return 2 Chr 36:22-23

See The Expositor's Bible Commentary volume 4 p.13, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : Old Testament p.513, and The NIV Study Bible p.501 for more info. The Expositor's Bible Commentary volume 6 p.5 says there is uncertainty in the reigns of some of the kings. Uzziah died between 747 and 735 B.C., with 740 B.C. being the most likely date. See
for an extensive article explaining the chronology.

Q: In 1 Ki, what are 1, 2, 3, and 3 Kings?
A: In some Catholic Bibles 1 and 2 Samuel are called 1 and 2 Kings. Then they call 1 and 2 Kings 3 and 4 Kings. Asimov's Guide to the Bible p.267 also points this out.

Q: In 1 Ki, Josh, Jdg, and elsewhere, why is there so much violence in the Old Testament?
A: First of all, even a rapid reading of Revelation will convince most people it is not limited to the Old Testament. The Bible is not a "whitewashed" book that only tells of the good things people did and pretends the evil things never occurred. Indeed, many times godly men bravely struggled for righteousness in the face of evil and violence. The violence in the Old Testament falls into three broad categories.
Sinful Actions:
The Bible records not only the bad things unbelievers did, but it also records honestly the evil things done by believers, such as David.
At times, God is violent:
Whether it be Noahís flood, plagues, or other things, God brings judgment, and many times it is violent. People have differing views of the loss of a human life, and God, who made people for Himself and sees eternity, has a different view of death than many people.
Believerís godly actions: Not only is God violent at times, but sometimes He intended, desired, and even ordered His obedient children to "strap on a sword" and fight for His name and His people. Strict pacifists have difficulty reconciling with Godís view of war in the Old Testament. The resolution is simple: Godís commands show He never was a pacifist.
See Now Thatís A Good Question p.568-569 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki, why should we study the books of 1, 2 Kings and 1, 2 Chronicles?
A: The Bible gives us great doctrinal teaching in the New Testament letters, the great praises and prayers of Psalms, great prophecy in Revelation, and the great example of Jesus Himself to follow in the four gospels. So why do we need to study the books of Judges through Chronicles, where the examples are far short of perfect and doctrine plays a minor role? The answer is that while we can learn truths about God, man, and how they relate in many parts of the Bible, our learning to be wise would not be complete without seeing "in action" cases of peopleís lives, told from Godís perspective.
Not everybody always liked the book of Kings. The (heretical) Arian missionary Ufilas, when he translated the Bible for the Goths of Moesia, omitted the books of Kings and Chronicles because the Goths were "already too war-like." While Ufilas might of thought he was doing God a favor, being his editor and censor, we will study Godís unabridged word and let it show us by example what we need to see about holiness, manís depravity, wisdom, and Godís heart.
See 735 Baffling Bible Questions Answered p.119 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 1:1, why could Davidís body not give off any heat?
A: David was over seventy years old. He might have had a medical condition where his body was not metabolizing the food properly.

Q: In 1 Ki 1:3, why did Abishag serve David this way?
A: Four points to consider in the answer.
1. Perhaps Davidís advisors thought that David would be warmed both by her being next to him and by sexual relations.
2. The Bible does not say their attempts to care for David were correct.
3. If David and Abishag did have sexual relations, there would be nothing wrong with that, as presumably she was his concubine.
4. However, 1 Kings 1:4 specifically says they did not have sexual relations.

Q: In 1 Ki 1:5-9, was David at fault here for not firmly establishing the line of succession?
A: David might have made two mistakes here, not just one.
David promised Bathsheba, and thus Solomon, that Solomon would be king. However, David did not make his officials swear loyalty to Solomon. Later kings avoided this problem by having a period of co-reigning with their son. While David did have a brief co-reign with Solomon, apparently it should have started sooner, while David was still in good health.
David apparently did not give much thought to establishing his successor. God promised David that one of his sons would succeed him, but David could have avoided future strife, and possibly the death of his son Adonijah, if he had been given it more thought.
Today people can suddenly become much less concerned about prayer for a ministry once they are not involved in that ministry. So, before we look on Davidís mistakes too harshly, letís make sure we do not have the same shortcomings.

Q: In 1 Ki 1:6, how should we set up both freedom and rules and structure for our children?
A: Here are five suggestions.
Treasuring our children as God's gifts over which we are stewards
is the foundation of us setting up rules and structure for our kids (Psalm 127:3-5; 128:3). We are not to make them our idols, but are to value them just as important in God's eyes as ourselves (Philippians 2:3,4). We set up ground rules not for our benefit, but for theirs. I know I've made many mistakes as a parent, punishing the child who was not in the wrong, etc. but if your kids can see that you are on their side, and trying to be the best parent you can be, they can forgive you. I think a father's encouragement of his child will fall on deaf ears, if the father does not demonstrate his love for the child.
The point of all discipline
is for their gain, not ours. Discipline should not be based on venting our emotions, or how offended we might be when they do wrong, but we should provide consequences and other discipline for their benefit, not our feelings that day. However, while corporal punishment is a good method to use ((Proverbs 22:15; Hebrews 12:7-11), they should be punished for being disobedient, not for being childlike. Even God does not punish people for wrong things they do, if they were done in innocent ignorance, for sin is not imputed where there is no law (Romans 4:15; 5:13). While it is true that the growing child chooses his future, if they do not learn what is right and wrong, it is the parents that are at fault (Deuteronomy 6:7; Proverbs 22:6).
The transition of your primary objective
is essential as the child grows. When a child is little, we emphasize the rules more than the reasons for the rules, but if we never transition out of that, the college student away from home is left wondering why he should obey rules to which he never agreed with or saw the value. One thing we learned in the Growing Kids God's Way class was that with young kids parents set structured rules the child should follow, ó just because we said so. Many parents do not grow out of that mode, and the kids never internalize why. When the kids go off to college, the parents are shocked to find the kids have cast off their parents' rules. Probably every teen who leaves home and go to college casts off what they view as "unneeded rules", and the only morality and structure they have is what they themselves have chosen to follow.
It is important to provide all the rules for little kids. However, our job with older kids primarily is NOT to provide the ideal structure and freedom for them. Rather, it is to teach them, and work with them, so we together come up with the appropriate structure and rules. Over time, our role should get less and less. Ideally our role changes from referee, to coach, to cheerleader, encouraging a child of whom we can be proud.
For example, whether a teenager's curfew is 11:00 or 12:00 is not so important as that you have confidence that they will act responsibly. Asking the kid when he thinks his own curfew should be, and why, is much better than dictating a curfew that he can break when he is in college anyway.
Perhaps we cannot come up with just one "right" answer on the amount of structure, because there is no one right answer for all different kids. Song of Solomon 8:8-9 talks of seeing the character of their developing younger sister and as she matures, giving her the restrictions and freedom appropriate for her character. Ephesians 6:3 says for fathers not to exasperate their children. An all-too-easy way to exasperate them is to give older children rules without reasons, and inconsistent rules. Growing Kids God's Way also says it is easier to have lots of structure when a child is small, and release restrictions as the child matures, than it is to be too permissive and then have to tighten up later.
Expect to delight in your teens.
Godly expectations are an important thing the Growing Kids God's Way class taught us. We should not expect the teenage years to be full of headache and sorrow. Rather, during the teenage years the expectation is that after your spouse, your teens should be your best friends. More than smaller kids, you can share what is on your heart, and simply enjoy watching their transition to godly adults.
Deal with sin firmly, but without crushing the spirit.
Another thing related to what you said on being the prophet and priest in the family, is that a prophet not only teaches, but he rebukes. A prophet speaks to deal with what is unholy, while a priest handles what is holy. The things that are vulnerable and precious to your child, he can share with you, in confidence, and while a good father is strict about what needs to stop now, he can also delicately hold with care the fragile spirit of his child.
See the discussion on Proverbs 22:15 for more on structure and freedom in raising godly children.

Q: In 1 Ki 1:9, why did Adonijah go to En-rogel to be crowned the next king?
A: It would not do for Adonijah to be crowned in Jerusalem, where David and his soldiers would see it immediately. It was a distance away, but apparently it was still close enough to be convenient, and for David not to suspect anything.

Q: In 1 Ki 1:9 Adonijah used a stratagem, and Nathan used a stratagem in 1 Ki 1:12-14, so when is it right and when is it wrong to use a stratagem?
A: A strategy, where you hide some or all of your intentions until later, can be good or bad, depending on the purpose. Nathan's purpose was to get around David's emotional defenses and help him see how wrong his sin was. Nathan did not stand to gain anything personally, but this was for David's benefit. After this occurred, a godly person such as David would be glad that this was done.
Adonijah was circumventing the king's rightful authority for the sake of his own gain.
In general, in deciding whether or not we use a stratagem, we should ask these questions:
Is this something that God would want us to do, and would this glorify God? (See Colossians 3:17)
Is this something for our own selfish ends, or are we considering others' interests as more important than our own? (See Philippians 2:3,4,20,21)
Are we doing wrong to our neighbor, and are we loving them as we love ourselves? (See Romans 13:9-10)

Q: In 1 Ki 1:16, is it OK to bow to people?
A: Many times, yes. It is not OK to bow as an act of worship. However, it is clear that it was not an act of worship here, and it is OK in cases like this. The honor giving in bowing before a king is similar to the honor given in putting your hand over your heart when saying a pledge of allegiance.

Q: In 1 Ki 1:39-53 and 1 Chr 23:1, was Solomon anointed king here at Gihon, or was he anointed as king in 1 Chr 25:21-25?
A: 1 Chronicles 25:22 shows that this was the second time David anointed Solomon as king. The first time was rushed, without many people present, because of the threat of Adonijah. Perhaps David thought a second time, in front of as many people as possible, would do more to ensure that the people would not rebel from Solomon.
Note that all three verses clearly show that Solomon was anointed "king" before King David died. A co-regency, where a father and son reigned jointly for a few years, was common in ancient times to ensure the son would have the necessary experience. According to the Believerís Bible Commentary p.356, it is thought that Solomonís co-regency was two years. Perhaps David would have had fewer problems with Adonijah and Absalom if it had been longer.

Q: In 1 Ki 1:50-51, should Solomon have let Adonijah live, or not?
A: Adonijah was clinging to the horns of the altar because he wanted mercy, and he hoped that he would not be killed since he was in a holy place. Solomon spared his life, at least until a later time when Adonijah acted suspiciously.
Solomon was within his proper authority to kill traitors, both to stop them from taking over his rightful throne and to deter others from rebelling. Since Adonijah took it upon himself to be king, Solomon would have been right to have Adonijah killed right then. Solomon showed mercy to Adonijah, but in 1 Kings 1:52 Solomon made it clear that Adonijah had better watch himself, because Solomon would be watching him.
In 1 Kings 2:17, it is Adonijah alone, not Adonijah and Abishag that ask Bathsheba, not Solomon, to be married. Marrying the former king's concubine would slightly advance Adonijah's cause of kingship. Since Solomon saw no other motive, Solomon had Adonijah executed. See 735 Baffling Bible Questions Answered p.119-120 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 2:5,28,24, why Didnít David punish Joab before this?
A: David should have executed Joab for murder before this, but David rationalized that "these sons of Zeruiah are too strong for me" in 2 Samuel 3:39. David apparently reasoned that delayed justice was better than no justice. Davidís rationalizing might not have been correct, but delayed justice is better than no justice.

Q: In 1 Ki 2:9, was Solomon already wise before God granted his request and gave him wisdom?
A: 1 Kings 3:12, does not say that God was going to grant his request in the future, but that God already granted his request. God grants some requests only after we ask for them; other times He gives us things before we ask, and sometimes God can grant a request in part before it is asked, and in full after the person asks for it.

Q: In 1 Ki 2:10; 11:21,43; 14:20; 2 Ki 14:29, etc. why does it say one "slept with his fathers"?
A: This euphemism simply means that they died. See When Critics Ask p.195 and When Cultists Ask p.54-55 for similar answers.

Q: In 1 Ki 2:10, how could David be buried in Jerusalem, since it says he "rested/slept with his fathers", who were presumably buried in Bethlehem?
A: The term "buried with his fathers" means he went to the grave like they did, NOT that his body was with theirs, as the following examples prove.
"rested with his fathers and was buried near them in the City of David." 2 Kings 15:7a "rested with his fathers and was buried near them in a field for burial that belonged to the kings, for the people said, ĎHe had leprosy.í" 2 Chronicles 26:23
"rested with his fathers and was buried in his palace garden, the garden of Uzza." 2 Kings 21:18 "rested with his fathers and was buried in his palace." 2 Chronicles 33:20a
"rested with his fathers" 2 Kings 24:6a. Yet Jehoiakim was taken in bronze shackles to Babylon (2 Chronicles 36:6), where he presumably died there.
"rested with his fathers and was buried in the City of David." (1 Kings 2:10) His fathers were probably all buried in Bethlehem, but certainly not buried in Jerusalem, a city under Jebusite control until David conquered it.
"rested with his fathers and was buried in the city of David" 1 Kings 11:43; 2 Chronicles 9:31a. Solomonís grandfather and prior were buried in Bethlehem.

Q: In 1 Ki 2:22-25, was Solomon unjust to kill Adonijah for requesting Abishag as his wife?
A: No. On the surface, this appeared like a innocent request. However, Solomon was wise to detect ulterior motives because of the following combination:
Adonijah being older.
Adonijah had already shown he would do things (like being crowned) secretly without the king knowing it.
Adonijah's supporters were still around.
This marriage of the oldest son would strengthen his claim to be king.
Scripture gives no indication that Adonijah even liked Abishag or vice versa. If this request was not motivated out of love, then what other motive could there be?
The first three reasons were not sufficient for Solomon to "convict" Adonijah, because Adonijah asked for forgiveness and Solomon forgave him for what apparently was a past attitude that would not be repeated. However, Solomon was wise to still watch him cautiously, when Adonijah tried to make any move to strengthen his power,
Solomon seized upon that.
If Solomon simply had refused, Adonijah could tell others of the king's unreasonableness. We see here that Solomon punished for rebellious motives (without action) and that is different from many legal systems today. Adonijah should have known this would appear like he was trying to strengthen his hand, and who is to say that Solomon was not correct in his sizing up the situation.
If one were to apply Solomon's "primitive" principles to judicial systems today, this would mean that in court cases a defendant's prior criminal record and previous court appearances could be brought up, and thus convicted felons would have a higher standard than normal citizens to avoid suspicious behavior. Come to think of it, Solomon's principles do not seem so primitive after all.
See Hard Sayings of the Bible p.228-229 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 2:36-39, why did Solomon put this restraint on Shimei?
A: Shimei proved he was not loyal to Israelís king once, and this restriction made good sense. Shimei could not cause any more trouble, if he had to stay under the kingís eye in Jerusalem.

Q: In 1 Ki 2:38-46, did Shimei leave Jerusalem on some innocent occasion, as the skeptical Asimovís Guide to the Bible p.322 says?
A: No, Shimei took the kingís command lightly, as today many take the Lordís commands lightly. When a rebel is pardoned, there can still be restriction to ensure there is no further revolt.

Q: In 1 Ki 3, what is the common element in each of the executions?
A: Solomon did not just judge on current actions. He judged on current motives and past actions. Of course, God does not judge solely on a person's actions, but on motives, also.

Q: In 1 Ki 3:1, who was the Pharaoh of Egypt at this time?
A: According to a skeptical work Asimovís Guide to the Bible p.322, it was Psusennes II. Militarily, Egypt was very weak at this time, and there was hostility between Pharaoh and the priests of Thebes. Eliminating the threat of an eastern attack would make good sense for Psusennes II.

Q: In 1 Ki 3:1, was Solomon right to marry Pharaohís daughter?
A: No. 1 Kings 11:1-4 says that Solomon's wives turned his heart away from God. Apparently Solomon felt so secure in his knowledge of God, that he wrongly thought disobeying God in this area would not hurt him.

Q: In 1 Ki 3:3, what was wrong with sacrificing in the high places, since Solomon was sacrificing to God?
A: The high places were small raised platforms used for worship. These were most commonly used for Baal worship, though it is clearly God Solomon is worshipping here. Three points to consider in the answer.
The Old Testament said that God should be sacrificed to only at the Temple in Jerusalem. High places could just as easily be used later for Baal worship.
At this time, there was no central Temple in Jerusalem. For offering a thousand burnt offerings, there were no accommodations in Jerusalem for doing this. One cannot argue that since there was no Temple, one should not sacrifice to God. 1 Kings 3:5 clearly shows that God was pleased with Solomon's worship.
1 Kings 3:2-3 mentions, with caution, worshipping at high places, because this was forbidden once the temple was built. After the Temple was built, there would be no need to worship at a high place.

Q: In 1 Ki 3:7-11, what can we learn about our prayers today?
A: We can learn at least three things.
Be careful for what you ask.
God is more pleased with some prayers than others.
James 4:3 shows that God delights in prayer for help in serving God rather than prayer for selfish passions.

Q: In 1 Ki 3:7-11, when might God bless some one for not asking for something in prayer?
A: Solomon was not blessed because he did not pray at all, but rather because He asked for the more important things instead. Before we pray, we might want to prioritize what is most important.

Q: In 1 Ki 3:10-12, since God gave Solomon wisdom, why did Solomon judge between the two women, instead of just having them both killed as the Torah commanded?
A: People can choose to apply their wisdom to learning God's ways or apply it to other things. Solomon had the wisdom to succeed at whatever he did. He shrewdly discerned which woman was telling the truth, but he did not apply God's law as he should have, or he did not have proof that they were of this wicked profession.

Q: In 1 Ki 3:12, what is a "wise and discerning mind"?
A: The Hebrew here is interesting; it actually means a wise and hearing/discerning heart. The heart would be the seat of not just knowledge, but of applied knowledge, sound judgment, character, and concern. A wise heart is one that is hearing God.

Q: In 1 Ki 3:16-28, was Solomon right here, or should he have executed both of the women who were contending over the child?
A: Solomon should have eliminated prostitution from the land. Given that he made the mistake of not doing so, he judged between them fairly. Also, since they came forward themselves, some might excuse Solomon for not using self-incriminating testimony.

Q: In 1 Ki 3:28, what did Solomon do differently than in 1 Ki 2:22-23?
A: In 1 Kings 3:28, Solomon saw Adonijah's treasonous motive correctly, and put a stop to it. However, an outsider could question Solomon's actions, and always wonder if Solomon was really being too paranoid and ruthless or not. Solomon did the right thing at this time, but it did not necessarily give the appearance to all of being the right thing.
In 1 Kings 2:22-23 with the two prostitutes, it was clear to all how Solomon arrived at his decision. Solomon (allegedly) did the right thing, and everyone could see and agree that he did the right thing?
Did Solomon really do the right thing, though? The law said that prostitutes were to be stoned to death. Some might say Solomon did right, because they were not caught in the act, so Solomon did not have proof they were prostitutes. On the other hand, if they were known to be prostitutes, Solomon was neglecting God's law here.
Christians should do the right thing, and also try to have the appearance of doing the right thing. Paul was concerned about this in 2 Corinthians 8:20-21 and 1 Thessalonians 5:22. There are times when doing the right thing unavoidably does not look right to somebody. In that case, the right thing should still be done, though in a way not to offend another's conscience. There are other cases where people can all see and agree that something is a right thing, but it is actually wrong. For a chilling example of this, read John 16:2.

Q: In 1 Ki 4, who were some of Solomonís wives?
A: Here is a list of just a few of them.
Pharaohís daughter - 1 Kings 3:1
Probably the Queen of Sheba - 1 Kings 10:1-14
1 Kings 11:1-4 says Solomon had 700 wives and 300 concubines. Do not forget that God commanded the king not to have too many wives in Deuteronomy 17:17, and 1 Kings 11:1-4 specifically says Solomon sinned in marrying these foreign wives, and they led his heart astray.

Q: In 1 Ki 4:4, was Abiathar a priest, or was he deposed in 1 Ki 2:26-28?
A: Abiathar was high priest under David. When Solomon began his reign, he deposed Abiathar as high priest.

Q: In 1 Ki 4:4, who was the host here?
A: This refers to the regular army.

Q: In 1 Ki 4:6 (KJV), what are victuals?
A: This word means food.

Q: In 1 Ki 4:15,17, how do you pronounce the names "Ahimaaz" and "Paruah"?
A: a-HIM-a-az with all vowels short, and PAR-u-ah with only the "u" long according to Cruden's Concordance. The accents are the same in the KJV. The Wycliffe Bible Dictionary has a-HIM-a-az with the second "a" long, and pa-ROO-a with a long double "o".

Q: In 1 Ki 4:21, how did Solomon reign from the River?
A: This refers to the great Euphrates River. David had defeated the Aramaeans, and they were bringing tribute to Solomon.

Q: In 1 Ki 4:26, did Solomon have 40,000 stalls, or 4,000 stalls as 2 Chr 9:25 says?
A: This is most likely a copyist error. When Critics Ask p.181 points out that since there were 1,400 chariots in both passages, 4,000 is a much more reasonable ration than 40,000. The Hebrew for 40 is rbym and the Hebrew for 4 is rbh, so this would be a difference of only two letters. See Bible Difficulties & Seeming Contradictions p.64-64 for more on this copyist error.

Q: In 1 Ki 5:6, why did Solomon mention Sidonians, since Hiram was the king of Tyre?
A: Tyre was founded by colonists from Sidon 25 miles away, but Tyre became more important than Sidon. Regardless of whether Hiram had any control over the city of Sidon, In 969 B.C., Hiram became ruler over the "Sidonian people" (or Phoenician people) living in Tyre and the surrounding area. The skeptical Asimov's Guide to the Bible p.324 also says that Hiram became king in 969 B.C.

Q: In 1 Ki 5:11, did Hiram initiate the correspondence with Solomon, or did Solomon initiate it, as 2 Chronicles 2:3 implies?
A: While neither passage specifically says for certain who initiated the letters, both 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles show it was Solomon who wrote the first letter that was recorded. In 1 Kings 5:11, Hiram sent ambassadors (not letters) to Solomon.

Q: In 1 Ki 5:13-18 how were the 30,000 Israelites different from the 158,000+ non-Israelites Solomon enslaved?
A: There were basically two groups of people:
Non-Israelites were conscripted (apparently 12 months per year) by Solomon for his slave-labor force in 2 Chronicles 8:7-9. He conscripted 70,000 carriers and 80,000 stonecutters in the hills, a long with 3,600 foremen in 2 Chronicles 2:2.
30,000 Israelites were conscripted (serving one month per three months) in 1 Kings 5:13-14. These were different than the 70,000 carriers, 80,000 stonecutters in the hills, and 3,300 foremen according to 1 Kings 5:15-16.
2 Chronicles 8:9
specifically says that Solomon did not make slaves of the Israelites. While it was only the non-Israelites that were conscripted as slaves, 30,000 Israelites were still conscripted, though not as slaves.
The Expositor's Bible Commentary vol.4 p.59 says that the practice of taking ordinary free citizens for a period of time for public words, called corvee, was fairly common in ancient times, though this was new in Israel.
Deuteronomy 20:11, says that it was permissible to subject the non-Israelites to forced labor, but it does not say anything about Israelites.

Q: In 1 Ki 5, how come the numbers do not match 2 Chr 2?
A: The lists are different and the order is different, but they refer to the same event, so the numbers should be the same. 20 cors of beaten oil is 1 Kings 5 is the likely culprit: a copyist error for 20,000 cors.
Here are the numbers

Category 1 Kings 5 2 Chronicles 2
Cors of wheat 20,000 20,000
Cors of barley not given 20,000
Baths of wine not given 20,000
Cors of olive oil 20 20,000
Israelite forced laborers 30,000 not given
Israelites per month 10,000 not given
Carriers 70,000 70,000
Hewers of stone 80,000 80,000
foremen 3,300 3,600

The number of foremen in 1 Kings 5 is 3,600 in the Septuagint.
The Believers Bible Commentary p.445-446 and Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p.221-222 also acknowledges there were copyist errors.

Q: In 1 Ki 6, why would Solomon get wood from the Phoenicians?
A: While there were forests in Israel, the best wood came from the cedars of Lebanon. Solomon was not the first to ask the Phoenicians for wood. Around 1100 B.C. the Egyptian envoy Wen-Amon when to Phoenicia to get cedar wood, according to the Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.505.

Q: In 1 Ki 6:1, what does this say about the date of the Exodus?
A: We know that Solomon began to reign in 971/970 A.D., and the fourth year would be 967/966 B.C. 480 years earlier would be about 1447/1446 B.C. See When Critics Ask p.181-182 and the Believer's Bible Commentary p.361 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 6:1, since there four 40 years in a generation, and 480 = 12 * 40, is this simply saying the temple was built 12 generations after the Exodus?
A: No. The skeptical Asimovís Guide to the Bible p.327 suggests this, along with counting the consecutive years of the rule of the judges. They could simply have said 12 generations if they wished. The way Asimov "uses" language here, it would be impossible for them to say the numbers of years in a way Asimov would accept.

Q: In 1 Ki 6:7, why were there no axes or iron tools used in building the temple?
A: If the most important goal was to finish quickly, they would have done better to use axes and iron tools. However, using metal tools would leave small deposits of copper (if they were bronze) or iron. These metal deposits would oxidize and discolor the stone later. They were building something that would be seen for centuries and they did not want to take any shortcuts on the quality of their work. Likewise, when we build something for God, we do not want to take any moral shortcuts; they too will show later. See 1001 Bible Questions Answered p.352-353 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 6:31-32, why were the doors to be made of olive wood?
A: While scripture does not say, olive wood is very sturdy and insect-resistant. Olive trees can live for over 1,000 years. The doors had carved cherubim on them. The cherubim in Solomon's temple also were made of olive wood, and overlaid with gold.

Q: In 1 Ki 7:1, was Solomon's palace one building, or several buildings?
A: It could be either way, but The Bible Knowledge Commentary : Old Testament p.501 says it would be consistent with other Mideast palaces for it to be several interconnected buildings.

Q: In 1 Ki 7:13, is this Huram (or Hiram) the same as the king of Tyre?
A: No. He was an unknown workman who was half Israelite. The Believers Bible Commentary p.363 says the same.

Q: In 1 Ki 7:17,19,20,31,41, 2 Chr 4:12 (KJV), what are chapiters?
A: The NASB translates this as "capitals". These were the ornate decorations that formed the top part of a pillar in classical architecture.

Q: In 1 Ki 7:20, were there 200 pomegranates, or 100 pomegranates as 2 Chr 3:16 says?
A: It could be either way. This is most likely a copyist error, as the Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p.221 shows.

Q: In 1 Ki 7:21, why were the two big pillars named Jachin and Boaz?
A: These apparently were nicknames rather than names God commanded them to use. However, there is no indication God objected to these names. Jachin mean "He shall establish", and Boaz means "in Him is strength".

Q: In 1 Ki 7:23 and 2 Chr 4:2-5, is a circumference of 30 cubits and a diameter of 10 cubits the proper ratio for a circular object?
A: This ratio, differing from pi by 4.8%, is within normal limits if you account for thickness and imprecision. For a perfectly round object, the ratio of the circumference to the diameter is 3.14159 (pi). The circumference was 30 cubits, and the diameter was 10 cubits, which gives a ratio of 3. There are two points to consider in the answer.
Primary Answer, the rim:
The Bible Knowledge Commentary : Old Testament p.622 shows that a cubit was about one and a half feet. So, the dimensions were 45 feet and 15 feet. If the outside diameter and inside circumference were used, the ratio would be exactly 3.14159 if the thickness at the rim was 6 inches. 1 Kings 7:28 and 2 Chronicles 4:5 show that the thickness was a handbreadth. For reference, if this means the width of a hand, my hand is 4 inches wide. If it meant the length of a hand, my hand is about 7 inches long.
Furthermore, even if they used the outside circumference, just below the rim, and the rim protruded from the outside of the vessel, accounting for the rim would still explain the difference in ratio.
Secondary answer, Imprecision:
Even today we give measurements in so many significant figures. For example, assuming they measured both inner circumference and inner diameter, (or both outer circumference and outer diameter) a circumference of 30 to 30.49 cubits and a diameter of 10 to 9.51 cubits give a ratio of 3 to 3.21. 3.14159 is within that range. Therefore, imprecision alone, without appealing to the rim argument, is sufficient to explain this ratio.
See When Critics Ask p.182, Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p.198-199, and 735 Baffling Bible Questions Answered p.121-122 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 7:23, I can think of no more glaring challenge to the Bible's infallibility than this. In the verse, Solomon is constructing a Temple for the Lord. Part of its construction is described as follows:
And he made a molten sea, ten cubits from the one brim to the other: it was round all about, and its height was five cubits: and a line of thirty cubits did compass it round about. These dimensions give pi the startling value of 3. One can hardly suggest the "figurative language" excuses this, or that the author was just rounding off, since the various dimensions and details of temple construction are otherwise described in mundane and exacting detail. The only real possibility is that the author is ignorant of basic geometry.

A: We do not even need to bring up approximations to answer this. The basin did not have infinitesimal thickness, but it would have an outward-flaring brim. (it could not be inward-flaring or you would not be able to get the mold out.) If they measured the diameter from the top with either a rope or a stick, and the diameter from under the brim with a rope, they would get a value less than 3.14159. So, how wide would this brim have to be? On each side it would be a more 0.225 cubits assuming the basin was perfectly round (which it might not have been.) A cubit was about the distance between the elbow and tip of the middle finger. So, 0.225 cubits is about the length of my finger.
There is an interesting point here: it is not hard to see the answer, if you are only open to more than one possibility. I suspect this was not due to a lack of intelligence on the questioner's part, but rather people need to be more open to analyzing the facts.

Q: In 1 Ki 7:23 and 2 Chr 4:2-5, does the Bible say the value of pi is 3?
A: No. The skeptical Asimov's Guide to the Bible p.328 claims, "The explanation is, of course, that the Biblical writers were not mathematicians or even interested in mathematics and were merely giving approximate figures. Still, to those who are obsessed with the notion that every word in the Bible is infallible (and who know a little mathematics) it is bound to come as a shock to be told that the Bible says that the value of pi is 3."
Asimov had a Ph.D. in chemistry, so he should have known better. There are three different possibilities.
Rounding with significant digits:
Assume the circumference was exactly 30.0 cubits. Since they only gave the dimensions in whole numbers, which number would Asimov have them use? A perfectly round basin with no rim would give a value of 9.55, and that is closer to 10 than to any other number.
A rim:
Assume either the inner circumference was exactly 30.0 cubits, or that the thickness of the basin made the inner and outer circumference almost the same. A diameter that included a rim of 4 inches (0.22535 cubits) would give a ratio of exactly 3 to 1.
A flare:
Nothing says the walls of the basin were perfectly vertical. If the basin had a very slight flare of 0.75% at the top, then the outer circumference at the narrow part and the outer or inner diameter at the top would give a ratio of exactly 3 to 1.

Q: In 1 Ki 7:26 (KJV), what is a "bath" here?
A: A bath was a unit of measure. An NIV footnote says it was about 11,500 gallons, or 44 kiloliters.

Q: In 1 Ki 7:26, was the Sea of Bronze 2,000 baths, or 3,000 baths as 2 Chr 4:5 says?
A: We are not sure, as this is most likely a copyist error as Bible Difficulties & Seeming Contradictions p.64 says. Also, an NIV footnote says the Septuagint does not have this sentence.

Q: In 1 Ki 8:2 (KJV), when was the month of Ethanim?
A: This was the seventh month, which would be around October. Remember though, that they used a 360-day year.

Q: In 1 Ki 8:9, what was inside the ark?
A: Originally there were three things: the table of the Ten Commandments, Aaronís rod that budded, and a pot of manna (Hebrews 9:4). However, over the centuries, and when the ark had been in the hands of the Philistines and irreverent Israelites, apparently Aaronís rod and the manna were no longer there.
See Bible Difficulties & Seeming Contradictions p.160 for essentially the same answer.

Q: In 1 Ki 8:12, why does God dwell in thick darkness?
A: God dwells in darkness in at least two ways.
Since God is light, everything is relatively dark compared to God.
In addition, we do not see God because of His holiness. Metaphorically, dark, opaque clouds separate us from seeing God. But beyond the dark clouds God Himself is light, and is naturally unapproachable, as 1 Timothy 6:16 says.
While something very bright could live in darkness because it is covered, it could be dark in another way too. Some insects such as wasps and bees see more ultraviolet light than we do. Physically what could look dark to our eyes could be very bright to them. Spiritually what could be "dark" at the wavelengths of the sight of sinful man could be "bright" at shorted wavelengths of spiritual beings.

Q: In 1 Ki 8:12, how is it that the desire for us to do some things is good, yet we are not supposed to do them?
A: One reason is that the action would be good, but the timing was not right. However that was not the main reason here.
It had to be the right person to build the Temple, and God told David frankly that he was not the right person. David was very warlike, for example killing 90% of the Moabite males when God never told him to do so. God still loved David, but God did not want a man of blood (1 Chronicles 23:8; 28:3) to go down in history as the builder of Godís Temple.
Today, sometimes Christians do sin in such a way as to disqualify themselves from certain honorable positions. For example, many churches have a policy that if a pastor commits adultery and then repents, they will forgive him, love him, and accept him as a church member, but he can never be a pastor, elder, or deacon again.

Q: In 1 Ki 8:17-19, since God gives us the good desires of our heart, why did God say David's desire to build a Temple was good, but that he was not supposed to do it in 2 Kings 8:18-19?
A: God, like a parent, has the right to say no to a request. Building the Temple was a good desire, but it was not good for David to do it. God did not want a man of blood, who committed murder and adultery, to build His temple. Today, a work can be good to do, but a particular believer might not be the one to do it. Or, the particular believer might not be the one to do it alone, and might need to wait on God's timing.

Q: In 1 Ki 8:23, since there were no other gods like the Lord, does that mean there are other gods that are different?
A: If "god" is defined as anything which people choose to worship, then there are obviously many gods. Paul also says so in 1 Corinthians 8:5-6. Paul says in 1 Corinthians 10:20 that the sacrifices of the Gentiles to their gods were to demons.

Q: In 1 Ki 8:32, why did Solomon pray for God to give the righteous what they deserve, since none of us deserve God's grace?
A: See the discussion on Psalm 35:24 for the answer.

Q: In 1 Ki 8:32-53, should we pray that God would hear peopleís prayers in the future?
A: Believers pray according to what they know. Since we have the New Testament, we already know how God hears prayers and the conditions under which He has said He chooses to refuse to hear prayers. Instead of only asking that God hear our prayer, we can thank God that He promises to hear the prayers of His obedient children.

Q: In 1 Ki 8:40, why does God want people to fear Him?
A: Fear here is neither a false fear of one who is bluffing, nor a fear of one who is unjust or mean. Rather, this fear is a healthy, sober respect for the One who judges all menís souls. Fearing God is not only respectful of Him, but it is healthy for us, to keep us from sinning.

Q: In 1 Ki 8:51, what is a furnace of iron here?
A: This is not a furnace made out of iron, but it was the hottest man-made thing at that time. It was a furnace used to smelt iron.

Q: In 1 Ki 8:55, how should we bless other people?
A: In at least four ways.
Our lives should be a blessing to others.
We should honor others who personally are worthy of honor (Philippians 2:29), and those who, regardless of personal character, are in positions of honor. (Romans 13:7; 1 Peter 2:17).
We should pray to God for others, that God would bless them and grant them His grace and mercy (Acts 7:60; Philemon 6; Philippians 1:7,9-10; Ephesians 1:17-18; Colossians 1:9-10; 1 Thessalonians 1:2; 2 Thessalonians 1:11)
We should give to bless other people, including our money (James 2:14-17), and our hard work in the Lord (1 Thessalonians 1:5-6; 2:2,6-8,2:11-12).

Q: In 1 Ki 8:56, when and how should we bless God?
A: Our lives should be lives of praise to Him. We should speak to God, praising Him for His character and works, and thanking Him for His grace and mercies. We should also tell others of Godís greatness, love, and powerful works.

Q: In 1 Ki 8:58,61, what is the difference between God's commands and God's statutes?
A: God's statutes were God's laws, which all people were to follow or face judicial punishment. For example, the Ten Commandments were statutes. God had additional commandments for different people. For example, David was commanded not to build the temple. Regardless of what you call a command vs. a statute, we are to obey all that God has commanded for us.

Q: In 1 Ki 9:4, how did David walk with integrity of heart?
A: David sinned greatly, but he fully repented. It is comforting to know that God can consider us as walking with integrity, even after we sin, when we sincerely repent.

Q: In 1 Ki 9:11-13, why did Solomon sell some of the land to Hiram, king of Tyre, since Lev 25:23 says the land was not to be sold forever?
A: Solomon was wrong and should not have sold the land God intended Israel to have. Solomon likely thought the material and assistance from Hiram were worth more than the piece of land. However, God gave that land to the Israelites to possess, not for Solomon to do with as he pleased.
There is an application for us today. Sometimes when we compromise with evil, we can be "selling away" blessings and provision God originally intended for our children and others to have.

Q: In 1 Ki 9:11, Could Solomon giving away 20 cities of Naphtali to Tyre be a factor in the northern kingdomís hostility to Solomonís dynasty?
A: Asimovís Guide to the Bible p.326-327 mentions this point, and Asimov might be correct here. We do not know all the reasons why the northern Israelites wanted to break away. Certain heavy taxation was the primary earthly reason. Ultimately though, the reason was God wanted to separate the northern and southern kingdoms due to the disobedience starting under Solomon.

Q: In 1 Ki 9:17 (KJV), what is nether Beth-horon?
A: This is the city of lower Beth-horon, as opposed to upper Beth-horon.

Q: In 1 Ki 9:18 is it really "Tadmor", a famous oasis in the Syrian desert, or "Tamar" in the Judean desert in 2 Chr 8:4?
A: It is Tamar in Judah, 16 miles (26 kilometers) southwest of the Dead Sea, because it says it is in Judah. Correct spelling is considered more important to some modern people than to ancient people. See the New Bible Dictionary p.1235 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 9:22, did Solomon not use Israelites for forced labor, or did he levy 30,000 Israelites out of all of Israel as 1 Ki 5:13?
A: When Critics Ask p.182-183 says these two verses use different Hebrew words. 1 Kings 5:13 (5:27 in Hebrew Bibles) says mas or hammas, which means conscripts. 1 Kings 9:21 uses the word mas-obed, which means forced slave labor. 1 Kings 9:22 says Solomon did not employ any Israelites as slaves "abed". See Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p.199-200 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 9:23, were there 550 chief officers, or 250 as 2 Chr 8:10 says?
A: It could be either one, as this is most likely a copyist error, as the Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p.221-222 says.

Q: In 1 Ki 10:14 and 2 Chr 1:15-17, where did Solomon get all of this gold?
A: The skeptical Asimov's Guide to the Bible p.412,417 says the Chronicler describes Solomon's wealth "in terms of unbridled exaggeration." However, Solomon really was this wealthy.
Hiram of Tyre gave Solomon 120 talents of gold for 20 cities in Galilee. (1 Kings 9:14) Solomon and Hiram imported from Ophir 420 talents of gold (1 Kings 9:26) The Queen of Sheba gave Solomon 120 talents of gold (1 Kings 10:10). A talent of metal is about 75 pounds according to the NET translation p.602.
In one year Solomon got 666 talents of gold (1 Kings 10:14) Solomon used that gold to make 200 large gold shields, 300 other shields, and overlaid his throne and the drinking vessels with gold. (1 Kings 10:16-21)
How could they have so much gold in ancient times? This was a lot of wealth, but other kings had wealth too. According to 735 Baffling Bible Questions Answered p.120-121, Esarhaddon of Assyria "coated the walls" of the shrine of Asshur "with gold as if it were plaster." An Egyptian Pharaoh overlaid a 200-foot long barge with gold to the waterline. After Pharaoh Shishak invaded Judah, he took most of the gold and died a year later. His son, Osorkon I, in 921 B.C. donated 383 tons of gold and silver as part of his gift to the gods.
See Hard Sayings of the Bible p.242-243 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 10:22, is Tarshish the same place as Ophir?
A: No it is not. Ophir is probably modern Ethiopia or south of there. Tarshish (in modern Spain) was probably the westernmost civilized city. Asimovís Guide to the Bible p.332 also says that Ophir and Tarshish were different.
There were two other cities named Tarshish. One was on the island of Sardinian, and one in Asia Minor, but the one in Spain is the famous one in view here.

Q: In 1 Ki 10:23, how did Solomon exceed all the kings of the earth?
A: The word "earth" here can mean either "earth" or else the "land", i.e. the land of the Mideast. Solomon dedicated the temple in 960 B.C., and at this time the other Mideast Kingdoms were in disarray. Solomon was even wealthier than Egypt. The Libyan Shishaq/Shishak captured Egypt around 950/945 A.D. Thus, Solomon was the most prosperous ruler in the land of the Mideast, the world that they knew, at this time. He was also at the least, one of the more prosperous rulers in the world.
In Greece,
this time was part of the period known as the "Dark Ages" of Greek civilization.
In the Americas,
besides the Olmecs in Mexico and a few Mayans, American civilizations were very primitive around 1000 B.C..
In China,
this was the time of King Khao (1052-1002 B.C). King Khao died in a battle on the Han River. and King Mu (1001-847 B.C.) of the Zhou Dynasty became the next king.
In India,
until about 900 A.D. the Aryans were consolidating their power over the Dravidian peoples. The Aryans were not just one kingdom, though, but a number of tribes. TimeFrame 1500-600 B.C. p.138 says, "The later phase of India's Vedic age, roughly between 1000 and 600 B.C., was a time of enormous change and upheaval in almost every aspect of Aryan life. The Aryans spread east and south to the great valley of the Ganges River and beyond, clearing forests with fire, whenever necessary, to create space for their settlements. Their chronically feuding little states evolved into fewer and larger kingdoms and republics with permanent capitals and sprawling bureaucracies."
Thus China
had the only king to vie with Solomon as the richest ruler in the world.

Q: In 1 Ki 10:26, why did King Solomon have many chariots and horses, since Dt 17:16,17 says the king should not multiply horses?
A: Solomon was wrong to do so, on both counts. Two points to consider.
It was natural for a regular king to strengthen his military to provide all the protection possible.
Solomon was not king over a "natural kingdom" but over God's people. When you trust in God, sometimes obeying God means doing things where you rely on God and not your own strength.
Chariots are most effective for offensive warfare, on open plains, not defensive. God was not interested in the Israelites conquering or settling outside the Promised Land in Syria, Mesopotamia, or Egypt.

Q: In 1 Ki 11:1-3 [really 1 Ki 1:1-3], was it absurd that David slept with a young virgin, as the Muslim Ahmad Deedat asserts?
A: There is nothing like this in 1 Kings 11:1-3, but Deedat probably meant Abishag, Davidís nurse, in 1 King 1:1-3.
Two questions for anybody bringing this up.
1) Are you really saying that an old prophet having sex with a younger girl is absurd?
2) Since the Bible explicitly says David did not have sex with her, are you implying that the prophet David had sex with her, and on what basis?
David was old and about to die, and 1 Kings 1:4 explicitly says David did not have sexual relations with her, though she was said to be beautiful. Sometimes very old men, who are close to death, do not desire or are not capable of having sexual relations.
However, pretending that David was younger, and pretending he did have sexual relations with her, that would not be half as absurd as an alleged prophet having sex with a 8 or 9 year old girl, now would it? This is well documented in early authoritative Muslim records: Bukhari vol.5 book 58 ch.43 no.236 p.153; Bukhari vol.5 book 58 ch.43 no.234 p.152; Bukhari vol.7 book 62 ch.60 no.88 p.65; Sahih Muslim vol.2 book 8 ch.548 no.3309, 3310, 3311 p.715-716; Sahih Muslim vol.4 book 29 ch.1005 no.5981-5982 p.1299; Sunan Abu Dawud vol.2 book 5 ch.700 no.2116 p.569; Sunan Abu Dawud vol.3 book 36 ch.1769 no.4913, 4915, 4916, 4917, 4918 p.1373-1374; Sunan Abu Dawud vol.3 book 36 ch.1770 no.4915-4919 p.1374. Tirmidhi "Marriage according to Allah's apostle", #1027; (Sunan Nasíai, Book of Marriage, no.3255, 3256, 3257, 3258; Ibn-i-Majah vol.3 book 9 ch.13 no.1876, 1877 p.133-134; (Guillaume, A., The Life of Muhammad, a translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan, page 682).

Q: In 1 Ki 11:1-3, why did Solomon have 700 wives and 300 concubines, which contradicted Godís command in Dt 17:17?
A: Deuteronomy 17:17 says the king should not have many wives, and David and Solomon sinned by doing so. Marrying wives was a common way of strengthening alliances, but it was still wrong to disobey God. 1 Kings 11:1-4 says that Solomon sinned in marrying these foreign wives, and turned his heart away from God.
Hard Sayings of the Bible p.229 has an interesting application of this. While Solomon would have set a higher standard as an example, he probably began to see himself as beyond the need for this restriction from God. When a Christian leader today regards himself as beyond God's restrictions for common Christians, that leader is in very serious spiritual trouble.
See Todayís Handbook for Solving Bible Difficulties p.269-270, When Critics Ask p.183-184, and the Complete Book of Bible Answers p.52 for more info and how Solomon was disobedient to the Lord.

Q: In 1 Ki 11:11-13, was it that God did not mind the number of Solomonís wives but rather their strangeness? (A Muslim asserted this.)
A: It is untrue to say God did not mind Solomon having so many wives. While God did mind that Solomon took unbelieving wives (1 Kings 11:2), and God also commanded the kings not to take many wives in Deuteronomy 17:17.

Q: In 1 Ki 11:1-3, does this approve of polygamy?
A: No, because Solomon sinned in having so many wives. In general, the Old Testament permitted polygamy, but did not encourage it as Genesis 1 says, "the two", not "the many" shall become one flesh. In the New Testament, polygamy was not outlawed, but no elder or church leader (episcopos) could have more than one wife in 1 Timothy 3:1.
See When Cultists Ask p.52-53, Hard Sayings of the Bible p.229, 1001 Bible Questions Answered p.378-379, Today's Handbook for Solving Bible Difficulties p.269-270, 735 Baffling Bible Questions Answered p.122, and Bible Difficulties & Seeming Contradictions p.53-54 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 11:4,6, how was David's heart perfect toward God and Solomon's heart not perfect?
A: This is a good verse to observe what God views as "perfect". Neither David nor Solomon were sinlessly perfect, but "perfect" here does not mean that. Rather, a perfect heart means having your heart in the right place.
Even though David sinner greatly, in adultery, lying, and murder, he repented and after his repentance, Davidís heart was perfect.
Solomon on the other hand, sinned in marrying too many women, foreign, unbelieving wives, and even building temples to their idols. Solomon never publicly repented of that.
See Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p.200-201, When Critics Ask p.184, and the discussion on 1 Kings 15:5 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 11:14-23,40 and 2 Chr 10:2, why did Pharaoh help Solomon's enemies?
A: This might not have been the same pharaoh. Regardless though, like many people, the Egyptian government was opportunistic, and could change sides as it supported Egypt's advantage. Pharaoh gave asylum to Hadad the Edomite, Solomon's enemy in 1 Kings 11:14-23, though Pharaoh was reluctant to see him return to Edom. Pharaoh gave refuge to Jeroboam in 2 Chronicles 10:2. However, after Solomon died and Jeroboam ruled the northern kingdom, Pharaoh invaded both Judah and Israel.

Q: In 1 Ki 11:15 how did Joab lead the army here, since Solomon had Joab killed in 1 Ki 2:30-34?
A: The key to this is 1 Kings 11:15, which says this is a flashback to when David was king. In 1 Kings 2:30-34, Joab was not killed until after David had died. The writer includes this flashback to give us the background on Hadad of Edom.

Q: In 1 Ki 11:16, what other evidence do we have that Joab killed every male in Edom?
A: We do not have any extra-Biblical record of this, and probably for a good reason. There would be few Edomites left to write about it, and thus we do not have the official recorded history of the Edomites today.

Q: In 1 Ki 11:23, when did the kings of Syria reign?
A: Here is the chronology, taken from The Bible Knowledge Commentary : Old Testament p.509 and The New International Bible Commentary p.394.

Start of reign King
ca.940 B.C. Rezon/Hezion
ca. 915 B.C. Tabrimmon
ca. 900 B.C. Ben-Hadad I
ca. 860 B.C. Ben-Hadad II
843/841 B.C. Hazael
801/796 B.C. Ben-Hadad III
770 B.C. other kings
?/750 until 732 B.C. Rezin

Q: In 1 Ki 11:40, why did Shishak shelter the rebel Jeroboam from Solomon, when earlier Pharaoh had given his daughter in marriage to Solomon in 1 Ki 3:1?
A: These were different Pharaohs. Solomonís father-in-law was either Siamun or Psusennes II. After the death of these Pharaohís, Shishak, a Libyan who was a general in the Egyptian army, became Pharaoh around 945 B.C..
See The NIV Study Bible p.475,496, The New Geneva Study Bible p.476,493 for more info. Asimovís Guide to the Bible p.335 also agrees with this.

Q: In 1 Ki 11:40, why does this say "King" instead of "Pharaoh"?
A: The ruler of northern Egypt was Shishak, a general from Libya. While he and his descendants were called Pharaohs, they never ruled all of Egypt, and perhaps the Bible writer wanted to indicate that Shishak became ruler, but was not from the former Pharaohís family. Asimovís Guide to the Bible p.336 also mentions this.

Q: In 1 Ki 12:6-11 and 2 Chr 10:1-15, why was Rehoboam so foolish?
A: There are two possible complementary reasons.
Some people are not looking for new ideas. Perhaps Rehoboam had already made up his mind and just pretended to appear to consult all sides.
On the other hand, perhaps he judged which advice was superior solely by his closeness to the people giving the advice. Today, people can make the same mistake of deciding between conflicting views solely on the closeness of the advisor. Of course, 1 Kings 12:15 gives the ultimate cause: God wanted the kingdom to be divided.

Q: In 1 Ki 12:6-11 and 2 Chr 10:1-15, how do people today make the same type of mistakes as Rehoboam?
A: Pride comes before a fall, and often people need to have a great deal of self-confidence before they will do really foolish things. If the idea that the Israelites might possibly rebel had even occurred to Rehoboam or his foolish counselors, certainly Rehoboam would not have taken them for granted.
On your job, among your co-workers, at your church, and in your family, what things do you think you can have so much confidence in that you can take for granted?

Q: In 1 Ki 12:20, did only Judah follow the house of David, or did Benjamin also follow in 1 Ki 12:21-23 and 2 Chr 11:12?
A: "Judah" here means the land of the kingdom of Judah. Benjamin obviously was also intended, because the next verse said Benjamin was with Judah. Also, the tribe of Simeon was scattered throughout Judah, and many Levites in the land of Judah. See 1001 Bible Questions Answered p.141 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 12:25, did Jeroboam live in Shechem, or in Tirzah as 1 Ki 14:12-17 says?
A: Either Jeroboam could have moved, or what is more common, kings and princes had more than one home. Shechem was a fortified city. In 1 Kings 14:12-17, Jeroboam and his wife moved to Tirzah when their son was ill. Perhaps they thought Tirzah's climate was better for their dying son. See When Critics Ask p.185 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 12:28-29, why did Jeroboam have two golden calves?
A: Jeroboam believed that if the northern Israelites continued to worship every year at Jerusalem, their loyalty to him would always be suspect, as 1 Kings 12:27 shows.
Todayís Handbook for Solving Bible Difficulties p.271-272 has an interesting theory, that these calves were a false worship of the true God. Since Baal was often shown riding on two calves, and since the ark had two cherubim, which might have resembled calves, the two calves were as though God was riding on them, except that God was not shown.
However, this view cannot be correct, because in 1 Kings 12:28, Jeroboam said "behold thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt." (KJV); thus, these calves themselves were worshipped as gods, perhaps like Aaronís golden calf. Calves and bulls were commonly worshiped from Asia Minor to Egypt. See 735 Baffling Bible Questions Answered p.122 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 12:29, why did Jeroboam choose Bethel and Dan to place the golden calves?
A: There were probably two reasons.
Bethel was in the southern part of the northern kingdom. Dan was in the far north. This would be more convenient for the people, and Jeroboam probably reasoned this would help hold the nation together.
Todayís Handbook for Solving Bible Difficulties p.270-271 points out that there had been a shrine at Dan for 300 years, longer than the Israelites had been in Jerusalem. Abraham himself had built an altar at Bethel. Thus, Jeroboam selected two places that had a longer tradition of Israelite religious worship than Jerusalem. For many, tradition is more important than obeying the true God.

Q: In 1 Ki 12:32, what day is the eighth month and fifteenth day?
A: This would be the middle of October-November. The feast of Tabernacles (Leviticus 23:33-36) was on the fifteenth day of the seventh month.

Q: In 1 Ki 12:33-13:7,33, even after this miracle, why did Jeroboam not repent?
A: Jeroboam's had already publicly rejected the worship of God, and so his kingdom had no authority apart from the idolatrous worship. When you have traveled down a wicked path, repentance means returning back from that path. People can be especially reluctant to do that when they might lose their power, influence, and possibly their life, if they admit they were wrong. Always be willing to admit it when you are wrong.

Q: In 1 Ki 13:1-24, why did God not only allow this to happen, but deliberately sent a lion to kill a young prophet who was obedient except for one thing when he was deceived?
A: This seems inequitable to a prophet who was following God, when others who were not courageously delivering messages from God were not killed by lions. It is inequitable. Apparently God is not apparently concerned with everything being immediately equitable in this life. On Judgment Day, God will set everything right.
God could have not had the lion come, but God had a more important message to deliver, which God delivered by the prophet's death. God emphasized that His prophecy would surely come to pass, and that this message came from God.
See 735 Baffling Bible Questions Answered p.122-123 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 13:18, why did this old prophet lie to the young prophet?
A: The old prophet tragically deceived the young prophet because he trusted his own natural sense of what was OK more than the young prophet's words. This was one sin.
A more serious sin is that the old prophet claimed his own natural views as God's word. This is condemned in Proverbs 30:5-6 and 1 Corinthians 4:6.

Q: In 1 Ki 13:18, when should we not follow a true prophet of God?
A: Balaam was a true prophet of God, who in Numbers 22-24 sold out for money. Likewise, even if someone is a believer and even a true prophet, we should not follow them if they are being disobedient to God or teaching contrary to what God has clearly revealed in His word.

Q: In 1 Ki 13:22,24,29 (KJV), what is a carcase?
A: This is a carcass, or a body.

Q: In 1 Ki 14:1,12-13,17, did Abijah die for the sins of his father, since Ezek 18:14-20 says that sons should not be put to death for the sins of their father?
A: No. Abijah was guiltless of the sins of his father, and God did not take his life for the sins of his father. Rather, Abijah died because he was righteous, before he had too many corrupting influences, and Abijah would have eternal life with God in Heaven.

Q: In 1 Ki 14:1,12-13,17, why did God promise that all Jeroboam's other sons would die for Jeroboam's sin, since Ezek 18:14-20 says that sons should not be put to death for the sins of their father?
A: They did not directly die for the guilt of their father's sins, though indirectly they died because of consequences of their father's sin. They were not guiltless people declared guilty by God for something they did not do. Rather, 1 Kings 14:13 says that it was only Abijah that had some good in him. Jeroboam's sons died for their choosing to share in the sins of Jeroboam. Through Jeroboam's teaching and example, they choose to make Jeroboam's sins their own.
It is a sobering thing to contemplate how a person's free will, through persuasion and teaching, affects another person's free will. On the negative side, it is sad to see the affects an ungodly parent or role model has on others. On the other hand, it is good that a godly parent or role model can be very influential others in God bringing them to Himself.

Q: In 1 Ki 14:1,12-13,17, why did God have Abijah, Jeroboam's godly son die?
A: God does not seem to feel compelled to always tell us right now why He does everything He does. However, we can see a couple of things here.
All of Jeroboam's family would be violently killed, and Abijah was spared that.
Abijah was still a boy, and had he lived, there would have been ample opportunity for his own parents, pagan priests, and others to corrupt him, by teaching him to be "religious" in the child-sacrificing, immoral religion of Baal worship.

Q: In 1 Ki 14:3 (KJV), what are a cracknel and a cruse of honey?
A: The NASB, NIV, and NRSV translate this as "cakes" and a "jar" of honey.

Q: In 1 Ki 14:23, what exactly were high places?
A: These were not places on the tops of mountains. Rather, they were small platforms of stones and earth used in Baal worship, according to Today's Handbook for Solving Bible Difficulties p.272-273.

Q: In 1 Ki 14:23, what were asherim?
A: These originally were objects, probably wooden poles, made to worship Asherah. However, they were made to worship other gods and goddesses, too. Todayís Handbook for Solving Bible Difficulties cautions us that other than the fact that they could be burned (Deuteronomy 12:3) and cut down (Exodus 34:13), we do not really know if they were poles.

Q: In 1 Ki 14:24; 15:12; 22:46 (KJV), who were the sodomites in the land?
A: The NIV translates this as male shrine prostitutes, and the NRSV says male temple prostitutes. The NASB says "male cult prostitutes". In the Canaanite religion, prostitution was always within the context of their religion.

Q: In 1 Ki 14:25-28, what happened to Beth-Shemesh?
A: Archaeological evidence indicates that Beth-Shemesh was destroyed about the time of Rehoboam. This was probably due to Pharaoh Shishakís invasion of Judah during Rehoboamís fifth year. See the New Bible Dictionary p.146 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 14:31, was Abijah's father Rehoboam, or was it David as 1 Ki 15:3 says?
A: Abijah's direct father was Rehoboam. In Hebrew the word father is also used for ancestor, and David was Abijah's great grandfather.

Q: In 1 Ki 15:5, how did David do everything right except in the case of Uriah?
A: This does not mean David was sinlessly perfect except for one sin. Rather David did the following:
a) David's passivity with Uzza and the ark (2 Samuel 6:3-10)
b) Too lax a parent (2 Samuel 13:21)
c) Nabal (1 Samuel 25:21-22,33-34)
d) The Census (2 Samuel 24:2-4; 1 Chronicles 21:2-4)
e) Unspecified sins of his youth (Psalm 25:7)
Rather David trusted in God from his youth, and He was a righteous in God's sight, but righteous means He trusted in God's mercy, not that David was sinlessly perfect. See When Critics Ask p.185, 735 Baffling Bible Questions Answered p.123, and the discussion on 1 Kings 11:4,6 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 15:7, what are the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah?
A: These were not the books of 1 and 2 Kings; but rather secular historical records.

Q: In 1 Ki 15:14, how was Asa's heart perfect, since all the high places were not removed?
A: Asa was trying to follow God, and Asa tried to remove all the high places. However, he was unsuccessful in removing all of them. See also the discussion on 2 Chronicles 14:3-4 and 15:17 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 15:29, was Baasha right to kill the entire house of Jeroboam?
A: Nothing says Baasha was right in doing this. Rather, it was prophesied that he would. Baasha was an ungodly king who would not care if his actions pleased God or not.

Q: In 1 Ki 16:1, how do you pronounce the name "Hanani"?
A: It is pronounced as "ha-NA-ni" with a dot over the first a, the second a is long, and a short i, according to the Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.749. The accent is the same in the KJV. Cruden's Concordance is the same, except that the second a is short.

Q: In 1 Ki 16:5,20,27, what are the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel?
A: 1 Kings says that Omri is mentioned in them, and Omri is not mentioned in the books of 1 and 2 Chronicles. The Chronicles of the Kings of Israel is not a part of the Bible, but rather secular historical records that we do not have preserved today.

Q: In 1 Ki 16:5,20,27 since the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel and Judah were not God's word, and since material from secular sources such as those were utilized in writing the Bible, and what point did the content become God's inerrant word?
A: There are a number of places where non-scriptural sources were quoted or used in God's word. The meaning became God's word when it was written in God's word. The words themselves are not "magical". It is God communicating the meaning that is important. If a historical record is correct, God can direct a Bible writer to use that information.

Q: In 1 Ki 16:11, what does this mean?
A: As soon as Zimri began to reign, he killed every male in Baasha's family, so that no one from the previous dynasty would contest his kingship or start a rebellion. The Bible does not approve of this, but candidly illustrates just how cruel some people can be.

Q: In 1 Ki 16:31, what else do we know about Omri, King of Israel?
A: The NIV Study Bible p.508 says that we do not know much about Omri except that he founded a dynasty that lasted over 40 years and built up Samaria as the capital, and by his marriage brought in widespread Baal worship. The annals of Tiglath-Pileser III call Israel "The land of Omri" 150 years later (732 B.C.) Asimovís Guide to the Bible p.343 says similar.

Q: In 1 Ki 16:34, did Hiel sacrifice his own children?
A: No. This verse actually indicates that the boys just died, not that they were sacrificed. Joshua's prediction in Joshua 6:26 was fulfilled. It might seem severe for God to keep His word here, but God always keeps his word, and Hiel was reckless to ignore it.

Q: In 1 Ki 16:34, why do some people go into situations cursed by God?
A: There are at least two reasons: ignorance and no fear of God.
can be innocent, but it is not always innocent if the person deliberately chose not to take the opportunity to learn what God had said. However, any kind of ignorance of the way of truth is better than knowing the way of truth and turning your back on it, as 2 Peter 2:21-22 says.
No fear of God
is knowing what God said but ignoring it. Either it is not believing God exists, or believing that God will not stop you. Actually, God might not stop you, but God will always bring consequences, on judgment day, or in this life too.

Q: In 1 Ki 17:3, how do you pronounce the name of the brook of Cherith?
A: Cruden's Concordance and the Wycliffe Bible Dictionary both say KE-rith with both vowels short. The KJV has the same accent. The Hebrew language did not have a "ch" sound.

Q: In 1 Ki 18, did Elijahís "prophetic/Yahwist" party become increasingly intolerant of other worship, as the skeptical Asimovís Guide to the Bible p.344 says?
A: What Asimov calls a "party" were the worshippers of the true God. Asimov did not make his case well here, as he has no evidence that they became less tolerant.

Q: In 1 Ki 18:3-5,7, was this the same Obadiah who wrote the book of Obadiah in the Bible?
A: No, it is not the same Obadiah. The Believer's Bible Commentary p.379 and The Bible Knowledge Commentary : Old Testament p.525 say the same. The Expositor's Bible Commentary volume 7 p.142 also says it is unlikely they are the same.

Q: In 1 Ki 18:3-16, why do Christians, without real cause, sometimes fear obedient servants of God as Obadiah feared Elijah?
A: Obadiah feared that Elijah would disappear and leave Obadiah "stranded" and in big trouble. Christians today can fear relying on others for two reasons.
They might have a lack of faith in God, that God will fail to watch over them and have the other Christian to leave them stranded.
They might not trust the other Christian, thinking that they will let them down. Sometimes this happens with immature and disobedient Christians. There comes a point though, where you have to trust mature Christians on some things and leave the results to God.

Q: In 1 Ki 18:19-20, why would the evil king Ahab, who was trying to catch Elijah, consent to call an assembly that Elijah requested?
A: While Ahab might have done so because he was desperate to do anything that might bring rain to the land, there is a more likely motive of Ahab's self interest. Ahab saw that his kingdom was at stake. If he just killed Elijah and the rain did not come, everyone could blame it on Ahab. However, if Ahab first gave Elijah an opportunity, and nothing happened, then Ahab would appear to have a good reason to execute Elijah and get him out of the way, and more importantly, Elijah would be vilified and be a convenient scapegoat.

Q: In 1 Ki 18:21, should we ever say things like "if the Lord is God follow Him, but if another is God, follow him"?
A: It is OK to say this. One time I asked a leader in the Unification Church (Moonies) if, hypothetically speaking, he found out that Rev. Moon was not from God after all, what would he do? He turned right around and asked me what I would do if I found out that Christ was not really from God. I replied that I knew Christ was from God, but if He was not, I would follow the truth, whatever it would be. After he spoke a while longer I reminded him of the original question, and he finally answered "it is dishonorable and disrespectful to even question Rev. Moon."
It is hard to dialogue with people who do not want to know the truth. Then I asked him how then his group differed from Jim Jones' group. I am not sure if I said the right thing or not. Anyway, I was told I was not welcome back there anymore.

Q: In 1 Ki 18:22, how was Elijah the only prophet that lived, since Obadiah hid 150 prophets in 1 Ki 18:13?
A: Actually, there were 7,000 people in Israel who had not bowed the knee to Baal, but Elijah did not know that yet. While Elijah was mistaken in what he said, the Bible is accurately recording what Elijah said.

Q: In 1 Ki 18:27 (KJV), what does "peradventure" mean?
A: It means "perhaps" here. Sometimes is also means "By chance or by coincidence".

Q: In 1 Ki 18:27, was Elijah right to use ridicule here?
A: Sure. Nothing in the Bible says believers should never use ridicule, and Paul and Jesus used ridicule and strong rebuke. Our modern western culture is coming to believe that negative criticism, especially about religion, is always wrong, but this us just a modern subjective view. 1 Peter 3:15-16 says we should always have an answer for our faith, but with gentleness and respect. However, answering for our faith is different from rebuke, as the writer of this, Peter, is the same one who told Simon Magus "may your money perish with you" in Acts 8:20. The balance is this: on one hand Peter spoke very strongly against Simon, yet Peter was genuinely concerned for Simon. See When Critics Ask p.186 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 18:33-35, where did Elijah get 12 barrels of water during the drought?
A: There are springs on Mount Carmel which have water year-round. However, during a drought the springs might have dried up. However, the Mediterranean Sea was 15 miles away, and its water would be good for quenching a regular fire. Regardless of where the Israelites obtained the water, they had already carted the water to the sacrifices. Since the trench was big enough to hold two "seahs" of seed, When Critics Ask p.187 says the amount of water probably was about 13 quarts. See 1001 Bible Questions Answered p.307-308 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 18:40, why did Elijah commit murder? (An atheist asked this.)
A: Why ask a question that already presumes the answer? Elijah and the Israelites did not murder a soul. They executed people proven guilty of capital crimes under the Old Testament law.
Under the Old Testament Law in Deuteronomy 13:13-15; 17:2-5, idolators were to be executed, and that is what Elijah oversaw. For the Israelites under the Old Testament law, idolatry was as serious as murder.
If you do not like the fact that the Old Testament prescribed execution for idolators, do not blame Elijah and the Israelites for carrying out the Lord's commands. Rather, your difficulty is not accepting that God has the right to make whatever laws against idolatry that He wishes.
See Bible Difficulties & Seeming Contradictions p.107-108, When Critics Ask p.187-188, Hard Sayings of the Bible p.229-230, and 735 Baffling Bible Questions Answered p.123-124 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 18:46, why did Elijah run so far and so quickly here?
A: The distance here was 20 to 25 miles, so this was approximately a marathon. Elijah was probably in good shape, but The Bible Knowledge Commentary : Old Testament p.527 points out that this had to be with divinely given energy. Remember that the Greek soldier who ran the distance of a Marathon, to announce to the Athenians the Persian defeat, died of exhaustion shortly after giving his message.

Q: In 1 Ki 19:2, why would Jezebel send a messenger to Elijah that he would be killed, instead of just sending soldiers to kill him?
A: It could be for two reasons.
Elijah was a hero now, for bringing rain. It would not look good for the monarchy to kill Elijah when he was so popular with the people. The people might kill Ahab and Jezebel like they killed the prophets of Baal.
By threatening Elijah, if Elijah panicked and ran (which he did), that would discredit Elijah, or at least get him out of the eye of the people.
Many times government leaders have to do things in such as manner as to maintain popularity with the people so that they will remain in power.

Q: In 1 Ki 19:5-21, what did God do to restore Elijah after he was burned out?
A: God did seven things.
He gave Elijah sleep.
Nourished Elijah with food.
Listened patiently to his complaints, which must have seemed very small to God.
God gave Elijah a new, fresh glimpse of Himself.
God comforted Elijah, showing Elijah that he was not alone.
God gave Elijah a purpose and a task.
Most importantly, Elijah especially felt Godís presence.
Sometimes Christians today need these seven things if they feel burned out.

Q: In 1 Ki 20, why did God help an ungodly king?
A: Sometimes people think they are in complicated situation, But often God deals with more complicated situations. Ahab was an ungodly king over an people who primarily were ungodly, but contained a godly remnant. Syria had no godly remnant, and 1 Kings 20:28 shows a defeat at this time would show the world that God was not all-powerful. God did not want Ahab to be totally successful, but God did not want Israel to be destroyed yet, or subject to the Syrians.

Q: In 1 Ki 20:18-19, what is the significance of this?
A: Ben-Hadad, who was drunk at the time, thought the warriors coming out were just a few, so he ordered the Syrians to take them alive, perhaps to use as slaves. Since they were to be taken alive, the Syrian archers would not shoot at them.

Q: Actually, 1 Ki 20:22 sounds similar to what the Puritan general Oliver Cromwell once said, "Trust in God and keep your [gun]powder dry." In what sense is that true and in what sense is that false?
A: Oliver Cromwell was similar to Jehu in the Bible. Cromwell was a Christian who was very serious about following God, but he used ungodly, cruel means. Anyway, to answer this question, believers are to be well-prepared to served God, be it with gunpowder or other things. However, we should be careful to trust God and not our gunpowder or our own preparations. For a good example of this, consider Gideon's small army in Judges 7.

Q: In 1 Ki 20:23,28, why would the Syrians say the Israelite gods (plural) are only gods of the hills?
A: The Syrians fought with chariots, which were most effective on the plains. The Israelites had already defeated the Syrians, but only on the hills. God's people defeated the Syrians when God's people had the advantage of the terrain, but God was going to demonstrate that His people could defeat the Syrians even when the terrain was to their disadvantage.
Apparently the Syrians said gods (plural) because they knew little about the true God of Israel. All they knew was that many Israelites practiced idolatry.

Q: In 1 Ki 20:24, why did Ben-Hadad replace the kings with commanders?
A: This does not mean the kings under Ben-Hadad no longer ruled. Rather, it means that the politically important kings were removed from leading the army, and professional soldiers took their place.

Q: In 1 Ki 20:26, is this the same Aphek where the Philistines fought 200 years earlier in 1 Sam 4:1?
A: No, the Aphek of 1 Kings 20:26 is about four miles east of the Sea of Galilee, halfway between Samaria and Damascus, according to The NIV Study Bible p.516 and The New Geneva Study Bible p.383,509, and The Nelson Study Bible p.601. The modern village of Fik is there. Asimovís Guide to the Bible p.348-349 also says similar.

Q: In 1 Ki 20:29-30, how could 127,000 Syrians be killed in so short a time?
A: While dense companies of archers could be partly responsible, they must have had an encirclement or other trap to kill so many Syrians. Also, rain, mud, or a river could have been a lethal obstacle for the Syrians.

Q: In 1 Ki 20:29-34,42, why was Ahab wrong to be merciful to Ben-Hadad?
A: It was wrong to extend mercy to unrepentant leaders, who were still desiring to destroy God's people.

Q: In 1 Ki 20:34, how did King Ahab have streets in Damascus?
A: After Ahab defeated Ben-Hadad of Damascus, one of the terms of peace was that Ahab would be able to have a "trade zone" where Israelite merchants could buy and sell, presumably without paying any taxes to Ben-Hadad. See Todayís Handbook for Solving Bible Difficulties p.273-274 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 20:35-36, why was the man killed for refusing to wound a prophet of God?
A: Wounding true prophets of God was not something believers typically should do. However, when a prophet who was recognized as a true prophet, gave a command, and the other refused to obey, that was wrong. We are not called to always do what is customary and typical, but rather called to always obey the Lord.

Q: In 1 Ki 20:37-42, why did the prophet need to be wounded?
A: The prophet needed to be wounded to disguise himself so that the king think he was a soldier and would not recognize him as a prophet. If he was not wounded, then the question would arise as to why he was not with the other soldiers.

Q: In 1 Ki 20:42, how did Ahab sin by releasing Ben-Hadad?
A: The NIV Study Bible p.517 says it could be either because Ahab did not ask of the Lord, or that he violated a previous, unrecorded revelation. The New Geneva Study Bible p.510 and The Expositorís Bible Commentary volume 4 p.158 both say Ahab violated the rules of holy warfare by yoking Israel to a foreign power.

Q: In 1 Ki 21:3-4, why was Naboth unwilling to sell his vineyard, since Naboth would profit financially?
A: For Naboth it was a moral issue of obeying God. The Israelites were commanded not to give up their ancestral land in Leviticus 25:23-28 and Numbers 36:7, and Naboth wanted to obey God. See 735 Baffling Bible Questions Answered p.124 and The Bible Knowledge Commentary : Old Testament p.532 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 21:19, did dogs lick up Ahab's blood where Naboth was murdered, or did they lick up Ahab's blood by the pool of Samaria as 1 Ki 22:37-38 says?
A: There is no reason that it was not both. Naboth lived just outside the palace, which was in Samaria. Naboth was accused in a public place, which could have been near the Pool of Samaria, in the city. The pool was where Ahab's chariot was washed. See When Critics Ask p.187-188 and Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p.201-202 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 21:20,25, how does one "sell himself to do evil"?
A: Ahab sold himself, though somewhat acknowledging Elijah and his God, still doing evil, selling out to money and power by continuing in Baal worship. Ahab might seem to be an inconsistent man, but he was consistent in trying to do what appeared best for himself. Many people today can appear moral, good, and even Christian, but the real test is if they are still that way when it does not appear to be in their best interest.

Q: In 1 Ki 21:29, why did Ahab humble himself here?
A: Ahab genuinely humbled himself because he knew he stepped out of the bounds of decency, and he at least partially believed Elijah was from God. Ahab was a vacillating man, and vacillating people are further spoken of in James 1:7-8 and 2 Peter 2:20-22.

Q: In 1 Ki 22, what was the Book of the Law that was found?
A: This might have been the book of Deuteronomy, but most likely it was the Torah, the first five books of the Bible. See 735 Baffling Bible Questions Answered p.130-131 for a more extensive answer.

Q: In 1 Ki 22:6-7, why did Jehoshaphat ally himself with the evil king Ahab?
A: While scripture does not say, we can see a few specific details and speculate on the general reason.
Ahab was an evil Baal worshipper, but after Jezebel had Naboth killed, Elijah rebuked Ahab, and 1 Kings 21:27 shows Ahab tore his clothes (a sign of deep repentance). However, possibly temporary repentance for an action does not necessarily mean the person has come to God. However, Jehoshaphat might just have been optimistic here.
Previously there were terrible battles between Judah and Israel, and Jehoshaphat did not want to see more civil war among God's people.
There were powerful enemies around, from the Egyptian/Ethiopian kingdom to the Syrians, to the Assyrians. According to the Biblical Archaeology Review Jan./Feb. 1991 p.54, Shalmaneser reported that Ahab with his 2,000 chariots had more chariots than any other of the allies fighting Assyria at the battle of Qarqar in 853 B.C.
In general
, Jehoshaphat was careful to follow God himself, but this and 2 Chronicles 19:2; 20:35 indicate that Jehoshaphat was rather carefree with making alliances with idolatrous kings.

Q: In 1 Ki 22:20-23, does God send lies?
A: This passage very precisely answers this question. God does not lie. However, not only does God permit liars, He even uses liars, sending lying spirits to accomplish His will, which in this case is the downfall of an evil king.
Romans 8:28 says that God works all things together for good, not just good things. Ephesians 1:11 likewise says that God works out everything according to His plan. God even uses violent and wicked men for His own ends in Habakkuk 1:6-13. See also the discussion on Proverbs 16:4, Hard Sayings of the Bible p.230-231, Bible Difficulties & Seeming Contradictions p.54-55, Difficulties in the Bible p.107-111, When Critics Ask p.188-189, and 735 Baffling Bible Questions Answered p.124-125 for more info.

Q: In 1 Ki 22:48, why were Jehoshaphat's ships destroyed at Ezion-geber?
A: Jehoshaphat should not have been willing to partner with Ahaziah. The ships were destroyed as a punishment to Jehoshaphat, and after this God was not willing to let Jehoshaphat trade by himself either.

Q: In 1 Ki 22:48, was Jehoshaphat willing to partner with Ahaziah, or was he unwilling as 1 Ki 22:49 says?
A: Both were true, but at different times. Jehoshaphat was originally willing. However, either after the prophet Eliezer rebuked Jehoshaphat, or else after the fleet was destroyed, Jehoshaphat was no longer willing. If Jehoshaphat had still been willing, he might have tried to rebuild the fleet, but he did not. See Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p.202-203 and When Critics Ask p.189 for essentially the same answer.

Q: In 1 Ki and 2 Ki, what are some of the earliest manuscripts that still exist today?
A: Dead Sea scrolls: (c.1 B.C.) 3 separate copies. The Dead Sea Scrolls Today p.30. The Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.436-438 says there are 4 separate copies.
Overall, preserved in the Dead Sea Scrolls are the following verses from 1 Kings: 1:1,16-17,27-37; 3:12-14; 7:20-21,25-27,29-42,51; 8:1-9,16-18; 12:28-31; 22:28-31. See Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls vol.2 p.615 and The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls for more info.
Aquila the Jew
made a Greek translation of the Old Testament. Independent of Origenís copying it in the hexapla (of which we only have fragments preserved), we only have copies of Aquilaís translation of 1 Kings 20:7-17 and 2 Kings 23:12-27.
Christian Bible manuscripts,
from about 350 A.D., contain the Old Testament, including 1 and 2 Kings.
(325-350 A.D.) contains all of 1 and 2 Kings
No verses of 1 or 2 Kings are preserved in Sinaiticus.
(c.450 A.D.) contains all of 1 and 2 Kings.

Q: Which early writers referred to 1 Kings?
A: Pre-Nicene writers who referenced or alluded to verses in 1 Kings are:
Philo the Jew
of Alexandria (15/20 B.C.-50 A.D.) refers to 1 Kings 17:10,18 in his work, On the Unchangeableness of God p.169.
Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) alludes to 1 Kings 18:8, etc. "Through envy, David underwent the hatred not only of foreigners, but was also persecuted by Saul King of Israel." 1 Clement ch.4 p.6
Justin Martyr
(c.138-165 A.D.) quotes 1 Kings 19:14,18 as "Elijah said". Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.39 p.214.
Meleto/Melito of Sardis
(170-177/180 A.D.) refers to the "Four books of Kingdoms" [1, 2 Samuel, 1,2 Kings] among the books of the Old Testament in his letter to Onesimus. On Pascha p.72. Preserved in Eusebiusí Ecclesiastical History book 4 ch.26.
Irenaeus of Lyons
(182-188 A.D.) quotes 1 Kings 18:36 in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.6.3 p.419
Irenaeus Against Heresies
book 3 ch.27.1 p.499 quotes 1 Kings 11:1.
Clement of Alexandria
(193-217/220 A.D.) 1 Kings 8:27 "Solomon the son of David, in the books styled ĎThe Reigns of the Kings,í comprehending not only that the structure of the true temple was celestial and spiritual, but had also a reference to the flesh, which He who was both the son and Lord of David was to build up, ... Will God in very deed dwell with men on the earth?" Fragment by Nicephorus of Constantinople quoting Clement of Alexandria against the Judaizers. p.584

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes half of 1 Kings 19:6. The Instructor book 3 ch.7 p.281
(198-220 A.D.) refers to Elijah and the widow in 1 Kings 17:7-16 as "the third book of Kings" Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.21 p.381
(222-235/6 A.D.) quotes 1 Kings 3:12 in Commentary on Proverbs p.172
(225-254 A.D.) wrote commentaries on Romans, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Joshua, 1 Kings, Jeremiah, and Luke
Origen (225-254 A.D.) "or when mention is made in the third book of Kings respecting the sickness of a kingís son." Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.36 p.412
Origen (225-254 A.D.) refers to 2 Kings 4:17, calling it "the fourth book of Kings" (1 and 2 Samuel were sometimes called 1 and 2 Kings.) This implies a third book of Kings. Origen Against Celsus book 8 ch.46 p.656
Treatise On Rebaptism
(c.248-258 A.D.) "Further, also in the book of Judges, and in the books of Kings too, we observe ... Gothoniel [Othoniel], Gideon, Jephthah, Samson, Saul, David, and many others." ch.15 p.676
Cyprian of Carthage
(c.246-258 A.D.) quotes 1 Kings 19:10 calling it 3rd Kings. (1 and 2 Samuel are sometimes known as 1 and 2 Kings). The Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 First book ch.2 p.508
Dionysius of Alexandria (246-256 A.D.) alludes to 1 Kings 4:32 in Exegetical Fragment 1 p.111
Seventh Council of Carthage
(85 bishops) (258 A.D.) quotes parts of 1 Kings 18:21 "It is written, ĎEither the Lord is God, or Baal is God.í" Spoken by Pelaginaus of Luperciana p.570
of Olympus and Patara (270-311/312 A.D.) refers to 1 Kings 19:4 calling it "Scripture" The Banquet of the Ten Virgins Discourse 10 ch.3 p.349. He does not refer to any other verses in 1 Kings.
(c.303-c.325 A.D.) quotes 1 Kings 19:10 as "in the third book of Kings" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.11 p.109.
Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.) quotes 1 Kings 9:6-9 which is also 1 Chronicles 7:19-22 in The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.18 p.121.
After Nicea

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) (allusion)
(367 A.D.) mentions "The four books of kings" in listing the books of the Old Testament. Paschal Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.
Ephraim the Syrian
(350-378 A.D.)
Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) (allusion)
Ambrose of Milan
(370-390 A.D.)
Cyril of Jerusalem
(c.349-386 A.D.)
Gregory of Nanzianzus (330-391 A.D.) (allusion)
Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) (allusion)
Epiphanius of Salamis
(360-403 A.D.) The Panarion
John Chrysostom
(died 407 A.D.) quotes 1 Kings 19:14 as "Scripture" in Homilies on Romans Homily 18 p.482
Sulpicius/Sulpitius Severus
(Historian) (363-420 A.D.) mentions 1 Kings as the Third Book of Kings in History book 1 ch.40 p.90
Council of Carthage
(393-419 A.D.)
Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) alludes to 1 Kings 21:1-16. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.8 p.125
(374-406 A.D.)
(373-420 A.D.) discusses the books of the Old Testament. He specifically discusses Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, the Pentateuch, Job, Jesus son of Nave [Joshua], Judges, Ruth, Samuel Kings (2 books), twelve prophets, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai,, Zechariah, Malachi, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Esther, Ezra, Nehemiah, Letter 53 ch.7-8 p.99-101.
The Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.)
Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) (allusion)
John Cassian
(419-430 A.D.)
Theodoret of Cyrus
(423-458 A.D.) quotes half of a verse of 1 Kings.
Leo I of Rome
(440-461 A.D.)
After Nicea there are other writers too.

Q: In 1 Ki, what are the differences in the order of verses between the Hebrew and Greek Septuagint?
A: Taking the Hebrew Masoretic text as the standard, here is the verse order in the Greek Septuagint.
1:1-2:35; 3:1 (3:1 has extra material)
2:36-46; (2:46 has extra material)
4:1-16; 4:18-19; 4:17; 4:27-28; 4:22-24; 4:29-34; (4:34 has extra material)
5:1-16; 5:18; 6:1; 5:17-18
6:36; 6:2-10; 6:15-17; 6:19-22; 6:23-31; 6:34-36; 7:15-18; 7:21; 7:19; 7:23-25; 7:27-45; 7:47; 7:46; 7:48-51
8:14-66; (8:53 has 39 Greek words of extra material)
9:1-14; 9:26-28; (9:22 has extra material)
11:3a; 11:1-2; 11:4; 11:3b; 11:7-8; 11:6; 11:9-22 (11:22 has extra material)
11:26-38 (11:38 has extra material) 11:40-44
12:1; 12:3-16 (12:16 has extra material) 12:18-24
(12:24 has a whole chapter of extra material)
12:25-13:26; 13:28-34
14:21-15:5; 13:7-31; 13:33-34
16:1-28 (16:28 has extra material)
21:1-29; 20:30-43; 22:1-46; 22:51-54

Q: In 1 Ki, what are some of the translation differences between the Hebrew Masoretic text and Greek Septuagint?
A: See the previous question for differences in verse order. There are a large number of translations differences; here are ones mentioned in various translations plus all the details of chapter 8. Unless otherwise noted, the first reading is from the Hebrew Masoretic text, and the second is from the Greek Septuagint translation of the Old Testament.
1 Ki 1:25
"the commanders" vs. "the commander"
1 Ki 1:48
"one" vs. "one of my offspring"
1 Ki 3:1
Much variation from the end of chapter 2 to 3:1 in the Septuagint.
1 Ki 4:26
"40,000" vs. "4,000" (one manuscript. See the discussion on this verse)
1 Ki 5:3
"my feet" (Hebrew) vs. "his feet" (Hebrew, Septuagint, Targums, Vulgate)
1 Ki 5:11
"20 cors of beaten oil" (Masoretic, Targums, Vulgate) vs. "20,000 cors of beaten oil" (Septuagint, Syriac) (The Hebrew probably is incorrect here)
1 Ki 5:16
"3,300 foremen" vs. "3,600 foremen" (Septuagint, Targums, Vulgate) 2 Chronicles 2:2 also says 3,600 foremen
1 Ki 5:17
In Masoretic text and Alexandrine Septuagint, but not in other Septuagint
1 Ki 6:1
"480th year" vs. "440th year"
1 Ki 6:6
"lowest structure" vs. "lowest story"
1 Ki 6:8
"middle" (Masoretic) vs. "lower" (Septuagint)
1 Ki 6:10
"whole house" vs. "whole house, each story"
1 Ki 6:11
In Masoretic text and Alexandrine Septuagint, but not in other Septuagint
1 Ki 7:1-12
these verses are placed at the end of chapter 7 in the Vatican copy.
1 Ki 7:7
"floor to floor" vs. "floor to ceiling" (Syriac and Vulgate)
1 Ki 7:17
"seven" vs. "a net"
1 Ki 7:18
"made the pillars, and there were two rows" (most Hebrew manuscripts) vs. "made pomegranates in two rows" (two Hebrew manuscripts and the Septuagint)
1 Ki 7:18
"pomegranates" (most Hebrew manuscripts) vs. "pillars" (many Hebrew manuscripts and Syriac)
1 Ki 7:26
"It held 2,000 baths" vs. (absent). (2 Chronicles 4:5)
1 Ki 8:1
"Then Solomon gathered" vs. "And it came to pass when Solomon had finished building the house of the Lord and his own house after twenty years, then king Solomon assembled"
1 Ki 8:1
"all the heads of the tribes, the chief of the fathers of the sons of Israel, to king Solomon in Jerusalem" vs. "all the elders of Israel in Sion,"
1 Ki 8:2
"And all the men of Israel were gathered to king Solomon, in the month of Ethanim, at the feast, which is the seventh month" vs. "in the month of Athanin."
1 Ki 8:3
"And all the elders came in, and the priests" vs. "And the priests"
1 Ki 8:4
"and brought up the ark of Jehovah, and the tabernacle of the congregation, and all the holy vessels that [were] in the tabernacle, even those the priests and the Levites brought." vs. "and the tabernacle of testimony, and the holy furniture that was in the tabernacle of testimony."
1 Ki 8:5
"And king Solomon and all the company of Israel who had assembled to him [were] with him before the ark, sacrificing sheep and oxen, that could not be counted or numbered for multitude." vs. "And the king and all Israel [were occupied] before the ark, sacrificing sheep [and] oxen without number."
[skipping to 1 Kings 8:22]
1 Ki 8:22
"stood ... heaven" vs. "stood up ... heavens"
1 Ki 8:23
"Jehovah ... servants ... there" vs. "Lord God ... servant ... his"
1 Ki 8:24
"you have spoke to him, yea you" vs. "you"
1 Ki 8:26
"established. I beseech You. Your word which You have spoken to Your servant, my father David." vs. "confirmed."
1 Ki 8:27
"dwell" vs. "dwell with men"
1 Ki 8:27
"built" vs. "built to thy name"
1 Ki 8:28
"Yet you have turned" vs. "Yet, O Lord God of Israel, thou shalt look"
1 Ki 8:28
"supplication, O Jehovah my God, to listen" vs. "petition, to hear"
1 Ki 8:29
"Your eyes [are] open" vs. "thine eyes may be open"
1 Ki 8:29
"place" vs. "place day and night"
1 Ki 8:30
"[shall] hear and shall forgive" vs. "shalt do and be gracious"
1 Ki 8:31
"If any man sins" vs. "Whatsoever trespasses any [one] shall commit"
1 Ki 8:33
"enemy, when they sin against You" vs. "enemies, because they shall sin against thee"
1 Ki 8:35
"heavens ... afflicted" vs. "heaven ... humbled"
1 Ki 8:36
"forgive ... servants" vs. "be merciful ... servant"
1 Ki 8:37
"pestilence, blasting" vs. "death, because there should be blasting"
1 Ki 8:37
"stripping locust; when its enemy has distressed it in the land [in] its gates; any plague, any sickness" vs. "if his enemy oppress them in [any] one of their cities, [with regard to] every calamity, every trouble"
1 Ki 8:37
"in the land of their cities" vs. "in any of their cities"
1 Ki 8:38
"man of all of Your people Israel" vs. "man"
1 Ki 8:39
"forgive" vs. "be merciful"
1 Ki 8:40
"may fear" vs. "shall fear"
1 Ki 8:41
"people Israel, and has come from a land afar off for Your name's sake" vs. "people"
1 Ki 8:42
"for they shall hear of your great name, and of Your strong hand, and of Your stretched-out arm - and he shall have come in and prayed toward this house." vs. "when they shall come and pray toward this place"
1 Ki 8:44
"its enemy" vs. "their enemies"
1 Ki 8:45
"maintain their cause" vs. "execute judgment for them"
1 Ki 8:46
"be angry with them and give them up" vs. "and thou shalt bring them and deliver them up"
1 Ki 8:47
"taken captive, and have repented" vs. "carried captives"
1 Ki 8:49
"then You shall hear their prayer and their supplication in Heaven Your dwelling-place, and shall maintain their cause." vs. "then shalt thou hear from heaven thin established dwelling-place"
1 Ki 8:50
"forgive" vs. "be merciful"
1 Ki 8:52
"For your eyes shall be open" vs. "And let your eyes and your ears be opened"
1 Ki 8:53
"Lord Jehovah" vs. "Lord God. Then spoke Solomon concerning the house, when he had finished building it - he manifested the sun in the heaven : the Lord said he would dwell in darkness : build thou my house, a beautiful house for thyself to dwell in anew. Behold, is not this written in the book of the song?" (39 extra Greek words)
1 Ki 8:56
"Jehovah" vs. "Lord this day"
1 Ki 8:57
"Jehovah our God is with us ... He shall not" vs. "May the Lord our God be with us ... Let Him not"
1 Ki 8:58
"to incline" vs. "that He may turn"
1 Ki 8:59
"words" vs. "words of mine"
1 Ki 8:59
"people Israel, the matter of each day in its day" vs. "people Israel a word of a day of a day in a year" (Apparently these were both idioms meaning forever)
1 Ki 8:60
"For all ... know" vs. "That all ... may know"
1 Ki 8:61
"your heart" vs. "our hearts"
1 Ki 8:62
"all Israel" vs. "all the children of Israel" (children here refers to descendents, not young kids)
1 Ki 8:65
"And at that time Solomon" (Masoretic) vs. "And Solomon" (Septuagint)
1 Ki 8:65
"seven days and seven days, fourteen days" (Masoretic) vs. "seven days" (Septuagint)
1 Ki 9:3
"I have hallowed" (Masoretic) vs. "I have done for thee according to all thy prayer: I have hallowed" (Septuagint)
1 Ki 9:8
"will become high" (Masoretic) vs. "a heap of ruins" (Syriac, Old Latin/Italic)
1 Ki 9:25
"offering incense with it that was" (Masoretic) vs. "offering incense" (Septuagint)
1 Ki 10:8
"men" (Masoretic) vs. "wives" (Septuagint, Syriac)
1 Ki 11:26
"he led" (Masoretic) vs. "he stationed (Septuagint, Syriac, Targum, Vulgate)
1 Ki 11:33
"they have" (Masoretic, Targums) vs. "he has" (Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate)
1 Ki 12:2
"lived in Egypt" (Masoretic) vs. "returned from Egypt" (Septuagint, Vulgate)
1 Ki 12:18
"House of Adoram" (Masoretic) vs. "House of David" (some Septuagint and Syriac)
1 Ki 12:28
"to them" (Masoretic) vs. "to the people" (Septuagint)
1 Ki 12:30
"people went before the one, to Dan" (Masoretic) vs. "people went before one as far as Dan, and left the house of the Lord." (Septuagint)
1 Ki 12:31
"a house" (Masoretic) vs. "houses" (Septuagint, Vulgate)
1 Ki 13:12
"saw the way" vs. "showed him"
1 Ki 13:27
In Masoretic text and Alexandrine Septuagint, but not in other Septuagint
1 Ki 13:29
"he came to the town of the old prophet" vs. "he came to the city"
1 Ki 14:1-20
These verses is after 12:24 in the Vatican copy.
1 Kings 14:3
"bread (Masoretic) vs. "sweet meats (Targums) vs. "raisin cakes" (Septuagint)
1 Ki 14:31; 15:1,6
"Abijam" (most Hebrew manuscripts) vs. "Abijah" (ten Hebrew manuscripts) vs. "Abiou/n" (Septuagint) (The skeptical Asimov's Guide to the Bible p.418 says Abijah may be the throne name, while Abijam might have been his personal [birth] name.)
1 Ki 15:32
In Masoretic text and Alexandrine Septuagint, but not in other Septuagint
1 Ki 17:1
"of the settlers in Gilead" vs. "of [the town of] Tishbe in Gilead"
1 Ki 20:6
"whatever pleases you" vs. "whatever pleases them"
1 Ki 21:23
"the wall of" (most Hebrew manuscripts, Septuagint) vs. "the plot of ground at" (a few Hebrew manuscripts, Vulgate, Targums, Syriac)
1 Ki 22:38
"when they washed his armor" (Masoretic, Targums, Syriac) vs. "and the [disreputable women] washed themselves in the blood"
Bibliography for this question: the Hebrew translation is from Jay P. Greenís Literal Translation and the Septuagint rendering is from Sir Lancelot C.L. Brentonís translation of The Septuagint : Greek and English. The Expositor's Bible Commentary and the footnotes in the NASB, NIV, NKJV, and NRSV Bibles also were used.

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Nov. 2022 version.