The Holy Spirit is a Distinct Person


Oneness Pentecostal pastor Steven Ritchie claims: The Holy Spirit is the Divine Spirit and Person of God the Father who became the Spirit of Christ. Therefore the Holy Spirit could not be a third divine person of a three person deity.


It is not much good to have the same Bible if you are tricked by a new dictionary. Trinitarians believe what the Bible teaches: the Holy Spirit has a distinct (though not separate) mind, will, and personality from the God the Father and God's Son.


Question: To whom does the Holy Spirit have to intercede, ask, or plea for us? Himself???


1. Holy Spirit is God, and God has personality

All should agree that the Holy Spirit is divine, but not a separate God. All should agree that the Holy Spirit has personality, because God does. The Spirit was present at Creation. But the issue here is whether or not the Holy Spirit is a distinct person.


1a. The Holy Spirit has a Mind

He knows and performs the activity of searching all things, even the deep things of God (1 Corinthians 2:10-11); He possesses a mind (Rom 8:27), and he can teach people (1 Cor 2:13).

In Mt 11:27 "...no one [person] knows the Son except the Father, and no one knows the Father except the Son and those to whom the Son chooses to reveal Him." The context is earth, not heaven. Otherwise, to be consistent, the cherubim in God's direct presence do not know God either.


1b. The Holy Spirit has Feelings

He can be grieved (Ephesians 4:30); He can be insulted (Hebrews 10:29); He can think things are good (Acts 15:28)


Rom 8:26 "Likewise the Spirit also helps in our weaknesses. For we do not know what we should pray for as we ought, but the Spirit Himself makes intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered."


1c. The Holy Spirit has a Will

He chooses to give gifts to some (1 Cor 12:11), He directs activities of Christians (Acts 16:6-11). He intercedes (prays) for the saints (Rom 8:26).


2. The Holy Spirit has a distinct role

1 Jn 5:6 The Spirit testifies

Heb 10:15 The Holy Spirit witnesses to us

Rom 8:26-27 Spirit intercedes for us

Acts 2:17 I will pour out my Spirit

The Holy Spirit spoke to your forefathers through Isaiah the prophet. Acts 28:25

Distinctness at Baptism. Mt 3:16-17; Mk 1:9-11; Jn 1:32-33


Not of Himself: Jn 16:13 "However, when He, the Spirit of truth, has come, He will guide you into all truth; for He will not speak on his own authority; but whatever he hears He will speak; and He will tell you things to come."


Apology of Aristides (125 or 138-161 A.D.) p.276 The Holy Spirit acknowledged Jesus to be the Son of the Most High God.


Union & Distinction of the Three

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) says, "The Holy Spirit Himself also, which operates in the prophets, we assert to be an effluence of God, flowing from Him, and returning back again like a beam of the sun. Who, then, would not be astonished to hear men who speak of God the Father, and of God the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, and who declare both their power in union and their distinction in order, called atheists?" A Plea for Christians ch.10 p.133


3. The Sent One: sent by the Father & Son

Jn 14:26 "But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in My name, He will teach you all things, and bring to our remembrance all things that I said to you."

Lk 11:13 The Father gave us the Holy Spirit.

Rom 5:5 God gave us the Holy Spirit.

Gal 4:6b God sent for the Spirit of His Son.

Jn 14:16-17; 14:26 Father sent after Jesus prays.


3a. The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father

Jn 15:26 "But when the helper comes, whom I [Jesus Christ] shall send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who proceeds from the Father, He will testify of Me."

Jn 16:7 "Nevertheless I tell you the truth. It is to your advantage that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you; but if I depart, I will send Him to you."


4. The Holy Spirit is Another Helper

Jn 14:16-18 "And I will pray to the Father, and He will give you another Helper, that He may abide with you forever - the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees Him nor knows Him; but you know Him, for He dwells with you and will be in you. I will not leave you orphans; I will come to you."


5. The Spirit interacts with the Father and Son Rom 8:26-27 intercedes with groanings

1 Cor 2:10 Searches the deep things of God.

Lk 4:1The Spirit filled Jesus and led Jesus into the wilderness.

Lk 4:14a "Then Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee."

Lk 11:13 The Father gives the Holy Spirit.

Father & Son are distinct. Spirit of the Father: Lk 11:13 Spirit of His son Gal 4:6b, of Christ Rom 8:9; Jn 16:7


Oneness strains 3 and 4 people should clarify "distinct from whom?" They believe the Father is distinct from the Son of God on earth. They say that verses such as Luke 11:13 "heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask Him!" show it is the Father's Spirit, not a distinct Spirit from the Father. But if the Father and Son are distinct, and Galatians 4:6b says, "God has sent forth the Spirit of His son into your hearts, crying out, Abba, Father!'" then is it the Spirit of the Father or the Spirit of the Son? Or as I believe, both. And as the Father and Son are distinct (though not separate), the Father, Son, and Spirit are distinct (though not separate).


Blasphemy of the Son vs. the Holy Spirit. Mt 12:31; Mk 3:28-29; Lk 12:10


6. The Spirit feels, speaks, & interacts with us

The Holy Spirit speaks (Acts 10:19; 13:2; Heb 3:7, Rev 22:17; Jn 16:13; Rom 8:26-27; ~Mt 10:20; ~Mk 13:11)

He speaks directly, person to person (Acts 10:19-21)

He can be lied to (Acts 5:3)

He is our helper [masculine].

Pneuma (spirit) is neuter, yet Greek grammar was deliberately violated to talk about Spirit (He) in Jn 14:16. Other cases of this may be Jn 15:26; 16:7-8; Eph 1:14-15.

Gal 4:6b "God has sent forth the Spirit of His son into your hearts, crying out, 'Abba, Father!'"


7. Spirit is Inseparable from the Father & Son


Jn 14:18 Yet "I [Jesus Christ son of God] will not leave you orphans, I will come to you."


Jn 14:23 "Jesus answers and said to him, 'If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word, and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our home with him. He who does not love Me does not keep My words; and the word which you hear is not Mine but the Father's who sent Me.'"

God is Holy, Holy, Holy (the trisaglion) Rev 4:8; Isa 6:3. God is a thrice holy God.


Bring Forth Your Witnesses


Here are early Christians who wrote the Holy Spirit (not just God) directly spoke or otherwise interacted with us.


Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.)

Ignatius of Antioch (100-107/116 A.D.)

Aristides (125 or 138-161 A.D.)

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.)

Shepherd of Hermas (c.160 A.D.) grieves

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) Holy Spirit Himself

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs (180 A.D.)

Irenaeus of Lyonss (182-188 A.D.)

Caius (190-217 A.D.) (implied)

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.)

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.)

Theodotus the probable Montanist (ca.240 A.D.)

Origen (225-254 A.D.)

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.)

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.)

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.)

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.)

Theognostus of Alexandria (260 A.D.)

Gregory Thaumaturgus (246-265 A.D.)

Archelaus (262-278 A.D.)

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.)

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) (implied)

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.)

Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.)


Conclusions on the Holy Spirit


1) The Spirit intercedes for us, and searches the deep things of God. (Rom 8:26-27; 1 Cor 2:10-11)


2) The Spirit filled Jesus and led Jesus into the wilderness. Lk 4:1


3) If you believe the Father and Son are two distinct persons, then in Mt 28:19 the Spirit has to be distinct from at least one of them. It makes no sense to say "Father, Son, and Father again. It makes no sense to say the Father, Son, and Son, and the Spirit did not shed His blood or die on the cross. So the Spirit is the third.


(Bible verses are from the NKJV.)


 

More Bible Verses


Mt 28:18-19 "And Jesus came and spoke to them, saying, 'All authority has been give to Me in heaven and on earth. God therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.'"


2 Cor 13:14 "The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Spirit be with you all. Amen."


1 Pet 1:2 "elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit, for obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ."


Eph 2:18 "For through Him [Christ] we both have access by one Spirit to the Father." (not access by the Father to the Father)


70 Bible Teachings on the Holy Spirit

 

Spirit Lk 1:35

S1. Spirit of Truth Jn 14:17a; 16:13

S2. Spirit of Christ Rom 8:9

S3. Sevenfold Spirit Rev 1:4; 4:5; 5:6; Zech 3:9

S4. Spirit of Wisdom Dt 34:9; Prov 8

S5. Holy Spirit Mt 1:18; 3:11; Mk 1:8; Lk 1:35; 3:16; Jn 1:33; 14:26; Acts 1:5,6;

S6. Spirit of grace Heb 10:29

S7. Spirit's fire 1 Th 5:19


Mind Rom 8:27

M1. Counselor Jn 14:16,25

M2. Searches deep things of God 1 Cor 2:10-11

M3. Guides us Jn 16:13a

M4. Teaches us 1 Cor 2:13, Jn 14:26; reveals things from God 1 Cor 2:10 + 2:16

M5. Reminds us Jn 14:26b

M6. Testifies of Jesus Jn 15:26b

M7. [Jesus] gives us words to say Lk 21:15


Will Acts 15:28; Rom 8:5

W1. People can resist the Holy Spirit Acts 7:51

W2. People can try to lie to the Holy Spirit Acts 5:3

W3. The Spirit speaks Jn 16:13; Acts 10:19-21; 19:2-6; 21:4; 28:5; 4:24,25; 28:25; Rom 8:26-27; Heb 3:7, 10:15-17; Ps 95:7; Jer 31:33,34; Rev 22:17

W4. The Holy Spirit commands Acts 13:2

W5. Compels Acts 20:22; 16:6

W6. Warns Acts 20:23

W7. Led Jesus into wilderness Mt 4:1; Mk1:12; Lk4:1


Emotions Prov 8:30-31; Eph 4:30; Heb 10:29; Acts 9:31

E1. Can be grieved Eph 4:30; (partial) Heb 3:7-8

E2. Can be insulted Heb 10:29

E3. Can be blasphemed Mt 12:31; Mk 3:29; Lk 12:10

E4. Intercedes with groanings too deep for words Rom 8:26-27

E5. Not leave us as orphans Jn 14:18 but encourages us Acts 9:31

E6. Produces fruit in our lives Gal 5:23

E7. Rejoices in man Prov 8:30-31 and wants Jesus to come Rev 22:17


Is God Acts 5:3-4; 1 Cor 12:6,11; Acts 5:3-4

G1. Spoke Scripture Acts 1:16 and moved men to write it 2 Pet 1:21

G2. At Creation Gen 1:2; Ps 104:30; Prov 8:22-31, moved over the waters Gen 1:2, created us Job 33:4

G3. Present everywhere Ps 139:7

G4. Eternal Heb 9:14

G5. The Spirit's power Mic 3:8; Zech 4:6; Lk 1:17,35; Acts 10:38; 1 Cor 2:4; 2 Tim 1:7

G6. Dwells in all N.T. believers Jn 14:17a; Rom 8:9-11 and circumcises our hearts Rom 2:29

G7. Distinct from the Father and Son Rev 14:13; 22:17, and sent by them Jn 14:26; 15:26a


Baptized with Mt 3:11; Lk 1:23; 3:16; Jn 1:34; Acts 11:16; 1 Cor 12:13

B1. Filled with the Holy Spirit Acts 9:17; Eph 5:18

B2. Fellowship of the Spirit Php 2:1; 2 Cor 13:14

B3. Joy of the Holy Spirit Rom 14:7; 1 Th 1:6

B4. Unity of the Spirit Eph 4:3

B5. Glorifies Jesus Jn 16:14

B6. Can be poured out Acts 2:17,18,33; 10:45; Isa 44:3; Joel 2:28, Num 11:17,25; Jn 3:34; 2 Cor 10:13

B7. Our body is a temple of the Holy Spirit 1 Cor 3:16 and 6:19


His Job 1 Cor 12:4-6

J1. Convicts the world of guilt and sin Jn 16:8-11

J2. Seals us Eph 1:13-14; 2 Cor 1:22. We should receive when we believe Acts 19:2-6

J3. Sanctifying work 2 Th 2:13 and pours God's love in our hearts Rom 5:5

J4. Testifies with our spirit Rom 8:16; none say Jesus is Lord except by Holy Spirit 1 Cor 12:3

J5. We are to live by the Spirit Gal 5:16 serve in the new way of the Spirit Rom 7:6b and have the law of the spirit Rom 8:2

J6. Gives gifts to believers 1 Cor 12:7-8,11; Heb 2:4; Is a gift to us Acts 1:4-5; 2:38b; 10:45; 1 Jn 4:13

J7. We pray in the Holy Spirit Jde 20


History of the Holy Spirit

H1. During the Exodus filled Bezalel ben Hur Ex 31:1-2, and on Moses and the 70 elders Num 11:17,25

H2. Spirit came on judges Gideon Jdg 6:34, Jephthah Jdg 11:29, Samson Jdg 13:25; 14:19; 15:14

H3. Spirit of God came on Saul 1 Sam 10:6,10

H4. The Spirit departed from Saul 1 Sam 16:14a

H5. Spirit of the Lord came upon Saul's men pursuing David 1 Sam 19:20

H6. The Spirit of the Lord came upon David 1 Sam 16:13b; 2 Sam 23:2

H7. David did not want the Holy Spirit to leave him Ps 51:11

H8. Spirit of God came upon Azariah son of Oded 2 Chr 15:1

H9. Elisha received a double portion of the Spirit in Elijah 2 Ki 2:9

H10. Filled John the Baptist from birth Lk 1:15 and Jesus born of the Holy Spirit Luke 1:35

H11. Holy Spirit on Simon told him he would see the Christ Lk 2:26-27

H12. Descended on Jesus as a dove Jn 1:32-33. Also Isa 11:2

H13. Holy Spirit came down at Pentecost Acts 2

H14. Killed Ananias and Sapphira Acts 5:3-10



H3. Person of the Holy Spirit


John 15:26-27; 16:7,12-14

Acts 5:3-5; 15:28


p46 Chester Beatty II - 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Romans 8:16

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 14:15

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 5:3-5; 15:28

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Acts 5:3-5; 15:28


Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) "the Holy Ghost thus addresses us: Come, ye children, hearken unto Me; I will teach you the fear of the Lord" 1 Clement ch.22 vol.1 p.11 (also vol.9 p.235)

Ignatius (died 107 or 116 A.D.) "But the Spirit proclaimed these words: Do nothing without the bishop; keep your bodies as the temples of God; love unity; avoid divisions; be the followers of Jesus Christ, even as He is of His Father" Letter to the Philadelphians ch.7 p.83

Aristides (125 or 138-161 A.D.) The Holy Spirit acknowledged Jesus to be the Son of the Most High God. Apology of Aristides p.276

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) mentions how the Holy Spirit uttered prophecies. Dialogue with Trypho ch.52 p.221.

Shepherd of Hermas (c.160 A.D.) book 2 tenth commandment ch.2 p.27 mentions how a person who doubts grieves the Holy Spirit.

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) says, "The Holy Spirit Himself also, which operates in the prophets, we assert to be an effluence of God, flowing from Him, and returning back again like a beam of the sun. Who, then, would not be astonished to hear men who speak of God the Father, and of God the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, and who declare both their power in union and their distinction in order, called atheists?" A Plea for Christians ch.10 p.133

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (partial) "The finger of the Lord - the Holy Spirit, by whose operation the tables of the law in Exodus are said to have been written:" vol.8 ch.8 From the Oration on the Lord's Passion p.761

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs (180 A.D.) ANF vol.9 p.285 "all [the Scillitan martyrs] together were crowned with martyrdom; and they reign with the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever." (The Holy Spirit could not reign if the Holy Spirit were inanimate)

Irenaeus (182-188 A.D.) "But that He is Himself in His own right, beyond all men who ever lived, God, and Lord, and King Eternal, and the Incarnate Word, proclaimed by all the prophets, the apostles, and by the Spirit Himself, may be seen by all who have attained to even a small portion of the truth." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.19.2 p.449

Irenaeus (182-188 A.D.) "The Church, though dispersed throughout the whole world, even to the ends of the earth, has received from the apostles and their disciples this faith: [She believes] in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are in them; and in one Christ Jesus, the Son of God, who became incarnate for our salvation; and in the Holy Spirit, who proclaimed through the prophets the dispensations of God, and the advents, and the birth from a virgin, and the passion [death], and the resurrection from the dead, and the ascension into heaven in the flesh of the beloved Christ Jesus, our Lord, and his [future] manifestation from heaven in the glory of the Father 'to gather all things in one,' and to raise up anew all flesh of the whole human race, in order that to Christ Jesus, our Lord, and God, and Savior, and King, according to the will of the invisible Father, ..." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.10.2 p.330.

Irenaeus (182-188 A.D.) says we do not receive another Holy Spirit besides "Him who is with us" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.9.2 p.472

Caius (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.602 (implied) says that some heretics thought themselves wiser than the Holy Spirit.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "So that when he says, 'Around the king of all, all things are, and because of Him are all things; and he [or that] is the cause of all good things; and around the second are the things second in order; and around the third, the third,' I understand nothing else than the Holy Trinity to be meant; for the third is the Holy Spirit, and the Son is the second, by whom all things were made according to the will of the Father." Stromata book 5 ch.14 p.468

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "The Holy Spirit has sung" The Instructor book 1 ch.8 p.227

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) "Still, in these few quotations the distinction of Persons in the Trinity is clearly set forth. For there is the Spirit Himself who speaks, and the Father to whom He speaks, and the Son of whom He speaks." Against Praxeas ch.11 p.606

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) says that in a renewed soul it is now wedded to the Holy Spirit. "The flesh is no longer a servant of the soul, but of the Spirit." A Treatise on the Soul ch.41 p.221.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.45 p.578 "grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption."

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) "For the Father indeed is One but there are two Persons because there is also the Son; and then there is the third the Holy Spirit. The Father decrees, the Word executes and the Son is manifested, through whom the Father is believed on. The economy of the harmony is led back to one God; for God is One. It is the Father who commands and the Son who obeys and the Holy Spirit who gives understanding; the Father is above all, and the Son who is through all and the Holy Spirit who is in all. And we cannot otherwise think of one God, but by believing in truth in Father and Son and Holy Spirit." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.14 p.226

Theodotus the probably Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) "The Spirit by Osee [Hosea] says," and then quotes Hosea 5:2. Selections from the Prophetic Scriptures ch.5 p.43.

Origen (225-254 A.D.) "For the Holy Spirit Himself receives instruction, as is clear from what is said about the Paraclete and the Holy Spirit, 'He shall take of mine and shall declare it to you.'" Commentary on John book 2 ch.12 p.334

Origen (225-254 A.D.) "But on further thought one may perhaps see reason to consider that the Son is second beside the Father, He being the same as the Father, while manifestly a distinction is drawn between the Spirit and the Son in the passage, 'Whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of Man, it shall be forgiven him, but whosoever shall blaspheme against the Holy Spirit, he shall not have forgiveness, either in this world or in the world to come.' We consider, therefore, that there are three hypostases, the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit; and at the same thee we believe nothing to be uncreated but the Father." Commentary on John book 2 ch.6 p.328

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) speaks of the Holy Spirit as a person and goes into detail on His role in Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.29 p.640

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.2 p.657 says, "whom the Holy Spirit rightly rebukes by the prophet, saying," and quotes Isaiah 30:1.

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.6 p.670 "the Holy Spirit at length came down on the day of Pentecost, descending from heaven indeed by the will of God, not of His own accord, but effused for this very office, and moreover upon each one of them."

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.2 p.668 "For it was peculiarly in the Holy Spirit Himself alone that they who believed were baptized."

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "The Holy Spirit warns us, and says, ..." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 1 ch.24 p.429

Theognostus of Alexandria (260 A.D.) teaches how the Holy Spirit is the third in ch.2 and explains how the Holy Spirit communes with the perfected in ch.3 in Seven Books of Hypotyposes or Outlines p.156.

Gregory Thaumaturgus (246-265 A.D.) says He [the Holy Spirit] inspired the prophets. Oration and Panegyric to Origen argument 15 p.36

Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) discusses the Holy Spirit, as the Paraclete sent by Jesus. Disputation with Manes ch.26 p.199. See also ibid ch.27 p.200, ch.34 p.207,208

Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) "Again, that it was the Paraclete Himself who was in Paul, is indicated by our Lord Jesus Christ in the Gospel." Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208

Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) says of the Holy Spirit that He knows all languages. Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "He [Jesus] forthwith poured out the Holy Spirit, who should bring them to heaven." Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John p.348

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) (implied) "The sending of Barnabas and Paul by the Holy Ghost to Cyprus." section S p.167

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "For the kingdom of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is one, even as their substance is one and their dominion one. Whence also, with one and the same adoration, we worship the one Deity in three Persons, subsisting without beginning, uncreate, without end, and to which there is no successor. For neither will the Father ever cease to be the Father, nor again the Son to be the Son and King, nor the Holy Ghost to be what in substance and personality He is. For nothing of the Trinity will suffer diminution, either in respect of eternity, or of communion, or of sovereignty. For not on that account is the Son of God called king, because for our sakes He was made man," Oration on Psalms ch.5 p.397.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "And in the Book of Wisdom, a book full of all virtue, the Holy Spirit, now openly drawing His hearers to continence and chastity, sings on this wise" Banquet of the Ten Virgins Discourse 1 ch.3 p.312

Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.) The Holy Spirit descended from heaven and chose the holy virgin. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.12 p.110

Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.) "In like manner Isaiah also: 'But they disbelieved, and vexed His Holy Spirit; and He was turned to be their enemy." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.12 p.111

Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.) said that after Jesus' baptism, "And the Spirit of God descended upon Him, formed after the appearance of a white dove." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.15 p.115.


H4. Glorify/worship the Holy Spirit


Evarestus (c.169 A.D.) refer to glorifying the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.14 p.42 and ch.22 p.44

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) says that we worship and adore the Father, Son, and the prophetic Spirit. First Apology of Justin ch.6 p.164

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says "to whom, by His Son Jesus Christ, the Lord of the living and dad, and by the Holy Spirit, be glory, honour, power, eternal majesty, both now and fever, from generation to generation, and from eternity to eternity. Amen" Who is the Rich Man That Shall Be Saved? ch.41 p.604

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) mentions the Word Incarnate and that "we worship the Holy Spirit" Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.12 p.228

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "glory and dominion to the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Letter to Dionysius of Rome book 4 ch.16 p.94

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "For the kingdom of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is one, even as their substance is one and their dominion one. Whence also, with one and the same adoration, we worship the one Deity in three Persons, subsisting without beginning, uncreate, without end, and to which there is no successor. For neither will the Father ever cease to be the Father, nor again the Son to be the Son and King, nor the Holy Ghost to be what in substance and personality He is. For nothing of the Trinity will suffer diminution, either in respect of eternity, or of communion, or of sovereignty. For not on that account is the Son of God called king, because for our sakes He was made man," Oration on Psalms ch.5 p.397.

Athanasius (318 A.D.) "through Whom and with Whom be to the Father Himself, with the Son Himself, in the Holy Spirit, honor and might and glory for ever and ever. Amen." Incarnation of the Word ch.57 p.67.

H13. Holy Spirit taught us


1 Corinthians 2:13, John 14:26

Reveals things from God 1 Corinthians 2:10 + 2:16


Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) "the Holy Ghost thus addresses us: Come, ye children, hearken unto Me; I will teach you the fear of the Lord" 1 Clement ch.22 p.11

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) (implied) "Behold, I will bring forth to you the words of My Spirit, and I will teach you My speech." 1 Clement ch.57 p.20

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) "And the holy Spirit of prophecy taught us this," First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.44 p.177

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) And therefore it is proved that all others have been in error; and that we Christians alone have possessed the truth, in as much as we are taught by the Holy Spirit, who spoke in the holy prophets, and foretold all things. Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.33 p.107

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "For the Holy Spirit shall teach you in the same hour what ye must say." Stromata book 4 ch.9 p.422

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) "It is the Father who commands and the Son who obeys and the Holy Spirit who gives understanding; the Father is above all, and the Son who is through all and the Holy Spirit who is in all. And we cannot otherwise think of one God, but by believing in truth in Father and Son and Holy Spirit." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.14 p.226

Origen (225-254 A.D.) "the truth was that which was to be taught them by the Holy Spirit" Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.2 p.430

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "The Holy Spirit, moreover, suggests these same things by Jeremiah, and teaches, saying, 'But in the heart ought God to be adored by thee.'" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 4 ch.5 p.448

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "we must not imagine that the Spirit was teaching respecting conceptions and births, but rather perhaps concerning those who adulterate the truth, who, corrupting the Scriptures by false doctrines, bring forth an imperfect and immature wisdom, mixing their error with piety." Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 2 ch.3 p.314

Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.) "But in what manner and with what commands He was sent by God to the earth, the Spirit of God declared through the prophet, teaching us that when He had faithfully and uniformly fulfilled the will of His supreme Father, He should receive judgment and an everlasting dominion." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.14 p.114


H14. The Comforter/Holy Spirit comforts us

John 14:15-18,25-27


Irenaeus (182-188 A.D.) "the Lord promised to send the Comforter, who should join us to God." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.17.2 p.444

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Herein also you ought to recognize the Paraclete in His character of Comforter, in that He excuses your Infirmity" On Monogamy ch.3 p.61

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) "By this Spirit the rock of the Church was stablished. This is the Spirit, the Comforter, that is sent because of thee, that He may show thee to be the Son of God." Discourse on the Holy Theophany ch.9 p.237

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "and I will ask the Father, and He will give you another Comforter." Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.28 p.639

Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) "And I will pray my Father, and He shall give you another Comforter." In these words He points to the Paraclete Himself, for He speaks of "another" Comforter." Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208


H15. The Holy Spirit is a gift

Acts 1:4-5; 2:38b; 10:45


Irenaeus (182-188 A.D.) "pointing out the gift of the Spirit" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.11.8 p.428

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "the honourable gift of the Holy Spirit" Tertullian on Fasting ch.8 p.107

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "the Creator promised the gift of His Spirit in the latter days" Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.8 p.446

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.5 p.669 "as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Spirit."

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.2 p.668 "baptized with the Holy Ghost. If, therefore, He gave them a like gift as to us,"

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.5 p.669 "on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Spirit."

Cyprian of Carthage (256 A.D.) "receive the gift of the Holy Ghost." Letter 72 ch.17 p.383

Theognostus of Alexandria (partial) "and yet we could never say on that account that the teaching of the Spirit is superior to the teaching of the Son, but only that the Son condescends to the imperfect, while the Spirit is the seal of the perfected; even so it is not on account of the superiority of the Spirit over the Son that the blasphemy against the Spirit is a sin excluding impunity and pardon, but because for the imperfect there is pardon, while for those who have tasted the heavenly gift, and been made perfect, there remains no plea or prayer for pardon."

Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) "straightway He sent (that gift of the Paraclete), dividing and imparting" Disputation with Manes ch.27 p.200

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) "and of the promise of the gift of the Holy Ghost" Exposition of Acts A p.166

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "gift of the Holy Spirit" Commentary on the Apocalypse from the fourth chapter no.5 p.349

H23. We can grieve the Holy Spirit


Ephesians 4:30

(partial) Hebrews 3:7-8


p46 Chester Beatty II - 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) (partial - For the word of God) Ephesians 4:30

p13 (Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17) (225-250 A.D.) (partial) Hebrews 3:7-8 says not to harden your hearts against the Holy Spirit. Does not mention grieving though.


Shepherd of Hermas (c.160 A.D.) book 2 tenth commandment ch.2 p.27 mentions how a person who doubts grieves the Holy Spirit.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says, "...the Holy Spirit will show you: 'And saw my works,' He says, 'forty years. Wherefore I was grieved with that generation" Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.196

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.45 p.578 "grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption."

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) quotes, Paul, apostle to the Ephesians on "Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, in which ye were sealed in the day of redemption. Let all bitterness, and wrath, and indignation, and clamour, and blasphemy, be taken away from you" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 book 3 ch.7 p.534


H25. Holy Spirit addressed as "He"

John 14:17 "...the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be with you."

John 16:7 "I [Jesus] will send him to you.."

John 16:8 "When he comes, he..."

John 16:13 "he will guide you into all truth. He will not speak on his own, he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come. He will bring glory to me."

Romans 8:16 "The Spirit himself testifies"

Romans 8:26 "but the Spirit himself..."

1 Corinthians 12:11 "All these are the work of one and the same Spirit, and he gives them to each one, just as he determines."


Shepherd of Hermas (c.160 A.D.) 2nd part tenth commandment ch.2 p.27 "Both actions grieve the Spirit: doubt, because it did not accomplish its object; and anger grieves the Spirit, because it did what was wicked. Both these are grievous to the Holy Spirit-doubt and anger. Wherefore remove grief from you, and crush not the Holy Spirit which dwells in you, lest he entreat God against you, and he withdraw from you."

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "And in order that the Holy Spirit may convince [us] of this, He said by the holy David, `The gods of the nations, reputed gods, are idols of demons, and not gods;" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.55 p.222

Irenaeus (182-188 A.D.) "and where the Spirit of God is, there is the Church, and every kind of grace; but the Spirit is truth. Those, therefore, who do not partake of Him, are neither nourished into life from the mother's breasts, nor do they enjoy that most limpid fountain which issues from the body of Christ; but they dig for themselves broken cisterns out of earthly trenches," Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.24.1 p.458

Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas (c.201/205 A.D.) (ANF vol.3) preface p.699 "consider the other powers of the Holy Spirit as an agency of the Church for which also He was sent, administering all gifts in all,"

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "If you wish to learn, the Holy Spirit will show you: 'And saw my works', He says, 'forty years. Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, and said, They do always err in heart, and have not known My ways'" Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.196

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "For it was certainly of the Holy Spirit that the virgin conceived; and that which He conceived, she brought forth." Against Praxeas ch.27 p.623

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) "and as the Father wills our belief to be, let us believe; and as He wills the Son to be glorified, let us glorify Him; and as He wills the Holy Spirit to be bestowed, let us receive Him." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.9 p.227

Origen (225-254 A.D.) "And I consider that the Holy Spirit supplies to those who, through Him and through participation in Him, are called saints, the material of the gifts, which come from God; so that the said material of the gifts is made powerful by God, is ministered by Christ, and owes its actual existence in men to the Holy Spirit." Commentary on John book 2 ch.6 p.329

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "But this Holy Spirit the Lord Christ calls at one time 'the Paraclete,' at another pronounces to be the 'Spirit of truth.' And He is not new in the Gospel, nor yet even newly given; for it was He Himself who accused the people in the prophets, and in the apostles gave them the appeal to the Gentiles." Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.29 p.640

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.17 p.677 "when the Holy Spirit had descended upon the disciples, that they might be baptized in Him, there were seen sitting upon each one tongues as if of fire, that it might be manifest that they were baptized with the Holy Ghost and with fire"

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "you who are rather to be adorned, and that that dwelling in which God has dwelt as in a temple, in which the Holy Spirit has begun to make His abode, is of more importance than all others." Epistles of Cyprian Letter 1 ch.15 p.280

Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) Not thus is it with the Holy Spirit: God forbid; but He divides to all, and knows all kinds of tongues, and has understanding of all things, and is made all things to all men, so that the very thoughts of the heart cannot escape His cognizance. For what says the Scripture? "That every man heard the apostles speak in his own language through the Spirit, the Paraclete.'" Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "And in the Book of Wisdom, a book full of all virtue, the Holy Spirit, now openly drawing His hearers to continence and chastity," Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 1 ch.3 p.312

Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.) "Therefore the Holy Spirit of God, descending from heaven, chose the holy Virgin, that He might enter into her womb." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.12 p.110


H27. The Holy Spirit is distinct


Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.60 p.183 (partial) mentions the Father as the first, the Son as the second, and the Spirit as the third.

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) (partial) in discussing baptism "For, in the name of God, the Father and Lord of the universe, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit..." First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.61 p.183

Origen (225-254 A.D.) (implied) speak of the three hypostases, the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Commentary on John book 2 ch.6 p.328

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) "The Holy Spirit Himself also, which operates in the prophets, we assert to be an effluence of God, flowing from Him, and returning back again like a beam of the sun. Who, then, would not be astonished to hear men who speak of God the Father, and of God the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.10 p.133

Irenaeus (182-188 A.D.) says "the Word, namely the Son, was always with the Father; and that Wisdom also, which is the Spirit, was present with Him, anterior to all creation. He then goes on quoting Proverb 3:19,20 and so forth, showing that the Holy Spirit is the third person. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.20.3 p.488

Tertullian (198-220/240 A.D.) says specifically that the Father is God, the Son is God, the Holy Ghost is God, and each is God. Against Praxeas ch.13 p.608

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) "For the Father indeed is One but there are two Persons because there is also the Son; and then there is the third the Holy Spirit. The Father decrees, the Word executes and the Son is manifested, through whom the Father is believed on. The economy of the harmony is led back to one God; for God is One. It is the Father who commands and the Son who obeys and the Holy Spirit who gives understanding; the Father is above all, and the Son who is through all and the Holy Spirit who is in all. And we cannot otherwise think of one God, but by believing in truth in Father and Son and Holy Spirit." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.14 p.226

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) speaks of the Holy Spirit proceeding from the Father, sent by Jesus from the Father, and the "divine eternity of the Holy Spirit". Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.29 p.640-641

Theognostus of Alexandria (260 A.D.) teaches how the Holy Spirit is the third in ch.2 and explains how the Holy Spirit communes with the perfected in ch.3 in Seven Books of Hypotyposes or Outlines p.156.

Dionysius bishop of Rome (259-269 A.D.) (implied) speaks of the Holy Spirit and the "Divine Trinity" Dionysius of Rome Against the Sabellians ch.1 p.365

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "For the kingdom of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is one, even as their substance is one and their dominion one. Whence also, with one and the same adoration, we worship the one Deity in three Persons, subsisting without beginning, uncreate, without end, and to which there is no successor. For neither will the Father ever cease to be the Father, nor again the Son to be the Son and King, nor the Holy Ghost to be what in substance and personality He is. For nothing of the Trinity will suffer diminution, either in respect of eternity, or of communion, or of sovereignty. For not on that account is the Son of God called king, because for our sakes He was made man," Oration on Psalms ch.5 p.397.

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) (implied) "'The Father is greater than I.' And besides the pious opinion concerning the Father and the Son, we confess to one Holy Spirit, as the divine Scriptures teach us;" ch.12 p.296


Among heretics

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) The Father, Son, and Spirit are distinct. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71 p.64-65


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