Bible Query Early Manuscripts of 1 Peter

June 30, 2012 version

 

Q: In 1 Pet, what are early New Testament manuscripts we have preserved today?

A: Here are many of them.

p72 Bodmer 7 & 8 Papyrii 1 Peter 1:1-5:14, 2 Peter 1:1-3:18 and Jude 1-25. c.300 A.D. A photograph of part of this manuscript (showing 2 Peter 1:16-2:2) is in The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary p.820 and The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts p.468. The second source says the handwriting is written "in a documentary hand."

p74 (=Bodmer 17) Acts 1:2-5,7-11,13-15,18-19,22-25; 2:2-4; 2:6-3:26; 4:2-6,8-27; 4:29-27:25; 27:27-28:31; James 1:1-6,8-19,21-23,25,27; 2:1-3,5-15; 18-22, 25-26; 3:1,5-6,10-12,14,17-18; 4:8,11-14; 5:1-3,7-9,12-14,19-20; 1 Peter 1:1-2,7-8,13,19-20,25; 2:6-7,11-12,18,24; 3:4-5; 2 Peter 2:21; 3:4,11,16; 1 John 1:1,6; 2:1-2,7,13-14,18-19,25-26; 3:1-2,8,14,19-20; 4:1,6-7,12,16-17;5:3-4,9-10,17; 2 John 1,6-7,13; 3 John 6,12; Jude 3,7,12,18,24 (7th century)

7th century - 1968 - The Text of the New Testament has James 2:4 and 1 Peter 1:12

7th century - 1975 - Aland et al. 3rd Edition

6th century - 1998 - Aland et al. 4th Revised Edition

p81 Trieste 1 Peter 2:20-3:1; 3:4-12 (4th century)

Vaticanus (325-350 A.D.), Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.), and Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D) have all of 1 Peter.

Bohairic Coptic 3rd/4th century

Sahidic Coptic 3rd/4rth century

Peshitta Syriac [Syr P] 411-435 A.D. Over 350 manuscripts.

Harclean Syriac [Syr H] 616.A.D Thomas of Harkel

Ephraemi Rescriptus 5th century

Armenian [Arm] from 5th century

Georgian [Geo] from 5th century

 

Q: In 1 Pet, what are the manuscript variations with the Textus Receptus, the basis for the KJV?

A: Jay P. Green, Sr. in the Interlinear Bible records variations in approximately 38 words between the Textus Receptus and the majority text. These are in 29 places. In addition, he also records approximately no alternates.

 

Q: In 1 Pet, what are some of the manuscript variations?

A: The book of 1 Peter has a total of 1,684 Greek words in 105 verses. This is the count in both Aland et al. 3rd edition and Aland et al. 4th revised edition, including 15 words in brackets. The text of the 3rd edition is on-line at http://www.greekbible.com. 1 Peter has an estimated word-for-word accuracy of 96.1%, with 66 words in question. These are in 29 verses (43 places). Of these, 30 are single word, 8 are double word, and 5 are triple word..

Below are the variations with the primary choice and the top alternate choice. Aland et al. 4th revised edition and 3rd edition, from which this primarily is based, also give a judgment of the degree of certainty per variation. The list below does not include many places where the evidence for a particular reading is so strong that the alternatives are very unlikely. See the next question for which manuscripts support which variants.

1 Pet 1:2 "God and Jesus" vs. "God Jesus" (only in p72, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

1 Pet 1:7 "proving" (Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus, Ephraemi Rescriptus, Byzantine Lectionary, Armenian, Georgian) vs. "approved" p72 (1 letter)

1 Pet 1:8 "not having seen" (p72, Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Ephraemi Rescriptus, Sahidic Coptic, Armenian, Ethiopic, vs. "not having appeared" (Alexandrinus, Bohairic Coptic, Georgian, Byzantine Lectionary)

1 Pet 1:9 "your souls" (Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, Ephraemi Rescriptus, Byzantine Lectionary, Bohairic Coptic, Armenian, Ethiopic, Georgian) vs. "our souls" (Original Bohairic Coptic, Origen) vs. "souls" (Sahidic Coptic)

1 Pet 1:12 "in [the] Spirit" (Sinaiticus, Ephraemi Rescriptus, Byzantine Lectionary, Ethiopic, Georgian) vs. "[the] Spirit" (p72, Alexandrinus, Vaticanus)

1 Pet 1:19-20 "He himself therefore, who was also known before the foundation of the world and at the last time was born and suffered, received the glory that God the Word always possessed, abiding without beginning in the Father" Only in some Latin witnesses (per Bruce Metzger), so not included in the totals.

1 Pet 1:21 "him believing" vs. "faith"

1 Pet 1:22a "truth" vs. "truth through the Spirit" (most miniscules The Expositor's Bible Commentary vol.12 p.227 says a theological expansion) vs. "faith through the spirit" (2 words)

1 Pet 1:22b "from a pure heart" (p72, original Sinaiticus, Ephraemi Rescriptus, Byzantine Lectionary, Sahidic Coptic, Bohairic Coptic, vs. "from a heart of truth" (second corrector of Sinaiticus, heretic Priscillian) vs. "from the heart" (Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, Georgian)

1 Pet 1:23 "remaining" vs. "remaining to the age" (only in Textus Receptus and three 9th century manuscripts, so 3 words not counted in the totals)

1 Pet 1:24 "him" vs. "man" (only in textus Receptus, 1 8th/9th century manuscript and 3 9th century manuscripts, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

1 Pet 2:2 "grow into salvation" vs. "grow" (only the Textus Receptus, a 9th century manuscript, and some minuscules, so 2 words not counted in the totals)

1 Pet 2:3 "if" (p72, original Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus, Sahidic Coptic, Bohairic Coptic, Armenian, Georgian) vs. "indeed" (Ephraemi Rescriptus, Byzantine Lectionary, Slavonic)

1 Pet 2:5 "for priesthood" vs. "priesthood" (only Textus Receptus and 3 9th century manuscripts, so 1 word not counted in the totals)

1 Pet 2:19a "acceptable" vs. acceptable to God" (3 words

1 Pet 2:19b "conscience [toward] God" vs. "good conscience" vs. "good conscience [toward] God" vs. "toward God good conscience (2 words)

1 Pet 2:21a "Christ suffered" vs. "Christ died" Manuscripts and the Text of the New Testament p.53 says that in Greek one could accidentally be read for the other.

1 Pet 2:21b "of you, for us" (p72, Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, Ephraemi Rescriptus, Armenian, Ethiopic, Georgian) vs. "of us, for us" (Byzantine Lectionary, Slavonic) vs. "of us, for you" (Bohairic Coptic) (2 words)

1 Pet 2:25 "you (plural) were going astray" (Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, Ethiopic) vs. "you (plural) going astray" (p72, Ephraemi Rescriptus, Byzantine Lectionary, Georgian, Slavonic)

1 Pet 3:1 "women love" vs. "women love" (one extra word)

1 Pet 3:7a "co-heirs" (one letter difference) "by/to those who are named together" (dative) vs. "those named together" (nominative)

"for the sake of life" vs. "for the sake of (misspelling)" vs. "for the sake of eternal life" "for the sake of varied life" (does not make much sense)

1 Pet 3:7b "the sake of life" (Vaticanus, original Ephraemi Rescriptus, some Byzantine Lectionary, Sahidic Coptic, Armenian, Georgian) vs. "the sake of (misspelling)" (1 letter difference, some Byzantine Lectionary) vs. "the sake of eternal life" (p72) vs. "the sake of varied life" (Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, Bohairic Coptic, Slavonic) (The last one does not make much sense)

1 Pet 3:8 "humble-minded" vs. "friendly"

1 Pet 3:14 "afraid, neither should you (plural) be troubled" vs. "afraid" (2 words)

1 Pet 3:15 "Christ" (p72, Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Ephraemi Rescriptus, Sahidic Coptic, Bohairic Coptic, Clement of Alexandria) vs. "God" (Byzantine Lectionary)

1 Pet 3:16 "speak against" vs. "speak against as evildoers" (3 words)

1 Pet 3:18a "concerning" vs. "on account of" (3 words)

1 Pet 3:18b "died" vs. "suffered" Manuscripts and the Text of the New Testament p.53 says that in Greek one could accidentally be read for the other.

1 Pet 3:18a "us" vs. "you (plural)"

1 Pet 3:19

1 Pet 3:21 "that" vs. "which"

1 Pet 4:1 "having suffered" vs. "having suffered for us" vs. "having died for us" (3 words) Manuscripts and the Text of the New Testament p.53 says that in Greek one could accidentally be read for the other.

1 Pet 4:1 "ceased from sin" vs. "ceased from sin. Because of"

1 Pet 4:3 "For" vs. "For to us"

1 Pet 4:14a "glory" vs. "glory and"

1 Pet 4:14b "rests" vs. "rests upon"

1 Pet 4:16 "name" vs. "matter" (KJV, NKJV, Green)

1 Pet 5:1 "sufferings of Christ" vs. "sufferings of God" (only in p72) (The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture p.88)

1 Pet 5:2a "but willingly as God would have you" vs. "but willingly" (3 words)

1 Pet 5:2b "charge, exercising the oversight" vs. "charge" (2 words)

1 Pet 5:3 "exercising oversight, not by constraint but willingly according to God" vs. "exercising oversight, not by constraint but willingly" (2 words)

1 Pet 5:6 "due time" vs. "in time of visitation"

1 Pet 5:8 "someone to devour" vs. "to devour" (Aorist 2nd infinitive active) vs. "whom we may devour"

1 Pet 5:10a "Christ Jesus" vs. "Jesus Christ" vs. "Christ"

1 Pet 5:10b "Strengthen" vs. "will strengthen" vs. "will strength and establish" (3 words)

1 Pet 5:10c "called you (plural)" vs. "called us"

1 Pet 5:11a "might" vs. "glory" vs. "the might, glory" (2 words)

1 Pet 5:11b "ages/forever". "ages of ages / forever and ever" (2 words)

1 Pet 5:13 "She" vs. "The church/assembly" vs. "Babylon" vs. "Babylon church/assembly" (2 words)

1 Pet 5:14a "Christ" (Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, Peshitta Syriac, Sahidic Coptic, Ethiopic) vs. "Christ Jesus" (Sinaiticus, Byzantine Lectionary, Armenian)

1 Pet 5:14b "Christ" (Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, Sahidic Coptic, Ethiopic, etc.) vs. "Christ. Amen" (Ethiopic) vs. Christ Jesus" (Georgian) vs. "Christ Jesus. Amen" at the end (Sinaiticus, Byzantine Lectionary, Armenian, Slavonic)

Some manuscripts add the postscript, "Of Peter Letter General First"

Bibliography for this question: The Greek New Testament Third Edition by Kurt Aland et al., The Greek New Testament Fourth Edition by Kurt Aland et al., Interlinear Greek-English New Testament by George Ricker Berry, the Interlinear Bible by Jay P. Green, The Expositor's Bible Commentary volume 8, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament 2nd edition by Bruce M. Metzger, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture by Bart Ehrman, The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts edited by Philip W. Comfort and David P. Barrett, The Expositor's Greek Testament edited by W. Robertson Nicoll, and footnotes in the NASB, NIV, NKJV, and NRSV Bible translations. Manuscripts of the Greek Bible : An Introduction to Paleography by Bruce M. Metzger also has interesting information on the characteristics and quality of the copying of each manuscript.

 

Q: In 1 Pet, how do the early manuscripts compare with each other?

A: The table below shows each of the places in question, and the number says which variant is in each manuscript.

 


This chart shows the variations of some of the manuscripts of 1 Peter, with the one Aland et al. views as correct labeled as "1", the next choice "2", and so on. Corrections to manuscripts by later scribes are not included. A question mark means it is probably but not certain the manuscript had these words. Parentheses means fragmentary or hard to read. Where there is more than one number, such as "1 /2?", this means that one or more manuscripts in the family give the first choice, and one or more manuscripts are not clear, but appear to give the second choice. A parenthesis, such as (6), means that through translation or loss of letters are not sure, but it appears to support reading 6. There are so many manuscripts and writers that they cannot all be listed here; this shows the most significant early ones.

 

The witnesses are ordered chronologically, as much as possible.

Columns: blue=Bible manuscript, white = early Christian writer, green=heretical writer, orange=schismatic writer, pink=strange writer

 

1 Peter is not preserved in Italic b, Italic d, Syr C, Syr S, Syr pH

Place of variant

words

Iren

Clem A

Origen

p72

p81

0206

B

Si

Sahidic

Bohairic

Hilary

Lucif.

Chrysost

Pelagius

Jerome

Aug

Vulgate family

A

C

Ethiop.

Armen.

Georg.

Syr P

Syr H

Byzant.

p74

1 Pet 1:7

1

-

1

1

2

-

-

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

-

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 Pet 1:8

1

1

2

-

1

-

-

1

1

1

2

-

-

-

-

 

 

1

2

1

1

1

2

1

1

2

-

1 Pet 1:9

1

-

1/ 3

2

-

-

-

3A

1

3

1/ 2?

-

-

-

-

 

 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

-

1 Pet 1:12

1

-

-

-

2

-

-

2

1

-

-

2

-

-

-

 

 

2

2

1

1

-

1

-

-

1

-

1 Pet 1:21

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 Pet 1:22a

2

-

-

-

1

-

-

1

1

1

1

-

-

-

-

 

 

1?/3?/4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

-

1 Pet 1:22b

1

-

-

-

1

-

-

3

1

1

1

-

-

-

-

 

 

1?/2?/3

3

1

-

(1)

3

1

1

1

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 Pet 2:3

1

-

1

-

1

-

-

1

1

1

1

-

-

-

-

 

 

1/ 2

1

2

-

1

1

-

-

2

-

1 Pet 2:19a

3

-

 

-

1

-

-

1

1

1

1

 

-

-

-

 

 

1/ 2?

1

2

3

2

2

2

2

1

-

1 Pet 2:19b

1

-

 

-

3

-

-

1

1

1

1

 

-

-

-

 

 

1

4

2

-

2

2

2

2

1

-

1 Pet 2:21a

1

-

 

-

1

2

-

1

2

1

1

 

-

1

-

 

 

1

1

1

1

2

1

2

1

1

-

1 Pet 2:21b

2

-

 

-

1

-

-

1

1

1/2

3

 

-

-

-

 

 

1/ 2

1

1

1

1

1

3

1

2

-

1 Pet 2:25

1

-

 

-

2

-

-

1

1

-

-

 

-

-

-

 

 

1

1

2

1

-

2

1

1

2

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 Pet 3:1

1

-

-

-

1

3A

-

3A

3A

1

1?

-

-

-

-

 

 

2

3A

1

1

2

3A

2

2

1

-

1 Pet 3:7a

1

-

-

-

1

1

-

1

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

1

3

3

1

1

1

-

3

3

-

1 Pet 3:7b

1

-

-

-

3

1?

-

1

4

1

4

-

-

-

-

 

 

1

4

1

1

1

1

(3)

4

1/2

-

1 Pet 3:8

1

-

1

-

1

-

-

1

1

1

1

-

-

-

1

 

 

1

1

1

(1)

(1)

1

1

1

2

-

2 Pet 3:14

2

-

1

-

3

-

-

3

1

1

1

-

-

-

-

 

 

1

1

1

1

1

1

-

-

1

-

1 Pet 3:15

1

-

1

-

1

-

-

1

1

1

1

-

-

-

-

 

 

1

1

1

-

1

(1)

1

1

2

-

1 Pet 3:16

3

-

1

-

1

-

-

1

3

1

3

-

-

-

-

 

 

3?

3

3

3

2

2

3

3

4

-

1 Pet 3:18a

3

-

4

-

2

-

-

1

4

5

3

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

2

5?

-

2

-

5

3

1

-

1 Pet 3:18b

1

-

2

-

1

-

-

1

3

2

2

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

2

2

2

1

2

1

-

1/2

-

1 Pet 3:18c

1

-

 

-

1

-

-

1

3

2

2

 

-

-

-

 

 

 

2

2

2

1

2

 

 

1/2

-

1 Pet 3:21

1

-

 

1/ 2

3

-

-

1

3

3

2

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

1

1

3

1

1

-

-

1

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 Pet 4:1a

3

-

 

-

1

-

-

1

4

1

 

 

-

-

-

 

 

 

2

1

2

2

1

3

2

2

-

1 Pet 4:1b

1

-

-

-

1

-

-

2

1

1

1?/3?

-

-

-

-

(1)

-

2

1

1

2

-

-

2

3

1

-

1 Pet 4:3

1

-

1

-

1

-

-

1

3

1?

3

 

-

 

-

2

1/ 3

1

1

2

3

1

-

1

1

2/3

-

1 Pet 4:14a

1

-

1

-

1

-

-

1

5

5

4

-

-

-

-

 

 

2/ 4

4

-

-

(3)

2

(2)

3

1/ 4

-

1 Pet 4:14b

1

-

-

-

4

-

-

1

1

5

(5?)

-

-

-

-

 

 

1/ 5

2

-

1

1

1

(2)

3

5

-

1 Pet 4:16

1

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 Pet 5:2a

3

-

 

-

1

-

-

4

 

5

1

 

-

-

-

 

 

 

1

 

1

1

1

 

 

3

-

1 Pet 5:2b

3

-

 

-

1

-

-

4

5

5

 

 

-

-

-

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

-

1 Pet 5:3

2

-

 

-

1

-

-

2A

1

1

1

 

-

-

-

 

 

 

1

-

 

1

1

(1)

(1)

1

-

1 Pet 5:6

1

-

 

1

1

-

1

1

1

1

2

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

2

-

 

1

2

1

2

1

-

1 Pet 5:8

1

-

 

1/ 2/ 4

2

-

-

4

1

-

1

(1)

2

2

-

 

 

2

2

-

2

2

2

 

 

2

-

1 Pat 5:10a

1

-

 

-

1

-

-

1

1

1

1/ 2?

 

-

-

-

 

 

1?/2

1

-

1/2

1

1

2

1

 

-

1 Pet 5:10b

3

-

 

-

1

-

-

3

2

1/2

1

 

-

-

-

 

 

1

1

-

 

1

1

(1)

1

1

-

1 Pet 5:10c

1

-

 

-

5

-

-

6

1

 

 

 

-

-

-

 

 

1/ 5?/6

6

-

 

5

(5)

 

5?

2/3

-

1 Pet 5:11a

2

-

 

-

1

-

-

1

4

4

5

 

-

-

-

 

 

2

1

-

 

5

1

2

2

3/4

-

1 Pet 5:11b

2

-

 

-

1

-

-

1

2

2

1

 

-

-

-

 

 

2

2

-

2

1

2

2

2

2

-

1 Pet 5:13

2

-

 

1

1

-

-

1

2

1

1

 

-

-

-

 

 

1/ 2

1

-

 

2

 

2

1

1

-

1 Pet 5:14a

1

-

 

-

1

-

-

1

1

1

1/(3?)

 

-

-

-

 

 

2

1

-

1

 

1

2

1

1

-

1 Pet 5:14b

1

-

 

-

-

-

-

1

4

1/3

1/3/4

 

-

-

-

 

 

1/2/4

1

-

2

4

3

2

4

4

-

Place of variant

words

Iren

Clem A

Origen

p72

p81

0206

B

Si

Sahidic

Bohairic

Hilary

Lucif.

Chrysost

Pelagius

Jerome

Aug

Vulgate family

A

C

Ethiop.

Armen.

Georg.

Syr P

Syr H

Byzant.

p74

p72 and Vaticanus agree in 20 out of 37 places (54%). p72 and Sinaiticus agree in only 12 out of 33 places (36%). p72 and the Byzantine Lectionary agree in 12 out of 36 places (33%).

by Steven M. Morrison, PhD.