An Evangelical Response to Bart Ehrman Part 4 - The Canon of the Bible
(March 2012, revised July 1, 2016)

This paper discusses the questions of the Bible Canon. In other words:
Should we reject any books we have in the Bible?
Do we have the right books in the Bible?
What about all the other books out there?
What kinds of things do the other books say?
Old Testament? New Testament? Apocrypha?
What if somebody has a wrong book?

Along the way we will see something remarkable: close similarities between attempts to confuse the canon today, in Old Testament times, and New.

This paper is a response to Bart Ehrman's books Jesus, Reinterpreted and Lost Christianities. He implies many things indirectly, but we will focus less on what he may insinuate and instead concentrate more on what the true picture is.

What if a Wrong Book was Accepted?

If someone had a wrong book of scripture, how serious do you think that would that be spiritually? Not too serious? Very serious? It depends?

My answer is "it depends" because it can be very serious to try to follow something that is totally against what God really wants. On the other hand, if the book has either no bad doctrines or practices, or relatively few and mild ones, then it is not too bad. Many godly Christians throughout history have accepted various Old Testament apocryphas, and many have rejected them all.

Christians who referred to as true the innocuous apocryphal story of Susanna added to Daniel include Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Hippolytus, Origen, Cyprian of Carthage, Athanasius, and later writers. However, Julius Africanus pointed out a problem. In the climax of the story of Susanna there are two plays on words, which only work in Greek. Since Daniel and the exiles were in Babylonia and the Persian Empire, they might have spoken Persian, but not Greek.

A Similarity with early church times and today

Before we go back in time to the early church, let's first get some perspective by looking at the situation today. God promised to preserve His word (Isaiah 55:10-11; 59:21; 40:6-8; 1 Peter 1:24-25; Matthew 24:35). However, Satan still tries (and many times succeeds) in giving people fake scripture. For example, imagine going to a regular bookstore today, and asking for a book of scripture of those who follow Jesus. Here is some of what you could get?
A Bible with Catholic apocrypha
Jehovah's Witness New World Translation
Book of Mormon or Pearl of Great Price
Rev. Moon's Divine Principle

All of these books are believed by people who claim to follow the teachings of Jesus.

A Christian cannot think Satan has been lazy! As you can see on the next page, Satan has been churning out so many new, counterfeit scriptures in the last couple of hundred years that there are more pages of fake scriptures than real ones.

There are picture puzzle books called "Where's Waldo" where there is a complex picture and you are trying to find a person dressed as Waldo. Is finding the true scriptures today a little like a "Where's Waldo" puzzle? It only is if you ignore the dates of these modern forgeries, or if you define "Christian" as Ehrman has.

What's a Christian? - In Ehrman's Terms

Ehrman mentions people who call themselves Christians because they try to follow Christ's teaching. He writes, "Many people today still have trouble accepting a literal belief in Jesus' resurrection or traditional understandings of his death as an atonement, but call themselves Christian because they try to follow Jesus' teachings." (Lost Christianities p.58)

For the time being let's temporarily go with this definition of a Christian: one who says they try to follow Jesus' teachings, and see where it leads.

In classifying the "scriptures" of those who claim Jesus, some have our Bible minus some books, our Bible plus some books, altered Bible books, and books some view as truth but not quite scripture Finally, some who say Jesus was true reject all the Bible, using their own books instead.

A Roadmap of Books Claimed by Alleged Followers of Jesus Today

 

Not claimed as Scripture but good to read

 

Claimed as Scripture by people who say they follow Jesus

 

Altered Scriptures

 

 

Liberals: whatever you believe becomes the God's word for you

     

 

Reader's Digest Condensed Bible

 

Thomas Jefferson's scissors cut out New T. verses he didn't like

 
           
     

Zwingli (d.1531) rejected Revelation

     

     

Luther called James an "epistle of straw" but still included it as scripture

     

John Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

(One Calvinist said that though it was not included in scripture it almost should have been.)

Protestant Bible: 39 Old Testament books plus 27 New

Jehovah Witness New World Translation

Catholic Bible - previous plus O.T. apocrypha of 8 books & 4 additions

Joseph's Smiths' Bible translation

(RLDS Mormons own the copyright, so LDS Mormons don't use much.)

Slavonic Orthodox Bible - same as Catholic Bible plus 2 & 3 Esdras, 3 Maccabees, Psalm 151, Prayer of Mordecai

     

Greek Orthodox Bible - same as previous plus 4 Maccabees

     
             
 

Mormon Journal of Discourses: early Mormon sermons (26 volumes)

 

LDS Mormons: Book of Mormon (1829), Doctrines and Covenants (1833/35) Pearl of Great Price (1835)

 

Over 4,000 change in the Book of Mormon since first published

 

     

The Parables of Jesus - The Jesus Seminar

 

     

Christian Science: Science and health with Key to the Scriptures by Mary Baker Eddy (1875)

     

     

Children of God/ Family of Love cult

"Mo Letters" by Moses David

     

     

The Urantia Book (2,097 pages)

     

 

The Lost Years of Jesus by Elizabeth Clare Prophet

 

The Lost Books of Jesus (4 volumes) by Elizabeth Clare Prophet

     

 

Instead of other books

 

Claimed as Better Scripture

     
 

The Aquarian Gospel (1911)

 

Rev. Moon's Divine Principle (1977)

     

 

The Unknown Life of Christ

 

Bahai's: Lawb-i-Aqdas (1863-1892)

     

 

The Crucifixion of Jesus, by an Eyewitness (1907)

 

Babis revere as prophet's words The Bayan, Kitabu'l-Asma', Panj Sha'n

     

 

The Qur'an (Muslim claim to follow the prophets, including Jesus) (Gospel of Barnabas written (c.1380-1560) not thought scripture)

 

The Fihrist lists Qur'an changes

 

 

Druze claim Jesus a true prophet: Letters of Wisdom by al-Muqtana

     

 

Hindu scriptures (a few Hindus claim Jesus was a Hindu guru)

     

Groups spanning the first two columns would accept only parts of the Bible as from God. Some might think it ridiculous to consider Muslims, some Hindus and Druze all as followers of Jesus. But it is no sillier than someone defining a Christian as someone who claims to try to follow Jesus' teachings.

It sometimes seems that the more things change, the more things really stay the same. Let's look at a very similar roadmap, except that the names are changed. Even before the time of Christ God preserved his Word, but Satan and deceivers were trying to foist corrupt scriptures on people.

A Roadmap of the Old Testament and Other "Scriptures" Prior to Jesus

 

Not claimed as Scripture but good to read

 

Claimed as Scripture by Jews or those who say they follow Jesus

 

Altered Scriptures

 

 

Acts of Solomon 1 Ki 11-41

Chronicles of Kings 1 Ki 14:19, 29, 2 Ki 19:9-12,

Kings of Judah & Israel 2 Chr 16:11; 25:26; 28:26,32; etc.

Kings of Israel 2 Chr 20:34; 33:18; 24:7; 1 Ki 14:19

Jasher Josh 10:13; 2 Sam 1:18

Wars of the Lord Num 21:14

 

Sadducee Jews: only first 5 books

 

Samaritan Pentateuch

 

Christian writer Melito of Sardis (170-180 A.D.) rejected Neh., Ezra

   

Jew Ben Sira (2nd century B.C.) all O.T. except Ezekiel

 

   

11 Jewish writings said rabbis should not publicly read one or more of Ecc, Esth, Ezek., Prov, Ru., Song of Songs

     

Paul quoted from Aratus, Cleanthes, and Epimenides in Acts and Titus

Christians and Jews generally accepted 39 Old Testament books

Jer 8:8: lying pen of scribes handled scripture falsely

Sibylline Oracles [5 writers]

Plato's Timaeus [5-1 writers]

some truths in philosophers

Majority of early Christians and Greek-speaking Jews - O.T. plus historic apocrypha: Catholic apocrypha + 1,2, Esdras, Prayer of Manasses

Book of Enoch [2-1 writers]

Assumption of Moses

     

Eldad and Modat [Shepherd Hermas]

     

 

Instead of other books

 

Book of Enoch [2-1 writers]

     

 

Most Gnostics rejected all of the Old Testament. But a few Gnostics said the lesser God had some truths there

 

Ethiopian Orthodox Bible - OT plus Letter of Jeremiah, 1,2,3 Maccabees (different than in apocrypha)

     

 

The Jewish Pseudepigrapha included:

     

 

Apocalypses: Abraham, Adam, Daniel, Elijah, Ezra (=4 Ezra), Sedrach, Zechariah, Zephaniah. Greek Apocalypse of Ezra (not 4 Ezra)

2 Baruch, Cleodemus Malchus, Damascus Document (Dead Sea Scrolls),

The Divine Throne-Chariot (Dead Sea Scrolls)

1, 2 Enoch, Epistle of Jeremiah

Apocryphons: Genesis (Dead Sea Scrolls), Ezekiel

Hagaddah, History of the Rechabites

Jannes and Jambres, Joseph and Asenath, Jubilees

Ladder of Jacob, Lamech, Lives of the Prophets

1, 2, 3, 4 Maccabees, Manual of Discipline (Dead Sea Scrolls),

Martyrdom of Isaiah, Odes of Solomon (Dead Sea Scrolls)

Prayers: Jacob, Joseph, Manasseh

Psalms 151, 152-153, 154-155, Psalms of Solomon

Revelation of Moses, Sibylline Oracles, Story of Ahikar/Ahiqar

Syriac Menander

Testaments: Adam, Job, Moses, Solomon, Three Patriarchs, 12 Patriarchs

Thanksgiving Psalms (Dead Sea Scrolls), Treatise of Shem

Wars of the Sons of Light with the Sons of Darkness (Dead Sea Scrolls)

     

It is uncertain how many Jewish people seriously considered as scripture many of the bottom books.

We should not be surprised to find a similar situation of fake Old Testament books with the New.

A Roadmap of the New Testament and Other "Scriptures" After Jesus

 

Not claimed as Scripture but good to read

 

Claimed as Scripture by people who say they follow Jesus

 

Altered Scriptures

 

     

Ebionites: shorter form of Matthew

     

     

The Alogi rejected John's Gospel

     
             
     

Eusebius (319-340 A.D.) and Amphilochius of Iconium (after 394 A.D.) rejected Revelation

 

Tatian's Diatessaron (Encratite) 4 gospels combined minus parts on Jesus' humanity

 

 

"Many have undertaken to draw up an account..." Lk 1:1

 

Orthodox Christians generally accepted 27 New Test. books

 

Marcion used Luke and Paul's letters but said O.T. references were corruptions. He wrote Antitheses.

 

 

About 86 pre-Nicene Christian writers and 103 writers within 100 years after Nicea

 

3 Corinthians in papyrus p72 (ca.300 A.D.), Armenian, some Syriac) (slightly smaller than Titus)

   

 

p72 also has 1, 2 Peter Jude, Nativity of Mary, 11th Ode of Solomon, Melito's Pasha, fragment of a hymn, Apology of Phileas, Ps 33,34.

     

Instead of other books

Gospel of the Egyptians, Preaching of Peter, Acts of Paul, some accept Apocalypse of Peter

Manichaeans: Creation of the Word and the Alien Man

The Religion That I, Mani Have Chosen, Mani's Death, Visions of Paradise,

The Light of Paradise,

Prayer to Mani, other poems

   

Sinaiticus manuscript (340-350 A.D.) has Bible plus Letter of Barnabas, Shepherd of Hermas

     

 

Mandaeans: Song of Ascent

Ethics and Morality, etc.

 

Alexandrinus manuscript (c.450 A.D.) Bible + 1, 2, Clement

     

 

Ebionites: Clementine Homilies, Protoevangelium of James, Recognitions of Clement,

 

Ethiopian Orthodox New Testament: Book of Covenant, Clement, Sinodos, Didascalia

     

 

Valentinian Gnostics: Gospel of Truth, The Round Dance of the Cross, Gospel of Philip, Treatise on the Resurrection, + 8 others

 

Spurious works by orthodox Christians (Acts of Paul and Thecla, plus 23+ others)

     

Naasene Gnostics: Naasene Hymn Gospel of Thomas (180-235 A.D.)

Paul mentioned a false report or letter supposedly from him in 2 Thess 2:2. We know of forged letters of Paul to the Laodiceans, Alexandrians, multiple to Seneca

Sethian Gnostics: Three Tablets of Seth, Secret Book of John, plus 8 others

 

Hermetic Gnostics: Asclepius, Poimandres, On God's Bisexuality

 

Muratorian canon says some will not have Apocalypse of Peter read in church

     

 

Gnostic Basilides: Octet of Subsistent Entities + 7 others

         

 

Gnostic Justin: Book of Baruch

         

 

25+ other Gnostics groups wrote their own scriptures

         

Samples of Gnostic Writings

Samples from Tatian's Diatessason

[Jesus said,] I said unto you, that ye shall die in your sins: if ye believe not that I am he, ye shall die in your sins." Tatian's Diatessaron section 35:24. This is the same as John 8:24.

[Jesus said,] "I am the way, and the truth, and the life: and no man cometh unto my Father, but though me." Tatian's Diatessaron section 45:34-35. This is almost the same as John 14:6-7, except that it has "the Father".

The Diatessaron is a harmony of the gospels, made by the Encratite Gnostic Tatian (died 170 A.D.). It is a harmony of 79% of all the gospel verses, leaving out verses referring to the humanity of Jesus. Since the Diatessaron has nothing except gospel verses, but it leaves out teaching that Jesus was a human, should it be considered God's Word or not?

Samples of Justin's Book of Baruch

In Justin's Book of Baruch the creator, Elohim, is not evil, but he is bumbling, neglectful, and abandons his wife Edem [Eden]. The Gnostic Bible p.119

"Naas [the serpent] had transgression, for he approached Eve and seduced her and debauched her and he also approached Adam and used him as a boy. This was the origin of adultery and pederasty.... Baruch was sent to Moses, and though him spoke to the sons of Israel ... but the third angel of Eden, Naas, though the soul given by Eden and dwelling in Moses, as in all men, overshadowed the commandments of Baruch and made his own commandments heard.... For the soul is Eden, while the spirit is Elohim; and each is in all, both female and male. After that Baruch was sent against to the prophets, ... Naas beguiled the prophets, ... Finally, Elohim chose a prophet from the uncircumcision, Heracles [Hercules], and sent him to contend with the twelve angels of Eden and to free the spirit of the Father from the twelve evil angels of the creation. These are the twelve labors of Heracles... Finally, 'in the days of king Herod', Baruch was sent again by Elohim, and he came to Nazareth and found Jesus,..." Justin's Book of Baruch in The Other Bible p.640.

Naasene Gnostics (Found at Nag Hammadi in Egypt)

Thomas answered and said, 'What can we say in the face of these things? What shall we say to people who are blind? What instruction shall we give to these miserable mortals? They say, 'We have come to do good, not to curse,' but add, 'If we had not been born in the flesh, we would not have known about sin/' The savior said, 'This is true: do not think of them as human beings, but consider them as animals. For as animals devour each other, so also people like this devour each other." Book of Thomas ch.5:1-4

"But these sayings that you utter are laughable and ridiculous to the world, for they are misunderstood. How can we go forth and preach them, since the world does not respect us?' (Jesus goes on to say that those who laugh or smirk will be cast into Hell/Tartarus for ever and be handed over to the angel Tartarouchos who will chase them with fiery whips. Book of Thomas ch.6:2-8

His disciples said, 'When will you appear to us, and when shall we see you?' Jesus said, 'when you strip and are not embarrassed, and you take your clothes and throw them down under your feet like little children and trample them, then you will see the child of the Living One and you will not be afraid." Gospel of Thomas saying 37

"Jesus said, 'The kingdom of the Father is like a woman who was carrying a jar full of flour. While she was walking on a road far from home, the handle of the jar broke and the flour spilled behind her on the road. She did not know it: she had not noticed the problem. When she reached her house, she put the jar down and discovered that it was empty.'" Gospel of Thomas saying 95.

[One might see some truth in this statement. Maybe this is what the Gnostics will find out that the kingdom of their Father is like.]

Other Books Found at Nag Hammadi in Egypt

"Since you have asked me to send you a secret book revealed to me and Peter by the Lord, I could not turn you down or refuse you. So I have written it in Hebrew, and set it to you and only you. But, considering that you are minister for the salvation of the saints, try to be careful not to communicate this book to many people, for the Savior did not even want to communicate it to all of us, his twelve disciples. Nonetheless, blessed are those who will be saved through the faith of this treatise. Ten months ago I sent you another secret book that the Savior revealed to me. Think of that book as a revelation to me, James. As for this one,..." Secret Book of James 1:2-6

Secret Book of James 3:11 has Jesus saying, "So disdain death, but care about life. Remember my cross and my death, and you will live."

"When the light mixed with the darkness, it made the darkness brighter. When the darkness mixed with the light, it dimmed the light. The result was neither light nor darkness, but rather gloom. This gloomy ruler has three names: The first name is Yaldabaoth. The second is Saklas. The third is Samael. He is wicked because of the Mindlessness that is in him. For he said, 'I am God, and there is no other God besides me.' Since he did not know from where his own strength had come." Secret Book of John ch.6.10-13. Later it teaches that Yaldabaoth was this world's Creator.

"Then [Yaldabaoth's] Mother began to move around. She realized that she was lacking something when the brightness of her light diminished. She grew dim because her lover had not collaborated with her.' I [Judas Thomas] said, 'Lord, what does it mean that she moved around?' The Lord laughed and said, 'Do not suppose that it happened the way Moses said, 'above the waters.' No, when she recognized the wickedness that had taken place, and the robbery her son had committed, she repented. Though she had become forgetful in the darkness of her ignorance, she began to be ashamed and agitated. This agitation is the moving around. The Arrogant one took power from his Mother." Secret Gospel of John ch.8:1-5a

Samples of Other Jewish Writings

"And if the year begins in Sagittarius: Everyone whose name contains a Beth or Pe will have misery and a severe disease, and in the beginning of the year it will increase in severity." Treatise of Shem ch.p.1 (Old Testament Pseudepigrapha vol.1 p.485)

"And I, Enoch, began to bless the Lord of the mighty ones and the King of the universe. At that moment the Watchers were calling me.' And they said to me, 'Enoch, scribe of righteousness, go and make known to the Watchers of heaven who have abandoned the high heaven, the holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, ... they have defiled themselves with great defilement upon the earth; neither will there be peace unto them nor the forgiveness of sin...." 1 Enoch ch.12 p.19

"Abram arose in the night and burned the house of idols. And he burned everything in the house. And there was no man who knew. And they rose upon the night, and they wanted to save their gods form the midst of the fire. And Haran rushed to save them, and the fire flared up over him. And he was burned in the fire and died in Ur of the Chaldees before Terah, his father...." Book of Jubilees ch.12.12-14

Samples of Spurious Writing

3 Corinthians 1: Two men have come to Corinth, Simon and Cleobius, who pervert the faith of many through pernicious words we want you [Paul] to respond to. We have never heard such things from you or the other apostles.... What they teach is as follows:

1. We must not appeal to the prophets
2. God is not Almighty
3. There is no resurrection of the flesh
4. Creation is not God's work
5. The Lord did not come in the flesh
6. The Lord was not born of Mary
7. The world is not of God but the Angels

So brother, hurry and come here, that the church here in Corinth may remain pure, and the foolishness of these men may be made known to all. Farewell in the Lord.

Concepts of an Old Testament and New Testament Scriptures

We take for granted a basic concept, foreign to Greco-Roman, Egyptian, and many other pagan religions, of "scripture", or a set of authoritative religious books to live by. Of course this concept of religious "law" or scripture was ancient to the Jews in Jesus' time, as Psalm 119 shows. At least 29 early Church writers either emphasized, appealed to, or "proved" things from scripture.

Early Christians did not just have the books that comprised the Old and New Testaments, they also had the concepts of "Old Testament" and "New Testament". Here are Pre-Nicene writers whom mention the words "New Testament" and/or "Old Testament". Of course, mentioning an Old Testament implies a New Testament.
Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) - New
Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) - Old
Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) - Old, New
The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) Old
Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) - Old, New
Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) - Old, New
Asterius Urbanus (c.232 A.D.) - Old, New
Hippolytus (225-235/6 A.D.) - Old, New
Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) - Old
Origen (225-254 A.D.) - Old, New
Novatian (250-254/257 A.D.) - Old, New
Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258) - Old, New
Cyprian of Carthage (246-258 A.D.) - Old, New
Dionysius of Rome (259-269 A.D.) - Old, New
Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) - Old, New
Anatolius of Alexandria (270-280 A.D.) - Old
Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) - Old
Victorinus of Petau (-304 A.D.) - Old, New
Methodius (260-312 A.D.) - Old
Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.) - Old, New
Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) - Old, New

For references and quotes see www.BibleQuery.org/history/ChurchHistory/WhatEarlyChristiansTaught.html.

While it was God who gave us scripture, we owe a debt to the early church for recognizing scripture.

Ehrman on Moses and the Torah

Ehrman writes, "Moses did not write the Pentateuch" Jesus, Interrupted p.5. "It is hard to know whether Moses ever existed..." Jesus, Interrupted p.6

Ehrman did not give any evidence to back this up, so it is unclear if Ehrman thinks it was not written in this time period, or if it was written in this time period by someone else. Now it is acknowledged that Moses could have had a scribe, and that Moses' death was written by a scribe afterwards, but there is no reason given for doubting what Jesus, Jews, and early Christians said in ascribing authorship to Moses. Jesus referred to verses in the Pentateuch (Torah) as by Moses in Matthew 19:7-8; Mark 7:10; 10:3-5; 12:26; Luke 20:37; 24:44; and Jn 5:45-46; 7:19-23. Prior to Nicea, we also have 18 early church writers who taught that Moses wrote verses in the Torah.

Again, for references and quotes see www.BibleQuery.org/history/ChurchHistory/WhatEarlyChristiansTaught.html.

Ehrman on when Gospel Authors were First Named

Before discussing another assertion though, let's highlight a small point we agree on. Ehrman says that Matthew wrote some 25 or 30 years after Paul. Jesus, Interrupted p.89. Ehrman also acknowledges that John was written about 90 or 95 CE. (Jesus, Interrupted p.81, Lost Christianities pp.19-20). All generally agree here.

Ehrman says that traditions of who wrote each gospel can be traced to about a century after the books were written Jesus, Interrupted p.102.

This is false because of the witness of Papias who lived before then. Ehrman discusses this counter-example in Jesus, Interrupted pp.107-110. He acknowledges that Papias wrote a five volume work somewhere between 110 and 140 C.E. (Irenaeus in Against Heresies book 5 ch.33.4 mentions the five volumes of books by Papias, hearer of John and companion of Polycarp.)

Ehrman says that what we know of Papias comes from later church writers [such as Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History book 3 ch.39], and that Papias says he got his information from "the elder". So he dismisses Papias' remarks as third, fourth or fifth hand information. But Papias himself says he heard directly from the elder who told how it was: in other words it could have been second hand information.

Most importantly though, since Ehrman acknowledges that Papias heard the information on who wrote each gospel as either third, fourth, or fifth hand information, then the "tradition" rather than being a century later, had to be earlier than Papias wrote (110-140 A.D.). It is surprising (at least to me) that a professor of New Testament Greek would make this statement.

Early authors who name the writers of the gospels before one hundred years after (90-95 A.D.) are:
p64 (c.150-175 A.D.) Papyrus p64 has the first leaf preserved, which says the "Gospel According to Matthew".
Papias (130-150 A.D.) already mentioned. Misquoting Truth by Timothy Paul Jones p.84 discusses why Ehrman was wrong to not believe Papias, and forget about Papias when Ehrman says that the traditions were about a century after the books were written.
Claudius Apollinaris (160-180 A.D.) mentions Matthew, the Gospels, and the law. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 ch.772
Theophilus to Autolycus (168-181/188 A.D.) book 2 ch.22 p.103 has "John says" and then quotes John 1:1a.
Irenaeus (182-188 A.D.) quotes Mt 1:1 as by Matthew (Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.16.2 p.440), Mk 1:1 as by Mark (ibid book 3 ch.16.3 p.441), and Lk 1:6 as by Luke (ibid book 3 ch.10.1 p.423).
Irenaeus also writes, "even as John, the disciple of the Lord, declares regarding Him [Jesus]:" and then quotes John 1:3. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.2 p.362.
Irenaeus quotes Acts 8:9-11,20,21,23 (Simon the Sorcerer) as written by Luke. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.23.1 p.347
Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D., r c.160 A.D.) Third book of the gospels is Luke and the Fourth Gospel is that of John. Muratorian Canon 1.
Muratorian Canon also mentions the Acts of the Apostles by Luke. Muratorian Canon 2.
Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) writes
"the Gospel according to Matthew" Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.334. "the Gospel according to Mark" Who is the Rich Man That Shall be Saved? ch.5 p.592. "the Gospel of Luke" Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.333. "John wrote his Gospel" Stromata book 5 ch.12 p.463. "Luke in Acts of the Apostles" Stromata book 5 ch.12 p.464.

Timothy Paul Jones in Misquoting Truth : A Guide to the Fallacies of Bart Ehrman's Misquoting Jesus pp.101-105 discusses the significance that no other names were ever put forward as authors of these gospels. If the purported authors of the gospels were simply traditions started later by isolated Christian communities, one would think, that among either Christians or heretics, at least one group would have come up with one alternate name, or one writer would have mentioned an alternate author proposed by someone else.

Ehrman Kicks out Some New Testament Books Based on Statistical Methods

Different liberals and skeptics have different view on which books were genuinely by Paul. Ehrman's view is that he has confidence Paul wrote Romans, 1, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, and Philemon, but not Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, 1, 2 Timothy, Titus, and the anonymous book of Hebrews.

Brief synopsis: Ehrman says that Ephesians and Colossians could not have been written by Paul, because their longest sentence is much longer than other letters of Paul, and they have a higher percentage of 50-word plus sentences (Jesus, Interrupted p.126). However, the percentage of long sentences in Ephesians matches Romans 1-6 fairly well. The percentage of long sentences in Colossians after chapter 1 tend to match Philippians. The clincher though is that original manuscripts did not have punctuation, and what Ehrman calls the longest sentence in Ephesians is recognized by Nestle-Aland and Aland, et al. today as four sentences. We also look at a third criteria others sometimes use: frequency of word use.

However, a statistic can be useless or misleading, unless four things are known about it:
1) How it is measured
2) How does it compare to two or more things known to be identical or similar.
3) How does it compare to two or more things known to be very different
4) What could artificially skew the statistical measures.

1) The following sentence lengths were calculated from the Aland et al. The Greek New Testament 4th revised edition (1994, reprinted 1998). However, one of Ehrman's numbers does not match this, but it does match the older Aland et al. 3rd edition (1975), so I will refer to that too. In both versions a few words are in square brackets meaning there was some debate before they were included in the text. These are included in the count too.

2) We will look not only at entire letters of Paul, but also see where the length of sentences changes within the same book. For comparison, we will also look at some modern authors: C.S. Lewis and Bart Ehrman himself.

3) We will also look at the first 7 or so chapters of Luke and Acts, which Ehrman agrees were both written by the same person, who is someone besides Paul.

4) Using length of the longest sentence is easy to skew by the length of book, subject matter, and differences where modern people delineate the sentence boundaries in the New Testament. For the distribution of sentences we see how it can be skewed by subject matter, and fraction of the book devoted to deep doctrine, practical instructions, and greetings. It also seems that sentences are longer for books that would have been written later in Paul's life.

Length of Longest Sentences in a Book

First let's deal with the longest sentence(s) argument. He says that Ephesians 1:3-14 [203 words] and Colossians 1:3-8 [102 words] are much longer than sentences in other books. (Jesus, Interrupted p.126)

Brief answer: The sentences Ehrman mentions are not much longer than sentences Ehrman agrees are written by Paul. One reason is that Ehrman is against the consensus of where the sentence breaks are.

There are four points to answer this claim.

1) No punctuation was in the early Greek manuscripts, so one can only infer what was a period versus a semicolon or comma.

2) Skewing: Even if God Ehrman and everyone else agreed on all the punctuation, it would still be an unsuitable statistic, for the longest sentence would depend on not only the length of the book but also the subject matter. For example, Paul wrote more deep theology at the beginning part of his books, and more short greetings at the end, and was the ratio of beginning theology, middle application, and ending greetings different for different books.

3) Ehrman disagrees with other scholars on sentence breaks. Eph 1:3-6, 1:7-10, and 1:11-12, and 13-14 are not one but four sentences, according to Aland et al.'s The Greek New Testament, 4th revised edition (1998). The Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece (1993) says the same. Ehrman never gave the source for why he thought it was only one sentence. However, 23 years earlier, the 1975 3rd edition Aland et al's, The Greek New Testament showed them as one sentence, so I am surmising he was using the much older version. Again though, the original Greek had no punctuation, so building an argument on where late 20th century people think the periods go, before they changed their minds, is a sketchy argument at best.

4) Colossians does not differ much from other books of Paul: In contrast to the third point, Ehrman, Aland et al 4th revised edition, Aland et al. 3rd edition, and Nestle-Aland all agree that Colossians 1:3-8 is one sentence. It is 102 words. Ehrman writes, "Colossians 1:3-8 is all one sentence in Greek; it's a whopper, and quite unlike the kind of sentence Paul typically wrote. Ephesians 1:3-14 is even longer, twelve verses - not like Paul at all." (Jesus, Interrupted p.126).

I am mystified why Ehrman gives no basis for comparison. I have provided one below. Since a few people think Hebrews might have been written by Paul, I went ahead and included it too. Luke and Acts are agreed to be by the same author, so those are included just for comparison. For reference 1 and 2 Peter are included too.

SentenceTotal Greek words in the book

References. These are based on Aland et al. 4th edition.

2 Thessalonians

158, 57, 54

90

823

2 Th 1:3-10; 2:8-10; 2:1-3a

Colossians

157, 123, 102

127

1,582

Col 1:11b-20; 1:24-29; 1:3-8

Romans

139, 123, 113

125

7,111

Rom 9:19-26; 4:16-21; 2:2-8

Hebrews

135, 72, 65

91

4,953

Heb 8:8-12; 1:1-4, 2:2-5

Ephesians

124, 124, 104

117

2,422

Eph 2:1-7; 4:11-16; 3:1-7

2 Corinthians

118, 102, 94

105

4,477

2 Cor 6:2b-10; 9:10-14; 8:1-6

2 Timothy

105, 61, 52

73

1,238

2 Tim 1:8-12; 1:3-5; 2:23-26

1 Thessalonians

104, 81, 70

85

1,481

1 Th 3:9-13; 1:2-5; 4:15-17

1 Corinthians

95, 84, 82

87

6,830

1 Cor 1:20-25; 9:4-9a; 14:6-9

Philemon

94, 47, 41

62

335

Phm 8-14; 4-6; 1-3

Galatians

94, 77, 75

90

2,230

Gal 2:6-10; 2:14-16; 1:1-5

Philippians

88, 82, 79

83

1,629

Php 1:3-7; 1:27-30; 3:8-11

1 Timothy

71, 57, 56

61

1,591

1 Tim 6:13-16; 3:2-6; 1:8-11

Titus

65, 64, 57

62

659

Tt 1:1-4; 2:1-14; 3:4-7

Lk 1-7

165, 95, 77

109

5,960

Lk 3:23-28; 1:67-75; 3:15-17

Acts 1-6

108, 89, 87

95

3,582

Acts 4:5-10; 3:12-15; 1:1-5

Acts 7-11

72, 65, 64

67

3,971

Acts 7:38-40; 10:36-38; 7:44-46

1 Peter

79, 65, 59

68

1,684

1 Pet 1:17-21; 2:21-24; 1:6-9

2 Peter

96, 88, 65

83

1,099

2 Pet 2:4-10a; 2:12-16; 3:14-16

Ehrman agrees that the books in italics are most likely by Paul. The "whopper" of 102 words in Colossians 1:3-8 is shorter than many other verses in books Ehrman agrees Paul wrote. The longest sentence in each book and which books he agrees are by Paul look rather random.

Distribution of Length of Sentences

Immediately after the previous quote of Ehrman he writes, "Nearly 10 percent of the sentences in Ephesians are over fifty words in length; this is uncharacteristic of Paul's undisputed letters. Philippians, about the same length, has only one sentence that long. Galatians is much longer, and also has only one." (Jesus, Interrupted p.126)

This is not true on multiple counts. Actually it is 26% of sentences that are greater than 50 words long. I am not sure if he meant 50 to 60 is 10%, or something else. Regardless of whether he made a mistake, or the editor introduced a "textual variant" here, we can still clearly see his point from the chart below.

Book

words

Sen-tences

Aver-age

Std. Dev

Med-ian

Lar-gest

Smal-lest

< 11

11 to 20

21 to 30

31 to 40

41 to 50

51 to 60

>60

Rom (all)

7111

276

25.8

18.6

21

139

5

16%

31%

22%

16%

8%

3%

4%

Rom 1-5

2256

63

35.8

24.3

32

124

5

10%

14%

25%

24%

8%

5%

14%

Rom 6-16

4855

213

22.8

15.3

19

139

5

18%

36%

21%

14%

8%

2%

1%

1 Cor (all)

6830

292

23.4

15.2

19

95

2

16%

38%

24%

13%

2%

2%

4%

1 Cor 1

499

14

35.6

25.9

23.5

95

13

0%

50%

7%

14%

0%

7%

21%

1 Cor 1-6

2029

78

26.0

17.0

20.5

95

3

10%

40%

19%

19%

3%

3%

6%

2 Cor (all)

4477

172

26.0

18.3

20.5

118

3

15%

35%

22%

10%

9%

5%

3%

2 Cor 6-10

1600

50

32.0

23.9

24.5

118

3

12%

26%

24%

12%

12%

6%

8%

Gal (all)

2230

103

21.7

15.0

17

94

5

20%

40%

20%

10%

5%

2%

3%

Gal 1-2

750

24

31.3

23

22

94

9

8%

33%

21%

17%

4%

4%

13%

Gal 3-6

1480

79

18,7

10

17

51

5

24%

42%

20%

8%

5%

1%

0%

Eph (all)

2422

65

37.3

27.8

25

124

7

2%

35%

20%

8%

9%

11%

15%

Eph 1-3

1088

20

54.4

32.2

48

124

14

0%

15%

20%

10%

5%

10%

40%

Eph 4-6

1334

45

29.6

21.9

22

124

7

2%

44%

20%

7%

11%

11%

4%

All Php

1629

61

26.7

18.6

20

88

3

15%

36%

15%

15%

11%

3%

5%

Php 1

501

13

38.5

24.8

35

88

9

8%

23%

8%

15%

23%

8%

15%

Php 2-4

1128

48

23.5

15.3

19

79

3

17%

40%

17%

15%

8%

2%

2%

Col (all)

1582

45

35.2

31.5

26

157

4

20%

18%

22%

7%

11%

7%

16%

Col 1

538

6

89.7

46.8

84.5

157

28

0%

0%

17%

0%

0%

0%

83%

Col 2-4

1044

39

26.8

17.8

23

71

4

23%

21%

23%

8%

13%

8%

5%

1 Th (all)

1481

51

29.0

20.6

25

104

3

18%

24%

20%

22%

4%

4%

10%

2 Th (all)

823

26

31.7

29.7

27

158

5

12%

31%

23%

12%

12%

8%

4%

1 Tim (all)

1591

70

22.7

13.4

20

71

4

14%

40%

27%

7%

7%

3%

1%

2 Tim (all)

1238

52

23.8

17.9

19.5

105

4

17%

37%

21%

10%

10%

2%

4%

Tt (all)

659

27

24.2

17.5

20

65

5

19%

33%

22%

7%

7%

4%

7%

Phm (all)

335

13

25.8

23.8

16

94

9

23%

46%

0%

8%

15%

0%

8%

Heb (all)

4953

173

28.6

20.5

23

135

3

13%

32%

18%

12%

14%

2%

8%

Luke 1-7

5960

239

24.9

17.6

20

165

3

10%

41%

22%

13%

7%

2%

6%

Acts 1-6

3582

117

30.6

18.8

26

108

7

4%

32%

22%

22%

7%

3%

9%

Acts 7-11

3971

168

23.6

13.9

19

72

3

11%

42%

22%

14%

5%

2%

4%

Acts 12-17

3989

171

23.3

12.8

21

86

3

13%

31%

35%

15%

3%

2%

2%

Acts 13-18

4006

163

24.6

13.0

22

86

4

9%

32%

36%

14%

5%

2%

2%

First what is not a part of the answer, and then four points to consider in the answer.

Not the answer: Romans was not written down by Paul, but rather dictated to the scribe Tertius (Romans 16:22). On the other hand, Col 4:18, 2 Th 3:17, and Phm 19 specifically say that Paul wrote down these letters in his own hand. However, we cannot do much with this information, because we don't how Paul writing down himself vs. verbally dictating to a scribe would affect sentence length. Moreover, the other letters are silent on whether or not Paul used a scribe, and whether the scribes were the same people.

First, we must recognize that Paul used longer sentences on some topics (such as heavy doctrine) than on others (such as application and greetings.) Thus a book may have a different distribution of length of sentences depending on what percent was heavy doctrine, application, and greeting. As proof of this, look at Romans 1-5 vs. Romans 6-16. All of Colossians after chapter 1 and Ephesians 4-6 are not significantly different from Paul's other books.

Second, Romans 1-5 compares very similarly to Ephesians and Colossians. So sentence length is no reason to reject that the author of Romans 1-5 was the same author of Ephesians and Colossians.

Third, let's see how this compares with other authors. Acts 1-6 has 9% of the sentences are at least 60 words, and Acts 7-12, by the same author in the same book, has only 3% of the sentences are at least 60 words. In the book of Romans by Paul, chapters 1-5 have 19% of the words are at least 50 words, but chapters 6-16 have only 3% of the sentences at least 50 words.

Fourth, how about doing a benchmark on this test using the writings of Ehrman, as well as C.S. Lewis?

Chapter

words

Sen-tences

Aver-age

Std. Dev

Med-ian

Lar-gest

Smal-lest

< 11

11 to 20

21 to 30

31 to 40

41 to 50

51 to 60

>60

Bart Ehrman

Jesus, Interr. ch.1

1613

72

22.4

28.2

15.5

224

1

35%

28%

14%

11%

6%

3%

4%

J.I. ch.8

5044

220

22.9

13.4

20

62

1

20%

32%

21%

15%

9%

3%

0%

O.C.S. ch.1

3010

111

27.1

13.9

24

94

6

5%

32%

34%

14%

12%

3%

2%

C.S. Lewis

Screwtape Ltrs. ch.6-8

2763

115

24.0

12.7

24

56

3

17%

25%

28%

18%

9%

3%

0%

Problem of Pain 1st half ch.1

1649

67

24.6

12.4

24

64

4

16%

25%

27%

22%

6%

1%

1%

Pain Last half ch.1

2025

75

27.0

15.8

24

75

5

13%

24%

25%

23%

5%

4%

5%

Pain ch.6

2283

89

25.7

12.8

24

66

5

7%

33%

34%

12%

9%

4%

1%

Looking at the sentences longer than 50 words, one could (speciously) argue that the author of Jesus Interrupted chapter 1 could be the same as the author of the last half of chapter 1 of the Problem of Pain. But the author of Jesus, Interrupted ch.1 might be a different author than Jesus, Interrupted ch.8.

Cannot Use High Frequency Words

Some people try to determine similarity of writer style by the frequency of words use. While Ehrman did not use this argument in his books, other critics think the frequency of words used can indicate authorship, so this argument is still worth discussing too.

A.C. Clark performed some statistical studies on Luke vs. Acts. Among other things, he found that the Greek word te is used 158 times in Acts but only 8 times in Luke. All 8 are the te kai type, while in places where Acts could have used that, it used 99 other types instead. Acts frequently uses "it came to pass" followed by an infinitive, but never followed by an infinitive in Luke. Also, the relative frequency of men, oun and sun in Acts indicates that it is more classical than Luke.

Yet Colin J. Hemer, in The Book of Acts in the Setting of Hellenistic History pp.30-31, before bringing up the previous says, "This question will not detain us long, for the unity of Luke-Acts is today so generally accepted as to seem a datum of the problem, and the onus does not lie upon us to establish a position which not many would care to deny."

Appendix: Pseudepigraphal Writings

For readers familiar with Islam, there were about 300,000 to 400,000 hadiths, traditions, about Mohammed. Yet Muslims reject almost 99% of them because of lack of their chain of transmission or strange content. This is somewhat analogous to many of these spurious books. When books appear out of thin air, centuries after Jesus, with nobody prior to then who had heard of these books, the Christian church generally would pay no attention to it. There were equivalent spurious writings prior to Christ, yet these did not confuse either Jesus or most of the Jews about what was scripture.

Total pseudipegraphal writings prior to Christianity (36+)
Jewish Pseudepigrapha (36)
Apocalypse of Sedrach
Apocalypse of Ezra
Apocalypse of Elijah
Apocalypse of Zechariah
Apocalypse of Zephaniah
2 Baruch (Apocalypse of Baruch)
Cleodemus Malchus
Damascus Document (Dead Sea Scrolls)
The Divine Throne-Chariot (Dead Sea Scrolls)
2 Enoch (Book of the Secrets of Enoch)
4 Ezra (Apocalypse of Ezra)
Genesis Apocryphon (Dead Sea Scrolls)
Hagaddah
History of the Rechabites
Jannes and Jambres
Joseph and Asenath
Jubilees
Ladder of Jacob
Lamech
Lives of the Prophets
4 Maccabees
Manual of Discipline (Dead Sea Scrolls)
Martyrdom of Isaiah
Odes of Solomon (Dead Sea Scrolls)
Prayer of Jacob
Prayer of Joseph
Psalms of Solomon
Revelation of Moses
Sibylline Oracles (perhaps by multiple sources)
Syriac Menander
Testament of Adam
Testament of Job
Testaments of the Three Patriarchs
Thanksgiving Psalms (Dead Sea Scrolls)
Treatise of Shem
Wars of the Sons of Light with the Sons of Darkness (Dead Sea Scrolls)
Story of Ahikar/Ahiqar (no claim to be Jewish)
Philo the Epic Poet

Manichaeans (7)
Manichaeans were started by Mani/Manes of Persia, around 250 A.D.
Creation of the Word and the Alien Man
The Religion That I, Mani Have Chosen
Mani's Death
Visions of Paradise
The Light of Paradise
Prayer to Mani and Other Poems
Coptic Psalm-Book

Mandaean (1)

Mandaeans are an obscure group, still around in the marches of southern Iraq, that claim to follow John the Baptist.

Song of Ascent

Ethics and Morality

Writings during early Christianity (total 92+)

Christian Apocrypha (27+)
Apocalypse of Peter
Apocalypse of Paul
Apocalypse of Thomas
Apostolic Constitutions
Gospel of Bartholomew
Gospel of Nicodemus
Passion of Perpetua and Felicity
Infancy Gospel of James
Infancy Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew
Infancy Gospel of Thomas
Infancy Gospel
Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles
Acts of John
Acts of Peter
Acts of Paul
Acts of Paul and Thecla
Acts of Andrew
Ascension of Isaiah
Apocalypse of Moses
Book of John Concerning the Falling Asleep of Mary
The Passing of Mary
Secret Gospel of Mark
Christian Sibyllines
Mystical Theology of Pseudo-Dionysius
Letter of Pontius Pilate concerning our Lord Jesus Christ
Report of Pilate the Procurator Concerning our Lord Jesus Christ
The Report of Pontius Pilate
Death of Pilate

Ebionite (5)
Gospel of the Hebrews
Gospel of the Ebionites
Recognitions of Clement
Clementine Homilies
Protoevangelium of James

Valentinian Gnostics (5+1)
Gospel of Truth
Ptolemy's Letter to Flora
A Prayer of Paul the Apostle
Epistle to Rheginus (Treatise on the Resurrection)
Gospel of Philip

Valentinian-offshoot: System of Ptolemaeus
Naasene Gnostics (2)
Naaseene Gnostics were unknown in the time of Irenaeus' compendium Against Heresies (182-188 A.D.) However, they were mentioned in the compendium of his pupil Hippolytus, The Refutation of All Heresies (225-235/6 A.D.)
Gospel of Thomas
Naasene Hymn

Hermetic Gnostics (4)
Greatest Human Evil is Forgetfulness of God
Hermes Trismegistus: Asclepius
Hermes Trismegistus: On God's Bisexuality
Hermes Trismegistus: Poimandres

Other Gnostics (22)
Acts of Thomas
Apocalypse of Adam
Apocalypse of the Great Power
Baruch by Justin
Book of Thomas the Contender
Fable of the Pearl
Gospel of Apelles
Gospel of Basilides
Gospel of Cerinthus
Gospel of Marcion
Gospel of Mary Magdalene
Human Suffering
Hypostatis of the Archons
Melchizedek
Origen of the World
Paraphrase of Shem
Second Treatise of the Great Seth
Secret Book of James
Secret Book of John
Sophia of Jesus Christ
Thunder, Perfect Mind
Trimorphic Protennoia

Other Books (18)
Circuit of Paul
Circuit of Peter
Circuit of John
Circuit of Thomas
History of Joseph the Carpenter
Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Savior
Narrative of Joseph
Avenging of the savior
Acts of the Hoy Apostles Peter and Paul
Acts of Barnabas
Acts and Martyrdom of the Holy Apostle Andres
Acts of Andrew and Matthias
Acts of Peter and Andrew
Acts and Martyrdom of St. Matthew the Apostle
Consummation of Thomas the Apostle
Martyrdom of the Holy and Glorious Apostle Bartholomew
Acts of the Holy Apostle Thaddaeus
Acts of the Holy Apostle and Evangelist John the Theologian

Textual variants is discussed at www.BibleQuery.org/OtherBeliefs/Skeptics/ResponsetoEhrman1_TextualVariants.html.

More modern books not accepted by orthodox Christians , but function as divine revelation by others (361)
Rev. Moon's Divine Principle
Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (Mary Baker Eddy, Christian Science)
Urantia Book (alleged divine revelation of God, Jesus, cosmology, etc.)
A Course in Miracles (Foundation for Inner Peace)
4 volumes The Lost Years of Jesus (Elizabeth Claire Prophet)
Philemon Stewart's A Holy, Sacred and Divine Roll and Book. (Shakers)
300 books Edgar Cayce (member of the Disciples of Christ denomination. He said Jesus was an Essene who traveled to India)
Edgar Cayce believed in "Akashic Records" which included the record of what people had done in past lives
Helen Stewart Wambach (1925-1985) claimed she could read the Akashic records and tell people of their future reincarnated lives in parallel universes.
The Qur'an (Muslims claim to follow Jesus' teachings)
Kitabu'l-Asma' (The Bab)
Bayan (The Bab)
Panj Sha'n (Five Modes) (The Bab)
Baha'u'llah and the New Era (Baha'is)

Books in the Druze Scripture, Letters of Wisdom
Kitab al-Majmu' ('The Book of the Collection') ('Alawite)
Kitab al-Ashbar wa'l-Azilla, 'the book of Phantoms and Shadows' ('Alawite)
Poem of the God-Man (pronounced heretical by the Catholic church, said should be read by the apparition Mary of Medjagorge)
28X Emannual Swedenborg's writings (claimed by some as divine scripture. Swedenborg said Jesus returned in spirit in 1757. Swedenborg wrote 28 works, including Life on Other Planets, where Swedenborg said he conversed with beings from Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn.)
Doctrines & Covenants (Mormon)
1 Nephi (in the Book of Mormon)
2 Nephi (in the Book of Mormon)
Jacob (in the Book of Mormon)
Enos (in the Book of Mormon)
Jarom (in the Book of Mormon)
Omni (in the Book of Mormon)
Words of Mormon (in the Book of Mormon)
Mosiah (in the Book of Mormon)
Alma (in the Book of Mormon)
Helaman (in the Book of Mormon)
3 Nephi (in the Book of Mormon)
4 Nephi (in the Book of Mormon)
Ether (in the Book of Mormon)
Moroni (in the Book of Mormon)
Book of Moses (Mormon Pearl of Great Price)
Book of Abraham (Mormon Pearl of Great Price)
Book of Onias (Fundamentalist Mormon group called the School of Prophets)
Second Book of Commandments (Fundamentalist Mormon group called the School of Prophets)

Spurious or inaccurate translations
Joseph Smiths' "translation" of the Bible Jehovah's Witness New World Translation

Bible textual variant are discussed at www.BibleQuery.org/OtherBeliefs/Skeptics/ResponsetoEhrman1_TextualVariants.html.

Alleged Bible contradictions are discussed at www.BibleQuery.org/OtherBeliefs/Skeptics/ResponsetoEhrman2_AllegedContradictions.html.

The video series another speaker called the Making of the Messiah is discussed at www.BibleQuery.org/OtherBeliefs/Skeptics/ResponseToTheMakingOfTheMessiah.html.

For a bibliography see www.BibleQuery.org/OtherBeliefs/Skeptics/ResponseToEhrman_ListOfReferences.html


For more info please contact Christian Debater™ P.O. Box 144441 Austin, TX 78714 www.BibleQuery.org