What Nicea to Ephesus Christians Taught

February 12, 2016 version - unfinished

 

Here is a consensus of what four or more writers said, and none contradicted, from Nicea (325 A.D.) to the Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) and beyond. You can read the quotes and context of them at http://www.ccel.org.

Bible Importance *

B1. Study or obey God’s Word as an authority *

B2. Old Testament has God’s words; study it *

B3. The Old Testament prophesied about Jesus *

B4. Jesus superseded some Old Testament laws *

B5. New Testament has God’s words; study it *

B6. Some parts of the Bible are allegorical *

B7. Old Testament has types of Christ *

B8. Melchizedek was a type of Christ *

B9. Joshua was a type of Christ *

B10. The prophets were until John *

B11. Veil on many when read Moses/OT *

B12. We can understand Scripture *

B13. Acknowledge Bible copyist errors *

B14. We are to believe Scripture *

B15. Unbelievers don’t understand OT/scripture *

B16. Dual meaning of some prophecies *

B17. Don’t twist/corrupt meaning of Scripture *

B18. The Law was excellent or good *

B19. Scripture is called the Word of God *

B20. Scripture is Holy/Sacred *

B21. Divine Scripture *

B22. Some corrupted [copies of] Scripture *

B23. Law was a shadow of the gospel / things to come *

B24. Scripture was/is fulfilled *

OLD TESTAMENT canon *

OTc1. The Law and the prophets *

OTc2. Genesis is scripture *

OTc3. Exodus is scripture or God said *

OTc4. Leviticus is Scripture or God says *

OTc5. Numbers is Scripture or God says *

OTc6. Deuteronomy is scripture or God says *

OTc7. 1 or 2 Samuel is scripture or God says *

OTc8. Reference to 1 or 2 Kings as Kings *

OTc9. Job is scripture or the Lord says *

OTc10. Psalms are scripture or God/Spirit spoke *

OTc11. Proverbs are scripture or the Lord says *

OTc12. Isaiah is scripture or the Lord says *

OTc13. Jeremiah is scripture or the Lord says *

OTc14. Ezekiel is scripture or the Lord says *

OTc15. Daniel is scripture or God showed *

OTc16. Hosea is scripture or God/the Word says *

OTc17. Joel is scripture or God says *

OTc18. Amos is scripture or God said *

OTc19. Micah is scripture *

OTc20. Habakkuk is scripture or God says *

OTc21. Zechariah is scripture or God says *

OTc22. Malachi is scripture or God/Spirit says *

OTc23. Reference to 1 or 2 Chronicles as Chronicles *

OTc24. The Twelve [Minor Prophets] *

OTc25. Use of the term "Old Testament" *

NEW TESTAMENT canon *

NTc1. Matthew is scripture *

NTc2. Mark is scripture or God said *

NTc3. Luke is scripture or God said *

NTc4. John is scripture *

NTc5. Acts is scripture *

NTc6. Paul’s letters are authoritative *

NTc7. Romans is scripture *

NTc8. 1 Corinthians is scripture *

NTc9. 2 Corinthians is Scripture *

NTc10. Galatians is scripture *

NTc11. Ephesians is scripture *

NTc12. Philippians is scripture *

NTc13. Colossians is scripture *

NTc14. 1 Thessalonians is Scripture *

NTc15. 1 Timothy is Scripture *

NTc16. 2 Timothy is Scripture *

NTc17. Titus is scripture *

NTc18. Revelation is scripture or the Lord says *

NTc19. Using the term "New Testament" *

OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORS *

OTa1. OT as writing in Hebrew *

OTa2. Moses wrote the Law [Pentateuch] *

OTa3. Moses wrote Genesis *

OTa4. Moses wrote Exodus *

OTa5. Moses wrote Leviticus *

OTa6. Moses wrote Numbers *

OTa7. Moses wrote Deuteronomy *

OTa8. David a writer of Psalms *

OTa9. Solomon a writer of Proverbs *

Ota10. Solomon, writer of Ecclesiastes *

OTa11. Isaiah wrote or said Isaiah *

OTa12. Jeremiah wrote or said Jeremiah *

OTa13. Ezekiel is by Ezekiel *

OTa14. Daniel spoke or wrote Daniel *

OTa15. Hosea wrote or spoke Hosea *

OTa16. Joel wrote Joel *

OTa17. Amos wrote Amos *

OTa18. Micah wrote or said Micah *

OTa19. Habakkuk wrote Habakkuk *

Ota20. Zechariah wrote Zechariah *

OTa21. Malachi wrote Malachi *

NEW TESTAMENT AUTHORS *

NTa1. At least 1 NT word originally in Greek *

NTa2. Matthew wrote the Gospel of Matthew *

NTa3. Mark wrote the Gospel of Mark *

NTa4. Luke wrote the Gospel of Luke *

NTa5. John wrote the Gospel of John *

NTa6. Luke wrote Acts *

NTa7. Paul wrote Romans *

NTa8. Paul wrote 1 Corinthians *

NTa9. Paul wrote 2 Corinthians *

NTa10. Paul wrote Galatians *

NTa11. Paul wrote Ephesians *

NTa12. Paul wrote Philippians *

NTa13. Paul wrote Colossians *

NTa14. Paul wrote 1 Thessalonians *

NTa15. Paul wrote 2 Thessalonians *

NTa16. Paul wrote 1 Timothy *

NTa17. Paul wrote a 2nd letter to Timothy *

NTa18. Peter wrote 1 Peter *

NTa19. Jude wrote Jude *

NTa20. John wrote 1 John *

God’s TranscendEnce *

G1. There is only One True God *

G2. God is almighty (omnipotent) *

G3. God is sovereign / God’s sovereignty *

G4. God is holy, good, or pure *

G5. God does not speak lies / is Truth *

G6. God is a Father *

G7. The Trinity: one God in three ‘Persons’ *

G8. God knows all / even the secret things *

G9. God is everywhere *

G10. God does not change / is unchangeable *

G11. Majesty or glory of God *

G12. God is a jealous God *

G13. God is uncreated *

G14. God is Light *

G15. God of Christ *

G16. The Most High God *

G17. The Godhead *

G18. Living God *

G19. God is invisible *

G20. God is inscrutable/unsearchable *

G21. God had no beginning *

G22. God is incorruptible *

G23. God is eternal *

G24. God is the Ancient of Days *

G25. God is Spirit *

G26. God / Jesus is immortal *

G27. God / Jesus before birth was incorporeal *

G28. God’s Holy Name *

G29. Sun / beam / ray analogy of the Trinity *

G30. God is all-seeing *

G31. Genesis 1:27 refers to the Father & Son *

G32. The Fragrance of Heaven / God / Christ / the Holy Spirit *

G33. God is above all *

G34. God is a consuming fire *

G35. God or His power is incomparable *

G36. God is blessed *

G37. God/The Father is perfect *

God’s IMMINENCE *

Gi1. God is worthy *

Gi2. God needs nothing from us *

Gi3. God is just / not unjust *

Gi4. God will judge/reward people’s secrets / secret things *

Gi5. God punishes *

Gi6. God is not mocked *

Gi7. God sends evildoers delusion(s) *

Gi8. God can be offended *

Gi9. God is merciful *

Gi10. God wants repentance not sinner’s death *

Gi11. God / Christ is heals /is healer *

Gi12. God is our protector *

Gi13. God is our refuge *

Gi14. God is our deliverer *

Gi15. God/Christ rejoices over us *

Gi16. Calling God Abba, Father *

Gi17. God of Abraham *

Gi18. God of Isaac *

Gi19. The God of Jacob *

Gi20. God of Israel *

Gi21. God is patient or long-suffering *

Gi22. God of the living *

Gi23. God loves us or is kind *

Gi24. God avenges *

Gi25. Christians and Jews/Israel/Moses worship the same God *

Gi26. Abraham’s [Three] Visitors *

Gi27. The Lord/God is faithful *

Gi28. The Creator is our / the True God *

Gi29. God is the Lawgiver *

Timeless Truths of Jesus Christ *

T1. Jesus is the Son of God *

T2. Jesus is the Only Begotten Son of God *

T3. The Deity of Jesus our Lord *

T4. Jesus is the Word of God *

T5. The Son existed from ages past *

T6. All things were created through Christ / the Son of God *

T7. Jesus obedient or subject to the Father *

T8. Worship, praise, or glorify Jesus *

T9. Inseparable/Father in Son or Son in Father *

T10. Christ at right hand of God/the Father *

T11. No one knows the Father except the Son and those revealed *

T12. Father and Son are distinct *

T13. The Word was distinct from the Father at Creation *

T14. Son in the bosom of the Father *

T15. An Equality of the Father and Son *

T16. God the Son *

T17. Specifically "Jesus" is the Only-Begotten / Son / Word / son of man *

T18. Specifically "Jesus Christ" is the Only-Begotten / Son *

T19. Specifically "Christ" is the Only-Begotten / Son / Son of man *

T20. Specifically the Son is God *

T21. The head of Christ is God *

T22. Christ had the Spirit of wisdom and understanding *

T23. Jesus and the Father are One *

T24. Jesus / the Son is the Logos *

Jesus’ Incarnation on Earth *

J1. Virgin birth of Christ *

J2. Jesus Christ was a real, sinless man *

J3. Jesus was baptized *

J4. Cross’s shape or outstretched arms *

J5. Jesus was crucified or died on the cross *

J6. Jesus was hung on a tree [the cross] *

J7. Darkness or earthquake at Jesus’ death *

J8. Jesus rose from the dead *

J9. Jesus ascended to heaven *

J10. Incarnation of the Word/Jesus *

J11. Word was made/became flesh *

J12. Jesus was born in Bethlehem *

J13. Jesus of the tribe of Judah *

J14. Jesus brought up by Joseph *

J15. Jesus on earth was plain-looking *

J16. Christ, the Logos, the Son was obedient or learned obedience *

J17. Sign of the cross *

J18. The wood of the cross *

J19. Veil of the Temple torn when Jesus died *

J20. Jesus’ bones were not broken *

J21. Christ emptied Himself *

J22. Jesus asked God why God had forsaken Him *

J23. Calling the crucifixion the Passion *

J24. Some despised Christ *

J25. Jesus rode into Jerusalem on a donkey *

J26. Jesus was beaten/scourged/whipped *

J27. Jesus given vinegar and gall to drink *

J28. Jesus was mocked *

J29. They cast lots for Jesus’ clothes *

J30. Thief/robber on the cross in Paradise *

J31. Jesus’ earthly father was a carpenter *

J32. Christ drove out the money-changers *

J33. Christ prayed that this cup would pass *

J34. The Transfiguration *

J35. Jesus from Galilee *

J36. Jesus said destroy the temple in 3 days… *

TIMELESS TitleS of Jesus *

t1. Jesus is the/our Lord *

t2. King of Kings and/or Lord of Lords *

t3. Jesus is the Alpha and Omega *

t4. Jesus is the Door or Gate *

t5. Christ is the Image of God *

t6. Jesus is the/our Rock/Stone/Cornerstone *

t7. Jesus is the Light or Light of Light *

t8. Jesus is our Shepherd *

t9. Jesus Christ is the Lamb of God *

t10. Jesus is a Lion / as a lion’s whelp *

t11. The Son / Jesus was /was begotten before the morning star *

t12. Jesus/the cross the wisdom and power of God *

t13. Christ is the Holy One of God *

INCARNATE TitleS of Jesus *

i1. Jesus is the first-born (not just of Mary) *

i2. Christ is the Second/Last Adam *

i3. Jesus called Emmanuel (God with us) *

i4. Jesus is our High Priest *

i5. Jesus is our Physician/Doctor *

i6. Jesus is the Way *

i7. Jesus is the Truth *

i8. Jesus is our/the Life *

i9. Jesus is the Bread or Bread of Life *

i10. Jesus is the Vine *

i11. Jesus is the Messiah *

i12. Jesus a star rising out of Jacob *

i13. Christ is of the root of Jesse *

i14. Jesus is the descendent/seed of David *

i15. Jesus of Nazareth *

i16. Jesus is the first fruits *

i17. Jesus is the son of Abraham *

i18. The sign of Jonah refers to Jesus *

Purpose Of the Life of Jesus *

p1. Jesus sent by the Father *

p2. Jesus/Christ came to save us/is our Savior *

p3. Jesus was tempted *

p4. Jesus sent to suffer [for us] *

p5. Christ is the end/fulfillment of the law *

p6. Jesus is Lord of the Sabbath *

p7. Jesus is our Redeemer / redeemed us *

p8. Christ finished His work *

p9. Jesus forgives us / remits sins *

p10. Jesus: the/One Mediator (between God & man) *

p11. Jesus bore our sins *

p12. Jesus bore the curse for us *

p13. Christ suffered shame/disgrace *

p14. Jesus was a ransom *

p15. Christ reconciled us *

p16. Christ overcame/triumphed *

p17. Grace and truth by Jesus Christ *

p18. Jesus revealed the Father to us *

p19. Jesus the Paschal Lamb *

p20. Jesus baptized with the Holy Spirit & fire *

p21. Jesus provided purification *

p22. Jesus gives us living water *

p23. Jesus came to save the lost *

p24. Jesus/Christ rescued us *

p25. Do the will of the One who sent Him *

p26. In 1 Jn 2:1 Jesus is our sins’ propitiation *

The Holy Spirit *

H1. Mention of the Holy Spirit *

H2. The Holy Spirit is God *

H3. Person of the Holy Spirit *

H4. Glorify/worship the Holy Spirit *

H5. The Holy Spirit is distinct *

H6. Holy Spirit called Spirit of truth *

H7. Holy Spirit addressed as "He" *

H8. Sevenfold spirit or seven spirits *

H9. The Holy Spirit/Comforter was promised *

H10. Jesus sent the Holy Spirit *

H11. Paraclete or Holy Spirit already present *

H12. Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit *

H13. Holy Spirit dwells/lives in us *

H14. Live in the Spirit *

H15. We can grieve the Holy Spirit *

THE HOLY SPIRIT’s WORK *

Hw1. The Power of the Holy Spirit *

Hw2. God’s Spirit moved over abyss/waters *

Hw3. The Holy Spirit spoke Scripture *

Hw4. Sword of the Spirit is the word of God *

Hw5. Christ born of Mary by the Holy Spirit *

Hw6. Holy Spirit appeared as a dove *

Hw7. Holy Spirit came down at Pentecost *

Hw8. Holy Spirit gives gifts *

Hw9. The Holy Spirit is a gift *

Hw10. Fruit of the Spirit *

Hw11. Baptized/washed with the Holy Spirit *

Hw12. The Holy Spirit seals believers *

Hw13. Filled with the Holy Spirit *

Hw14. The Holy Spirit directs *

Hw15. Holy Spirit taught us *

Hw16. The Holy Spirit gives knowledge *

Hw17. Spirit gives us guidance/understanding *

Hw18. The Comforter/Holy Spirit comforts us *

Hw19. Disciples received the Holy Spirit *

Hw20. The Holy Spirit witnesses *

The Working of God *

W1. God made all things in heaven and earth *

W2. Heaven and earth were created good *

W3. God created things from nothing *

W4. Six days of Creation *

W5. God imparted the breath of life *

W6. Garden of Eden *

W7. Enoch was translated without dying *

W8. Judgment of Noah’s flood / deluge *

W9. God’s appearances in the Old Testament *

W10. Judgment against Sodom or Gomorrah *

W11. The burning bush of Moses *

W12. Plagues of Egypt *

W13. Crossing the Red Sea *

W14. [Moses] destroying Amalekites *

W15. Hezekiah and the Assyrian army *

W16. The star [of Bethlehem] *

W17. Jesus performed miracles *

W18. Jesus fed the 5,000 *

W19. Raising Lazarus from the dead *

W20. The apostle(s) worked miracles *

W21. Tree of knowledge *

W22. Jesus at Cana or turning water to wine *

W23. Four rivers leaving the Garden of Eden *

W24. Ananias or Sapphira killed *

W25. Eve from Adam’s rib *

W26. Ark [of the Covenant] *

W27. Jacob’s ladder *

W28. Water from the rock *

W29. Lot’s wife a pillar of salt *

W30. Christ with the 3 youths in Daniel *

W31. God sends the rain on everyone *

W32. The earth is God’s footstool *

W33. Jacob wrestled with God/an angel *

W34. Abraham’s seed like the stars of heaven *

W35. Manna *

W36. Noah’s ark *

W37. Jesus healed the paralytic man *

W38. God blessed the Seventh Day *

W39. Jesus walked on water/waves/deep *

W40. The firstborn of Egypt perished *

W41. Jesus healed lepers *

W42. Cloud and/or pillar of fire *

W43. Zechariah was made mute [temporarily] *

W44. Scattering after the Tower of Babel *

W45. Healing the widow’s son *

W46. Bronze/brazen serpent in the wilderness *

W47. God confused/altered the languages *

People and the Fall *

P1. People are made in the image of God *

P2. Our bodies die but our souls are immortal *

P3. Man fell when Adam and Eve ate the fruit *

P4. Adam & Eve covered themselves for shame *

P5. We have or inherited a sinful nature *

P6. Reason/understanding was darkened *

P7. People are corrupted/corruptible *

P8. People have the will to choose *

P9. All have sinned *

P10. People are hardened *

P11. Idolators/sinners are shameful *

P12. The sinful provoke God *

P13. We are dead in sin *

P14. Works of the flesh / sinful nature *

P15. Ezekiel 18 referring to an individual *

P16. We should tremble at God’s Word *

P17. No way of salvation apart from Christ *

P18. People have guilt *

P19. Salvation/church for all kinds of people *

P20. We are aliens awaiting our eternal home *

P21. World’s wisdom is foolishness to God *

P22. Cross/resurrection is foolish to the world *

P23. Soul shares body’s pain and feelings *

P24. The Gentiles had a law on their hearts *

P25. Do not trust in man *

P26. People deceive others *

P27. People themselves have broken cisterns *

P28. Some people deceive themselves *

P29. Positive mention of non-Biblical Jews *

P30. No profit to gain the whole world and lose your soul *

P31. People were made of dust *

P32. People are like clay *

P33. People are enslaved by sin / lust / the devil *

P34. The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak *

P35. Kept from the wise/prudent and given to babes *

P36. Those who sin are sin’s servants/slaves *

P37. [Many] Jews rejected Jesus as the Messiah *

P38. The consicen of some is seared *

Salvation *

S1. O.T. pointed to salvation in Christ in New *

S2. Salvation is a gift of God’s grace *

S3. Jesus’ death paid for our sins *

S4. Saved by Jesus’ blood or dying for us *

S5. Even Jews who reject Jesus will perish *

S6. Believers God’s Elect *

S7. The reprobate (non-elect) will be lost *

S8. Some elect died before knowing Savior *

S9. Some follow Christ for a time, yet perish *

S10. Not saved if living in sin *

S11. Adoption as sons of God *

S12. We need to have faith *

S13. Live by faith *

S14. We are God’s chickens *

S15. Shipwrecked faith/salvation *

S16. Confidence or assurance of salvation *

S17. Hope in God or Christ *

S18. Our faith is precious *

S19. God’s great, glorious, precious promises *

S20. Mystery of the Lord/faith *

S21. Be born again *

S22. The precious blood of Christ *

S23. Heirs of salvation / Christ / the Lord *

S24. God has called us *

S25. Predestined or predestination *

S26. God can raise from stones children of Abraham *

S27. Jesus bestowed remission of sins *

S28. Many are called but few are chosen *

S29. Faith as a mustard seed *

End Times *

E1. The AntiChrist will come -after 125 A.D. *

E2. Heresies and persecution come before Antichrist or Christ’s return *

E3. Before this will be many lesser antiChrists *

E4. Jesus will return in glory -after 125 A.D. *

E5. Rapture of believers *

E6. Resurrection of believers / all *

E7. Christ will judge all / quick and dead *

E8. Believers will judge the world or angels *

E9. Believers are sons of God *

E10. Believers will reign with Christ *

E11. Jesus returns in [literal] clouds *

E12. The Tree of Life *

E13. Fulfillment of the Cosmos has come to us *

E14. The Endtimes tribulation *

E15. Every Knee will bow to Jesus *

E16. Moon will turn to blood *

E17. Abomination that causes desolation *

E18. God’s future temple on earth/in Jerusalem *

E19. Christ’s coming like the days of Noah *

E20. Meeting the Lord in the clouds *

Revelation Specific *

R1. Seven churches in Revelation *

R2. Two witnesses come before Christ returns *

R3. The Book of Book of Life / the Living *

R4. The Beast or his mark *

R5. The Millennium or the 1,000 years *

R6. Devil and followers cast in Lake of Fire *

R7. Heavenly (24) elders in Revelation *

R8. Woman Babylon in Revelation *

R9. Two-edged sword out of Christ’s mouth *

Ultimate Things - Heaven and Hell *

U1. The Kingdom of God *

U2. The Kingdom of Heaven *

U3. Description of God’s throne *

U4. Paul went up to the third heaven *

U6. All who die rejecting Jesus go to Hell *

U5. Reincarnation (transmigration) is wrong *

U7. Unquenchable/eternal fire *

U8. The worm of the lost does not die *

U9. Some lost have more severe judgment *

U10. Those who die are with Christ *

U11. Believers who die have eternal life *

U12. Believers have rewards in Heaven *

U13. Believers have crowns *

U14. Flesh & blood not inherit God’s kingdom *

U15. We will put on incorruption *

U16. Church/Believers are Christ’s bride *

U17. The wedding banquet *

U18. The earth shall pass away *

U19. New Heaven and New earth *

U20. New/heavenly Jerusalem *

U21. Abraham’s Bosom *

U22. Outer darkness *

U23. Gates of Hell/Death/Hades *

ANGELS *

Ua1. Angels are servants of God *

Ua2. Holy angel[s] *

Ua3. The heavenly host *

Ua4. The archangel Michael *

Ua5. The angel Gabriel *

Ua6. Four Living Creatures / Seraphim *

Ua7. Cherubim *

Ua8. Guardian angels *

Ua9. Angelic / Heavenly powers *

Ua10. Angels worship/praise God/Jesus *

Ua11. Angels rejoice *

Ua12. Angelic hymns / choir(s) *

Ua13. Angels visit shepherds at Christ’s birth *

Ua14. Angels announce/preach the gospel *

Ua15. An angel spoke with Cornelius before he was a believer *

DEMONS *

Ud1. Satan / Lucifer / the Devil *

Ud2. Satan/demons fell from heaven *

Ud3. Satan deceives *

Ud4. Serpent beguiled Eve *

Ud5. Satan is a serpent *

Ud6. The Serpent was cursed at the fall *

Ud7. Enmity between serpent and Eve’s seed *

Ud8. Satan is a dragon *

Ud9. The prince of this world/air is evil/Satan *

Ud10. Satan, a murderer from the beginning *

Ud11. Satan looke like an angel of light *

Ud12. Wiles/craftiness of the devil *

Ud13. Demons *

Ud14. Power/principalities of darkness *

Ud15. Demons are worshipped by pagans *

Ud16. Demons deceive / delude people *

Ud17. Devil/demons tempt people *

Ud18. Demons vex/cause harm to people *

Ud19. Demons tremble at/fear Christ *

Ud20. Demons subject to Christ *

Ud21. Satan can have lying wonders *

Ud22. Some are delivered over to Satan *

Ud23. Beelzebub/Baalzebub *

Ud24. Satan sought to sift Peter as wheat *

Ud25. Satan entered into Judas *

Ud26. The devil / Satan is a personal being *

Ud27. There are doctrines of demons / devils *

PAtriarch Individiuals *

Pat1. Adam and/or Eve *

Pat2. Cain murdered his brother/Abel *

Pat3. Seth [son of Adam and Eve] *

Pat4. Enoch *

Pat5. Noah got drunk *

Pat6. Ham [son of Noah] *

Pat7. Shem [son of Noah] *

Pat8. Japheth [son of Noah] *

Pat9. Canaan [son of Ham] *

Pat10. Job and his sufferings/patience *

Pat11. Abraham, friend of God *

Pat12. Sarai / Sarah *

Pat13. Lot or his wife *

Pat14. Hagar *

Pat15. Ishmael *

Pat16. Isaac *

Pat17. Abraham offered Isaac as a sacrifice *

Pat18. Rebecca [wife of Isaac] *

Pat19. Laban [Jacob’s father-in-law] *

Pat20. Jacob *

Pat21. Rachel [wife of Jacob] *

Pat22. Leah [wife of Jacob] *

Pat23. Esau *

Pat24. Joseph or his brothers *

Pat25. Benjamin (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat26. Dan (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat27. Ephraim (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat28. Judah (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat29. Levi (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat30. Manasseh (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat31. Naphtali (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat32. Zebulun/Zebulon (patriarch, tribe, or land) *

Pat33. The patriarchs *

Pat34. The twelve tribes [of Israel] *

Exodus to Solomon Individuals *

ES1. Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt *

ES2. Miriam, sister of Moses *

ES3. Aaron, brother of Moses *

ES4. Pharaoh during the Exodus *

ES5. Korah *

ES6. Balaam or his donkey *

ES7. Joshua conquered Canaan *

ES8. Rahab of Jericho *

ES9. Jephthah [the judge] *

ES10. Gideon *

ES11. Samson *

ES12. Eli [mentor of Samuel] *

ES13. Samuel *

ES14. Saul [son of Kish] *

ES15. David *

ES16. [King] Saul persecuted David *

ES17. Nathan [the prophet] *

ES18. Uriah [the Hittite] *

ES19. Tamar / Thamar *

ES20. King Solomon was wise *

DIVIDED KINGDOM ON OT Individuals *

DK1. Jeroboam *

DK2. Ahab *

DK3. Elijah was a godly prophet *

DK4. Hezekiah [godly king] *

DK5. Elisha *

DK6. Naaman [the Syrian leper] *

DK7. Jonah in the fish or warned Ninevites *

DK8. Sennacherib *

DK9. Josiah the godly king *

DK10. Jeconiah/Jechoniah *

DK11. Nebuchadnezzar [King of Babylon] *

DK12. Zedekiah *

DK13. Ezekiel *

DK14. Daniel *

DK15. The Three Youths in Daniel *

DK16. Cyrus [King of Persia] *

DK17. Darius [King of Persia] *

DK18. Artaxerxes [King of Persia] *

DK19. Ezra the scribe/prophet *

DK20. Zerubbabel *

DK21. Joshua the high priest (in Zechariah) *

DK22. Antiochus [Epiphanes] of Syria *

DK23. The prophets are holy *

New Testament Individuals *

N1. Herod’s slaughter in Bethlehem *

N2. John the Baptist was a godly forerunner *

N3. Simeon [at Jesus’ infancy] *

N4. Peter the disciple/apostle *

N5. Philip the disciple/apostle *

N6. Thomas the disciple/apostle *

N7. Mary Magdalene *

N8. Mary was blessed *

N9. Judas betrayed Jesus *

N10. High Priest Caiaphas/Herod tried Jesus *

N11. Pontius Pilate sentenced Jesus *

N12. Matthias *

N13. James the Lord’s brother was godly *

N14. Ethiopian eunuch *

N15. Stephen the martyr *

N16. Cornelius the centurion was saved *

N17. Barnabas, companion of Paul *

N18. Paul was a godly apostle *

N19. Apollos *

N20. Jesus’ seventy disciples *

N21. Anna *

N22. Silas, companion of Paul *

N23. Zechariah, husband of Elizabeth *

N24. Magi came to Christ *

N25. Andrew the disciple/apostle *

N26. Zacchaeus *

N27. John the Baptist lept in Elizabeth’s womb *

N28. Saul of Tarsus persecuted the church *

N29. Paul was in prison/bonds *

N30. Elizabeth [mother of John the Baptist] *

N31. Martha *

N32. [Samaritan] Woman at the well *

N33. Barabbas *

N34. Paul was persecuted besides prison *

N35. James son of Zebedee the disciple/apostle *

N36. Shepherds at Jesus’ birth *

N37. Timothy the individual (not just the book) *

N38. Judas hanged himself *

Experiencing God *

X1. Our bodies are God’s temple/temples *

X2. God/Christ lives inside of Christians *

X3. We are friends of Christ *

X8. Seek wisdom from God or His word *

X9. The Lord disciplines or corrects us *

X10. Be peaceful, kind, gentle, or good *

X11. Please the Lord *

X12. God renews us *

X13. God strengthens us *

X14. Glory in the Lord *

X15. Christians escape corruption *

X16. Be strong/strengthened *

X17. God’s people mourn *

X23. Believers are set free *

X24. Fear of the Lord/God *

X20. We adore/glory in the cross *

X21. God’s holy people *

X22. Speaking of shame *

X23. Put unrighteousness/adversary to shame *

X24. Do not be ashamed of the cross/Christ *

X35. Faith/Kingdom of Heaven like a mustard seed *

X30. None shall separate us from God’s love *

X31. We are children of light *

X32. Put the adversary/unrighteousness to shame *

X26. Flesh and spirit war against each other *

X27. The peace of God *

X28. There is sin unto death *

PRAYER AND FASTING *

Pr1. Prayer to God is important *

X4. Pure in heart will see God *

Pr2. Pray to the Father *

Pr3. Pray to Jesus *

Pr4. Pray at all times or in any place *

Pr5. Pray daily *

Pr6. Praise God *

X6. Thankfulness/gratitude to God *

Pr8. Confess to God *

Pr8. Forgive us as we forgive others *

Pr10. Not into temptation *

Pr11. Deliver us from evil *

Pr12. The Lord’s Prayer *

Pr13. Lift up hands to God *

Pr14. Bless or pray for those who persecute you *

Pr15. Pray for rulers and those in authority *

Pr16. Incense of the prayers of the saints *

Pr17. Pray for God’s kingdom to come *

Pr18. Pray for others / intercessory prayer *

Pr19. Pray for God’s mercy for us *

Pr20. Fasting to God is good *

Pr21. Pray in secret *

NOT OF THIS WORLD *

n1. We need to repent and come to God *

n2. Obey or love God *

n3. Follow Jesus or His example *

n4. Bear/Take up the cross, and follow Christ *

n5. Struggle to live a victorious life *

n6. Put on the armor of God/righteousness *

n7. Faithful Christians still get sick *

n8. Suffer persecution or martyrdom *

n9. No sorcery, witchcraft, or magic *

n10. Exorcism or casting out devils *

n11. Live a worthy life *

n12. Mortify earthly nature/deeds of the body *

n13. Be clothed with/in Christ *

n14. You cannot serve two masters *

n15. Martyrs are blessed *

n16. Losing your life and finding it *

n17. Believers are servants of God *

n18. We must persevere *

n19. We are the light of the world *

n20. Jacob’s ladder *

n21. We wrestle against the devil or sin *

n22. Confess your sins to others *

n23. Keep away from works of darkness *

n24. Christians do not fear death more than God *

n25. Believers are transformed [now] *

n26. The Kingdom of God is within you *

n27. Walk in newness of life *

n28. Don’t be bitter *

n29. Some are worthy of martyrdom *

n30. If we deny Christ He will deny us *

Individual Practice *

I1. Do not worship other gods *

I2. Stars have no influence on people *

I3. Have patience or self-control *

I4. Don’t let the sun go down on your anger *

I5. Have pure speech *

I6. Forsake lies *

I7. Do not get drunk *

I8. Eating meat is fine *

I9. Do not be a glutton or slave of your belly *

I10. Vanity, or avoid vain things *

I11. Virtue of prudence *

I12. Do not provoke God *

I13. Work hard, don’t be lazy *

I14. Be godly *

I15. Don’t use flattery (on others) *

I16. Eating meats forbidden to Jews OK *

I17. Depart from evil *

I18. Worship God in spirit and truth *

I19. Keep the commandments of Christ/God *

I20. It’s bad to be a hypocrite *

I21. Do not worship any images or idols *

I22. Rule of faith / truth *

Loving Others *

L1. Love all / your neighbor as yourself *

L2. Forgive others/enemies; turn other cheek *

L3. Do not get revenge *

L4. Do not be a gossip or chatterer *

L5. Do to others as you would them do to you *

L6. Do not murder *

L7. Abortion is evil/murder *

L8. Care for the sick *

L9. Practice hospitality *

L10. Love covers a multitude of sins *

L11. Show mercy to others *

L12. Slandering people is bad *

L13. We should be peacemakers or bring/seek peace *

L14. Cruelty is bad *

L15. Visit those in prison *

MONEY AND CONTENTMENT *

M1. Do not love money *

M2. No stealing or financial dishonesty *

M3. Help the poor *

M4. Help widows or orphans *

M5. Heavenly treasure; don’t fear earthly loss *

M6. Do not envy or be jealous *

M7. Do not covet *

M8. Be humble or not proud *

M9. Be content with what you have *

M10. We rejoice when afflicted *

M11. We rejoice – besides being afflicted *

M12. No selfish ambition *

M13. No bribes *

M14. No usury / lending to needy with interest *

M15. Don’t be wise in your own eyes/conceit *

M16. Cannot serve both God and Mammon *

M17. Love of money root of all evils *

M18. Strive for godliness, not gain *

M19. Lazarus and the rich man *

M20. Offering money/possessions to God *

M21. God’s house not to be a den of robbers / thieves *

M22. Blessed are the poor *

M23. Give in secret *

Assembling Together *

Ca1. Christians met together on Sunday *

Ca2. Sing hymns to God, the Father, or Jesus *

Ca3. Practice water baptism *

Ca4. Observe the Lord’s Supper *

Ca5. No more animal or blood sacrifices *

Ca6. No need to celebrate the Sabbath (except can fast) *

Ca7. Learn from prior church writers/councils *

Ca8. Cheer up/encourage other believers *

Ca9. Correct other believers *

Ca10. Calling ourselves Christians *

Ca11. Mention of Easter/Pascha[l] *

Ca12. Calling the Lord’s Supper the Eucharist *

Ca13. Shun alleged believers persisting in sin *

Ca14. The Church is the body of Christ *

Ca15. Footwashing *

Ca16. Baptize in the name of the Father, Son, Holy Spirit *

Ca17. We are the flock of Christ *

Ca18. Musical choir *

Ca19. Church(es) of God *

Ca20. Church(es) of Christ *

Church Leadership *

C1. Obey authority of godly church leaders *

C2. The Church/Christians should have unity *

C3. Excommunicate or separate from heretics *

C4. Bishop(s) *

C5. Church leaders should accept each other *

C6. Reject unchristian church leader authority *

C7. Remove leaders fallen in gross sin/heresy *

C8. Concept of one universal church *

C9. Churches should greet other churches *

C10. Tradition of the apostles or the church *

C11. Don’t muzzle an ox while treading grain *

C12. Priesthood of all believers *

C13. Christ the head of the Church *

C14. Church leaders are shepherds *

C15. The episcopate [office of bishop] *

C16. Elders/presbyters *

C17. Deacons *

C18. Sub-deacons *

C19. Catechumens *

C20. Must be worthy of being a bishop/priest *

C21. Ordination [of bishops] *

Family and Marriage *

F1. Honor marriage, no extra-marital relations *

F2. No divorce, except for unfaithfullness *

F3. We should be pure *

F4. Do not watch violent or lewd shows *

F5. No homosexuality *

F6. We should honor our parents *

F7. Cherish and nurture our family *

F8. Having kids is fine within marriage *

F9. Celibacy is better than marriage *

F10. Remarriage OK after death of spouse *

F11. No incestual relations *

F12. Do not love family more than Jesus *

F13. Do not kill/expose infants *

F14. Two become one flesh *

F15. No gladiators *

F16. We should be modest *

F17. Train your kids in the Lord *

F18. Eve was Adam’s bone and flesh *

F19. Do not lust (sexually) *

King, Government, and LAws *

K1. Honor the king or government *

K2. Obey government [when not against God] *

K3. Do not aid in persecuting Christians *

K4. Pay taxes *

K7. Officials ought to be just *

K8. Disobey or change unjust laws *

K9. Providence, or God governing the world *

K10. Christ is king, or kingdom of Christ *

K11. Christians should not be in lawsuits *

K12. Citizens of Heaven *

KERYGMATIC AND IRENIC EVANGELISM *

k1. Preach the gospel to others *

k2. Bold proclamation of truth *

k3. Quoting God’s word to unbelievers *

k4. Sharing personal testimonies *

k5. Creative allegories or metaphors *

k6. Quoting poetry to share truth *

k7. Promises of heaven or God’s love *

k8. Threats of Hell or God’s wrath *

k9. Mortal life is fleeting/short *

k10. Martyrs blood is a testimony *

k11. Use of Catena of 3 or more verses *

k12. Moses is older than Homer *

Parables of Jesus *

Par1. Christ speaking in parables *

Par2. Parable of the sheep and the goats *

Par3. Parable of the prodigal son *

Par4. Parable of the wineskins/bottles *

Par5. Parable of the wheat and tares *

APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM *

a1. Answering questions of others *

a2. Using questions *

a3. Showing misconceptions/contradictions *

a4. Psalm 110:1-2 can only refer to Christ *

a5. Nature witnesses to God *

a6. Appeal to science *

a7. First Cause (cosmological argument) *

a8. Only One is supreme *

a9. Morality vs. evil in other religions *

a10. Appeal to historians *

a11. Using chronology in apologetics *

a12. Genesis 49:10 refers to Christ *

a13. Isaiah 7:14 refers to Christ *

a14. Isaiah 53 refers to Christ *

a15. Daniels’ 70 weeks messianic prophecy *

a16. Zechariah 12:10-12 refers to Christ *

a17. Micah refers to Christ *

HARSHER EVANGELISTIC METHODS *

h1. Debate and argument in witnessing *

h2. Do not throw pearls before swine *

h3. Don’t give what is holy to the dogs *

h4. Calling other beliefs delusion(s) *

h5. Apologetic use of Plato’s Timaeus *

h6. Apologetic use of the tomb of Jupiter/Zeus *

h7. Pointing out adulteries of Greek gods *

h8. Humor or wit in witnessing *

h9. Harsh rebuke in witnessing *

h10. Calling people names *

h11. Ridicule or sarcasm in witnessing *

h12. Thyestean [cannibalistic banquet] *

h13. Mention of Oedipus *

h14. Calling other beliefs fables *

h15. Calling other beliefs superstition *

h16. Incest of Zeus/Jupiter *

Refute Heretical Groups *

r1. Dispute with Ebionites (Judaizers) *

r2. Simon Magus and his heresy/error *

r3. Against Marcion *

r4. Dispute against Valentinian Gnostics *

r5. Dispute against Sethians or Ophites *

r6. Dispute against Encratite Gnostics *

r7. Dispute against other Gnostics *

r8. No mixing Christ and other religions *

r9. Avoid Docetic belief – not suffer in flesh *

r10. Dispute against Sabellians (type of Oneness) *

r11. Beware of wolves/ false prophets *

r12. Against Heracleon [the Valentinian] *

r13. Against the Gnostic heretic Apelles *

r14. The heretic Cerinthus *

r15. Heretic Basilides *

r16. Against Menander, disciple of Simon Magus *

r17. Against Carpocrates, who came from Simon Magus *

r18. Nicolaitans *

r19. Be on guard against error *

r20. Against Saturninus/Saturnilus [the Encratite] *

Dispute Against Other Errors *

D1. Do not judge/condemn others *

D2. Dispute against Judaism *

D3. Dispute against Greco-Roman paganism *

D4. Dispute philosophy that denies one God *

D5. Dispute against the Magi / Zoroastrians *

D6. Dispute against Indian Bra[c]hmans *

D7. Dispute Egyptian myths *

D8. Dispute Chaldean/Babylonian religion *

D9. Dispute Syrian or Arabian religions *

D10. Dispute Druid or other European myths *

D11. Dispute against Epicureans *

D12. Errors of the Sadducees *

D13. Against Pythagoras *

D14. Errors of Aristotle *

D15. Against Stoics *

D16. Against Mithras *

D17. Against Cynic philosophy *

D18. Against the Pharisees *

D19. Sadducees were wrong to deny resurrection *

D20. Religion can be bad *

D21. No Spiritism or the Occult *

D22. Against the religion of Scythians *

D23. Against Pyrrho the philosopher *

D24. Socrates even said he had a demon *

D25. Against [Phrygian] Great Mother *

MANY Christians would Agree *

m1. God is timeless or before/ beyond time *

m2. Jesus appeared on earth prior to His birth *

m3. Mention of the laity or clergy *

m4. The church can be called the city of God *

m5. People have free will / choice *

m6. Babylon refers to Rome *

m7. There are greater/mortal and lesser sins *

m8. Christians can lose their salvation *

m9. God knows all things in the future *

m10. Jesus preached to the dead *

m11. Religion is/can be good *

m12. Drinking wine is OK *

m13. No food sacrificed to idols *

ERRORS *

e1. Incorrect references to Bible verses *

e2. Misquoted or unknown Bible verses *

e3. Over-allegorical Bible interpretation *

e4. Four elements make up the world *

e5. Atoms do not really exist *

e6. Errors on hyena, phoenix, or other animals *

e7. Errors on geography or tribes *

e8. Collective guilt of the Jews *

e9. Errors on people *

Disputed PArts *

d1. Miracle healings in post-Acts church *

d2. Seventy Septuagint translators *

d3. God is not composite *

d4. God is impassable (without passion) *

d5. Some fallen angels sinned with women *

d6. Against jewelry or false/dyed hair *

d7. Christians must fast on certain days *

d8. No drinking or eating blood *

d9. No worshipping true God with images *

d10. Prophets proclaimed 2 advents of Christ *

d11. Prophesy in church after Acts *

d12. Number of nations according to angels *

d13. Christ appeared as/can be called an angel *

d13. Tread on serpents and scorpions *

d14. God is ineffable or indescribable *

d15. The angel Raphael *

d16. Angels for nations *

d17. Non-believers can have a worthiness related to salvation *

d18. Tobias *

d19. Susannah *

 

Bible Importance

 

B1. Study or obey God’s Word as an authority

 

Luke 4:18-19,21; John 7:38; 12:38-40; 2 Timothy 3:16, (partial) Hebrews 4:12

2 Peter 3:1-2 Peter puts his words and the other apostles’ words as the same authority as the Old Testament

 

Scripture is not just "suggestions for life", but we must take its authority in our lives as seriously as our Lord and Biblical writers meant. John 10:35; Matthew 4:1-11; John 14:23-24; 2 Peter 1:19-21;3:16; Romans 3:1-4; 2 Timothy 3:15-16; Proverbs 30:5-6; Amos 8:11-2; Isaiah 66:5

;Ps119:74,81,89, 92,105

The entire Bible is authoritative, trustworthy, primary, and complete. Proverbs 30:5-6; 2 Timothy 3:16; 2 Samuel 22:31; Psalm 33:4;119:72,97,105,120,151; Proverbs 30:5-6

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; John 7:38; 12:38-40

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; John 7:38; 12:38-40

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) "Forasmuch as may enrolled among the Clergy, following covetousness and lust of gain, have forgotten the divine Scripture, which says, ‘He hath not given his money upon usury," and in lending money ask the hundredth of the sum [as monthly interest],… he shall be deposed from the clergy and his name stricken from the list." Canon 17 p.36

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) shows the authority of Scripture. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2 p.83

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) Select Demonstrations

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) quotes Matthew 22:29 "Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures nor the power of God" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.12.52 p.337

Athanasius (333 A.D.) says we should meditate on scripture day and night and the quotes Psalm 1:1-2. Easter Letter 5 ch.1 p.517. See also Easter Letter 11 (339 A.D.) ch.6 p.535

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) proves his point using what the scripture taught on Jacob and Aaron. Nisibine Hymns hymn 18 no.3 p.187

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) "Never neglect reading, especially of the New Testament, because very frequently mischief comes of reading the Old; not because what is written is harmful, but because the minds of the injured are weak. All bread is nutritious, but it may be injurious to the sick. Just so all Scripture is God inspired and profitable, and there is nothing in it unclean: only to him who thinks it is unclean, to him it is unclean." Basil to Julian Letter 41.3 p.144-145

Council of Laodicea (345-381 A.D.) "No Psalms composed by private individual nor any uncanonical books may be read in the church, but only the Canonical Books of the Old and New Testaments." Canon 59 p.158

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) speaks of the importance of scripture in Catechetical Lecture 5 ch.12 p.32

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) appeals to scripture as his authority on baptism. On Baptism ch.1.1 p.87

Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) (implied) "In order that you may be assured that this is so, the following was written in Malachi, ‘I will reject your offerings, because I have been a witness among you and the women of your youth, that you have been unfaithful to, those who are the women of your covenant. But I will be true with you." Memra 22 ch.19 p.268

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "We can tell the solution of any question not through our own reasonings but from what follows from the Scriptures." Panarion (=Against Heresies) 65 as quoted in Examination of the Council of Trent I, p.153

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) On the Priesthood book 4 ch.3 p.65

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "Then, finally, that the Scriptures were written by the Spirit of God." Origen’s de Principiis Preface 8 p.241

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) says the Savior tells us to "thoroughly examine the scriptures" Homilies on Joshua. homily 19 ch.2 p.171

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.10 p.266 (370/380-425 A.D.) bishop Symeon showed other Christians about to be martyred from the sacred scriptures that their death would be true life, but to live in fear and deny God would be true death.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) proves a point "as Scripture attests" Defense Against the Pelagians ch.15 p.133

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) mentions the "testimony of the Scriptures" Defense Against the Pelagians ch.23 p.147

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) "All [nuns] had every day to learn a certain portion of the holy scriptures." Letter 108.20 p.206

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says there are differing opinions on marriage, but we must see which of them are agreeable to the truth of divine Scriptures. On the Good of Marriage ch.2 p.399. See also On the Gospel of John Tractate 124 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.449.

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) write of Paphnutius speaking of the authority of holy scripture. Conference of the Bishop Paphnutius ch.6 p.321

 

LCMS (1932) (Lutheran Church Missours Synod) " Since the Holy Scriptrues are the Word of God, it goes without saying that they are in all their parts and words the infallible truth, also in those parts which treat of historical, geographical, and other secular matters, John 10:35" Brief Statement of the doctrinal position of the Missouri synod (1932) Crisis in Christendom p.197-202 published by Christian News, 2004. (Christian News Nov. 2, 2015 p.1)

LCMS (1973) "We believe, teach and confess that all Scripture is given by the inspiration of God the Holy Spirit and that God is therefore the true Author of every Word of Scripture" Crisis in Christendom p.149-154 (Christian News Nov. 2, 2015 p.1)

LCMS "The Synod, and every member of the Synod, accepts without reservation: 1. The Scriptures of the Old and New Testament as the written Word of God and the only rule and norm of faith and practice." Constitution of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (Christian News Nov. 2, 2015 p.1)

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) speaks of Holy Scripture in Acts of the Apostles. Candidus’ First Letter p.56

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) says we have learned from the Holy Spirit in his Candidus’ Second Letter p.57

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Appeals to the authority of Scripture. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.250

Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) appeals to divine scripture Commentary on Zechariah ch.11 p.377-378

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-650 A.D.) ch.14 p.375 "Then was fulfilled that which was said by Isaiah the prophet, saying: The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master’s crib." [Isaiah 1:3]

 

B2. Old Testament has God’s words; study it

 

Luke 4:18-19,21; Luke 6:10; 24:44

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; 6:10; 24:44

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; 6:10; 24:44

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.3.4-5 p.85 (implied) proves points using the Old Testament.

Athanasius (333 A.D.) says we should meditate on scripture day and night and the quotes Psalm 1:1-2. Easter Letter 5 ch.1 p.517

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) mentions the importance of the two testaments. Nisibine Hymns hymn 3 no.11 p.171

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) "Never neglect reading, especially of the New Testament, because very frequently mischief comes of reading the Old; not because what is written is harmful, but because the minds of the injured are weak. All bread is nutritious, but it may be injurious to the sick. Just so all Scripture is God inspired and profitable, and there is nothing in it unclean: only to him who thinks it is unclean, to him it is unclean." Basil to Julian Letter 41.3 p.144-145

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 49 p.158 "No psalms composed by private individuals nor any uncanonical books may be read in the church, but only the Canonical Books of the Old and New Testaments"

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 17 p.133 "The Psalms are not to be joined together in the congregations, but a lesson shall intervene after every psalm."

Augustine of Hippo (404 A.D.) says the church does not want to place her hope in man, let she fall under the curse pronounced in scripture, and quotes Jeremiah 17:5. Letter 89.5 p.375

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) references the Old Testament. Twelve Books book1.1 p.201

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) quotes as an authority Hosea and Habacuc [Habakkuk] The Sentence of the Synod p.307

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God gave the Law. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.56 p.53

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Micah has a thankfulness towards God. Commentary on Micah ch.7 p.244

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-650 A.D.) ch.14 p.375 "Then was fulfilled that which was said by Isaiah the prophet, saying: The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master’s crib." [Isaiah 1:3]

 

B3. The Old Testament prophesied about Jesus

 

Luke 24:15; John 12:37-40; 19:37; Hebrews 1:5-13; 2:6-8,12,13; 1 Peter 1:10-12

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 24:15; John 12:37-40; 19:37

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 24:15; John 12:37-40; 19:37

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.6 p.90 says that Daniel prophesied the number of weeks before the coming of Christ.

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says the Jews could find the right reason for when the Messiah would come by reading Daniel. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.16 p.356. Also, Jesus said that Moses wrote of Jesus in To the Bishops of Egypt ch.4 p.224

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes Psalm 110:1 as referring to Christ. On the Christian Faith book 2 ch.12.103 p.237

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says many passages are prophecies of the Incarnation. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.15.99 p.217

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) refers to Isaiah 7:14 and other passages. Nisibine Hymns hymn 37 no.4 p.198

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) "for it is very evident the Twenty-first Psalm refers to Christ." [They number many of the Psalms one differently than we do today. On the Son - Fourth Theological Oration ch.5 p.311

Jerome (394 A.D.) interpreted Haggai 2:6,7, Zechariah 3:3,9; 6:1-3; 9:9,10; Malachi 1:10-11 as messianic in Letter 53 ch.8 p.101.

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) quotes Isaiah and says it refers to Christ in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 36 p.240.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Psalm 110:1 openly refers to Christ. The City of God book 17 ch.17 p.355

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Micah 2:6 prophesies of Christ. Commentary on Micah ch.5 p.225-226

Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "I am aware … that the Law contained an outline of everything to do with Christ the Lord." Commentary on Zechariah ch.9 p.367

Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (implied) promises [of the Messiah] made to Abraham and David. Commentary on Jonah preface p.185

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-650 A.D.) ch.14 p.375 "Then was fulfilled that which was said by Isaiah the prophet, saying: The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master’s crib." [Isaiah 1:3]

 

B4. Jesus superseded some Old Testament laws

 

Mark 7:19; (implied) Colossians 2:16; (implied) Hebrews 10:18

Romans 10:4; Galatians 3:25; Romans 8:1-4

 

The NT says some OT commands have been fulfilled and are not to be done. (eating pork, sacrifices, etc.) Acts 10:9-16;15:1,5-29; Mark 7:19; Galatians 5:2-4; Hebrews 9:9-10;10:18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Mark 7:19

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Mark 7:19

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.4 p.87 says that we do not need to celebrate the Sabbath as the Hebrews do.

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) (implied) "in which Flesh, as the Apostle says, He reconciled the enmity which was against us and destroyed the law of the commandments in ordinances, that He might make the two into one new man, making peace, and reconcile both in one body to the Father. On Luke 10:22 ch.3 p.88

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) "This is the wish of our schoolmaster the law, of the prophets who intervened between Christ and the law, of Christ who is the fulfiller and end of the spiritual law; of the emptied Godhead, of the assumed flesh, of the novel union between God and man," In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.23 p.209

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (implied) We do not need to observe circumcision and the Sabbath anymore. Letter 3 ch.20.1 p.61

Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) (implied) "When he said, ‘He made both of them one Testament’, and he annulled law of the commandments by his commandments, so that he might make everything new with one testament. ‘From now on not a single letter ‘iota’ will pass away from the Law and the prophets.’ As for the rest, ‘The whole Law and Prophets up to John were established in order to serve and then pass away.’ ‘For the thing that has become old is worn out and close to destruction, and from then on we ought not to speak about these. From then on, that one letter iota will remain – which is the ten commandments, which are called ‘iota’ for there are ten commandments in the number of the signs." Memra 22 ch.21 p.269-270

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) discusses how Jesus "enhanced" the law of the Sabbath in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 39.3 p.257.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) discusses how Christians no longer have to keep the Jewish ceremonial law. Letter 75 ch.3.5 p.335

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Christ "will bring the Law to an end" Commentary on Malachi ch.4 p.422

 

B5. New Testament has God’s words; study it

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (partial) says the word of God is profitable. On the Trinity book 1 ch.6 p.141

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) "Never neglect reading, especially of the New Testament, because very frequently mischief comes of reading the Old; not because what is written is harmful, but because the minds of the injured are weak. All bread is nutritious, but it may be injurious to the sick. Just so all Scripture is God inspired and profitable, and there is nothing in it unclean: only to him who think it is unclean, to him it is unclean." Basil to Julian Letter 41.3 p.144-145

The Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) (partial) canon 59 p.158 mentions the Old and New Testaments.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:24-25 as by "Paul, who, filled with the Spirit of God." On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.16.101 p.218.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in Of the Christian Faith book 1 ch.8.57 p.210

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.322 (553 A.D.) refers to the books of Acts of the Apostles.

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) eating meat is fine ("kill and eat"). Discusses Acts 10:9-13 and Peter seeing the cloth from heaven. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.251

 

B6. Some parts of the Bible are allegorical

 

Mark 2:22; Revelation 12

 

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.3 p.85 says that some of the things Moses built were allegories with the true meaning fulfilled in Christ.

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) discusses Old Testament "dives proclamations, listen, as in figure" Festal Letter 1.4 p.507

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) discusses metaphors in scripture. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.23 p.63

 

B7. Old Testament has types of Christ

 

John 1:51; 3:13; 1 Corinthians 10:1-4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.3.2 p.85 discusses how Moses and other ancient prophets honored the name of Christ.. "When he delivered types and symbols of heavenly things,…".

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.3.3-5 p.85 discusses how Joshua was a type of Christ.

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions the Old Testament pointing to Christ. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.59 p.341

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) said "Jesus [Joshua] Son of Nave was a type of the Lord in name as well as in deed – who crossed over Jordan,…"

 

B8. Melchizedek was a type of Christ

 

Genesis 14:18; Psalm 110:4: Hebrews 5:6-10; 6:20 7:1-17

 

B9. Joshua was a type of Christ

 

-

 

 

B10. The prophets were until John

 

Matthew 11:13; Luke 16:16

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

(Athanasius is silent)

 

B11. Veil on many when read Moses/OT

 

2 Corinthians 3:14

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says that for us the veil on Mosaic Law as been removed. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 7 ch.32.19 p.319

 

Among heretics

Mani (262-278 A.D.) (partial) said that Moses was from the devil. Disputation with Manes ch.29 p.202

 

B12. We can understand Scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Palladius (c.430 A.D.) says of Evagrius "who helped me understand Holy Scripture" Four Desert Fathers p.30.

 

B13. Acknowledge Bible copyist errors

 

(Issues of canonicity are not included here)

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) "But if there should seem to any one to be a disagreement in respect to the name of the king, the time at least and the events show that the same person is meant, whether the change of name has been caused by the error of a copyist, or is due to the fact that he, like so many, bore two names." Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.10.8 p.112

 

B14. We are to believe Scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) On the Statues homily 12 ch.12 p.423; On the Statues homily 6 ch.3 p.381

 

B15. Unbelievers don’t understand OT/scripture

 

 

B16. Dual meaning of some prophecies

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) mentions dual fulfillment of prophecy. Commentary on Matthew homily 8 p.53

 

B17. Don’t twist/corrupt meaning of Scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (354 A.D.) discusses those who wrest scripture. Letter 48 p.557.

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) Concerning Lowliness of Mind ch.2 p.148

others too

 

B18. The Law was excellent or good

 

Romans 7:12-13,16 The Law was holy and good.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (329 A.D.) says the law was admirable and the shadow was excellent. Festal Letter 1 ch.3 p.507

Rufinus (373-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "The Apostle Paul makes use of no circumlocution, when he says, ‘The law is good; and the commandment is holy, and just, and good.’ From which it is clear that Paul had not learned the language of those who separate justice from goodness, but had been instructed by that God, and illuminated by His Spirit, who is at the same time both holy, and good, and just; and speaking by whose Spirit he declared that the commandment of the law was holy, and just, and good." de Principiis book 2 ch.5.4. p.280

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) says the law was holy, just, and good. Commentary on Romans homily 12 p.422

others too.

 

B19. Scripture is called the Word of God

 

Mention of the Word of God referring to Jesus is not included here.

 

1 Samuel 3:1,7,21

 

2 Samuel 22:31

1 Kings 2:27

1 Kings 12:24

1 Kings 13:1

2 Kings 23:16; 24:2

1 Chronicles 10:13; 11:3; 12:23; 15:15; 16:15; 35:6; 36:21,22;

 

Psalm 18:30; 33:4,6

Psalm 105:28

Psalm 119:9,11,16,17,25,28,38,-172

Psalm 138:2

 

Proverbs 30:5 "Do not add to his [God’s] Words, lest he rebuke you and you be found a liar."

 

Word of God means just Scripture here

Mark 7:13 in speaking about Corban says, "Thus you nullify the word of God by your tradition that you have handed down. And you do many things like that."

John 10:34-35 "Is it not written in your Law, ‘I have said you are gods’? If he called them ‘gods,’ to whom the word of God came – and the Scripture cannot be broken"

Acts 17:11,13 "Now the Bereans were of more noble character than the Thessalonians, for they received the message with great eagerness and examined the Scriptures every day to see if what Paul said was true. (13) When the Jews in Thessalonica learned that Paul was preaching the word of God at Berea, they went there too,…"

Romans 9:6 "It is not as though God’s word had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel. Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham’s children. On the contrary, ‘It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned."

Galatians 6:6 "Anyone who receives instruction in the word must share all good things with his instructor"

 

Word of God means Scripture and/or truth

Isaiah 1:10 "Hear the word of the LORD, you rulers of Sodom; listen to the law of our God, your people of Gomorrah!"

Luke 11:28 "He [Jesus] replied, ‘Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey it.’"

2 Corinthians 2:17 "Unlike so many, we do not peddle the word of God for profit. On the contrary, in Christ we speak before God with sincerity, like men sent from God."

2 Corinthians 4:2 "Rather, we have renounced secret and shameful ways; we do not use deception, nor do we distort the word of God. On the contrary, by setting forth the truth plainly we commend ourselves in every man’s conscience in the sight of God."

Colossians 1:25 "to present to you the word of God in its fullness"

Titus 2:5 ... so that no one will malign the word of God"

1 Peter 4:11 "If anyone speaks, he should do it as one speaking the very words of God."

1 Thessalonians 2:13 "And we also thank God continually because, when you received the word of God, which you heard from us, you accepted it not as the word of men, but as it actually is, the word of God, which is at work in you who believe."

Hebrews 4:12 "For the word of God is sharper than any two-edged sword…" (scripture, truth)

1 Peter 1:23,25 "for you have been born again not of seed which is perishable but imperishable that is, through the living and abiding word of God. (25) But the Word of the Lord abides forever. And this is the word which was preached to you." (NASB) (scripture, truth)

 

Word of God means Jesus Christ, scripture, and/or truth

1 John 2:14 (Christ, scripture, truth)

 

Word of God means just Jesus Christ

Revelation 19:13 His [Jesus’] name is the Word of God.

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) (partial – For the word of God)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (implied) says the word of God is profitable, referring to 1 Timothy 3:16. On the Trinity book 1 ch.6 p.141

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) "be humble and tremble at God’s words" On Penitents ch.6.1 p.76

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) (partial) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "Then, finally, that the Scriptures were written by the Spirit of God." Origen’s de Principiis Preface 8 p.241

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) (implied) says God’s Word is holy. Commentary on Matthew homily 11 p.73

M Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) "Of the beliefs and practices whether universally accepted or publicly enjoined which are preserved in the Church some we possess derived from written teaching; others we have received delivered to us ‘in a mystery’ by the tradition of the apostles; and both of these in relation to true religion have the same force. ... For were we to attempt to reject such customs as have no written authority, on the ground that the important they possess is small, we should unintentionally injure the Gospel in its very vitals;"

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) "God said that the devil is a murderer; they say that he can cure diseases, in contradiction to God’s word." Against the Jews book 8.

 

How important are we to consider God’s word in scripture? To explain this, it is hard to improve on what an ancient Christian saint and deep Biblical scholar said:

 

"Let us then also learn hence to consider all things secondary πάρεργα to the hearing the word of God, and to deem no season unseasonable, and, though a man may even have to go into another person’s house, and being a person unknown to make himself known to great men, though it be late in the day, or at any time whatever, never to neglect this traffic. Let food and baths and dinners and the other things of this life have their appointed time; but let the teaching of heavenly philosophy have no separate time, let every season belong to it. For Paul saith, "In season, out of season, reprove, rebuke, exhort" and the Prophet too saith, ‘and David also glances at this, saying, ‘In His law will he meditate day and night’ and Moses commanded the Jews to do this always.’" John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) Homilies on John homily 18 ch.4 p.65. John Chrysostom preached a lot of good words himself, but even he would consider his own words secondary to God’s word.

 

B20. Scripture is Holy/Sacred

Isaiah 20:22; Romans 1:2; Revelation 3:7

 

(The term "Divine Scripture" is not included here)

 

p10 (= P. Oxyrhynchus 209) Romans 1:1-7 (4th century) has Romans 1:2.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "For it is written, ‘So much better than angels;’ let us then first examine this. Now it is right and necessary, as in all divine Scripture, so here, faithfully to expound the time of which the Apostle wrote," Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.54 p.338.

Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) mentions Holy Scripture. On the Priesthood ch.4.8 p.68

Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "For of the fact that we have an immortal soul, and that we shall hereafter render an account of what we have done here, and stand before a fearful Tribunal, their minds are at once thoroughly persuaded, and they have also regulated their whole course of life by such hopes as these; and have become superior to all worldly show, instructed as they have been by the sacred Scriptures, that ‘all is vanity, yea, vanity of vanities,’ [Ecclesiastes 1.2] and they do not greedily long for any of those things which seem to be so splendid." On the Statues ch.19.3 p.465

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) "All [nuns] had every day to learn a certain portion of the holy scriptures." Letter 108.20 p.206

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) write of Paphnutius speaking of the authority of holy scripture. Conference of the Bishop Paphnutius ch.6 p.321

Palladius (c.430 A.D.) says of Evagrius "who helped me understand Holy Scripture" Four Desert Fathers p.30.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) says that Scripture is holy. To Peter on the Faith ch.5 p.63

 

After Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

Anastasius Bibliothecarius (858-878 A.D.) freely translating Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) "Inferior to none who bad gone before him in his knowledge of Holy Scripture, he nobly applied himself to the advantage and instruction of the Church;" Genuine Acts of Peter p.261

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) speaks of Holy Scripture in Acts of the Apostles. Candidus’ First Letter p.56

 

B21. Divine Scripture

 

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "They who receive the wild doctrines of Valentinus and Marcion, and of all whose minds are similarly diseased, exclude the Law given by God to Moses from the catalogue of the Divine Scriptures." On the Priesthoods book 4 ch.4 p.65

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) speaks of divine Scripture. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.23 and "Divine Scriptures" book 1 part 1 ch.56.

 

B22. Some corrupted [copies of] Scripture

 

This includes both changed the Christian scriptures and those who made their own books taking pieces of Christian scriptures.

 

B23. Law was a shadow of the gospel / things to come

 

B24. Scripture was/is fulfilled

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.3 p.85 says that some of the things Moses built were allegories with the true meaning fulfilled in Christ.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "Saviour, it is written that the prediction of the prophet Joel was fulfilled," de Principiis book 2 ch.7.2 p.285

Rufinus (364-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "His coming now He fulfilled that law which has a shadow of good things to come" de Principiis book 4 ch.25 p.375

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "For when there are found many that sin, evil waxes strong; and whereas they that sin are not corrected and reproved that they should repent, this becomes to all an inducement to sin: and that which is said is fulfilled: ‘My house is called a house of prayer, but ye have made it a den of thieves.’" [Matthew 21.13; Luke 19.46]

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-650 A.D.) ch.14 p.375 "Then was fulfilled that which was said by Isaiah the prophet, saying: The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master’s crib." [Isaiah 1:3]

 

OLD TESTAMENT canon

 

OTc1. The Law and the prophets

 

Haggai 2:10 (partial, the law)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) (partial) mentions the Law. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.59 p.341

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) "This is the wish of our schoolmaster the law, of the prophets who intervened between Christ and the law, of Christ who is the fulfiller and end of the spiritual law; of the emptied Godhead, of the assumed flesh, of the novel union between God and man," In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.23 p.209

Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) (implied) "‘From now on not a single letter ‘iota’ will pass away from the Law and the prophets.’" Memra 22 ch.21 p.269-270

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "Law given by God to Moses from the catalogue of the Divine Scriptures." On the Priesthoods book 4 ch.4 p.65

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) refers to the Law and the prophets. He also says the Law was our teacher to Christ. Commentary on the Song of Songs ch.1 p.70

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) (Greek) "with respect to the five books of Moses, who have once given in their adhesion to the apostle, as divinely inspired;" de Principiis book 4 ch.1.13 p.362 (The Latin translation is very similar). See also Homilies on Jeremiah homily 5 ch.13 p.35

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) "They have Moses and the prophets. … And in both passages no one doubts that Moses signifies the law." Against Jovianus book 1 ch.22 p.362

 

Among heretics

Arian heretic Eunomius (c.360-c.394 A.D.) mentions the law and prophets. Apologetic Letter ch.21 p.61

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) The law and the prophets. Commentary on Zechariah ch.5 p.351

 

OTc2. Genesis is scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) (implied) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) quotes Genesis 4:9 then immediately says "But it may be objected, that the Gentile allows nothing of this sort. Come then, let us discuss this point, and as we have done with respect to the creation, having carried on the warfare against these objectors not only by the help of the Scriptures, but of reason, so also let us now do with respect to conscience." On the Statues homily 12 ch.11-12 p.423

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 section 1 p.441 "the divine Scripture testifies that God said to Christ, His only-begotten, ‘Let us make man after our image, and after our likeness. And God made man: after the image of God made He him; male and female made He them.’"

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) God says in divine scripture. And quotes Genesis 2:2; 4:15; Ecclesiastes 11:2. Commentary on Micah ch.5 p.231

 

OTc3. Exodus is scripture or God said

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) quotes Exodus 22:20 and 20:3 as "Sacred Scripture". Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 9 ch.10 p.331

Athanasius (346-356 A.D.) "and there are others also, heavenly ones, for Scripture says, ‘The Lord of powers is with us, the God of Jacob is our refuge.’" [Exodus 12:41] Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.20 p.163

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) quotes Exodus 1:7 as "scripture". The Panarion section 1 ch.8,4,5 p.25

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) (implied) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

 

OTc4. Leviticus is Scripture or God says

 

OTc5. Numbers is Scripture or God says

 

 

OTc6. Deuteronomy is scripture or God says

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) (implied) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

 

OTc7. 1 or 2 Samuel is scripture or God says

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-421 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) quotes from 1 Samuel 7:4 as Scripture. Letter 8 ch.3 p.117

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) refers to 2 Samuel as scripture in Commentary on Psalms p.412

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "for thus is it written in the first Book of Kingdoms: [1 Samuel] Samuel spake all the words of the Lord unto the people, which had asked of him a king, and said to them: This is the law of the king that shall reign over you: your sons he will take, and will set them upon his chariots; and he will make of them runners before him,"

 

OTc8. Reference to 1 or 2 Kings as Kings

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) (allusion)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament in Paschal Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) (allusion)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes 1 Kings 1:4 as "Holy Scripture in the Book of Kings" Catechetical Lectures Lecture 12.21 p.78

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) (allusion)

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) (allusion)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today. The Panarion

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) quotes 1 Kings 19:14 as "Scripture" in Homilies on Romans homily 18 p.482

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) alludes to 1 Kings 21:1-16. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.8 p.125

Council of Carthage (393-419 A.D.)

Sulpicius/Sulpitius Severus (Historian) (363-420 A.D.) mentions 1 Kings as the Third Book of Kings in History book 1 ch.40 p.90

Jerome (373-420 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) (allusion)

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.)

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Socrates the church historian (400-439 A.D.) quotes half a verse from 2 Kings

Theodoret of Cyrus (423-458 A.D.) quotes half of a verse of 1 Kings.

Leo I of Rome (440-461 A.D.)

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.)

 

OTc9. Job is scripture or the Lord says

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "even the Lord in the book of Job says, "Thou wilt take with a hook the apostate dragon," i.e., a fugitive. de Principiis book 1 ch.5.5 p.260

 

OTc10. Psalms are scripture or God/Spirit spoke

 

Jesus quoted Psalm 41:9 as scripture, in John 13:18.

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) alludes to Psalm 19:4 as "the divine Scriptures" Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.3 p.107

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "There are, then, of the Old Testament, twenty-two books in number; for, as I have heard, it is handed down that this is the number of the letters among the Hebrews; their respective order and names being as follows. The first is Genesis , then Exodus, next Leviticus, after that numbers, and then Deuteronomy. Following these there is Joshua, the son of Nun, then Judges, then Ruth. And again, after these four books of Kings, the first and second being reckoned as one book, and so likewise the third and fourth as one book. And again, the first and second of the Chronicles are reckoned as one book. Again Ezra, the first and second are similarly one book. After these there is the book of Psalms, then the Proverbs, next Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs. Job follows, then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book. Then Isaiah, one book, then Jeremiah with Baruch, Lamentations, and the epistle, one book, afterwards, Ezekiel and Daniel, each one book. Thus far constitutes the Old Testament." Athanasius Paschal Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) was crazy over the number 22. He gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

others too.

 

Among heretics

Arian heretic Eunomius (c.360-c.394 A.D.) (partial) alludes to Psalms 113:11 as by the prophetic voice. Apologetic Letter ch.23 p.65

 

OTc11. Proverbs are scripture or the Lord says

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) quotes Proverbs 8:22 and Hebrews 3:2 then says, "They are accustomed to allege the aforesaid passages of divine Scripture, which have a good meaning," Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.14.1 p.348

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) refers to Proverbs as Scripture in Commentary on Psalms p.412

others too.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "as the Lord said in Proverbs: ‘If thou sleep he keepeth thee; and when thou awakest, he will speak with thee’" [Prov 6.22].

others too.

 

Among heretics

Arian heretic Eunomius (c.360-c.394 A.D.) quotes part of Proverbs 8:22 as the Lord is speaking. Apologetic Letter ch.25 p.71

Arian heretic Eunomius (c.360-c.394 A.D.) quotes Proverbs 8:22,23,25 as "Holy Scripture proclaims" Apologetic Letter ch.28 p.75

 

OTc12. Isaiah is scripture or the Lord says

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

others too.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "as the Lord said to them by Isaiah: ‘Hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not know. For the heart of this people is waxed gross; and their eyes they have shut, and their ears they have stopped, that they may not be converted: lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears’" [Isa 6.9-10; Acts 28.26-27].

others too.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 2 ch.1 p.396 quotes Isaiah 66:2 as "The Lord says by Esias [Isaiah]"

 

OTc13. Jeremiah is scripture or the Lord says

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

others too.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) (partial, mistakenly quotes Ezekiel, not Jeremiah) "whom the Lord said by Jeremiah (sic) My laws ye have not kept [Ezek 5.7] but neither have ye conversed after the laws"

others too.

 

OTc14. Ezekiel is scripture or the Lord says

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

others too.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.6 p.29 "And concerning this, that (men) are not to suppose that they perish or are defiled by the sins of others, He again cut off their evil thought, and by Ezekiel also the Lord our God spoke thus: ‘And the word of the Lord came unto me, saying: ‘Son of man, why use ye this proverb in the land of Israel, and say: ‘The fathers do eat sour grapes, and their sons’ teeth are on edge?’ As I live, saith the Lord Adonai, there shall no more be any that useth this proverb in Israel. For all the souls are mine: as the soul of the father is mine, so also the soul of the son is mine. The soul that sinneth, the same shall die."

others too.

 

OTc15. Daniel is scripture or God showed

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-339/340 A.D.) "For the Scripture, in the book of Daniel, having expressly mentioned a certain number of weeks until the coming of Christ…" Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.6 p.90

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

 

OTc16. Hosea is scripture or God/the Word says

 

OTc17. Joel is scripture or God says

 

OTc18. Amos is scripture or God said

 

OTc19. Micah is scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "the prophet Micah in these words" and quotes Micah 6:8." de Principiis [Latin] book 3 ch.1.6 p.305

 

OTc20. Habakkuk is scripture or God says

 

OTc21. Zechariah is scripture or God says

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) alludes to Zechariah 3:1 as by Zechariah. de Principiis book 3 ch.2 p.329

 

OTc22. Malachi is scripture or God/Spirit says

 

OTc23. Reference to 1 or 2 Chronicles as Chronicles

 

OTc24. The Twelve [Minor Prophets]

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (339 A.D.) lists the canon, including "the Twelve" in his Easter Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) quotes Nahum 3:10 as by "Nahum, seventh of the twelve prophets" Commentary on Zechariah 11 p.257

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) was crazy over the number 22. He gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

RufinusCommentary on the Apostles’ Creed (374-406 A.D.)

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (c.240 A.D.) mentions the twelve prophets. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 2 ch.10 p.165.

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) (implied)

Council of Carthage (393-419 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) mentions Isaiah and the twelve prophets in The City of God book 17 ch.29 p.376

others too.

 

OTc25. Use of the term "Old Testament"

 

 

NEW TESTAMENT canon

 

NTc1. Matthew is scripture

 

(Jesus / the Lord / the Savior said is not counted.)

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Prosper of Aquitaine (425-465 A.D.) quotes Matthew 11:25-30 as Holy Scripture

 

NTc2. Mark is scripture or God said

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (444 A.D.)

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John:" Exposition of the Orthodox Faith ch.17 p.90

 

NTc3. Luke is scripture or God said

 

(Jesus / the Lord / the Savior said is not counted.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes part of Luke 4:41 as Scripture Lecture 10.15 p.4 and refers to it as the Gospel in Lecture 2.4 p.9.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John:" Exposition of the Orthodox Faith ch.17 p.90

 

NTc4. John is scripture

 

(Jesus / the Lord / the Savior said is not counted.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) quotes John 1:1 and 1:3 as Scripture. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.3 p.82

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

Sozomon (370/380-425 A.D.) quotes John 3:13 as scripture. Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 6 ch.27 p.364

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) quotes John 6:49 as Scripture. Commentary on Hosea ch.2 p.45

 

NTc5. Acts is scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) refers to Acts 12:3 as "as the divine Scripture says" Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.9 p.111

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

NTc6. Paul’s letters are authoritative

 

2 Peter 3:15-16 (scripture)

 

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. Calls the writings of Paul scripture. 2 Peter 3:15-16

p15 1 Corinthians 7:18-8:4 (late 3rd century) (implied because is 1 Corinthians)

p16 Philippians 3:10-17; 4:2-8 (late 3rd century) (implied because is Philippians)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius wrote whole commentaries on Luke and 1 Corinthians. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.41

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.7 p.198 "applied greater pains for advancement, often repeating to himself the saying of Paul: ‘Forgetting the things which are behind and stretching forward to the things which are before.’" [Philippians 3:13b]

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Athanasius (335 A.D.) declares that eating meat is fine and quotes 1 Corinthians 6:13 as by Paul. Easter Letter 7 ch.2 p.524

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) mentions Paul and refers to Ephesians 1:3. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.60. He also refers to Paul and Romans 11:13 in ch.1 p.60

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Gregory of Nyssa (356-397 A.D.) says Romans 1:1 is by Paul in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.4 p.105 and the Epistle to the Romans in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.9 p.117

Gregory of Nyssa (356-397 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 15:51,52 "the divine Apostle … to the Corinthians" On the Making of Man ch32.6 p.412

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) refers to 2 Corinthians 5:9-10 as by the Apostle Paul. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.18 p.140

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes 1 Thessalonians 4:17 as by the apostle. de Principiis book 2 ch.11.5 p.299

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Epistles of Paul and then the four books of the Gospel. On The Profit of Believing ch.7 p.350

 

Among heretics

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labelled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius accepts Paul as an apostle and his letters are scripture. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.15d, 6 p.42-43

Marcus (c.300 A.D.) the Bardesene, in disputing Adamantius affirms that Paul was an apostle. Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.12 c p.89-90

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) alludes to Hebrews 7:11 as by the blessed Paul. Commentary on Hosea ch.24 p.56 and Hebrews 9:13 as by Paul in Commentary on Jonah preface p.187

 

NTc7. Romans is scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Romans 8:32 as Scripture. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.17.109 p.219.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes of Romans 1:1-4 in "Paul’s Epistle to the Romans." de Principiis book 2 ch.4.2 p.276

 

Among heretics

The heretic Manes (262-278 A.D.) accepts as scripture Archelaus quoting Romans 5:14. Disputation with Manes ch.29 p.202

 

NTc8. 1 Corinthians is scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

 

NTc9. 2 Corinthians is Scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

 

NTc10. Galatians is scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

 

NTc11. Ephesians is scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 6:12 as by Paul to the Ephesians. de Principiis book 3 ch.4 p.332

 

NTc12. Philippians is scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius (318-339/340 A.D.) quotes Philippians 2:6 in Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 5 ch.2 p.216. He quotes Philippians 2:6-8 as "Sacred Scriptures in book 8 ch.10 p.330-331. He says that Paul referred to other Christians as "fellow laborers" in book 3 ch.4 p.136

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes Philippians 4:13 as by Paul. de Principiis book 3 ch.2.5 p.333

 

NTc13. Colossians is scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes of Colossians 1:15 as by Paul. de Principiis book 1 ch.5 p.247

 

NTc14. 1 Thessalonians is Scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

NTc15. 1 Timothy is Scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

NTc16. 2 Timothy is Scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

 

NTc17. Titus is scripture

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

NTc18. Revelation is scripture or the Lord says

 

Revelation 1:1;22:18-19

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) has all of Revelation

Alexandrinus (450 A.D.) has all of Revelation.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

X Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 3 ch.3 p.133-135 discusses the books of the New Testament. He says the Apocalypse is not genuine. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.123-145

Athanasius (331 A.D.) quotes "John in the Apocalypse" saying Jesus is the Alpha and Omega. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.28 p.444

Athanasius (367 A.D.) lists the books of the New Testament, including Revelation, in Festal eLetter 39 p.552

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

Ephraem (350-378 A.D.) alludes to Revelation

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes Revelation 1:8 as "Scripture". On the Christian Faith book 2 ch.4.35 p.228. See also Concerning Repentance book 1 ch.10 no.46 p.337

The Donatist schismatic Tyconius (after 390 A.D.) refers to Revelation 1:15

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.)

Gregory of Elvira (after 392 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) alludes to Revelation 1:6 in On Virginity ch.24 p.376

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) alludes to Revelation (vol.14)

Chromatius of Acquileia (died 407 A.D.)

Sulpicius/Sulpitius Severus (363-420 A.D.) says John the apostle and evangelist wrote Revelation in History book 2 ch.31 p.112

Council of Carthage (393-419 A.D.)

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) alludes to Revelation 20:12 as in the Apocalypse of John. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.13 p.131

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

Augustine of Hippo (388-8/28/430 A.D.) quotes Revelation 5:9 as by John. On the Forgiveness of Sin, and Baptism) book 1 ch.51 p.34. He also refers to Revelation 21:3.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes Revelation 1:8 as Jesus speaking in the Apocalypse. On Faith and the Creed ch.5.15 p.327

John Cassian the Semi-Pelagian (419-420 A.D.) quotes Revelation 4:4 as the Holy Apocalypse in the Conference of the Abbot Abraham ch.1 p.531.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Quodvultdeus (c.453 A.D.)

Theodoret of Cyrus (423-458 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (440-461 A.D.) quotes Revelation 3:2 in Letter 108.6 p.79

Varimadum (445/480 A.D.)

 

Among heretics

The heretic Priscillian (385 A.D.) refers to Revelation 18:2,3,12

 

NTc19. Using the term "New Testament"

 

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) book 3 ch.3 p.133-135 discusses the books of the New Testament. He says 1 Peter is genuine. He says that Paul’s 14 letters are well-known, though the church in Rome doubted that Paul wrote Hebrews. He says that 2 Peter is disputed. The so-called Acts of Paul, [Shepherd of] Hermas, Acts of Peter, and Gospel of Peter and Preaching of Peter, and the Apocalypse are not genuine. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.123-145

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) "Never neglect reading, especially of the New Testament, because very frequently mischief comes of reading the Old; not because what is written is harmful, but because the minds of the injured are weak. All bread is nutritious, but it may be injurious to the sick. Just so all Scripture is God inspired and profitable, and there is nothing in it unclean: only to him who think it is unclean, to him it is unclean." Basil to Julian Letter 42.3 p.144-145

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

The Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 59 p.158 mentions the Old and New Testaments.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in Of the Christian Faith book 1 ch.8.57 p.210

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) mentions the New Testament in On Penitents ch.4.1 p.74

Didymus the blind (398 A.D.) refers to the Old and New Testament. Commentary on Zechariah 8 p.201

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments. The Panarion section 3 scholion 1 and 5 p.334

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the New Testament in The City of God book 17 ch.4 p.341; book 17 ch.6 p.344

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the New Testament in Commentary on Psalms p.405,521,531,681

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) The New Testament referred to by name in the Institutes of John Cassian book 1.1 p.201 and the Conference of the Abbot Paphnutius ch.15 p.327

 

After Ephesus (431 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist: seven Catholic epistles, viz. one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude: fourteen letters of the Apostle Paul: [including Hebrews], the Revelation of John the Evangelist: the Canons of the Holy Apostles, by Clement." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith ch.17 p.90

 

Among heretics

Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423.429 A.D.) refers by name to the New Testament, quoting Matthew 28:2-3. Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.331

 

 

OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORS

 

OTa1. OT as writing in Hebrew

 

OTa2. Moses wrote the Law [Pentateuch]

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (implied) "Let this be taken as our answer from the books of Moses, or rather as the answer of Moses himself. This is after quoting Exodus 3:2,4-6; Deuteronomy 6:4; 32:39; and 32:43 (LXX). Then he quotes Deuteronomy 33:16. On the Trinity book 4 ch.33-35 p.81

Athanasius (347 A.D.) (implied) "For had they believed him to whom they hearkened, they would not have denied the Lord, Who spake by Moses, when He was present." Easter Letter 19 ch.5 p.546

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) refers to the "Law of Moses" Commentary on Zechariah 12 p.300

Didymus the blind (398 A.D.) quotes Leviticus 26:27-28 as "in the composition of Moses". Commentary on Zechariah 7 p.150

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) alludes to Leviticus 23 as by Moses Reply to Faustus the Manichaean book 32 ch.3 p.333

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) refers to Deuteronomy 21:23 as written by Moses in Reply to Faustus the Manichaean book 14 ch.1 p.207.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says Exodus 7:23 by Moses in Lecture 13 ch.3 p.82

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Numbers 11:29 as by Moses in Lecture 16 ch.26 p.122

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "but if (thou wouldst read of) the beginning of the world, thou hast the Genesis of the great Moses; and if laws and commandments, thou hast the glorious Law of the Lord God."

 

OTa3. Moses wrote Genesis

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "but if (thou wouldst read of) the beginning of the world, thou hast the Genesis of the great Moses; and if laws and commandments, thou hast the glorious Law of the Lord God."

 

OTa4. Moses wrote Exodus

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says Exodus 7:23 was by Moses in Lecture 13 ch.3 p.82

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) refers to Exodus 17:12 as by Moses vol.14 Commentary on John homily 14 p.50

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) God addresses Moses and quotes Exodus 32:33. On Penitents ch.5.1 p.75

 

OTa5. Moses wrote Leviticus

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Didymus the blind (398 A.D.) quotes Leviticus 26:27-28 as "in the composition of Moses". Commentary on Zechariah 7 p.150

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "In connection with which, even this statement does not appear superfluous, that Moses indeed hears from God what is described in the book of Leviticus, while in Deuteronomy it is the people that are the auditors of Moses, and who learn from him what they could not hear from God." de Principiis book 4 ch.24 p.375. (The Greek of Origen does not say this.)

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) alludes to Leviticus 23 as by Moses Reply to Faustus the Manichaean book 32 ch.3 p.333

 

OTa6. Moses wrote Numbers

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) alludes to Numbers 9:10-12 as "Moses, indeed, is accused by the voice of God" Reply to Faustus the Manichaean book 16 ch.16 p.225

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Numbers 11:29 as by Moses in Lecture 16 ch.26 p.122

 

OTa7. Moses wrote Deuteronomy

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) refers to Deuteronomy 21:23 as written by Moses in Reply to Faustus the Manichaean book 14 ch.1 p.207.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says Deuteronomy 28:66 was by Moses in Catechetical Lectures Lecture 12.19 p.87

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 4:2 as by Moses Commentary on Matthew homily 5.1 p.314

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 13:6; 13:8-9 (Septuagint) as by "Moses" and "the Book of Deuteronomy" Letter 3 ch.17.1 p.58

 

After Ephesus (after 431 A.D.)

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) says that Moses writes in Deuteronomy. A Commonitory ch.10 p.138

 

OTa8. David a writer of Psalms

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.3.7 p.86 says that David wrote Psalm 2:1-2.

Athanasius (331 A.D.) David wrote Psalm 71/72. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.41 p.330

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) quotes Psalms 2:1,2 as by David in Commentary on Matthew homily 36.3 p.240

 

Reformation

John Calvin quotes Psalm 38:7 as by David. Commentaries on Daniel Lecture 17 c.4:406 p.249

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) quotes part of Psalm 30:11 as by David. Commentary on Zechariah ch.13 p.377

 

OTa9. Solomon a writer of Proverbs

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.14 p.83-84 says that Solomon wrote Proverbs 8:12,14,16.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) "The Prophet Solomon teaches us what this Tree of Life is in his exhortation concerning Wisdom: ‘She is a tree of life to all them that lay hold upon her, and lean upon her.’" (Proverbs 3:18) Homilies on Psalms Psalm 1 ch.14 p.239

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes Proverbs 9:1-5 as "according to the declaration of holy Scripture" de Principiis book 2 ch.11.3 p.297

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) alludes to Proverbs 25:21,22 as by Solomon. To Those Who Had Not Attended the Assembly ch.6 p.230

 

Ota10. Solomon, writer of Ecclesiastes

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Ecclesiastes 9:7,8 as by Solomon in Ecclesiastes in Lecture 22 ch.8 p.152

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) says that Solomon wrote that the sleep of the laborer is sweet (Ecclesiastes 5:12). On the Statues Homily 2 ch.23 p.352

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) said Ecclesiastes 7:2 was by Solomon vol.10 Commentary on Matthew Homily 40 p.263

Rufinus loosely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "That this, however, is also brought about by the opposing powers, is shown by Solomon in the book of Ecclesiastes in the following manner: ‘If the spirit of the ruler rise up against thee, leave not thy place; for soundness restrains great offences.’" de Principiis book 3 ch.2.4 p.&&&

 

OTa11. Isaiah wrote or said Isaiah

 

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 40:12 as by Isaiah. Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.9.90 p.126.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 2 ch.1 p.396 quotes Isaiah 66:2 as "The Lord says by Esias [Isaiah]"

 

OTa12. Jeremiah wrote or said Jeremiah

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) quotes Jeremiah 31:22 as "which Jeremiah says, according to the edition of the seventy translators" Statement of Faith ch.3 p.85

 

OTa13. Ezekiel is by Ezekiel

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Didymus the blind (398 A.D.) quotes Ezekiel 31:3-9 as by the prophet Ezekiel. Commentary on Zechariah 11 p.258-259

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) refers to Ezekiel 9:4 as by Ezekiel in vol.9 Concerning the Statues homily 18.9 p.462

 

After Ephesus (431 AD.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.6 p.29 "and by Ezekiel also the Lord our God spoke thus: ‘And the word of the Lord came unto me, saying: Son of man, why use ye this proverb in the land of Israel, and say: The fathers do eat sour grapes, and their sons’ teeth are on edge?’" He goes on to quote Ezekiel 18.

 

OTa14. Daniel spoke or wrote Daniel

 

OTa15. Hosea wrote or spoke Hosea

 

OTa16. Joel wrote Joel

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "Saviour, it is written that the prediction of the prophet Joel was fulfilled," de Principiis book 2 ch.7.2 p.285

 

OTa17. Amos wrote Amos

 

OTa18. Micah wrote or said Micah

 

"In Micah" in Melito of Sardis and Cyprian or Carthage, is not counted.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Didymus the blind (398 A.D.) quotes Micah 7:1-3 as by Micah the prophet. Commentary on Zechariah 12 p.294

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) refers to Micah 6:1 as by Micah Commentary on Romans Homily 5 p.366

Rufinus (376-406 A.D.) translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) (implied) "the prophet Micah will prove when he says: ‘If it has been announced to thee, O man, what is good, or what does the Lord require of thee, except to do justice and to love mercy?’" [in both Latin and Greek] de Principiis book 3 ch.1.6 p.305

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Micah has a thankfulness towards God. Commentary on Micah ch.7 p.244

 

OTa19. Habakkuk wrote Habakkuk

 

"In Habakkuk" per Cyprian and Melitio of Sardis, is not counted here.

 

Ota20. Zechariah wrote Zechariah

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) quotes Zechariah 4:2 as by the prophet Zechariah. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1 ch.8 p.347-348.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378 A.D.) quotes parts of Zechariah 10:1,2 as by Zechariah. Letter 210 ch.6 p.251

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions the books of the Prophets, both of the Twelve and of the others. Micah 3:8 as in Micah, Joel 2:28 as in Joel, Haggai 2:4 as in Haggai, Zechariah 1:6 as in Zechariah. Catechetical Lectures Lecture 16.29 p.122

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) alludes to Zechariah 3:1 as by Zechariah. [Latin] de Principiis book 3 ch.2 p.329

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) mentions Zechariah 5:7,8 as by Zechariah vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 38 p.253

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 section 3 ch.20 p.448 quotes Zechariah 9:9 as Zechariah says.

 

OTa21. Malachi wrote Malachi

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Malachi 3:1-3,5 as by Malachi the prophet in Lecture 15 ch.2 p.104

Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) (partial) "In order that you may be assured that this is so, the following was written in Malachi, ‘I will reject your offerings, because I have been a witness among you and the women of your youth, that you have been unfaithful to, those who are the women of your covenant. But I will be true with you.’" Memra 22 ch.19 p.268

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) quotes Malachi 3:2-3 by Malachi. Vol.9 Letters to the Fallen Theodore ch.12 p.101

 

NEW TESTAMENT AUTHORS

 

NTa1. At least 1 NT word originally in Greek

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "and since our Saviour also is called the Paraclete in the Epistle of John, when he says, ‘If any of us sin, we have a Paraclete with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous, and He is the propitiation for our sins;’ let us consider whether this term Paraclete should happen to have one meaning when applied to the Saviour, and another when applied to the Holy Spirit. Now Paraclete, when spoken of the Saviour, seems to mean intercessor. For in Greek, Paraclete has both significations-that of intercessor and comforter. On account, then, of the phrase which follows, when he says, ‘And He is the propitiation for our sins,’ the name Paraclete seems to be understood in the case of our Saviour as meaning intercessor; for He is said to intercede with the Father because of our sins. In the case of the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete must be understood in the sense of comforter, inasmuch as He bestows consolation upon the souls to whom He openly reveals the apprehension of spiritual knowledge." de Principiis book 2 ch.7.4 p.286

 

NTa2. Matthew wrote the Gospel of Matthew

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 3 ch.24 p.152 discusses the four gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.152

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John:" Exposition of the Orthodox Faith ch.17 p.90

 

NTa3. Mark wrote the Gospel of Mark

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 3 ch.24 p.152 discusses the four gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.152

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John:" Exposition of the Orthodox Faith ch.17 p.90

 

NTa4. Luke wrote the Gospel of Luke

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 3 ch.24 p.152 discusses the four gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.152

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions Luke writing his gospel. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.51 p.421

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) "The evangelist Luke, when giving the genealogy according to the flesh our God and Saviour Jesus Christ…" Against Eunomius book 2 p.312

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John:" Exposition of the Orthodox Faith ch.17 p.90

 

NTa5. John wrote the Gospel of John

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 3 ch.24 p.152 discusses the four gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.152

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) quotes John 1:12 as in the Gospel of John in Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.3.6 p.154.

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) Latin translation of Origen (225-254 A.D.) speaks of "John, in his Gospel" Origen’s de Principiis 8 p.245

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) alludes to Revelation 20:12 as in the Apocalypse of John. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.13 p.131

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: " Exposition of the Orthodox Faith ch.17 p.90

 

NTa6. Luke wrote Acts

 

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 2 ch.18 p.122 says that is in "the sacred book of Acts" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.122 Luke wrote Acts of the Apostles. ibid ch.22 p.124

Athanasius (356 A.D.) quotes Acts 1:1 "as Luke wrote". Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.1 p.223.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist:" Exposition of the Orthodox Faith ch.17 p.90

 

NTa7. Paul wrote Romans

 

Romans 1:1

 

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) (implied) book 3 ch.3 p.134 (implied) He says, "Paul’s fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." Then he says some dispute whether Paul wrote Hebrews or not. He also says in book 3 ch.25 p.155 that the letters of Paul are scripture. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.155.

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:2-4 as by Paul. On the Trinity book 7 ch.25 p.129

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) mentions Paul’s Letter to the Romans as part of the New Testament. It quotes all of Romans 1:1.

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommsen Catalogue) (ca.360-370 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) quotes Romans 11:36 as by Paul. On the Spirit ch.5 p.5

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions Romans 8:14 as by Paul written to the Romans Lecture 14.29 p.102

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:24-25 as by "Paul, who, filled with the Spirit of God." On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.16.101 p.218.

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) says Romans 1:1 is by Paul in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.4 p.105 and the Epistle to the Romans in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.9 p.117

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes Romans 2:4-5 as by the Apostle Paul. On Penitents ch.11.2 p.84

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) says Romans 1:1 is by Paul in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.4 p.105 and the Epistle to the Romans in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.9 p.117

Didymus the blind (398 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:1-4 as by Paul. Commentary on Zechariah 10 p.233-234

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:1-4 in "Paul’s Epistle to the Romans." de Principiis book 2 ch.4.2 p.276

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:4 as by Paul in Homilies on John homily 23 p.12

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) quotes Romans 9:3 as by Paul. On the Priesthood book 3 ch.7 p.48

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) paraphrases Romans 1:26,28 as by Paul. Commentary on Zechariah ch.11 p.380. He quotes part of Romans 1:18 as by the blessed Paul. Commentary on Hosea ch.5 p.61

 

NTa8. Paul wrote 1 Corinthians

 

1 Corinthians 1:1

 

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) (implied) book 3 ch.3 p.134 (implied) He says, "Paul’s fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." Then he says some dispute whether Paul wrote Hebrews or not. He also says in book 3 ch.25 p.155 that the letters of Paul are scripture. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.155.

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 11:23 by the blessed Paul in Lecture 22.1 p.151

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 11:16 as by Paul. Letter 1 ch.2.3 p.19

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 15:51,52 "the divine Apostle .. to the Corinthians" On the Making of Man ch32.6 p.412

Didymus the blind (398 A.D.) refers to 1 Corinthians as Paul to the Corinthians. Commentary on Zechariah 10 p.233

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 8:8 as by Paul. Memra 15 ch.6 p.143

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 3:2 as by Paul. The Panarion section 2 end of the Letter to Flora p.207

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) quotes part of 1 Corinthians 15:32 as by Paul. On the Statues homily 1 ch.20 p.339

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 1:24 as by Paul. de Principiis book 1 ch.2.1 p.246

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 14:15 as by Paul in de Principiis book 2 ch.2 p.287

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) quotes part of 1 Corinthians 15:10 as by Paul. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.10 p.127

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 1:4-7 as what "the Apostle Paul wrote to the Corinthians" Defense Against the Pelagians ch.21 p.144

Sozomon (370/380-425 A.D.) says 1 Corinthians 11:12 as by the Apostle Paul. Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 4 ch.29 p.324

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 10:17 as being by the Apostle Paul in The City of God book 17 ch.5 p.345

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) quotes one-fourth of 1 Corinthians 3:16; 4:16 as by Paul in the Institutes of John Cassian book 9.3 p.264

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) refers to 1 Corinthians 12:9 as by the Apostle Paul in Conference of the Abbot Piamun ch.13 p.485 as well as p.470

 

Among heretics

Mani/Manes (262-278 A.D.) "As Paul, too, has given these further testimonies, that" and quotes part of 2 Corinthians 3:6-7, 1 Corinthians 15:56. (Manes is speaking) Disputation with Manes ch.31 p.203

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 16:22 as by Paul. Commentary on Zechariah ch.14 p.394, and 1 Corinthians 10:11 as by Paul in Commentary on Jonah preface p.187

 

NTa9. Paul wrote 2 Corinthians

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) (implied) book 3 ch.3 p.134 (implied) He says, "Paul’s fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." Then he says some dispute whether Paul wrote Hebrews or not. He also says in book 3 ch.25 p.155 that the letters of Paul are scripture. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.155.

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (partial) quotes 2 Corinthians 13:4 as "to the Corinthians he [the blessed Apostle] writes" On the Trinity book 9 ch.3 p.159

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 13:3 as by Paul in Lecture 10.17 p.62

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 2:6-8 as by Paul in the Second Letter to the Corinthians. Letter 3 ch.18.1 p.60

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) alludes to 2 Corinthians 5:16 as by Paul in Against Eunomius book 6 ch.2 p.184. Also Paul to the Corinthians for 2 Corinthians 5:20 in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.14 p.128-129

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) refers to 2 Corinthians 5:9-10 as by the Apostle Paul. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.18 p.140

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 4:13 as by Paul. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.248

 

NTa10. Paul wrote Galatians

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) (implied) book 3 ch.3 p.134 (implied) He says, "Paul’s fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." Then he says some dispute whether Paul wrote Hebrews or not. He also says in book 3 ch.25 p.155 that the letters of Paul are scripture. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.155.

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes part of Galatians 4:4 as by Paul in Lecture 12.31 p.80

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes part of Galatians 5:13 as by the Apostle Paul. On Penitents ch.3.2 p.74

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) quotes part of Galatians 1:8-9 as by Paul in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.14 p.129

John Chrysostom (406 A.D.) quotes Galatians 5:19,20,21 as the words of Saint Paul. On the Priesthood 2.2 p.40

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) wrote commentaries on John, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Prosper of Aquitaine (425-465 A.D.) says Galatians 5:6 is by Paul

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) alludes to Galatians 3:22 as by Paul. Commentary on Jonah preface p.190

 

NTa11. Paul wrote Ephesians

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) (implied) book 3 ch.3 p.134 (implied) He says, "Paul’s fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." Then he says some dispute whether Paul wrote Hebrews or not. He also says in book 3 ch.25 p.155 that the letters of Paul are scripture. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.155.

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) mentions Paul’s Letter to the Ephesians as part of the New Testament. It quotes all of Ephesians 1:1.

The schismatic Lucifer of Cagliari (370/371 A.D.) refers to Ephesians 4:9; 5:9; 5:15

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.374 A.D.) refers to Ephesians 4:6

Titus of Bostra (before 378 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378 A.D.) refers to Ephesians 4:32

Ambrosiaster (after 384 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) (implied) quotes Ephesians 2:10 as by the Apostle in Lecture 2.1 p.8

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.)

Gregory of Elvira (after 392 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) alludes to Ephesians 3:18 as "Paul … people of Ephesus". Also, the Great Catechism ch.32 p.150

John Chrysostom (406 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 6:12 as the words of Saint Paul. On the Priesthood 2.2 p.40

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) wrote commentaries on John, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 6:12 as by Paul to the Ephesians. de Principiis book 3 ch.4 p.332

Prosper of Aquitaine (425-465 A.D.) (implied) quotes Ephesians 2:8f as by the Apostle.

 

NTa12. Paul wrote Philippians

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius (318-339/340 A.D.) quotes Philippians 2:6 in Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 5 ch.2 p.216. He quotes Philippians 2:6-8 as "Sacred Scriptures" in book 8 ch.10 p.330-331. He says that Paul referred to other Christians as "fellow laborers" in book 3 ch.4 p.136

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes Philippians 4:13 as by Paul. de Principiis book 3 ch.2.5 p.333

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) quotes Philippians 4:4 as by Paul in Homilies on Acts of the Apostles homily 16 p.104

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) wrote commentaries on John, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) alludes to Philippians 1:15,17 as being by the Apostle Paul in On Baptism, Against the Donatists ch.47 p.511

 

NTa13. Paul wrote Colossians

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) (implied) book 3 ch.3 p.134 (implied) He says, "Paul’s fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." Then he says some dispute whether Paul wrote Hebrews or not. He also says in book 3 ch.25 p.155 that the letters of Paul are scripture. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.155.

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) refers to Colossians 2:2-3 as by Paul. On the Trinity book 9 ch.62 p.177

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) mentions Paul’s Letter to the Colossians as part of the New Testament. It quotes Colossians 1:1-2a.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Colossians on p.19

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (implied) quotes Colossians 2:14-15 as by the apostle. On Baptism ch.4.1 p.90

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:16 as by Paul in Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.63-64

John Chrysostom 396 A.D. wrote down 12 sermons on Colossians, which we still have today. He said it was by Paul

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) wrote commentaries on John, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:15 as by Paul. de Principiis book 1 ch.5 p.247.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translation Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:15 was by Paul. de Principiis book 2 ch.6.1 p.281.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says Paul (On the Forgiveness of Sin, and Baptism) book 1 ch.43 p.31 (vol.5) wrote the books Romans, 1 Corinthians and 2 Corinthians (ch.44 p.32), Galatians (ch.45 p.32), Ephesians (ch.46 p.33), Colossians (ch.47 p.33), 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy (ch.48 p.33), Titus (ch.49 p.33), Epistle to the Hebrews (doubted by some) (ch.50 p.34)

The semi-Pelagian John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:16 as by Paul in Seven Books book 6.21 p.601

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Prosper of Aquitaine (425-465 A.D.) (implied) says Colossians 1:12 was by the Apostle.

Speculum (5th century) refers to Colossians 1:12

Cyril of Alexandria (444 A.D.)

Quodvultdeus (c.453 A.D.)

Varimadum (445/480 A.D.) refers to Colossians 1:12

Theodoret of Cyrus (bishop and historian) (423-458 A.D.)

 

Among heretics

The heretic Marcion according to Tertullian

The heretic Priscillian (-385 A.D.) refers to Colossians 2:13

Arian heretic Eunomius of Cyzicus (c.360-c.394 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:15-16 as by "the blessed Paul" Apologetic Letter ch.24 p.65

The heretic Pelagius (416-418 A.D.) refers to Colossians 3:4

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (428 A.D.)

 

NTa14. Paul wrote 1 Thessalonians

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

NTa15. Paul wrote 2 Thessalonians

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) (implied) book 3 ch.3 p.134 (implied) He says, "Paul’s fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." Then he says some dispute whether Paul wrote Hebrews or not. He also says in book 3 ch.25 p.155 that the letters of Paul are scripture. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.155.

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

 

NTa16. Paul wrote 1 Timothy

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) (implied) book 3 ch.3 p.134 (implied) He says, "Paul’s fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." Then he says some dispute whether Paul wrote Hebrews or not. He also says in book 3 ch.25 p.155 that the letters of Paul are scripture. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.155.

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) quotes 1 Timothy 3:7 as by "the blessed Paul". On the Priesthood book 2 ch.4 p.42

 

NTa17. Paul wrote a 2nd letter to Timothy

 

NTa18. Peter wrote 1 Peter

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 3 ch.3 p.133-135 discusses the books of the New Testament. He says 1 Peter is genuine. He says that Paul’s 14 letters are well-known, though the church in Rome doubted that Paul wrote Hebrews. He says that 2 Peter is disputed. The so-called Acts of Paul, [Shepherd of] Hermas, Acts of Peter, and Gospel of Peter and Preaching of Peter, and the Apocalypse are not genuine. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.123-145

Athanasius (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) lists Hebrews (by Paul), James, 1 and 2 Peter, 1, 2, 3, John, Jude as scripture.

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 3:22 as by Peter in Lecture 14:29 p.102

Didymus the blind (398 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 1:2 as by Peter. Commentary on Zechariah 13 p.307-308

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 1:9 as by Peter. de Principiis book 2 ch.3 p.287

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (440-461 A.D.) 1 Peter 1:2 by Peter Letter 28.3 p.42

 

NTa19. Jude wrote Jude

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

m Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 2 ch.23 p.128 says that James and Jude are said to have written the letters that bear their names, though this is disputed. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.128

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions Jude in the "Seven Catholic Epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude" in Lecture 4.36 p.28

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions the four gospels, 14 letters of Paul, James, Peter, John, Jude, Acts, Apocalypse of John, Wisdom of Solomon and Sirach (=Ecclesiasticus).

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

Augustine of Hippo quotes Jude 24 as being by Jude the apostle in On Rebuke and Grace ch.10 p.475 (vol.5). Also The City of God book 18 ch.38 p.383

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) quotes Jude 5 as by the Apostle in Seven Books book 5.9 p.586

 

NTa20. John wrote 1 John

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) (partial) quotes 1 John 2:22 as by the Apostle in Lecture 10.14 p.61

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes 1 John 5:16 (sins leading to death) as by John. On Penitents ch.4.3 p.75

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) says "John in one of his Catholic Epistles" and quotes 1 John 2:1. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.14 p.128

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes 1 John 1:5 as John writes in his Epistle. de Principiis book 1 ch.1.1 p.242

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Apostle John and refers to 1 John 4:7 in The City of God book 17 ch.5 p.342

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) quotes 1 John 1:1-2 as by the Apostle John in Seven Books book 5.6 p.584

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (440-461 A.D.) says 1 John 4:2,3 is by the evangelist John Letter 28.3 p.42. Also 1 John 1:7 by the apostle John in Letter 28.3 p.42

Prosper of Aquitaine (425-465 A.D.) refers to 1 John 4:10 as by John the Apostle

 

God’s TranscendEnce

 

G1. There is only One True God

 

Deuteronomy 6:4,35-39; 2 Samuel 7:22; Mark 12:29-33; Isaiah 43:10-12; 44:6-8,24; 45:5-14; 46:9; Matthew 19:17; Mark 10;18; 12:29,32; John 17:3; 1 Timothy 1:17; 6:15-16; James 2:19

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament, including all of Deuteronomy, and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 19:17; Mark 10:18; 12:29,32; John 17:3

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 19:17; Mark 10:18; 12:29,32; John 17:3

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

While Mormonism has taught that there are many gods over many planets, both the Bible and the early church teach there is only one true God.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "One God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things…"

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (implied) says that if any man says that the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit are three Gods; let him be anathema. On the Councils ch.38 Canon 22 of the Council of Sirmium p.15.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. One God, Father Almighty. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , One God, Father Almighty, made all things, Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that God is the One and Only. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.3 (12) p.69

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says there are not three gods but a Trinity in On Not Three Gods p.336

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that God is one. Lecture 4 ch.4 p.20; Lecture 7 ch.1 p.74

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions only one God in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 71 p.432.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ is God, and very God, and with the Father "the One and only God" On the Trinity book 1 ch.6 p.21

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (c.451 A.D.) says there are not two Gods, not tow sons … but one. Bazaar ofHEracleides book 1 part 1 ch.53.

Patrick of Ireland (420-461 A.D.) "[T]here is no other God, nor has there been heretofore, nor will there be hereafter, except God the Father unbegotten, without beginning, from whom is all beginning, upholding all things, as we say, and his Son Jesus Christ, whom we likewise to confess to have always been with the Father--before the world’s beginning . . . Jesus Christ is the Lord and God in whom we believe . . . and who has poured out on us abundantly the Holy Spirit . . . whom we confess and adore as one God in the Trinity of the Sacred Name" Confession of St. Patrick 4

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) "still, in the name of, and with the help of, the Holy Trinity, which is the one, true, and good God, I may say those things in which, at least for the most part, the Catholic faith may stand forth without any of the fog of error." To Peter on the Faith ch.2 p.61

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) says there is One God, who is the first cause of all things and unchangeable. Candidus’ First Letter ch.1,2 p.54

Creed of Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe in One God, the Father Almighty, of Whom are all things…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

 

G2. God is almighty (omnipotent)

 

Job 42:2; Luke 1:37; Romans 9:29; Revelation 11:17

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 1:37

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 1:37

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "One God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things…"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.8 p.82 mentions God Almighty

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) mentions God Almighty. On the Trinity book 1 ch.37 p.50

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Athanasius (328 A.D.) says God is Almighty. Statement of Faith p.84.

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says God is Almighty. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.16.23 p.361

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) (351 A.D.) One God, Father Almighty. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) "One God, Father Almighty, made all things," Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) speaks of the all-powerful Father. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.5 (32) p.83

Creed of Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe in One God, the Father Almighty, of Whom are all things…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.7 p.439 "For the Almighty God Himself will raise us up through our Lord Jesus Christ,…"

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says the Father is Almighty. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.16 p.54

Ambrose of Milan (c.384 A.D.) "O Almighty Lord God of Israel," On the Mysteries ch.9 no.43 p.336

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) calls God the Almighty. de Principiis book 1 ch.2.5 p.247; book 1 ch.2.10 p.249

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) speaks of "Almighty God" in Defense Against the Pelagians ch.26 p.152 and ch.27 p.153

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "God is all-powerful … able to effect everything." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.16 p.14; book 1 ch.1.21 p.17

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) mentions the Omnipotence of God. Sermon 68.1 p.180

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) says that God is omnipotent. To Peter on the Faith ch.25 p.75

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) refers to the Lord Almighty. Commentary on Malachi ch.3 p.419

 

G3. God is sovereign / God’s sovereignty

 

Genesis 15:2,8; Psalm 68:20; Daniel 4:17,25,32; 5:21; 7:14; 2 Peter 2:1; Jude 4; many others

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says that Christ is sovereign of all. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.17 p.357

Rufinus (c.410 A.D.) translation Origen (225-254 A.D.) "to admit that the architect of this world is the Son of God, and that His Father is the first God and Sovereign Ruler over all things." Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.47 p.595

 

G4. God is holy, good, or pure

 

Habakkuk 1:13; Hebrews 12:10; (implied) John 10:11

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) (implied) John 10:11

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) (implied) John 10:11

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (335 A.D.) discusses the Father’s lovingkindness and goodness. Easter Letter 9 ch.10 p.527

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) wrote that when the Arians point to Isaiah 65:16; Mark 10:18; 1 Timothy 6:15, leaving no truth, goodness, or power to the Son.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) "It is easy, however, to show that not even the word ‘one’ separates the Father from the Son. … For He says, ‘I and the Father are one.’ [John 10:30] If, then, the good is one, and a particular kind of unity is contemplated in the Father and the Son, it follows that the Word, in predicating goodness of ‘one,’ claimed under the term ‘one’ the title of ‘good’ also for Himself, Who is one with the Father, and not severed from oneness of nature." Against Eunomius book 11 ch.2 p.232-233 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.5.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) says the world was created by "This just and good God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ" de Principiis Preface ch.4 p.240

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says God has no change at all. The City of God book 11 ch.6 p.208

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ is God and the Son of God is "unchangeably good". On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.175

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God is good and just and wise and mighty. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.86 p.78-79

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) "still, in the name of, and with the help of, the Holy Trinity, which is the one, true, and good God, I may say those things in which, at least for the most part, the Catholic faith may stand forth without any of the fog of error." To Peter on the Faith ch.2 p.61

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) says that God is holy and good. To Peter on the Faith ch.6 p.64

 

G5. God does not speak lies / is Truth

 

Numbers 23:19; 1 Samuel 15:24; John 7:28; 14:6; Titus 1:2; Hebrews 6:18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 7:28; 14:6

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 7:28; 14:6

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (347 A.D.) quotes Hebrews 6:18 that it is impossible for God to lie. Easter Letter 19 ch.3 p.546

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) says that God is the Father of Truth. Nativity Hymns hymn 1 p.273

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that God cannot lie in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.4 p.104

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) de Principiis book 1 ch.2.7 p.248

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "as he [the apostle] does in the Epistle to the Hebrews; where he says, ‘Taht by two immutable things in which it was impossible for God to lie, we may have a strong encouragement.’" vol.13 Homilies on Ephesians homily 2 verse 14 p.56

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) (partial) God knows all truth vol.14 Commentary on John homily 42 p.152

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that God is Almighty, but He cannot die, be deceived, lie, or deny Himself. On the Creed ch.2 p.371

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says God is not the author or creator of a lie. The City of God book 14 ch.4 p.264

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) says that God is truth and cannot lie. Letter 1 to Optatus ch.20 p.289

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (uncertain date) homily 2 ch.43 p.237 says that God does not lie.

 

G6. God is a Father

 

First person Isaiah 63:16 (twice); 64:8

2 Samuel 7:14; 1 Chronicles 17:11-14; 22:10; 28:6; Psalm 2:7; Proverbs 3:12; 30:4f; Isaiah 9:6; Jeremiah 3:4; 3:19; 31:9; Hosea 11:1; Malachi 1:6; 2:10; others

Matthew 26:39,42; Luke 9:21-22; Tt 1:4; Hebrews 12:9, 1 Peter 1:2,17; others

(implied) Hebrews 12:6

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 9:21-22

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 9:21-22

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "One God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things… one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father…"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.83 says that God is a Father.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says there is no question that the Father is greater than Jesus. Of the Synods ch.8 p.6. See also Of the Synods ch.15 p.8 and ch.20 p.9.

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) mentions the Father and the Son. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.1 p.87

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. One God, Father Almighty. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , One God, Father Almighty, made all things, Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) speaks of the all-powerful Father. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.5 (32) p.83

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that God is the Father of Truth. Nativity Hymns hymn 1 p.273

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) "For our Savior Himself entreated His Father for those who had sinned, as it is written in the Gospel:" and then he quotes Luke 23:34 ch.16 p.402

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.6 p.439 "believing in the one and the only true God and Father, through Jesus Christ, the great High Priest, and Redeemer of our souls, and rewarder of our sufferings."

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) speaks of God the Father in many places. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.14 p.31; book 1 ch.23 p.63. Also Against Eunomius book 2 ch.8 p.113

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that God is a Father. (First Catechetical Lecture 6 ch.1 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.33)

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) discusses God the Father, the unbegotten, and the begotten being of the same essence. On the Son ch.11 p.305

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says Jesus it the image of the Father. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.48 p.208

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) God is a Father. Memra 4 ch.1 p.24

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Excerpts "The Father gives to the Son, and the Son, who is not inferior to the Father, receives from the Father, particularly in two ways. First, that we might be led to one union with the Deity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, in contradistinction to a multitude of gods." Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions the father, and Holy Ghost along with Jesus our Lord. Commentary on Philippians Introductory discourse p.183

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "confessing, indeed, that the Godhead of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, is all one, while we add thereunto a Trinity of Persons." On the Christian Priesthood book 4 ch.4 p.66

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) quotes John 14:22. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 p.211

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are one. Memoir to Augustine on the Error of the Priscillianists and Origenists ch.2 p.171

Orosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) "Son of God" and the Father. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151-152

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Peter Chrysologus of Ravenna (406-450 A.D.) "‘Go’, he [Jesus] says, ‘and baptize all nations in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit’ [Matthew 28:19] in remission of sins. If in the remission of sins the Trinity is united in showing mercy, how is the whole Trinity not one in will in the Passion of the Son?" Sermon 72A ch.4 p.4-5

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus was born of God the Father. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.295

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God is Father and God is Son and God is Holy Spirit. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.309

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) The Father is God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.47 p.38

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Father, Son, and Spirit are distinct. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71 p.64-65

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says God is a Father. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.53

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) discusses the Father and only-begotten Son. Sermon 68.1 p.180

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) mentions that God is a Father. To Peter on the Faith ch.10 p.66

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost in a consubstantial Trinity, one Godhead to be worshipped in three substances. The Capitula of the Council canon 1 p.312

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) speaks of Christ as the "only offspring from the Godhead of the Father" Poem on Easter p.329

 

Among heretics

The First Form of the Gospel of Thomas (shorter Greek version) ch.19 p.398 has Jesus saying "I must be about my Father’s business" It concludes with "And Jesus advanced in wisdom, and stature, and grace. To whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen."

The Second Form of the Gospel of Thomas (longer Greek version) ch.11 p.399 says that Mary "rejoiced and glorified Him [Jesus], with the Father and the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and forevermore. Amen."

The Latin Form of the Gospel of Thomas ch.15 p.404 mentions "God the Father Almighty". It ends with "He is the Son of God throughout all the world. To Him is due all glory and honour for ever, who lives and reigns God through all ages of ages. Amen."

Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Saviour p.405 begins with "In the name of the Father, and the son, and the Holy Spirit, one God."

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Refers to God the Father. Commentary on Malachi ch.3 p.416

 

There are more besides these too among heretics.

 

G7. The Trinity: one God in three ‘Persons’

 

(partial) Matthew 28:19

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) (partial) Matthew 28:19

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) (partial) Matthew 28:19

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) (partial) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Juvencus (329 A.D.)"It is not too great toil to praise the Trinity." Englynion book 1

The Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) (implied) extensively discusses the Trinity, without using the name. Athanasius’ On the Councils (=de Synodis) part 1 ch.26 p.462-464

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) (partial)

Athanasius (356-360 A.D.) refers to the Holy Trinity in Letter to the Church of Antioch ch.3 p.484

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) (partial) mentions God the Father, and the Son Jesus Christ or Word and the Holy Spirit. (Does not use the word Trinity though.) Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.5 (32) p.83

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) wrote an entire work, of twelve books, called On the Trinity.

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 3 no.14 p.173

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) "We neither separate the Holy Trinity, like some; nor do we as Sebellius work confusion." Catechetical Letters Lecture 16 ch.4 p.116

Damasus I of Rome (386-389 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) mentions the "Trinity" in On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.4.33 p.206

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) mentions the Trinity twice and discusses it. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.21 p.309

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (partial) Baptize in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Letter 3 ch.11.1 p.51

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "the one deity of the Trinity is indicated ... and in the second place, that by the incarnation of the deity He assumed the gift of dignity, power, and perfection which have been given by the Father to the Son for the one spiritual union of the deity." Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) (implied) discusses in detail about the distinctness in the Trinity in de Principiis book 1 ch.7 p.254-255

Chromatius of Aquileia (407 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "confessing, indeed, that the Godhead of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, is all one, while we add thereunto a Trinity of Persons." On the Christian Priesthood book 4 ch.4 p.66

Asterius of Amasea (c.410) "and the mystery of the Trinity was adequately bodied forth in the tent of this old man when he entertained the three angels as wayfaring men." The Rich Man and Lazarus ch.35

Niceta of Remesianus (366-415 A.D.) Instructions for Candidates for Baptism

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) says the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are one. Memoir to Augustine on the Error of the Priscillianists and Origenists ch.2 p.171

Jerome (373-420 A.D.)

Palladius (419-420 A.D.) says that three particular demons denied the mystery of the Holy Trinity. [Both Greek and Coptic] Lausiac History 38.11 in Four Desert Fathers. (Chapter: Evagrius Debates Three Demons) p.179

Augustine of Hippo (388-8/28/430 A.D.) wrote an entire work, On the Holy Trinity.

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity in a number of places, including Seven Books of John Cassian book 2 ch.2 p.557

Macarius the Great (392-423/429 A.D.)

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) "He [the heretic Photinus] denies the completeness of the Trinity, and does not believe that there is any Person of God the Word, or any Person of the Holy Ghost. Christ he affirms to be a mere man, whose original was from Mary. Hence he insists with the utmost obstinacy that we are to render worship only to the Person of God the Father, and that we are to honour Christ as man only. This is the doctrine of Photinus." A Commonitory ch.12 p.139

Socrates of Constantinople (400-439 A.D.) in discussing Didymus the blind says, "Not only this, but he was so well acquainted with the Divine oracles contained in the Old and New Testaments that he composed several treatises in exposition of them, besdies three books on the Trinity." Ecclesiastical History book 4 ch.25 p.110

Sechnall/Seachnall of Ireland (439-447/448 A.D.) "Hymns, with Revelation and the Psalms of God [St. Patrick] sings, and does expound the same for the edifying of God’s people. This law he holds in the Trinity of the Sacred Name and teaches one Being in three Persons" Hymn in Praise of St. Patrick 22.

Peter Chrysologus of Ravenna (406-450 A.D.) "If in the remission of sins the Trinity is united in showing mercy, how is the whole Trinity not one in will in the Passion of the Son?" Sermon 72A ch.4 p.4-5

Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) (implied because affirmed the Council of Nicea)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) spoke of the incarnation and the Trinity. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.34 p.25

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Father, Son, and Spirit are distinct. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.71 p.64-65. He also mentions the Trinity in The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.15.

Theodoret of Cyrus (bishop & historian) (423-458 A.D.) "It [the Holy Spirit] together with the Father and the Son in the one faith fothe Holy Trinity, because the Godhead ofthe Holy Trinity is one." Ecclesiastical History book 4 ch.3 p.109

Patrick of Ireland (420-461 A.D.) "[T]here is no other God, nor has there been heretofore, nor will there be hereafter, except God the Father unbegotten, without beginning, from whom is all beginning, upholding all things, as we say, and his Son Jesus Christ, whom we likewise to confess to have always been with the Father--before the world’s beginning . . . Jesus Christ is the Lord and God in whom we believe . . . and who has poured out on us abundantly the Holy Spirit . . . whom we confess and adore as one God in the Trinity of the Sacred Name" Confession of St. Patrick 4

Patrick of Ireland (420-461 A.D.) "I bind to myself to day the strong power of an invocation of the Trinity--the faith of the Trinity in Unity, the Creator of the universe" The Breastplate of St. Patrick 1

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says the divine Trinity is to be honored and worshipped in Letter 37 p.50

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says that the Trinity has no division. Sermon 68.1 p.180

What has been called the Athanasian Creed (474-484 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) "still, in the name of, and with the help of, the Holy Trinity, which is the one, true, and good God, I may say those things in which, at least for the most part, the Catholic faith may stand forth without any of the fog of error." To Peter on the Faith ch.2 p.61

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) wrote an entire work, entitled The Trinity. "See, in short you have it that the Father is one, the Son another, and the Holy Spirit another; in person, each is other, but in nature they are not other. In this regard he [Christ] says, ‘The Father and I, we are one’ [John 10:30]. He teaches us that ‘one’ refers to their nature and ‘we are’ to their persons. In like manner it is said, ‘There are three who bear witness in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Spirit, and these three are one’ [1John 5:7]. Let Sabellius hear ‘we are,’ let him hear ‘three,’ and let him believe that there are three Persons" The Trinity book 4 ch.1

Council of Constantinople II (about 153 bishops present) (551/553 A.D.) "In anyone shall not confess that the nature or essence of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is one, as also the force and the power; [if anyone does not confess] a consubstantial Trinity, one Godhead to be worshipped in three subsistences or Persons: let him be anathema. For there is but one God even the Father of whom are all things, and one Lord Jesus Christ..." Capitula of the Council ch.1 p.313

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost in a consubstantial Trinity, one Godhead to be worshipped in three substances. The Capitula of the Council canon 1 p.312

Vigilius’ letter to Constantinople II Council (551/553 A.D.) (implied because affirmed the Nicene Creed)

 

Among heretics

X Karl Barth (1919) denied the Trinity according to Christian News Nov. 23, 2015 p.14.

 

G8. God knows all / even the secret things

 

Psalm 44:21; 139; John 21:17; 1 Corinthians 14:25

Jeremiah 23:24 "‘Can anyone hide in the secret places so that I cannot see him?’ declares the LORD."

(partial) Isaiah 44:7

(partial) Luke 12:6

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 21:17

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 21:17

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions the all-seeing God. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2 p.84

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.31 p.204 "For they know none of those things which are not yet in existence; but God only is He who knoweth all things before their birth"

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "And this, I think, was the opinion of the Apostle Paul himself, when he said, "Their thoughts mutually accusing or excusing them in the day when God will judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to my Gospel." de Principiis book 2 ch.10.4 p.295

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that God knows every future thing, otherwise He would not be God. The City of God book 5 ch.9 p.92

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (uncertain date) homily 14 ch.13 p.315 says that God knows all things. It mentions the all-seeing God in homily 4 ch.14 p.254 and homily 8 ch.19 p.274.

 

G9. God is everywhere

 

Psalm 139

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) says that God ‘Is universally present, and yet do not say that He is any of those things…" Against Eunomius book 6 ch.3 p.186

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Wisdom 1:7 "For the Spirit of the Lord filled the whole world." Of the Holy Spirit book 1 ch.7.87 p.104

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the "omnipresent power" in The City of God book 7 ch.30 p.140

 

G10. God does not change / is unchangeable

 

Malachi 3:6a

(partial) James 1:17

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says the God does not change. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.10.36 p.327

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) "as Paul in another place calls him ‘first-born of all creation’ (Colossians 1:15). But by calling him First-born, He shows that He is not a Creature, but Offspring of the Father. For it would be inconsistent with his deity for Him to be called a creature. For all things were created by the Father through the Son, but the Son alone was eternally begotten from the Father, whence God the Word is ‘first-born of all creation,’ unchangeable from unchangeable. However, the body which He wore for our sakes is a creature." Statement of Faith ch.3 p.85

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says the Father and Son are unchangeable. Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.17 p.232

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that God is unchangeable. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.61

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that God is not changed. The City of God book 20 ch.26 p.447. See also On Christian Doctrine ch.7.7 p.524

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Says that God is unchangeable. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.37

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "God the Word is unchangeable and immortal and He is continuously that where He is in the eternity of the Father. … there was not when he was not." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.82

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) says there is One God, who is the first cause of all things and unchangeable. Candidus’ First Letter ch.1,2 p.54

 

G11. Majesty or glory of God

 

Psalm 19:1; Zechariah 2:5; Micah 5:4

Matthew 24:30; Mark 13:26; Luke 2:9; 21:27; John 1:14; 2:14; 7:18; 12:28; 17:5; Romans 1:23; 3:7,23; 11:36; 15:7; 16:27; 1 Corinthians 10:31; 2 Corinthians 1:20; 4:6; 4:15; 8:19; Galatians 1:5; Ephesians 3:21; Philippians 4:19; Colossians 1:17; 2 Thessalonians 1:9; Titus 2:13; Hebrews 1:3; 1 Peter 4:13,14; 2 Peter 1:17

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) mentions the eternal Majesty. Of the Holy Spirit book 1 ch.8.97 p.106

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) mentions the "divine majesty" in On the Christian Faith book 5 ch.5.66 p.293

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) speaks of the "infinite majesty" of God in Commentary on John homily 3 (vol.14) p.13. See also Homilies on John homily 27 p.95

 

G12. God is a jealous God

 

Exodus 20:5; 34:14; Deuteronomy 4:24; 5:9; 6:15; Joshua 24:19; Nahum 1:2; Zechariah 8:1; 1 Corinthians 10:22

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

X Athanasius (331 A.D.) says we should not ascribe jealousy to God. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.29 p.363

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) "And hath God jealousy? Yea the jealousy not of passion, but of love, and earnest zeal." Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

 

After Ephesus 431 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.21 p.93 quotes Deuteronomy 32:21.

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) God is a jealous God. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.252

 

G13. God is uncreated

 

Genesis 1:1 "In the beginning, God..."

John 1:1 (In the beginning was the word..."

 

(implied) God alone Isaiah 44:8,24

(implied) John 1:3; Colossians 1:16

(implied) Titus 1:2 (before the beginning of time)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says God is unoriginate. Opinions of Dionysius ch.16 p.182

 

G14. God is Light

 

Isaiah 49:6; 60:19,20; John 1:4-9; John 8:12; 2 Corinthians 4:6; 1 John 1:5

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.2 p.82 mentions the Light that was before the world (Christ).

Athanasius (328 A.D.) gives an analogy of the Father and the Son as brightness coming from light. Statement of Faith ch.4 p.85. See also On Luke 10:22 ch.4 p.89

 

G15. God of Christ

 

Ephesians 1:3, 17; 1 Peter 1:3; Hebrews 1:9

Revelation 1:6 (God of Jesus)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) (partial) quotes Ephesians 1:3-5. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.75 p.189

 

G16. The Most High God

 

(El Elyon in Hebrew)

Genesis 14:18,19,20,22; Psalm 9:17; 57:2; 78:56; 91:1; Daniel 3:26; 4:17,24,32,34; 5:18,21; 7:18,22,25,27; Hosea 7:16; 11:7

Mark 5:7; Luke 1:32,35,76; 6:35; 8:28; Acts 7:48

Most high: Numbers 24:16; Deuteronomy 32:8; 2 Samuel 22:14; Psalm 9:2; 21:7; 46:4; 50:14; 56:2; 73:11; 77:10; 78:17; 82:6; 83:18; 91:9; 92:1,8; Lam 3:35,38

Lord Most High Psalm 7:17; 47:2

God most High: Psalm 57:2

(implied) Isaiah 40:18,25

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) in his hymn has Mary calling Jesus "Son of the Most High" Hymns on the Nativity hymn 4 p.235

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) (implied) discusses the end times, Gabriel’s message, the fourth beast will speak blasphemous words against the Most High. In ch.14 he refers to 2 Thessalonians 2:9 as by Paul. These false signs by Satan and the AntiChrist will abhor idols and be seated in the Temple of God. Catechetical Lectures Lecture 15 ch.13-15 p.108

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) See also Commentary on the Song of Songs prologue p.44

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) talks about the Most High. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.63

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) mentions God as the Most High. To Peter on the Faith ch.17 p.70

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew ch.3 p.370 "told in the presence of the Most High; and to you will God give such"

 

G17. The Godhead

 

Acts 17:29; Romans 1:20; Colossians 2:9

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions the Godhead Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29 p.424. See also ibid. discourse 1 ch.12 no.50 p.336

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) wrote about the Godhead. On the Trinity book 5 ch.18 p.77. See also On The Trinity book 8 ch.42 p.149.

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) mentions Jesus’ Godhead. Hymns on the Nativity hymn 3 p.236. See also Nisibine Hymns hymn 21 no.11 p.192

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) talks about Jesus and the Godhead. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.1 p.183. See also Against Eunomius book 7 ch. 1 p.194.

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) discusses God’s power and Godhead are eternal. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.10.62 p.211

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) distinguishes the true Father, Son and Spirit in the Godhead, vs. the confusion of the Sabellians or the division of Arius. Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.12 p.133. See also Of the Holy Spirit book 1 ch.8.95 p.106. Ambrose frequently uses the word "Godhead".

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions the Godhead in many places, including Oration on the Holy Light ch.11 p.355 and Fourth Theological Oration ch. 5 p.311.

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) "This is the wish of our schoolmaster the law, of the prophets who intervened between Christ and the law, of Christ who is the fulfiller and end of the spiritual law; of the emptied Godhead, of the assumed flesh, of the novel union between God and man," In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.23 p.209

Council of Constantinople II (381 A.D.) canon 5 p.181 "the unity of the Godhead of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. The Synodical Letter of 382 A.D. also mentions the Godhead on p.189.

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Excerpts "For in the transfiguration His [the Son’s] face, even in the flesh, since His deity was still present, shone like the sun, that is, the flesh which came from Mary and from our human race was transfigured to heavenly glory, so that it acquired, in addition to its own natural powers, the glory, honor, and perfection of the Godhead, the flesh receiving the heavenly glory here in communion with the divine Logos, which it did not have from the beginning." Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "confessing, indeed, that the Godhead of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, is all one, while we add thereunto a Trinity of Persons." On the Christian Priesthood book 4 ch.4 p.66

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) "contemplation of the Godhead with pure and spiritual love." Commentary on the Song of Songs Prologue p.44

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Constantinople II (about 153 bishops present) (551/553 A.D.) "In anyone shall not confess that the nature or essence of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is one, as also the force and the power; [if anyone does not confess] a consubstantial Trinity, one Godhead to be worshipped in three subsistences or Persons: let him be anathema. For there is but one God even the Father of whom are all things, and one Lord Jesus Christ..." Capitula of the Council ch.1 p.313

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) speaks of Christ as the "only offspring from the Godhead of the Father" Poem on Easter p.329

 

G18. Living God

 

Deuteronomy 5:26; Joshua 3:10; 1 Samuel 17:26,33; 2 Kings 19:4,16; Psalm 42:2; 84:2; Isaiah 37:4,17; Jeremiah 10:10; 23:36; Daniel 6:20,26; Hosea 1:10

Matthew 16:26; 26:63; John 6:69; Acts 14:15; Romans 9:26; 2 Corinthians 3:3; 6:16; 1 Thessalonians 1:9; 3:15; 4:10; 6:27; Hebrews 3:22; 9:14; 10:31; 12:22; Revelation 7:2

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew ch.39 p.382 (unknown date) "the people the great things of the living God"

 

G19. God is invisible

 

Colossians 1:15; 1 Timothy 1:17

(implied) Hebrews 11:27

(partial) Romans 1:20

1 John 4:12

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.1-3 p.82 says that God is invisible.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) discusses the invisibility of God. Of the Synods ch.12,15 p.7

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) says "The Son is the Image of the invisible God." Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.12 p.132. See also On the Christian Faith (378-381 A.D.) book 1 ch.7.48 p.208

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (225-254 A.D.) says that we should not think that God [the Father] is visible. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.12 p.219

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says that God is invisible. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.55

 

G20. God is inscrutable/unsearchable

 

Job 5:9; Psalm 145:3; Romans 11:33

(implied, unsearchable riches of Christ) Ephesians 3:8

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 40:12 as by Isaiah. Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.9.90 p.126.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says that God is incomprehensible. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.55

 

After Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

Anastasius Bibliothecarius (858-878 A.D.) freely translating Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) "David also, full of prophetic inspiration, when he had heard the words of the deceitful youth, although it was by the inscrutable and just judgment of God, yet acted very differently from what the true nature of the case required." Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria p.268

 

G21. God had no beginning

 

 

G22. God is incorruptible

 

Romans 1:23; 1 Timothy 1:17 (incorruptible aphthartou)

2 Timothy 1:10 (incorruption aphtharsian)

(implied) Acts 2:27,31

(partial) 1 Corinthians 15:42,50,53,54; 1 Peter 1:4,23

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (356-397 A.D.) "and yet it is plain to every one who has given any attention to the uses of words, that the word incorruption denotes by the privative particle that neither corruption nor birth appertains to God: just as many other words of like formation denote the absence of what is not inherent rather than the presence of what is; e.g. harmless, painless, guileless, undisturbed, passionless, sleepless, undiseased, impassible, unblamable, and the like. For all these terms are truly applicable to God,…" Against Eunomius book 2 p.264. See also Answer to Eunomius Second Book p.263.

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.)

 

G23. God is eternal

 

1 Timothy 1:17

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "And not only so, but because the nature of Father, and Son, and Holy Spirit, whose intellectual light alone all created things have a share, is incorruptible and eternal,..." de Principiis [Latin] book 4 ch.36 p.381

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "God the Word is unchangeable and immortal and He is continuously that where He is in the eternity of the Father. … there was not when he was not." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.82

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (implied) "What after all is the nature in this natural union which you predicate? Is it that of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, an impassible nature, immortal, eternal, and without needs? Of is it [a nature] mortal and passible and with needs, which came into being yesterday and to-day and which belongs neither to men nor to God nor to any other nature, but is mixed from two natures for the completion fo one nature? Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.46

 

G24. God is the Ancient of Days

 

Daniel 7:22

Isaiah 43:13 (partial) "Yes, and from ancient days I am he."

 

G25. God is Spirit

 

John 4:24a

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) quotes John 4:24a. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.15 p.182

Athanasius (331 A.D.) Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.41 p.370

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes all of John 4:24. de Principiis book 1 ch.1 p.242.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Gregory Thaumaturgus (?) (author unknown but could be Gregory Thaumaturgus) quotes John 4:24 in A Sectional Confession of Faith ch.10 p.43.

 

G26. God / Jesus is immortal

 

1 Timothy 6:16 (immortality athanasian);

... Romans 1:23; 1 Timothy 1:17 and 2 Timothy are actually incorruptible.

 

Among heretics

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "God the Word is unchangeable and immortal and He is continuously that where He is in the eternity of the Father. … there was not when he was not." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.82

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (implied) "What after all is the nature in this natural union which you predicate? Is it that of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, an impassible nature, immortal, eternal, and without needs? Of is it [a nature] mortal and passible and with needs, which came into being yesterday and to-day and which belongs neither to men nor to God nor to any other nature, but is mixed from two natures for the completion fo one nature? Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.46

 

G27. God / Jesus before birth was incorporeal

 

(partial, Implied) John 1:14 The Word became flesh

(partial) John 3:8 Holy Spirit is like the wind

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (partial) "God the Word is unchangeable and immortal and He is continuously that where He is in the eternity of the Father. … there was not when he was not." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.82

 

G28. God’s Holy Name

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "(such) glorious light has He promised to give to them that understand and confess His holy name, and bear witness." [Daniel 12:3]

 

G29. Sun / beam / ray analogy of the Trinity

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (328 A.D.) gives an analogy of the Father and the Son as brightness coming from light. Statement of Faith ch.4 p.85 and On Luke 10:22 ch.4 p.89. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (331 A.D.) discourse 2 ch.33 p.366

 

G30. God is all-seeing

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions the all-seeing God. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2 p.84

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

John Wesley (1831) "There is no such thing as either foreknowledge or afterknowledge in God. All time, or rather all eternity (for time is only a small fragment of eternity which is allotted to the children of men), being present to God at once, He does not know one thing before another, or one thing after another; but sees all things in one point of view, from everlasting to everlasting. As all time, with every thing that exists therein, is present with Him at once, so he sees as once whatever was, is or will be to the end of time." Sermons on Several Occasions, 1831, p.39.

 

G31. Genesis 1:27 refers to the Father & Son

 

Genesis 1:27

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 section 1 p.441 "the divine Scripture testifies that God said to Christ, His only-begotten, ‘Let us make man after our image, and after our likeness. And God made man: after the image of God made He him; male and female made He them.’"

G32. The Fragrance of Heaven / God / Christ / the Holy Spirit

 

2 Corinthians 2:15-16 (implied) (we are the aroma of Christ)

 

G33. God is above all

 

G34. God is a consuming fire

 

Deuteronomy 4:24; Deuteronomy 9:3; Hebrews 12:29

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (332 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 4:24/Hebrews 12:29 in Paschal Letter 4 ch.3 p.514

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says God is a consuming fire. Festal Letter 3 ch.3 p.514

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) says that God is a consuming fire. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 2 ch.2 p.112

 

G35. God or His power is incomparable

 

G36. God is blessed

 

G37. God/The Father is perfect

 

 

God’s IMMINENCE

 

Gi1. God is worthy

 

2 Samuel 22:4; 1 Chronicles 16:25; Psalm 18:3; 48:1; 96:4; 145:3; Hebrews 3:3; Revelation 4:11; 5:9,12

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325 A.D. to 431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "For the goodness of God, as is worthy of Him, incites and attracts all to that blissful end, where all pain, and sadness, and sorrow fall away and disappear." de Principiis book 1 ch.8.3 p.266

 

Gi2. God needs nothing from us

 

Acts 17:25

Psalm 50:9-13 (implied)

 

Gi3. God is just / not unjust

 

Deuteronomy 32:4; 2 Chronicles 12:6; Job 36:3; Psalm 9:6; 33:5; 45:6; 99:4; 101:1; 140:12; 29:26; Isaiah 5:16; 30:18; 42:4; 61:8; Jeremiah 10:24; 30:11; 48:28; Ezekiel 33:19-20

Matthew 12:18; Luke 11:42; 18:7-8; Romans 3:25-26; 2 Thessalonians 1:6; 1 John 1:9; Revelation 15:3; 16:5,7; 19:2,11

partial: Malachi 2:17

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325 A.D. to 431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "For what it behooves every one who maintains the truth of what is recorded in Scripture, and who desires to show that the God of the law and the prophets is just, to render a reason for all these things, and to show how there is in them nothing at all derogatory to the justice of God," de Principiis [Latin] book 3 ch.9 p.309

 

Gi4. God will judge/reward people’s secrets / secret things

 

(Only mentioning that God knows secrets is not counted here)

 

Romans 2:16

1 Corinthians 14:25

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "And this, I think, was the opinion of the Apostle Paul himself, when he said, "Their thoughts mutually accusing or excusing them in the day when God will judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to my Gospel." [Latin] de Principiis book 2 ch.10.4 p.295

 

Gi5. God punishes

 

Genesis 3:14-19; 4:13; 15:14; Exodus 32:34; Leviticus 18:25; 26:18,28; Deuteronomy 22:18; 1 Samuel 15:2; 2 Samuel 7:14; Job 21:19; 37:13; Psalm 59:5; 89:32; 94:10; Isaiah 10:12; 13:11; 24:21; 26:21; 27:1; Jeremiah 5:9; 29; 6:15; 9:9,25; 11:22; 14:10; 21:14; 23:34; 27:8; Ezekiel 5:8-10; Zechariah 10:3;

(implied) Zephaniah 3:15

Matthew 25:36; Acts 7:7; 2 Corinthians 10:6; 1 Thessalonians 4:6; 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9; Hebrews 2:2; 4:18; 10:29; 12:6; Jude 7; Revelation 17:1

 

punish Babylon Jeremiah 25:12

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.)

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) mention retribution at the hand of [God’s] angel. Commentary on Micah ch.5 p.230

 

Gi6. God is not mocked

 

Galatians 6:7

 

Gi7. God sends evildoers delusion(s)

 

2 Thessalonians 2:11

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) says that God send evildoers delusions. Letter 10 Fulgentius to Scarila ch.46 p.465

 

Gi8. God can be offended

 

Ezekiel 8:6-18

 

Gi9. God is merciful

 

Exodus 20:6; Numbers 14:18; 1 Chronicles 16:34; Psalm 115:1; 116:5; 118:1; 119:41; Jonah 4:2; Luke 18:13; Hebrews 4:16, others

 

Vaticanus (325-350 A.D.) contains most of the Old Testament.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "thou art a Lord long-suffering and merciful and very gracious"

Peter Chrysologus of Ravenna (406-450 A.D.) "‘Go’, he [Jesus] says, ‘and baptize all nations in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit’ [Matthew 28:19] in remission of sins. If in the remission of sins the Trinity is united in showing mercy, how is the whole Trinity not one in will in the Passion of the Son?" Sermon 72A ch.4 p.4-5

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) says that God is merciful. To Peter on the Faith ch.40 p.85

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) "O Christ, Thou Saviour of the world, merciful Creator and Redeemer," Poem on Easter p.329

 

Gi10. God wants repentance not sinner’s death

 

Ezekiel 18:23,32; 2 Peter 3:9

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 5 ch.7 p.216

Athanasius (332 A.D.) specifically mentions Ezekiel and says that God desires repentance and not the death of a sinner. Paschal Letter 4 ch.4 p.514

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 8 section 2 ch.9 p.484 refers to Ezekiel 18 and 23.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-250 A.D.) book 10 ch.49 p.205 refers to Ezekiel 18:33. God does not want death, but conversion.

 

Gi11. God / Christ is heals /is healer

 

Gi12. God is our protector

 

Gi13. God is our refuge

 

Deuteronomy 32:27; 2 Samuel 22:3,31; Psalm 2:12; 5:11; 9:9; 16:1; 17:7; 18:2; 31:2; 34:8; 36:7; 46:1; 62:8; 71:1; 91:2; 144:2; Proverbs 30:5

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Gi14. God is our deliverer

 

Gi15. God/Christ rejoices over us

 

Zephaniah 3:17

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat/Aphraates (337-344 A.D.) Select Demonstrations

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)

 

Gi16. Calling God Abba, Father

 

Galatians 4:6

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) calls God Abba, Father. Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.4.31 p.172

 

Gi17. God of Abraham

 

Exodus 3:6; Matthew 23:32; Acts 7:32

 

Vaticanus (325-350 A.D.) contains most of the Old Testament.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.13 p.83

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "Have you not read what was spoken by God to Moses: I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; He is not a God of the dead, but of the living.’" de Principiis book 2 ch.4.1 p.276

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) mentions the God of Abraham. To Monimus book 2 ch.3.1 p.235

 

Gi18. God of Isaac

 

Exodus 3:6; Matthew 23:32; Acts 7:32

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "Have you not read what was spoken by God to Moses: I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; He is not a God of the dead, but of the living.’" de Principiis book 2 ch.4.1 p.276

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.)

 

Gi19. The God of Jacob

 

Exodus 3:6; Matthew 23:32; Acts 7:32

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (346-356 A.D.) "and there are others also, heavenly ones, for Scripture says, ‘The Lord of powers is with us, the God of Jacob is our refuge.’" [Exodus 12:41] Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.20 p.163

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "Have you not read what was spoken by God to Moses: I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; He is not a God of the dead, but of the living.’" de Principiis book 2 ch.4.1 p.276

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) mentions the God of Jacob. To Peter on the Faith ch.51 p.92

 

Gi20. God of Israel

 

Exodus 24:10; Numbers 16:9; Joshua 7:19; Judges 5:3; 1 Samuel 5:8; 2 Samuel 7:26; 1 Kings 11:31; 2 Kings 10:31; 1 Chronicles 4:10; 2 Chronicles 2:12; Ezra 1:3; Psalm 41:13; Isaiah 17:6; 45:3; Jeremiah 7:3; Ezekiel 8:4; Zephaniah 2:9; Malachi 2:16

Matthew 15:31; Luke 1:68

(implied) Deuteronomy 6:4

(implied) Amos 4:12 "prepare to meet your God, O Israel"

Genesis 49:24 (partial, rock of Israel)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (c.384 A.D.) "LORD God of Israel" Concerning Repentance book 1 ch.9 no.43 p.336

 

Gi21. God is patient or long-suffering

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "They do not read what is written respecting the hope of those who were destroyed in the deluge; of which hope Peter himself thus speaks in his first Epistle: ‘That Christ, indeed, was put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit, by which He went and preached to the spirits who were kept in prison, who once were unbelievers, when they awaited the long-suffering of God in the days of Noah, when the ark was preparing, in which a few, i.e., eight souls, were saved by water. Whereunto also baptism by a like figure now saves you.’" de Principiis book 2 ch.5.3 p.279

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "thou art a Lord long-suffering and merciful and very gracious"

 

Gi22. God of the living

 

Exodus 3:6; Matthew 22:29

 

Gi23. God loves us or is kind

 

John 3:16; Ephesians 1:4

Isa 54:10 (God has compassion)

(implied) Exodus 2:25

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 3:16

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 3:16

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (335 A.D.) discusses the Father’s lovingkindness and goodness. Easter Letter 9 ch.10 p.527. See also Easter Letter 10 (338 A.D.) ch.9 p.531

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that lovingkindness prevailed. Nisibine Hymns hymn 2 no.18 p.170

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) teaches on the lovingkindness of God. Commentary on Philippians homily 1 verse 5 p.185 He also says that God created everything through goodness and love for men. homily 4 verse 30 p.202

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says at how great a price God rated us, and how God loved us by Christ dying for us. On the Trinity book 13 ch.13 p.175

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) write of Paphnutius speaking of the loving kindness of the Lord. Conference of the Bishop Paphnutius ch.5 p.321

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) says that God is kind. To Peter on the Faith ch.32 p.80

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) said that the highest deity is kind. Ginza p.548

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) God has grace and lovingkindness towards Israel. Commentary on Zechariah ch.13 p.386

 

Gi24. God avenges

 

Deuteronomy 32:35,43; 1 Samuel 24:12; 2 Kings 9:7; Isaiah 1:24; Isaiah 65:6; 66:6; Jeremiah 5:9,29; 9:9; 15:15; 51:6b,36; Romans 12:19; 2 Thessalonians 1:6; Hebrews 10:30; Revelation 6:10

Implied Psalm 79:12; 94:2; Lamentations 3:64

 

Among spurious works

Apostolic Constitutions (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 7 section 1 ch.3 p.466 "You shall not slay your child by causing abortion, nor kill the baby that is born. For ‘everything that is shaped and has received a soul from God, if it is slain, shall be avenged, as being unjustly destroyed’" (quoted form Ezek 21:23 Septuagint) (quoted from A Dictionary of Early Christian Beliefs. David W. Bercot, ed. p.3)

 

Gi25. Christians and Jews/Israel/Moses worship the same God

 

Gi26. Abraham’s [Three] Visitors

 

Genesis 18:1-16

 

Gi27. The Lord/God is faithful

 

Jesus Christ being the faithful witness is not counted here.

 

Gi28. The Creator is our / the True God

 

Gi29. God is the Lawgiver

 

 

Timeless Truths of Jesus Christ

 

T1. Jesus is the Son of God

 

Matthew 3:17; Luke 9:35; John 3:16; 10:36; Hebrews 1:2; 4:16; 10:29; 1 John 4:15; 2 John 3

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 9:35; John 3:16; 10:36

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 9:35; John 3:16; 10:36

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.82 discusses the divinity and humanity of Christ, the only-begotten of God, the Creator of all things. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.82

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Only Begotten Son. Of the Synods ch.15 p.7. He also says that there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, who is "true God". On the Trinity book 1 ch.38 p.51

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says the centurion called Jesus the "Son of God" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29 p.424

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Only-begotten Son of God in On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things, flesh through the Virgin Mary, suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus is the only Begotten Son of God. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus was begotten before all things. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.3 (14) p.71

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) often emphasizes Jesus as the "Only-Begotten". For example, he speaks of "the Only-begotten God, the Maker of all the creation, whether He always was, or whether He came into being afterwards as an addition to His Father?" Against Eunomius book 8 ch.5 p.208

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) calls Christ the Son of God. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.23 p.63

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) calls Jesus the Son of God in numerous places, including On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.53 p.208

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) "Believe also in the Son of God, the one and only, our Lord Jesus Christ, who is God begotten of God, who is life begotten of life, who is light begotten of light, who is in all things like unto the begetter, and who did not come to exist in time but was before all the ages, eternally and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father. He is the Wisdom of God" First Catechetical Lectures lecture 4 ch.7 p.20.

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says God, the Word was in the Beginning. He says the Son is Only-Begotten. He is the way, truth, life, and light. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.17 p.307

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "His Only-begotten Son the Word" de Principiis book 8 ch.1 p.640

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) mentions the Only-begotten of God, through whom all things were made." in Origen’s de Principiis book 2 ch.6.3 p.282

Orosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) "Son of God" and the Father. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151-152

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.10 p.266 (370/380-425 A.D.) a Christian slave woman taught the barbarians that they should worship the Son of God.

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) speaks of Jesus as the Only-Begotten in vol.14 Commentary on John homily 3 p.13.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) calls Jesus the Son of God, the word, and quotes John 1:12-14. On the Trinity book 13 ch.9 p.174

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) "and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God" Letter from Cyril of Nestorius p.202

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) calls Jesus the Son of God. Bazaar of Heracleides ch.76 p.69

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.34 p.25-26

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Father, Son, and Spirit are distinct. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71 p.64-65

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God is Father and God is Son and God is Holy Spirit. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.309

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus was born of God the Father. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.295

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) in discussing the Trinity calls Jesus the only begotten Son of God. Sermon 68.1 p.180

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) (implied, does not say Son of God.) says Christ is the Son. The Capitula of the Council ch.4 p.312.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Saviour p.405 begins with "In the name of the Father, and the son, and the Holy Spirit, one God."

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Son of God. Candidus’ First Letter ch.4 p.55

Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe … one only-begotten Son of God, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "The Son is the Son of God" Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.328

 

T2. Jesus is the Only Begotten Son of God

 

John 3:16,18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 3:16,18

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 3:16,18

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.82 discusses the divinity and humanity of Christ, the only-begotten of God, the Creator of all things. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.82

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God"

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Only Begotten Son. Of the Synods ch.15 p.7. He also says that there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, who is "true God". On the Trinity book 1 ch.38 p.51

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. (implied, does not say "of God") only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) mentions Christ as only begotten Son. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus is the only Begotten Son of God. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.60

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Only-begotten Son of God in On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Athanasius (331 A.D.) (partial) "to His [Christ] being the Only-begotten Word." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 374

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) often emphasizes Jesus as the "Only-Begotten". For example, he speaks of "the Only-begotten God, the Maker of all the creation, whether He always was, or whether He came into being afterwards as an addition to His Father?" Against Eunomius book 8 ch.5 p.208. See also Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.61

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) discusses how Jesus is the only-begotten of God. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.14.89 p.216. See also Letter 22 no.6 p.437

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) "Believe also in the Son of God, the one and only, our Lord Jesus Christ, who is God begotten of God, who is life begotten of life, who is light begotten of light, who is in all things like unto the begetter, and who did not come to exist in time but was before all the ages, eternally and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father. He is the Wisdom of God" First Catechetical Lectures lecture 4 ch.7 p.20.

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says God, the Word was in the Beginning. He says the Son is Only-Begotten. He is the way, truth, life, and light. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.17 p.307

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) discusses Christ as the Only Begotten. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.16 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.23

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) (partial) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) speaks of Jesus as the Only-Begotten in vol.14 Commentary on John homily 3 p.13.. See also Homilies on John homily 27 p.95

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "His Only-begotten Son the Word" Origen’s de Principiis book 8 ch.1 p.640

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) mentions the Only-begotten of God, through whom all things were made." in Origen’s de Principiis book 2 ch.6.3 p.282

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) (partial) calls Jesus the only-begotten Son. Commentary on the Song of Songs ch.1 p.70

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ Jesus is the "only-begotten Son, God co-eternal with Himself, to become man". He says that Jesus is the Mediator of God and men. On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.174. See also On the Gospel of John Tractate 124 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.449.

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) "and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God" Letter from Cyril of Nestorius p.202

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Only begotten Son. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.53 p.46-47. He also says that in The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.55.

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) in discussing the Trinity calls Jesus the only begotten Son of God. Sermon 68.1 p.180

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) calls Jesus Christ the Only-begotten Word of God. The Capitula of the Council ch.8 p.313

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) (partial) says that Jesus is the Sacred King. Poem on Easter p.330.

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) (partial) Jesus is the Son of God. Jesus is the first and original effect of God. Candidus’ First Letter ch.4 p.55

Creed of Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe … one only-begotten Son of God, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

 

T3. The Deity of Jesus our Lord

 

Son is God. Hebrews 1:8-9; John 1:1,18; 20:28; Hos 1:7; Isa 7:14; 1 John 5:11,12,21; Colossians 2:9; Matthew 1:23

[Only one Lord Isaiah 26:13-14]

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:1,18; 20:28

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 1:1,18; 20:28

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says that Jesus is mighty God and ruler. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.82 discusses the divinity and humanity of Christ, the only-begotten of God, the Creator of all things. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.82.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, who is "true God". On the Trinity book 1 ch.38 p.51

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says Jesus is Mighty God and ruler. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things, flesh through the Virgin Mary, suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus was God, and He did not lie. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.61

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Jesus is fully God and fully man. Nisibine Hymns hymn 36 no.16 p.197

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) discusses the Son’s Deity. Against Eunomius book 4 ch.1 p.153

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes and discusses John 1:1 On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.8.56 p.209

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) discusses how Jesus is God. On the Son ch.14-17 p.306-307

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "First, that we might be led to one union with the Deity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, in contradistinction to a multitude of gods. And second, that we might also be led to the transfiguration, to the glory of the incarnation, and to the union with the Deity. For in the transfiguration His face, even in the flesh, since His deity was still present, shone like the sun, that is, the flesh which came from Mary and from our human race was transfigured to heavenly glory, so that it acquired, in addition to its own natural powers, the glory, honor, and perfection of the Godhead, the flesh receiving the heavenly glory here in communion with the divine Logos, which it did not have from the beginning. We must also understand in this sense the passage, He has given all judgment to the Son [John 5:22], and also the passage, He gave Him power, so that He gives life to whom He wishes [John 5:21], that in the first place ... the one deity of the Trinity is indicated ... and in the second place, that by the incarnation of the deity He assumed the gift of dignity, power, and perfection which have been given by the Father to the Son for the one spiritual union of the deity." Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) says the Jesus’ miracles declared Him God in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 28 p.191. He also says that Jesus remained God in Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.214.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) refers to the fullness of divinity in Christ Jesus. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.17 p.138

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ Jesus is the "only-begotten Son, God co-eternal with Himself, to become man". He says that Jesus is the Mediator of God and men. On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.174

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) teaches on Thomas seeing Jesus after Jesus’ resurrection and saying to Jesus, "My Lord and My God." On the Gospel of John Tractate 121 ch.20.5 vol.7 p.438.

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) calls Jesus "Light of Light, Very God of very God" Cyril of Nestorius p.202

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) speaks of God the Word. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.23

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ was man while remaining God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.29 p.23

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says that in Jesus divine power joined itself to human frailty. Sermon 68.1 p.180

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) starts out as "Our Great God and Saviour Jesus Christ" Sentence of the Synod p.306

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.322 (553 A.D.) calls Christ God the Word. On p.321 he refers to "Christ our God"

 

Among heretics

Creed of Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe … one only-begotten Son of God, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

Mani (262-278 A.D.) (partial) "God and Father of our Lord and Saviour" Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.187

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "divinity of Christ the Lord." Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.329

 

T4. Jesus is the Word of God

 

John 1:1-2; Revelation 19:13

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:1-2

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 1:1-2

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.82 "The living Word which was in the beginning with the Father and which was God, the first and only begotten of God, which was before every creature and creation visible and invisible,…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.82 Also ch.2 2.26 p.85

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) (partial) says that Jesus was the Word. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.2 p.87

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "to His [Christ] being the Only-begotten Word." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 374

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things, flesh through the Virgin Mary, suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) speaks of the Word of God. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.4 (27) p.79

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) speaks of Jesus as the Word. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.8 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.21

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes John 1:1. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.8.56 p.209

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says God, the Word was in the Beginning. He says the Son is Only-Begotten. He is the way, truth, life, and light. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.17 p.307

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions Peter saying that Jesus was crucified (Acts 2:36) and that Jesus was the uncreated Word. (Panarion 69, as quoted in Concordia Triglotta, p.1125)

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) discusses John 1:1 and Jesus being the Word of God. vol.14 Commentary on John homily 2 p.7. See also Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.214

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) calls Jesus the Son of God, the word, and quotes John 1:12-14. On the Trinity book 13 ch.9 p.174

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus is "God the Word" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.39 p.37 and book 1 part 1 ch.23.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God’s Word is the conqueror for all time. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.93 p.84

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) (implied) quotes that "The Word became flesh". Sermon 34.3 p.148

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says that the Word of God had two nativities: one from all eternity of the Father, without time and body, and the other in the flesh from Mary, Mother of God. The Capitula of the Council canon 2 p.312

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.322 (553 A.D.) refers to Christ as God the Word

 

Among heretics

Creed of Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe … one only-begotten Son of God, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

 

T5. The Son existed from ages past

 

John 1:1; 17:5; Hebrews 7:3

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:1; 17:5

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 1:1; 17:5

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made…"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.82 "The living Word which was in the beginning with the Father and which was God, the first and only begotten of God, which was before every creature and creation visible and invisible,…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.82. Also book 2 ch.2.28 p.85

Athanasius (331 A.D.) The Son did not have a beginning of being. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.57 p.379

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) says that Christ is the Son of God, the Mediator, and the Image of God from eternity past Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.45

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) "as Paul in another place calls him ‘first-born of all creation’ (Colossians 1:15). But by calling him First-born, He shews that He is not a Creature, but Offspring of the Father. For it would be inconsistent with his deity for Him to be called a creature. For all things were created by the Father through the Son, but the Son alone was eternally begotten from the Father, whence God the Word is ‘first-born of all creation,’ unchangeable from unchangeable. However, the body which He wore for our sakes is a creature." Statement of Faith ch.3 p.85. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (331 A.D.) discourse 1 ch.39 p.329

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) (implied) says that there was never a time when God was not a Father. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.15 p.182

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that God the Word was before all ages. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.7 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.20

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) has a long discussion on "the Son’s eternity" in On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.8.54-56 p.209

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says "There never was a time when He [the Father] was not. And the same thing is true of the Son and the Holy Ghost." On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.13 p.301

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.)

Jerome (373-420 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ Jesus is the "only-begotten Son, God co-eternal with Himself, to become man". He says that Jesus is the Mediator of God and men. On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.174

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) "But those that say, ‘There was a time when he was not, and before he was begotten he was not,… those the Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematizes." Letter from Cyril to Nestorius p.202

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ "existed of old and exists eternally." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.192

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus was prior to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.12 p.11; book 1 ch.1.25 p.19

Patrick of Ireland (420-461 A.D.) "[T]here is no other God, nor has there been heretofore, nor will there be hereafter, except God the Father unbegotten, without beginning, from whom is all beginning, upholding all things, as we say, and his Son Jesus Christ, whom we likewise to confess to have always been with the Father--before the world’s beginning . . . Jesus Christ is the Lord and God in whom we believe . . . and who has poured out on us abundantly the Holy Spirit . . . whom we confess and adore as one God in the Trinity of the Sacred Name" Confession of St. Patrick 4

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) "If anyone does not confess that there are two nativities [generations] of the Word of God, one from the Father before all ages, without time and incorporeally, the other in the last days when the same came down from heaven and was incarnate . . . let such a one be anathema" The Capitula of the Council canon 2 p.312

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 5 section 1 p.441 "the divine Scripture testifies that God said to Christ, His only-begotten, ‘Let us make man after our image, and after our likeness. And God made man: after the image of God made He him; male and female made He them.’"

 

Among heretics

Eunomius and extreme Arians (c.360-c.377 A.D.) (implied) believed Jesus was from ages past, but there was a time when Jesus did not exist. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

 

T6. All things were created through Christ / the Son of God

 

John 1:3,10; Colossians 1:16; Hebrews 1:2

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:3,10

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 1:3,10

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made…"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.3 p.82 quotes John 1:3 as cripture, saying that all things were created through Christ. He says that the first cause of all was the pre-existent Word.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that all things were created through the Son. On the Trinity book 5 ch.9 p.87

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says that all things were made through Christ. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.2 p.88

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. says that all things were made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) "as Paul in another place calls him ‘first-born of all creation’ (Colossians 1:15). But by calling him First-born, He shews that He is not a Creature, but Offspring of the Father. For it would be inconsistent with his deity for Him to be called a creature. For all things were created by the Father through the Son, but the Son alone was eternally begotten from the Father, whence God the Word is ‘first-born of all creation,’ unchangeable from unchangeable. However, the body which He wore for our sakes is a creature." Statement of Faith ch.3 p.85

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) speaks of "the Only-begotten God, the Maker of all the creation, whether He always was, or whether He came into being afterwards as an addition to His Father?" Against Eunomius book 8 ch.5 p.208

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus created all things for the Father. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.7 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.21

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says the Father made all things through Christ. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.48 p.208

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) mentions the Only-begotten of God, through whom all things were made." in Origen’s de Principiis book 2 ch.6.3 p.282

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes John 1:1,14 and 2:3 and says all things were made through Christ. On the Trinity book 1 ch.6.9 p.21

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Everything came into being by the Father through the Son. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.53

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says all things were made through Christ in Letter 31.2 p.45

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) (partial) "O Christ, Thou Saviour of the world, merciful Creator and Redeemer," Poem on Easter p.329

 

Among heretics

Creed of Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe … one only-begotten Son of God, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

 

T7. Jesus obedient or subject to the Father

 

Philippians 2:8

(implied) 1 Corinthians 11:3; 1 Corinthians 15:28

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) (implied) says Jesus was obedient. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29 p.409

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

X Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that Jesus emptied Himself, was obedient to the Father, and subject to the Father. Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.213

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) says that Jesus is obedient not only on the cross, but also at the end of the word, referring to 1 Corinthians 15:28. "He became obedient to the Father, not only to the death of the cross, but also, in the end of the world, embracing in Himself all whom He subjects to the Father, and who by Him come to salvation, He Himself, along with them, and in them, is said also to be subject to the Father; all things subsisting in Him, and He Himself being the Head of all things, and in Him being the salvation and the fullness of those who obtain salvation. And this consequently is what the apostle says of Him: "And when all things shall be subjected to Him, then shall the Son also Himself be subject to Him that put all things under Him, that God may be all in all." de Principiis book 3 ch.5.6 p.343

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says that Christ obeyed the Father. Bazaar of Heracleides ch.75 p.68

 

T8. Worship, praise, or glorify Jesus

 

Matthew 21:15-16; Hebrews 13:21; 2 Peter 3:18

 

Mathew 2:2,11 (The Magi worshipped Jesus)

(partial) Matthew 8:2 (A leper knelt before Jesus)

(partial) Matthew 9:18 (A ruler knelt before Jesus)

Matthew 14:33 (the disciples worshipped Jesus)

(partial) Matthew 15:25 (A woman knelt before Jesus)

John 9:38 (formerly blind man worshipped Jesus)

Matthew 28:9 (women at the tomb clasped Jesus’ feet and worshiped Him)

Matthew 28:17 (the eleven disciples worshipped Jesus)

Hebrews 1:6 (Angels worship Jesus)

Revelation 5:12 (in heaven they give praise, glory, and honor to Jesus)

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 2:11-12; 21:15-16; John 9:38

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 2:11-12; 21:15-16; John 9:38

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.83 says that we worship the Son of God.

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.8.1 p.94 mentions the Magi from the east who came to worship Christ.

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says that we worship "the Lord of Creation, Incarnate, the Word of God." And that the leper "worshipped God in the Body". Letter 60 ch.3 p.575

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says that even the angels worship Jesus and quotes Hebrews 1:6. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.16.23 p.361. See also discourse 1 ch.42 p.330

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) discusses worshipping Jesus Nisibine Hymns hymn 38 no.5 p.199. See also Nativity Hymns hymn 2 p.228

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says we are to worship Jesus. Against Eunomius book 3 ch.6 p.147. All should worship Jesus in Against Eunomius book 4 ch.9 p.171 and book 5 ch.1 p.172

Gregory of Nyssa says that angels worship Jesus in Hebrews. Against Eunomius book 4 ch.3 p.157.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) quotes Hebrews 1:6 "Let all God’s angels worship him." referring to Jesus. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.8 p.112

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions angels glorifying Jesus. Oration on Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Gregory Nazianzen (380/381 A.D.) "of Christ. Who does not worship Him that is from the beginning? Who doth not glory in Him that is the Last?" Oration 38 On the Theophany ch.1 p.345

Ambrose of Milan (381 A.D.) "without doubt the Holy Spirit also is to be adored, since He Who according to the flesh was born of the Holy Spirit is adored. (80) And let no one divert this to the Virgin Mary; Mary was the temple of God, not the God of the temple. And therefore He alone is to be worshipped Who was working in His temple." Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.11 no.79f-80. See also On the Christian Faith book 5 ch.4 p.291 where he discusses that Mary worshipped Jesus and we should worship Him as God too. See also On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.9.61 p.211

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Christ crucified is worshipped. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.13 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.22

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that we are to honor and worship the Son, but not in a secondary sense. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.14 p.306

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says the Magi worshipped Jesus. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.19 p.308

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) the father, Son, and Holy spirit to have glory, power, and honor. Commentary on Philippians homily 1 verse 7 p.188

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.10 p.266 (370/380-425 A.D.) a Christian slave woman taught the barbarians that they should worship the Son of God.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that they should not suppose that three gods are worshipped by Christians because there is only One God. On Faith and the Creed ch.9.16 p.327

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ is adored. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.29 p.23

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says that the wise men came "and falling down they worshipped Him". Sermon 34.3 p.148

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says that unlike Nestorians we do not worship two Christs. – We and the angels adore one Lord Jesus Christ. The Sentence of the Synod p.309

 

T9. Inseparable/Father in Son or Son in Father

 

John 10:38; 14:10

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 10:38; 14:10

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 10:38; 14:10

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says the Father in the Son and the Son in the Father. On the Trinity book 8 ch.10 p.140; book 8 ch.15 p.141; book 8 ch.41 p.149

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (partial) says that Jesus and the Father are one. On the Trinity book 8 ch.36 p.145

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says Jesus is in the Father and the Father in Jesus. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89. See also To the Bishops of Egypt ch.2.13 p.230

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) discusses "the inseparable union" between the Father and the Son. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.4 p.89. He says Jesus and the Father are as indivisible as the brightness from the light. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.8 p.179. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (331 A.D.) discourse 2 ch.15.12 p.355. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (331 A.D.) discourse 2 ch.15.22 p.360, discourse 2 ch.18.33 p.366 and discourse 4 ch.15 p.438.

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus said, "I and the Father are one" [John 10:30] Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus said, "I am in the Father and the Father is in me. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.61

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) The Father is in the Son and the Son is in the Father. Against Eunomius book 8 ch.1 p.208

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) discusses John 10 and how Jesus is in the Father and the Father is in Jesus. vol.14 Commentary on John homily 61 p.224.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "The Father is in Me, and I in the Father." de Principiis book 1 ch.2.8 vol.4 p.249

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (c.240 A.D.) speaks of the Father in Jesus and Jesus in the Father. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 1 ch.4 p.77

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity, only one God, distinction between the three but the same substance in indivisible equality. Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.4.7 p.20

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus said that "I and the Father are One (John 10:30). The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.74 p.68 and book 1 part 1 ch.55.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) The Son in the Father and the Father in the Son like the fire in the bush. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 3 ch.1 p.160

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "God the Word is unchangeable and immortal and He is continuously that where He is in the eternity of the Father. … there was not when he was not." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.82

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says that the Father and Son are not separated. Sermon 68.1 p.180

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) Jesus is in the Father and the Father is in Jesus. Candidus’ First Letter ch.4 p.55-56

 

T10. Christ at right hand of God/the Father

 

Matthew 22:44; 26:64; Mark 13:26; 14:62; 16:19; Luke 20:42; 22:69; Acts 2:34; 7:56; Romans 8:34; Ephesians 1:20; Hebrews 1:3; 10:12; 1 Peter 3:22

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) see note 1 p.163-164.

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) mentions that the blessed Stephen saw the Lord standing on [God’s] right hand. Letters of Athanasius Letter 60 ch.5 p.576

Second Council of Constantinople (381 A.D.) says that Jesus now sits at the right hand of the Father. Holy Creed p.163

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (implied) Sophronius says, "speaking of him who has ben taken up and sits on the right hand of the Father, who is the Son in the image and glory of the Son," The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.55

 

T11. No one knows the Father except the Son and those revealed

 

Matthew 11:27b; Luke 10:22b

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.3 p.82 says that no one knows the Father except the Son and those He has revealed Him to.

Athanasius (before 342 A.D.) quotes Matthew 11:27b in On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.1 p.87. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (331 A.D.) discourse 2 ch.16.22 p.360. See also To the Bishops of Egypt ch.16 p.231

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "We must understand, therefore, that as the Son, who alone knows the Father, reveals Him to whom He will, so the Holy Spirit, who alone searches the deep things of God, reveals God to whom He will: "For the Spirit bloweth where He listeth." de Principiis book 1 ch.3.3 p.252

 

T12. Father and Son are distinct

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) discusses how the Father and Son are distinct. If not, then God would be His own Father and Son. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.6 p.434-435

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) tells how the Only-Begotten is distinct from the Father. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.61

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity, only one God, distinction between the three but the same substance in indivisible equality. Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.4.7 p.20

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Father, Son, and Spirit are distinct. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71 p.64-65

 

T13. The Word was distinct from the Father at Creation

 

John 1:1; Hebrews 11:3

 

T14. Son in the bosom of the Father

 

John 1:23

 

T15. An Equality of the Father and Son

 

 

T16. God the Son

 

 

T17. Specifically "Jesus" is the Only-Begotten / Son / Word / son of man

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus is the only Begotten Son of God. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.60

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Only-begotten Son of God in On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Athanasius (331 A.D.) (partial) "to His [Christ] being the Only-begotten Word." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 374

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) often emphasizes Jesus as the "Only-Begotten". For example, he speaks of "the Only-begotten God, the Maker of all the creation, whether He always was, or whether He came into being afterwards as an addition to His Father?" Against Eunomius book 8 ch.5 p.208. See also Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.61

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) discusses how Jesus is the only-begotten of God. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.14.89 p.216. See also Letter 22 no.6 p.437

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) "Believe also in the Son of God, the one and only, our Lord Jesus Christ, who is God begotten of God, who is life begotten of life, who is light begotten of light, who is in all things like unto the begetter, and who did not come to exist in time but was before all the ages, eternally and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father. He is the Wisdom of God" First Catechetical Lectures lecture 4 ch.7 p.20.

 

T18. Specifically "Jesus Christ" is the Only-Begotten / Son

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "One God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things… one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father…"

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 section 1 p.441 "the divine Scripture testifies that God said to Christ, His only-begotten, ‘Let us make man after our image, and after our likeness. And God made man: after the image of God made He him; male and female made He them.’"

 

T19. Specifically "Christ" is the Only-Begotten / Son / Son of man

 

You are the Christ, the Son of the Living God

 

T20. Specifically the Son is God

 

"Jesus is God" and "the Son of God" are not included here

 

Hebrews 1:8-9 "But to the Son He says: Your throne, O God, is forever and ever;... Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You" (NKJV)

 

T21. The head of Christ is God

 

1 Corinthians 11:3

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (359-361 A.D.) (partial, recording a creed) "But we acknowledge that the Father who alone is unbegun and Ingenerate, hath generated inconceivably and incomprehensibly to all: and that the Son hath been generated before ages, and in no wise to be ingenerate Himself like the Father, but to have the Father who generated Him as His beginning; for ‘the Head of Christ is God.’" [1 Corinthians 11:3] Of the Synods ch.26 p.463

Rufinus translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "‘The head of Christ is God; ‘" de Principiis (Latin) book 2 ch.6 1 p.281

 

T22. Christ had the Spirit of wisdom and understanding

 

T23. Jesus and the Father are One

 

Just the phrase "One Lord" is not included here.

 

T24. Jesus / the Son is the Logos

 

John 1:1 (partial, does not say Jesus or the Son here)

 

 

Jesus’ Incarnation on Earth

 

J1. Virgin birth of Christ

 

Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:18,23; Luke 1:34-35

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 1:18; Luke 1:34-35

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 1:18; Luke 1:34-35

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Aphrahat (337-344 A.D.) mentions Christ body came from the virgin’s. Select Demonstrations book 21 ch.9 p.396

Athanasius (328 A.D.) mentions the Virgin birth. Statement of Faith p.84.

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) mentions the virgin conceived and the Lord became man. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.9 p.179

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things, flesh through the Virgin Mary, suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) mentions the Virgin Mary in many places, including Hymns on the Nativity hymn 6 p.239

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says Jesus was born of a virgin. Against Eunomius book 3 ch.4 p.145

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) discusses the virgin birth of Christ. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.7 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.21

Ambrose of Milan (381 A.D.) "without doubt the Holy Spirit also is to be adored, since He Who according to the flesh was born of the Holy Spirit is adored. (80) And let no one divert this to the Virgin Mary; Mary was the temple of God, not the God of the temple. And therefore He alone is to be worshipped Who was working in His temple." Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.11 no.79f-80

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) mentions the virgin birth of Christ. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.19 p.308. See also On Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 7:14-15 as referring to Christ and His virgin birth. On Baptism ch.3(2) p.87

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) discusses Mary and the virgin birth of Christ in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 5.3-5 p.32-33.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ was born of a virgin. City of God book 2 ch.18 p.33

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity, only one God, distinction between the three but the same substance in indivisible equality. Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.4.7 p.20

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) speaks of Jesus being born of a virgin. 12 Books book 3.4 p.214

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Mary is the Holy Virgin, but not the mother of God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.149; Virgin Mary. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.171

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-550 A.D.) refers to the virgin birth, Christ’s death on a dreadful cross, pretended kisses of a client/disciple, Pilate p.327

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says Jesus Christ had His nativity of flesh from the holy and glorious Mary, always a virgin. The Capitula of the Council canon 2 p.312

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.322 (553 A.D.) says that Christ was born of the ever-virgin Mary.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

The Vision of Paul (c.388 A.D. – after Nicea) ch.46 p.164 Mary was a Virgin

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) said that Christ was born of a Virgin. It also said He was a Nazorean. Ginza p.549

 

J2. Jesus Christ was a real, sinless man

 

John 8:46; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Hebrews 2:14,17; 4:15

1 Peter 2:22 (He committed no sin)

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 8:36

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 8:46

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made… was made man He suffered … rose again, and ascended into heaven. And he shall come again to judge both the quick and the dead. … Holy Ghost."

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.82 discusses the divinity and humanity of Christ

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says that Jesus was made man. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.8-9 p.179

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. (partial, does not say sinless) says the Jesus, the only begotten Son, was a man, the word made flesh. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Jesus was fully God and fully man. Nisibine Hymns hymn 36 no.16 p.197; See also Nisibine Hymns hymn 38 no.10 p.200.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that Jesus was fully human, but without sin in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.1 p.101. See also Against Eunomius book 6 ch.1 p.183

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus was made man, not in appearance only but in truth. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.9 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.20

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) (partial) discusses Jesus’ manhood and says that Jesus suffered as a man for us. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.14.91 p.216

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus was sinless. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.23 p.210

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) discusses Jesus’ manhood. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.19-20 p.308-309

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) says Christ took on the nature of man. On Baptism ch.3(4) p.89

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) says Christ committed no sin, no guile found in his mouth. On Baptism ch.4(1) p.90

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that Jesus "received a true and complete human nature," and that Jesus was without sin. (Panarion, as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.358)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that Jesus in taking the form of man actually was a man. Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.213

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ Jesus became man, putting on a human soul and flesh. On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.174. See also On the Gospel of John Tractate 124 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.449.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "God the Word, who truly became man in nature" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.23 p.18. See also ibid book 1 part 1 ch.27

+ Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus was sinless. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.68 p.63; part 1 ch.91 p.81-82

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ was man while remaining God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.29 p.23

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ was free from sin. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.251

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus of the seed of the House of David. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.261

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) (partial) says that divinity joined itself to human frailty. 68.1 p.180

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) (partial, does not say sinless) says that Christ became a man. He also says that Christ became flesh and became the ransom of the world. Poem on Easter p.330. He also says that Jesus was crucified. p.329.

 

Among heretics

The Vision of Paul (c.388 A.D. – after Nicea) ch.41 p.162 "Who are these, Sir, who are put into this well? And he said to me: They are whoever shall not confess that Christ has come in the flesh and that the Virgin Mary brought him forth, and whoever says that the bread and cup of the Eucharist of blessing are not this body and blood of Christ."

 

J3. Jesus was baptized

 

Matthew 3:13-16; Mark 1:9-11; Luke 3:21-22;

(partial, Jesus came to John, but did not say baptized) John 1:29

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.10.1 p.96 (implied) says that Jesus came to John to be baptized.

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions Jesus being from the virgin, the angels glorifying Jesus, and calls Jesus the Lamb and the Shepherd. The star led the Magi to worship and offer gifts. Jesus was baptized, and fasted, and was tempted. Devils were cast out and diseases healed. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.24 p.210

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus was baptized by John. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Alexander of Alexandria (after 326 A.D.) "Who compelled God to come down to earth, to take flesh of the holy Virgin, to be wrapped in swaddling clothes and laid in a manger, to be nourished with milk, to be baptized in the Jordan, to be mocked of the people, to be nailed to the tree, to be buried in the bosom of the earth, and the third day to rise again from the dead; in the cause of redemption to give life for life, blood for blood, to undergo death for death? For Christ, by dying, hath discharged the debt of death to which man was obnoxious." Appendix to the Codex

 

J4. Cross’s shape or outstretched arms

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (310-311 A.D.) mentions the shape. Festal Letter 22 p.549

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) discusses in detail the two beams of the cross Nisibine Hymns hymn 58 no.17-19 p.212.

 

J5. Jesus was crucified or died on the cross

 

Matthew 27:32-56; Mark 15:21-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:16-30; 1 Corinthians 15:3; Philippians 2:8

(partial) Philippians 3:10 (death of Christ)

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 27:32-56; Mark 15:21-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:16-30

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 27:32-56; Mark 15:21-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:16-30

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.13.19 p.102 says that Jesus was crucified.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Athanasius (328 A.D.) mentions that Jesus was crucified, died, rose from the dead, and taken up into heaven. Statement of Faith p.84.

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says the Crucified was God. The Son of God was in the body, while it suffered. Letter 59 ch.10 p.574

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 14 no.6 p.182

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) said that Jesus was crucified in Against Eunomius book 5 ch.2 p.174. Jesus bored the cross in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.3 p.176.

Gregory of Nyssa says that Peter said the Christ was crucified. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.4 p.187

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Christ crucified is worshipped. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.13 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.22

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus was nailed to the tree and the robber was crucified with Him. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309.

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that Christ was crucified. (Panarion 2.2:69, as quoted in Loci Theologici, p.106)

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) mentions Jesus’ death on the cross Defense Against the Pelagians ch.16 p.135

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity, only one God, distinction between the three but the same substance in indivisible equality. Christ was born of the virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.4.7 p.21

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the darkness that occurred when Jesus was crucified. City of God book 3 ch.15 p.51

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus died and was crucified. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.61 p.58. See also ibid book 1 part 1 ch.29.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ suffered and died and rose and is ready to come to judge the quick and the dead. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.177

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says some heretics try to deny that Jesus truly came as a man, was truly crucified, or buried and rose on the third day. Sermon 34.4 p.149

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-550 A.D.) refers to the virgin birth, Christ’s death on a dreadful cross, pretended kisses of a client/disciple, Pilate p.327

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says that Jesus Christ was crucified in the flesh. The Capitula of the Council ch.10 p.314

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) says that Christ became a man. He also says that Christ became flesh and became the ransom of the world. Poem on Easter p.330. He also says that Jesus was crucified. Poem on Easter p.329.

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) said that Christ of Rome was crucified. Ginza p.551

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) mentions the crucifixion. Commentary on Joel ch.2 p.120

 

J6. Jesus was hung on a tree [the cross]

 

Acts 5:30; Galatians 3:13; 1 Peter 2:24

(partial) Deuteronomy 21:23

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) says the first tree, of the knowledge of good and evil, brought death, but the second tree, the cross, brought life. Nisibine Hymns hymn 14 no.6 p.182

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) "Jesus went forth out of the city, bearing Himself the Tree of His own Cross; like another Isaac carrying the wood for the sacrifice." On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord

 

J7. Darkness or earthquake at Jesus’ death

 

Matthew 27:45-51; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44-45

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 27:45-51; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44-45

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 27:35-51; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44-45

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (partial) "Creation is set free by the mediation of this Sin-offering; the very rocks lose their solidity and strength." On the Trinity book 3 ch.11 p.65

Athanasius (c.371 A.D.) says "the sun withdrew his beams and the earth trembled and the rocks were rent,…" Personal Letter 61 (To Maximus) ch.2 p.578

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions that the veil was rent, the sun was hidden, the rocks torn asunder, and the dead in graves rose. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29 p.424

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says there was darkness and earthquake when Jesus’ died. Nativity Hymns hymn 3 p.273

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) mentioned that the sun ran backward in Hezekiah’s time, and the sun was eclipsed for Christ. (First Catechetical Lecture 2 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.12)

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says the sun grew dark during the crucifixion. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.10 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.21 and the rocks were asunder. Lecture 4 ch.11 p.22

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) in discussing Jesus’ crucifixion says "He wrapped the visible world in darkness" and "…for the mysterious doors of Heaven are opened; the rocks are cleft, the dead arise. He dies, but He gives life, and by His death destroys death." On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the darkness that occurred when Jesus was crucified. City of God book 3 ch.15 p.51

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Says the sun and moon were actually darkened in Christ’s time. He also mentions "the saving blood of Christ the Lord" Commentary on Joel ch.2 p.119

 

J8. Jesus rose from the dead

 

Matthew 28; Mark 16:1-6; Luke 9:22; 24:1-8; John 20; 1 Corinthians 15:3,4,14,17,18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 28, Mark 16:1-6; Luke 9:22; 24:1-8; John 20

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 28, Mark 16:1-6; Luke 9:22; 24:1-8, John 20

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made… was made man He suffered … rose again, and ascended into heaven. And he shall come again to judge both the quick and the dead."

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.85 says the Jesus suffered, was resurrected, and ascended to heaven.

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "He [Jesus] was the first to rise, as man, for our sakes raising His own Body." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.61 p.381

Athanasius (328 A.D.) mentions that Jesus was crucified, died, rose from the dead, and taken up into heaven. Statement of Faith p.84.

Athanasius (330 A.D.) says that Jesus rose from the dead. Easter Letter 2 ch.7 p.512. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (331 A.D.) discourse 1 ch.44 p.332 and discourse 4 ch.33 p.441 form Him rising bodily.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) says that Christ suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions the resurrection of Jesus. Nisibine Hymns hymn 3 no.6 p.171

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) said that Jesus was resurrected. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.4 p.189

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) teaches that Jesus rose from the dead. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.9 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.20

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) that Jesus is buried but rises again. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309. See also On Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) says that Christ rose again on the third day. On Baptism ch.4 p.91

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Christ rose from the dead. Letter 3 ch.9.3 p.49

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that Jesus rose from the dead and assumed into heaven in the same body. Jesus sits on the right hand of God the Father. (Panarion 1.1, as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.356)

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Jesus rose on the third day. City of God book 1 ch.13 p.10

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) mentions the Lord’s resurrection First Conference of the Abbot Moses ch.14 p.218

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ suffered and died and rose and is ready to come to judge the quick and the dead. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.177.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ’s resurrection. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.83 p.75 and book 1 part 1 ch.49.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ suffered and died and rose and is ready to come to judge the quick and the dead. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.177

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) mentions our Savior’s resurrection. Sermon 71.2 p.182

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says that Jesus Christ rose from the dead. The Capitula of the Council ch.12 p.315

 

Among heretics

The Vision of Paul (c.388 A.D. – after Nicea) ch.41 p.162 punishments for those who said Christ did not rise from the dead and that the flesh will not rise again.

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Discusses Christ’s resurrection. Commentary on Jonah preface p.187

There are probably more besides these too, though Gnostics generally believed Christ only rose spiritually.

 

J9. Jesus ascended to heaven

 

Matthew 28:16-20; Mark 16:19-20; Luke 24:44-53; Ephesians 4:8; (partial) 1 Peter 3:22; (partial, return only) 2 Thessalonians 4:16

 

Ascended: Luke 24:50-51; Mark 16:19; 1 Peter 3:22; 1 Timothy 3:16b

Visible return in power and glory: Revelation 1:7; Matthew 24:26-27, 30; Luke 21:27

Ascended and will return: Acts 1:9-11

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 28:16-20; Luke 24:44-53

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 28:16-20; Luke 24:44-53

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made… was made man He suffered … rose again, and ascended into heaven. And he shall come again to judge both the quick and the dead."

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.85 says the Jesus suffered, was resurrected, and ascended to heaven.

Athanasius (328 A.D.) mentions that Jesus was crucified, died, rose from the dead, and taken up into heaven. Statement of Faith p.84.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) says that Christ suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) Jesus ascended to heaven. Against Eunomius book 12 ch.1 p.242

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions Jesus’ resurrection and ascension. Oration on Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus ascended into heaven. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.13 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.22

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus ascends to Heaven and will return to judge the quick and the dead. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that Jesus rose from the dead and assumed into heaven in the same body. Jesus sits on the right hand of God the Father. (Panarion 1.1, as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.356)

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says that the Lord will come. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.13 p.132

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity, only one God, distinction between the three but the same substance in indivisible equality. Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.4.7 p.20

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (partial) Sophronius says, "speaking of him who has ben taken up and sits on the right hand of the Father, who is the Son in the image and glory of the Son," The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.55

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says quotes Acts and Jesus ascending to heaven in Sermon 75.4 p.189

 

J10. Incarnation of the Word/Jesus

 

John 1:14; Philippians 2:7; Hebrews 2:17; Revelation 19:13

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:14

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 1:14

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things, flesh through the Virgin Mary, suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Athanasius of Alexandria (342 A.D.) discusses how the Word was made flesh in On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.2 p.87.

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) mentions the incarnation On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.9 p.179

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says many passages are prophecies of the Incarnation. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.15.99 p.217

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Excerpts "[Peter said] This same Jesus whom ye crucified [Acts 2:36], in order that the holy incarnate dispensation might not be left by the impassible and uncreated Word, but might be united above to the uncreated Word. On this account God made that which was conceived of Mary and united to deity both Lord and Christ." (Panarion 69, as quoted in Concordia Triglotta, p.1125)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Excerpts "The Father gives to the Son, and the Son, who is not inferior to the Father, receives from the Father, particularly in two ways. First, that we might be led to one union with the Deity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, in contradistinction to a multitude of gods. And second, that we might also be led to the transfiguration, to the glory of the incarnation, and to the union with the Deity. For in the transfiguration His face, even in the flesh, since His deity was still present, shone like the sun, that is, the flesh which came from Mary and from our human race was transfigured to heavenly glory, so that it acquired, in addition to its own natural powers, the glory, honor, and perfection of the Godhead, the flesh receiving the heavenly glory here in communion with the divine Logos, which it did not have from the beginning. We must also understand in this sense the passage, He has given all judgment to the Son [John 5:22], and also the passage, He gave Him power, so that He gives life to whom He wishes [John 5:21], that in the first place ... the one deity of the Trinity is indicated ... and in the second place, that by the incarnation of the deity He assumed the gift of dignity, power, and perfection which have been given by the Father to the Son for the one spiritual union of the deity." Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that Jesus took Flesh. Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.214. He says the Word became flesh in Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.213

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) says that Jesus was incarnated through God. de Principiis book 1 ch.4 p.240

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) discusses the incarnation in many places, including The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.27; book 1 part 1 ch.77.

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) mentions the incarnation of the only-begotten son. Sermon 68.1 p.180

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says that it is the same Jesus Christ who is the Word of God, suffered, was incarnate and made man, and worked miracles. the flesh from Mary, Mother of God. The Capitula of the Council ch.3 p.312

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says that "God became incarnate in the man" Bazaar of Heracleides ch.76 p.69

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.322 (553 A.D.) says that Christ the Word was incarnate.

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) says that Christ became a man. He also says that Christ became flesh and became the ransom of the world. Poem on Easter p.330. He also says that Jesus was crucified. p.329.

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "the Incarnation of Christ the Lord" Commentary on Jonah preface p.185

 

J11. Word was made/became flesh

 

John 1:14

 

J12. Jesus was born in Bethlehem

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says that Jesus was born in Bethlehem. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.5.2 p.88

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says the Jesus was born in Bethlehem. Nativity Hymns hymn 5 p.237

 

J13. Jesus of the tribe of Judah

 

Luke 3:33

 

J14. Jesus brought up by Joseph

 

J15. Jesus on earth was plain-looking

 

Isaiah 53:2a

 

J16. Christ, the Logos, the Son was obedient or learned obedience

 

Hebrews 5:5,7-8 "So also Christ ... 7 who, in the days of His flesh, when He had offered up prayers and supplications, with vehement cries and tears to Him who was able to save Him from death, was heard because of His godly fear, though He was a Son, yet he learned obedience by the things which He suffered."

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ or the Word having obedience in The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.67.

 

J17. Sign of the cross

 

After Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

Anastasius Bibliothecarius (858-878 A.D.) translating Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) "of the contest, and fortifying himself with the sign of the cross, said, Amen." Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria p.266

 

J18. The wood of the cross

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "and as Peter has written, ‘has borne them in the body on the wood’" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 374

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions the wood upon which Jesus was killed. Nativity Hymns hymn 2 p.227

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-550 A.D.) p.327 "Bend your knee, and with lamentation adore the venerable wood of the cross, and with lowly countenance stooping to the earth, which is wet with innocent blood, sprinkle it with rising tears, and at times bear me and my admonitions in your devoted heart."

 

J19. Veil of the Temple torn when Jesus died

 

Matthew 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45;

 

J20. Jesus’ bones were not broken

 

John 19:33-37

 

J21. Christ emptied Himself

 

Philippians 2:7

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Philippians 2:7

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) quotes all of Philippians 2:6-8 as referring to our Lord Jesus Christ. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 9 ch.10 p.330-331

Aphrates the Syrian (337-345) Select Demonstrations Demonstration &&&

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368)

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)

Gregory Nanzianzen (330-391 A.D.)

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (225-254 A.D.) says that Christ emptied himself. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 1 ch.4 p.83

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says that Christ emptied Himself. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.61.

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533)

 

No Private Creed of Arius, Juvencus, Synod of Antioch Encaiensis, p25, p62, p120, p8, p10, p71, Apostoloic canons, 1st Council of Sirmium, Synod of Seleucia in Isauria, Life of Antony, Ephraim Syrus, Basil of Cappadocia, Synod of Laodicia, Council of Gangra, Council of Constantinople, Cyril of Jerusalem, Council of Constantinople II, Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople,

 

J22. Jesus asked God why God had forsaken Him

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

 

J23. Calling the crucifixion the Passion

 

Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria p.261 (after 384 A.D.) mentions "the Lord’s Passion"

 

J24. Some despised Christ

 

J25. Jesus rode into Jerusalem on a donkey

 

Matthew 21:2-7; Mark 11:2-10; Luke 19:30-36; John 12:14

 

J26. Jesus was beaten/scourged/whipped

 

Matthew 26:67; 27:30; Mark 15:17-19; Luke 22:63-64; John 19:2

 

J27. Jesus given vinegar and gall to drink

 

Matthew 27:48; Mark 15:36; Luke 23:36; John 19:29

 

J28. Jesus was mocked

 

Matthew 26:68; 27:27-29; Mark 15:20; Luke 22:63; John 19:1-3

 

J29. They cast lots for Jesus’ clothes

 

J30. Thief/robber on the cross in Paradise

 

Luke 23:39-43

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (c.326 A.D.) says that Paradise was opened to the robber. On Luke 10:22 ch.2 p.88

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) mentions the two robbers on the cross, and that Simon of Cyrene carried Jesus’ cross On the Paralytic ch.3 p.214

 

J31. Jesus’ earthly father was a carpenter

 

Matthew 13:53-57

 

J32. Christ drove out the money-changers

 

Matthew 21:12-13; Mark 11:16; John 2:14-17

 

J33. Christ prayed that this cup would pass

 

J34. The Transfiguration

 

Matthew 17:1-9

 

J35. Jesus from Galilee

 

Jesus preaching in Galilee, passing through Galilee, or going to Galilee after his resurrection are not included here.

 

After Ephesus

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-650 A.D.) ch.26 p.&&& "And it came to pass, after Jesus had returned out of Egypt, when He was in Galilee, and entering on the fourth year of His age, that on a Sabbath-day He was playing with some children at the bed of the Jordan."

 

J36. Jesus said destroy the temple in 3 days…

 

 

 

TIMELESS TitleS of Jesus

 

t1. Jesus is the/our Lord

 

Romans 1:4b; 1 Corinthians 8:6; 12:3b; 2 Corinthians 1:2b; Galatians 1:3; Ephesians 1:2; Philippians 1:2; Colossians 1:3; 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 2 Thessalonians 1:1b; 1 Timothy 1:2b; 2 Timothy 1:2; Philemon 3; James 1:1; 1 Peter 1:3; 2 Peter 1:8; and others

(partial) 1 Corinthians 7:22 (Lord’s freedman and Christ’s slave)

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) "dispensation of our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ." Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.1.3 p.81

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, who is "true God". On the Trinity book 1 ch.38 p.51

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (380 A.D._ book 5 ch.7 p.439 "For the Almighty God Himself will raise us up through our Lord Jesus Christ,…"

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) talks of our "Lord Jesus Christ". Against Eunomius book 10 ch.4 p.226

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions the father, and Holy ghost along with Jesus our Lord. Commentary on Philippians Introductory discourse p.183

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) quotes 2 Thessalonians 2:8,9 "…whom the Lord Jesus…" as by the Apostle. Commentary on the Apostles’ Creed ch.34 p.556

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) teaches on Thomas seeing Jesus after Jesus’ resurrection and saying to Jesus, "My Lord and My God." On the Gospel of John Tractate 121 ch.20.5 vol.7 p.438.

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) "For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…" Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Patrick of Ireland (420-461 A.D.) "[T]here is no other God, nor has there been heretofore, nor will there be hereafter, except God the Father unbegotten, without beginning, from whom is all beginning, upholding all things, as we say, and his Son Jesus Christ, whom we likewise to confess to have always been with the Father--before the world’s beginning . . . Jesus Christ is the Lord and God in whom we believe . . . and who has poured out on us abundantly the Holy Spirit . . . whom we confess and adore as one God in the Trinity of the Sacred Name" Confession of St. Patrick 4

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) calls "Christ the Lord" Commentary on Amos ch.9 p.170

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-650 A.D.) ch.13 p.375 "And some shepherds also affirmed that they had seen angels singing a hymn at midnight, praising and blessing the God of heaven, and saying: There has been born the Saviour of all, who is Christ the Lord, in whom salvation shall be brought back to Israel."

 

t2. King of Kings and/or Lord of Lords

 

Revelation 19:16

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) calls Jesus the King of Kings. Nisibine Hymns hymn 58 no.10 p.211

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) mentions that Jesus is the King of Kings. Commentary on the Song of Songs prologue p.51

Pope Celestine to the Synod of Ephesus (432 A.D.) p.221 (partial) mentions the King of Kings, but does not explicitly say it is Jesus.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) King of Kings and Lord of Lords. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.221

 

t3. Jesus is the Alpha and Omega

 

Revelation 1:8

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) quotes "John in the Apocalypse" saying Jesus is the Alpha and Omega. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.28 p.444

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. (partial) calls Jesus the first and last. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

 

t4. Jesus is the Door or Gate

 

John 10:7

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "For in It the Lord becomes our guide to the Kingdom of Heaven and to His own Father, saying, ‘I am the way’ and ‘the door,’ and ‘through me all must enter.’" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.61 p.381

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Door and the Shepherd. First Catechetical Lecture 10 ch.3 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.57

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) calls Jesus the door. Against Eunomius book 10 ch.1 p.220

Gregory Nanzianzen (330-391 A.D.) says that Jesus is word, door, lamb, shepherd, high priest, first born. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.98 p.224

Gregory Nanzianzen (330-391 A.D.) (partial) says that the mysterious doors of Heaven are opened; the rocks are cleft, the dead arise." (Jesus opens the door, but does not say Jesus is the door though.) On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) "For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…" Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that no doors bring escape except the One that says "I am the door" [John 10:9]. The City of God book 7 ch.8 p.127

 

t5. Christ is the Image of God

 

Colossians 1:15, (implied) Colossians 2:9; Hebrews 1:3

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) says that Christ is the Son of God, the Mediator, and the Image of God from eternity past Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.45

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that the Son is the image of the Father. Of the Synods ch.18 p.8

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says that Jesus is in the image of God. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.18.49 p.375

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says Jesus is the image of God On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.48 p.208. See also Concerning Repentance (c.384 A.D.) book 1 ch.9 no.41 p.336

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) "For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…" Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says that Christ is the image of the Father. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.60.

 

t6. Jesus is the/our Rock/Stone/Cornerstone

 

Acts 4:10-11; 1 Corinthians 10:4; Ephesians 2:20; 1 Peter 2:4,6-7

~Matthew 21:42: ~Mark 12:10; ~Luke 20:17-19

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 10:4

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. The prophets prophesied about Christ. 1 Peter 2:4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (339 A.D.) says, "they [believers] are founded upon a rock; which is Christ." Easter Letter 11 ch.4 p.534

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) says, "Christ is the cornerstone" Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.10.111 p.129

 

t7. Jesus is the Light or Light of Light

 

John 1:4-9; 8:12; 9:5

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says Jesus is the Light Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.54 p.377

The Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) says Jesus is "Light of Light" On the Councils (=de Synodis) part 1 ch.26 p.462-464

First Council of Sirmium (351 A.D.) says Jesus is "Light of Light" On the Councils (=de Synodis) part 1 ch.26 p.464

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) calls Jesus the Light Hymns on the Nativity hymn 3 p.235

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) calls Jesus God, the Word of God, Life, and Light in Against Eunomius book 10 ch.4 p.225

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) "Believe also in the Son of God, the one and only, our Lord Jesus Christ, who is God begotten of God, who is life begotten of life, who is light begotten of light, who is in all things like unto the begetter, and who did not come to exist in time but was before all the ages, eternally and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father. He is the Wisdom of God" First Catechetical Lectures lecture 4 ch.7 p.20.

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) calls Jesus "Light of Light, Very God of very God" Cyril of Nestorius p.202

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says that Christ is Light. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.54.

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.321 (553 A.D.) says that Christ is the true light.

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) speaks of the presence of light and that darkness flees by the brightness of Christ. Poem on Easter p.330

 

t8. Jesus is our Shepherd

 

Matthew 2:6; 26:31; Mark 14:27; John 10:11,14; Hebrews 13:20; 1 Peter 2:25; 5:4; Revelation 7:17

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) (implied) says "that He [Jesus] might gather the Church into one flock, is Himself the true Ecclesiast; for an ecclesiast takes his title from his function of assembling the ecclesia." … Christ becomes our Ecclesiast too," Commentary on the Song of Songs prologue p.51-52

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says that Jesus is our Shepherd. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.12 p.313

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) calls Jesus "the Shepherd of all" Hymns on the Nativity Hymn 3 p.232.

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Christ is the bishop and shepherd of our souls. Letter 1 ch.7.2 p.26

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions Jesus being from the virgin, the angels glorifying Jesus, and calls Jesus the Lamb and the Shepherd. The star led the Magi to worship and offer gifts. Jesus was baptized, and fasted, and was tempted. Devils were cast out and diseases healed. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.24 p.210

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus is word, door, lamb, shepherd, high priest, first born. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.98 p.224

Niceta of Remesianus (366-415 A.D.) taught that Jesus was the Good Shepherd. Instructions for Candidates for Baptism ch.6 p.204

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) says that Jesus is the good Shepherd, who laid down His own life for His sheep" See also On the Gospel of John Tractate 123 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.447.

 

Theodore Balsamon (c.1170 A.D.) "For if he who has committed the lesser fault, of leaving for more than six months the people placed under him destitute of the care and administration of a pastor, incurs the privation of the episcopate and of his sacred dignity; he who offends in a way greater and much more grievous, namely, in deserting altogether the multitude which the grace of the Holy Spirit has committed to him to be cared for and guarded, shall deservedly be punished with greater severity, and will pay the heavier penalty of losing, as far as he is concerned, the flock of which he was appointed shepherd by the great and chief Shepherd and High Priest." Balsamon’s commentary on Peter of Alexandria ANF vol.6 p.275

 

t9. Jesus Christ is the Lamb of God

 

John 1:29; Revelation 5:5

1 Peter 1:19 (lamb without blemish or defect)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (329 A.D.) mentions Jesus as the sheep and lamb. His sacrifice was purified by His precious blood. Easter Letter 1 ch.9 p.509

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) teaches that Jesus is the Lamb of God. Nativity Hymns hymn 2 p.228

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) mentions that Jesus is the Lamb as well as God. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309. See also where he calls Jesus the Lamb in Orations on the Holy Lights ch.16 p.358

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions Jesus being from the virgin, the angels glorifying Jesus, and calls Jesus the Lamb and the Shepherd. The star led the Magi to worship and offer gifts. Jesus was baptized, and fasted, and was tempted. Devils were cast out and diseases healed. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.24 p.210

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus is word, door, lamb, shepherd, high priest, first born. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.98 p.224

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) Christ is the lamb. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.15 p.134

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) speaks of the lamb that takes away the sin of the world. On the Trinity book 15 ch.24.43 p.223

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus is the "lamb of God" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.55 p.51

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) (implied) says that Christ was offered to God for the world’s salvation. He was the true lamb. Sermon 68.3 p.181

 

t10. Jesus is a Lion / as a lion’s whelp

 

Revelation 5:5

 

p24 Revelation 5:5-8; 6:5-8 (ca.300 A.D.) Jesus is a lion in Revelation 5:5

 

t11. The Son / Jesus was /was begotten before the morning star

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "But that the Son has no beginning of being, but before He ws made man was ever with the Father, John makes clear in his first Epistle," and quotes 1 John 1:1-2. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.26 p.443.

Athanasius (331 A.D.) Jesus was "before the morning star" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.27 and 28 p.444.

 

t12. Jesus/the cross the wisdom and power of God

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (c.371 A.D.) "the crucified Christ is at once Lord of Glory, and the Power of God and Wisdom of God." Letter 61 ch.1 p.578

 

t13. Christ is the Holy One of God

 

p88 Mark 2:1-16 (350 A.D.) (implied, the demon is speaking) Mark 2:24

 

 

INCARNATE TitleS of Jesus

 

i1. Jesus is the first-born (not just of Mary)

 

Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:15; 1:18; Hebrews 1:6; 12:23; Revelation 1:5

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.4 p.82 calls Jesus "the first-born Word"

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) "as Paul in another place calls him ‘first-born of all creation’ (Colossians 1:15). But by calling him First-born, He shews that He is not a Creature, but Offspring of the Father. For it would be inconsistent with his deity for Him to be called a creature. For all things were created by the Father through the Son, but the Son alone was eternally begotten from the Father, whence God the Word is ‘first-born of all creation,’ unchangeable from unchangeable. However, the body which He wore for our sakes is a creature." Statement of Faith ch.3 p.85. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (331 A.D.) discourse 2 ch.61 p.381

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) "Lo! The First-born has opened unto us His feast as a treasure-house." Hymns on the Nativity Hymn 4 p.235. See also Nisibine Hymns hymn 38 no.7 p.200.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) calls Jesus the firstborn. Against Eunomius

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) calls Jesus "the first-begotten of all creation." On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.48 p.208

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) has an extensive discussion of how Christ is the first born. After differentiating being Christ being called firstborn" but not "first created", says one meaning is "firstborn from the dead" (Colossians 1:18; Romans 8:29) refers to the first resurrected [he forgot to say in a glorified body]. "So also the word ‘firstborn,’ in the sense of a foundation. But this doth not show the creatures to be consubstantial with Him; but that all things are through Him, and in Him are upheld." Homilies on Colossians homily 3 p.270-271

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) says that Christ is the firstborn of all creation. Commentary on the Song of Songs ch.1 p.59

 

i2. Christ is the Second/Last Adam

 

Romans 5:14-16

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ was the second Adam. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.12(b) p.235

 

i3. Jesus called Emmanuel (God with us)

 

Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:23

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) Jesus is called Emmanuel. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.55 p.338

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Christ was called Emmanuel. On Baptism ch.3.1 p.89

 

i4. Jesus is our High Priest

 

Hebrews 2:17; 3:1; 4:14; 8:1

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says the High Priest in the Old Testament was a type of Christ. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.3 p.80

Athanasius (331 A.D.) discusses Jesus’ high priesthood and godhead in Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.14.10 p.353. See also discourse 1 ch.8 p.353

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.6 p.439 "believing in the one and the only true God and Father, through Jesus Christ, the great High Priest, and Redeemer of our souls, and rewarder of our sufferings."

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus is word, door, lamb, shepherd, high priest, first born. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.98 p.224

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says Jesus is out great High Priest. The City of God book 10 ch.6 p.184

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) (partial) discusses how Christ is both King and Priest after the order of Melchizedek. He does not actually say "High Priest" though. The City of God book 17 ch.17 p.355

 

i5. Jesus is our Physician/Doctor

 

Mark 2:17 (Implied)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (335-354 A.D.) "that the Word Himself might be made Flesh, and by taking the Flesh, restore it wholly. For to Him, as to a physician, man ‘was delivered’ to heal the bite of the serpent; as to life to raise what was dead; as to light, to illumine the darkness…" On Luke 10:22 ch.2 p.87

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Physician. Nativity Hymns hymn 2 p.228

 

i6. Jesus is the Way

 

John 14:6

 

Note that references merely saying Jesus showed us the way are not included here.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "For in It the Lord becomes our guide to the Kingdom of Heaven and to His own Father, saying, ‘I am the way’ and ‘the door,’ and ‘through me all must enter.’" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.61 p.381

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) "For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…" Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

 

i7. Jesus is the Truth

 

John 14:6

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) "For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…" Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

 

Among heretics

X Mandaeans (>350?) said that Jesus altered the words of truth. Ginza p.550

 

i8. Jesus is our/the Life

 

John 10:10; 14:6; Colossians 3:3; 1 John 5:11-12

(implied) John 4:14; Galatians 2:20

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says that Jesus is our Life. On the Opinions of Dionysius ch.18-19 p.183

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) "For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…" Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

 

i9. Jesus is the Bread or Bread of Life

 

John 6:35

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.)

Aquila in discussing Hippolytus says that Jesus says He is the bread of life. Fragment 1 Genesis 49:16-20 (ANF vol.5) p.166

 

i10. Jesus is the Vine

 

John 16:1-7

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says Jesus is the vine. On the Opinions of Dionysius ch.10 p.180

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) "I am the true Vine; His heavenly Father is the Husbandman who makes it in the press." Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.6 p.186

 

i11. Jesus is the Messiah

 

i12. Jesus a star rising out of Jacob

 

i13. Christ is of the root of Jesse

 

i14. Jesus is the descendent/seed of David

 

(The phrase "Son of David" does not specify biological or adopted, so that is not counted here.)

 

Luke 2 Romans 1:3; 2 Timothy 2:8 (implied Luke 3:21-31)

(partial) Matthew 1:6; Luke 1:69 is legal, not biological

(partial) Luke 1:32 (not specified if father/son is biological or legal)

Revelation 22:16

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) calls Jesus the Son of David. Hymns on the Nativity Hymn 4 p.235

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) call Christ the "seed of David of Judah" On the Psalms Psalm 76.1 p.355

 

i15. Jesus of Nazareth

 

Matthew 26:71

Mark 1:24; 10:27

Luke 4:34; 18:37; 24:19

John 1:45; 18:5; 18:7; 19:19

Acts 2:22; 3:6; 4:10; 6:14; 10:38; 22:8; 26:9

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) calls Jesus the Nazarene. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.55.

 

i16. Jesus is the first fruits

 

 

i17. Jesus is the son of Abraham

 

Matthew 1:1,18

 

i18. The sign of Jonah refers to Jesus

 

Matthew 12:39-41; Luke 11:29-32

 

 

Purpose Of the Life of Jesus

 

p1. Jesus sent by the Father

 

John 17:18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

p2. Jesus/Christ came to save us/is our Savior

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) "dispensation of our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ." Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.1.3 p.81

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) Synodal Letter p.107 "The grace and truth of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ"

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Venantius (lived c.530-609 A.D.) says Christ is our Savior. Poem on Easter p.329

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

History of Joseph the Carpenter (4th century) ch.17 p.391 "O Jesus of Nazareth! Jesus, my Saviour!Jesus, the deliverer of my soul! Jesus, my protector! Jesus! O sweetest name in my moutn, and in the mouth of all those that love it!"

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (&&&) &&&

 

p3. Jesus was tempted

 

Matthew 4:1-10; Mark 1:13; Luke 4:1-12; Hebrews 4:15

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 4:1-10; Mark 1:13; Luke 4:1-12

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 4:1-10; Mark 1:13; Luke 4:1-12

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) in speaking of our Savior says, "For Matthew, after the forty day’s fast and the temptation which followed it, indicated the chronology of his work when he says," Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 3 ch.24 p.153

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "9. Let us take pattern, my beloved, from our Saviour, Who though He was rich, made Himself poor; and though He was lofty, humbled His Majesty; and though His dwelling place was in heaven, He had no place to lay His head; and though He is to come upon the clouds, yet rode on a colt and so entered Jerusalem; and though He is God and Son of God, He took upon Him the likeness of a servant; and though He was (for others) rest from all weariness, yet was Himself tired with the weariness of the journey; though He was the fountain that quenches thirst, yet Himself thirsted and asked for water; though He was abundance and satisfied our hunger, yet He Himself hungered when He went forth to the wilderness to be tempted; though He was a Watcher that slumbers not, He yet slumbered and slept in the ship in the midst of the sea; and though He was ministered to in the Tabernacle of His Father, yet let Himself be served by the hands of men; though He was the healer of all sick men, yet nails were fastened into His hands; though His mouth brought forth things that were good, yet they gave Him gall to eat; though He injured no man and harmed none, yet He was beaten with stripes and endured shame; and though he was Saviour of all mortals, He delivered Himself to the death of the cross." Select Demonstrations Demonstration 6 ch.9 p.&&&

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) mentions that the devil tempted Jesus on the mount. To the Bishops of Egypt ch.2.14 p.230.

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.37 p.206 (implied) "But the Lord did not suffer us to be deceived by the devil, for He rebuked him whenever he framed such delusions against Him, saying: "Get behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve.’"

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Satan tempted Jesus. Nisibine Hymns hymn 35 no.4 p.193-194

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) (partial) Jesus was baptized, and fasted, and was tempted. Devils were cast out and diseases healed. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.24 p.210. See also On Pentecost ch.5 p.381

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus endured temptation. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.74 p.68

 

p4. Jesus sent to suffer [for us]

 

Matthew 16:21; "From that time on Jesus began to explain to his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things … and that he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life"

Matthew 17:12 "In the same way the Son of Man is going to suffer at their hands."

son of man Matthew 26:23-25

Matthew 26:38-39 (Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane)

Mark 8:31 "He then began to teach them that the Son of man must suffer many things and be rejected by… and that he must be killed and after three days rise again."

Mark 9:12 "Why then is it written that the Son of Many must suffer much and be rejected"

Luke 9:22 "And he [Jesus] said, ‘The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by… and he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life."

Luke 17:25 "but first he [the Son of Man] must suffer many things and be rejected by this generation."

Luke 22:15 "I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer."

Luke 22:19b "This is my body given for you; do this in remembrance of me."

Luke 22:20b "This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you."

(partial) Luke 22:64 the soldiers mocked and beat Jesus

(partial) Luke 23:39 a thief hurled insults at Jesus

Luke 24:26 "He [Jesus] said to them, ‘How foolish you are, and how slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Did not the Christ have to suffer these things and then enter his glory?’";

Acts 3:18 "But this is how God fulfilled what he had foretold through all the prophets, says that his Christ would suffer." (Peter is speaking)

Acts 17:3 [Paul was] "explaining and proving that the Christ had to suffer and rise from the dead."

Acts 26:22b-23 "I [Paul] am saying nothing beyond what the prophets and Moses said would happen – that the Christ would suffer and, as the first to rise from the dead, would proclaim light to his own people and to the Gentiles."

2 Corinthians 1:5a "For just as the sufferings of Christ flow over into our lives,…"

Hebrews 2:9-10,18; "… he [Jesus] suffered death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone. I bringing many sons to glory, it was fitting that God, for whom and through whom everything exists, should make the author of their salvation perfect through suffering." (18) Because he himself [Jesus] suffered when he was tempted, he is able to help those who are being tempted."

1 Peter 1:11; "the Spirit of Christ… predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow."

1 Peter 2:21 "To this you were called, because Christ suffered for you, leaving you an example, that you should follow in his steps."

1 Peter 2:23a "When they hurled their insults at him, he did not retaliate; when he suffered, he made no threats."

(partial) Matthew 26:28 "This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins."

(partial) Mark 14:24 "‘This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many,’ he said to them."

(partial, not say for us) Romans 8:17 "… if indeed we share in his [Christ’s] sufferings in order that we may also share in his glory."

(partial, not say for us) Philippians 3:10 "… and the fellowship of sharing in his [Christ’s] sufferings…"

(partial, "freeing him [Christ] from the agony of death") Acts 2:24

(partial) Hebrews 9:26 "Then Christ would have had to suffer many times since the creation of the world. … by the sacrifice of himself."

(partial, not say for us) 1 Peter 4:1a "Therefore, since Christ suffered in his body,…"

(partial) 1 Peter 4:13a "But rejoice that you participate in the sufferings of Christ…"

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 9:22; 17:25; 22:64; 23:41

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 9:22; 17:25; 22:64; 23:31

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made… was made man He suffered … rose again, and ascended into heaven. And he shall come again to judge both the quick and the dead."

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.85 says the Jesus suffered, was resurrected, and ascended to heaven.

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.23 p.85 (partial, not say for us) says that Jesus suffered.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) says that Christ suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Athanasius (356-360 A.D.). F ch.14 p.348

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says the Crucified was God. The Son of God was in the body, while it suffered. Letter 59 ch.10 p.574. See also Easter Letter 10 (338 A.D.) p.7 p.530

Council of Constantinople II (381 A.D.) says that it is the same Jesus Christ who is the Word of God, suffered, was incarnate and made man, and worked miracles. the flesh from Mary, Mother of God. The Capitula of the Council ch.3 p.312

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.7 p.439 "Now his and our Master, Jesus the Lord, was smitten for our sake: He underwent reproaches and revilings with long-suffering. He was spit upon, He was smitten on the face, He was buffeted; and when He had been scourged, He was nailed to the cross."

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) discusses Jesus’ manhood and says that Jesus suffered as a man for us. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.14.91 p.216

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) Jesus suffered on the cross. Against Eunomius book 12 ch.3 p.244. See also Against Eunomius book 11 ch.1 p.231.

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says Jesus "was God made capable of suffering to strive against sin;" On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.21 p.309

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus was tempted, hungered, thirsted, and He was bruised and wounded. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.308-309. See also On Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (implied) "Christ will no more be able to suffer for him" On Baptism ch.7.2 p.94

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that the Son of God suffered for people’s salvation. Since God could not suffer, that is why Jesus assumed a human body. (Panarion, as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.211)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) says Jesus truly suffered, truly died, and truly rose from the dead. de Principiis book 1 ch.4 p.240

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Jesus suffered, and rose again, and ascended into Heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.5.8 p.21. He says that Jesus "might suffer for us all" in On the Gospel of John Tractate 123 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.447.

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) He [Jesus] suffered, and rose again the third day. He ascended into the heavens, from thence he shall come to judge both the quick and the dead." Letter from Cyril of Nestorius p.202

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) said that Jesus "suffered in advance of other trials" Bazaar of Heracleides ch.80 p.73

 

p5. Christ is the end/fulfillment of the law

 

Romans 10:4; Hebrews 10:18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) "This is the wish of our schoolmaster the law, of the prophets who intervened between Christ and the law, of Christ who is the fulfiller and end of the spiritual law; of the emptied Godhead, of the assumed flesh, of the novel union between God and man," In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.23 p.209

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) "the end of the law is Christ for righteousness to every man believing:" On the Psalms Psalm 68.1 p.285

Rufinus (364-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "His coming now He fulfilled that law which has a shadow of good things to come" de Principiis book 4 ch.25 p.375

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ fulfilled the law. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.2.7 p.91

 

p6. Jesus is Lord of the Sabbath

 

Matthew 12:8; Mark 2:28; Luke 6:5

 

p7. Jesus is our Redeemer / redeemed us

 

Romans 3:24; Galatians 3:13; 4:5; Ephesians 1:7,14; Colossians 1:14; Tt 2:14; Hebrews 9:12,15; 1 Peter 1:18; Revelation 5:9

Partial Job 19:25

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Galatians 3:13; 4:5

 

Athanasius (328 A.D.) mentions that Jesus gave us redemption. Statement of Faith ch.4 p.85.

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "redeeming all by the Cross" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.13 p.355

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "(as the Apostle has said, ‘Has redeemed us from the curse,’ and’has carried,’ as Isaiah has said, ‘our sins,’ and as Peter has written, ‘has borne them in the body on the wood);" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 p.374

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "our Redeemer". Select Demonstrations Demonstration 6 ch.1 p.363

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Jesus redeemed. Nisibine Hymns hymn 67 no.2 p.218.

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.6 p.439 "believing in the one and the only true God and Father, through Jesus Christ, the great High Priest, and Redeemer of our souls, and rewarder of our sufferings."

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "For the Spirit made us children by adoption, the water of the sacred Font washed us, the blood of the Lord redeemed us." Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.10.67 p.144

Augustine of Hippo (413-426 A.D.) "…the grace of Christ, who redeemed us by His blood." The City of God book 22 ch.30 p.511

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-550 A.D.) has Christ saying He is "the true redemption" p.327

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) "love. O Christ, Thou Saviour of the world, merciful Creator and Redeemer," Poem On Easter p.329

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) calls Christ our redeemer. Sermon 67.7 p.180. He says Christ’s work was for the redemption of mankind. Sermon 68.2 p.181.

 

p8. Christ finished His work

 

John 4:34; 5:36

(implied) John 19:30

 

p9. Jesus forgives us / remits sins

 

Luke 7:48; Romans 6:23; Ephesians 1:7

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 7:48; Romans 6:23; Ephesians 1:7

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 7:48; Romans 6:23; Ephesians 1:7

p88 Mark 2:1-16 (350 A.D.) Mark 2:10

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says that Jesus remitted sins against the paralytic. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.27.40 p.415

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "cleansed all of our sins in His own blood." &&&

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "The Lord also signifies this in the Gospel when he says, ‘Your sins are forgiven you.’" Homilies on Joshua homily 5 ch.6 p.64

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says "He [Jesus] was baptized as Man – but He remitted sins as God" On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.308

 

p10. Jesus: the/One Mediator (between God & man)

 

Hebrews 7:25; 8:6; 9:15; 12:24; 1 Timothy 2:5

(partial) Galatians 3:19-22

(partial, shows the need for a mediator but does not say Jesus) Job 9:33-34; 33:23

 

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) "Christ, the Son of God, the Mediator" Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.45

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says that Jesus "became Mediator between God and Men, ministering the things of God to us, and ours to God." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.6 p.435. See also ibid discourse 1 ch.59 p.341.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) write of the Law, Moses, Jesus being our mediator, and angels in On the Trinity book 5 ch.23 p.91. See also On the Trinity book 8 ch.15 p.141

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) refers to 1 Timothy 2:5. "Let our Lord be set betweenGod and men!" Nisibine Hymns hymn 6 no.6 p.299

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) (implied) says that Jesus is the mediator between God and man. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.6 p.33

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus is the mediator between God and carnality. Letter to Cledonius Against Apollinarius p.441

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) (partial) Christ is our mediator. Commentary on Zechariah 11 p.279

X John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) &&&

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translation Origen (225-254 A.D.) calls our Lord "a Mediator" de Principiis book 2 ch.6.1 p.281.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) (implied) says that Christ Jesus is the "only-begotten Son, God co-eternal with Himself, to become man". He says that Jesus is the Mediator of God and men. On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.174. See also On the Gospel of John Tractate 124 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.449 and Sermons on the New Testament sermon 1 ch.32 p.258

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says the Word it the Mediator. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.24 and book 1 part 1 ch.55.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (partial, does not say the or one) Christ is a mediator. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.24 p.19; book 1 part 1 ch.55 p.51; book 1 part 1 ch.59 p.56

Theodoret of Cyrus (423-458 A.D.) quotes 1 Timothy 2:5, "one mediator between God and men," in referring to Jesus. Dialogues p.187

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) (implied) says that Jesus is the mediator in Sermon 68.3 p.175

 

p11. Jesus bore our sins

 

1 Peter 2:24

(implied) Hebrews 10:11-12

(implied) Hebrew 9:28

Isaiah 53:4

 

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "(as the Apostle has said, ‘Has redeemed us from the curse,’ and’has carried,’ as Isaiah has said, ‘our sins,’ and as Peter has written, ‘has borne them in the body on the wood);" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 p.374

 

p12. Jesus bore the curse for us

 

Galatians 3:13

 

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "(as the Apostle has said, ‘Has redeemed us from the curse,’ and’has carried,’ as Isaiah has said, ‘our sins,’ and as Peter has written, ‘has borne them in the body on the wood);" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 p.374

 

p13. Christ suffered shame/disgrace

 

Hebrews 12:2; 13:13

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "though He injured no man and harmed none, yet He was baten with stripes and endured shame;" Select Demonstrations Demonstration 6 ch.9 p.369

 

p14. Jesus was a ransom

 

Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45; 1 Timothy 2:5f-b; Hebrews 9:15b

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that Jesus was a ransom for our death. Against Eunomius book 11 ch.1 p.231.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (implied) said that Jesus endured unto death and gave a just compensation for us in that he exchanged for our death the death which came unjustly upon him." Bazaar of Heracleides ch.80 p.73

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) (implied) "it is not becoming that Thy limbs should lie in the lowly sepulchre, nor that worthless stones should press that which is the ransom of the world. It is unworthy that a stone should shut in with a confining rock, and cover Hi in whose fist all things are enclosed." Poem On Easter p.329

 

p15. Christ reconciled us

 

Romans 5:10-11; 2 Corinthians 5:18-19; Ephesians 2:16; Colossians 1:20-22; Hebrews 2:17

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. Ephesians 2:16; Colossians 1:20-21; Hebrews 2:17

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that Jesus reconciled us. On the Trinity book 8 ch.51 p.152

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Christ reconciled us. Nativity Hymns hymn 2 p.228

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) "in which Flesh, as the Apostle says, He reconciled the enmity which was against us and destroyed the law of the commandments in ordinances, that He might make the two into one new man, making peace, and reconcile both in one body to the Father. On Luke 10:22 ch.3 p.88

 

p16. Christ overcame/triumphed

 

John 16:33; Colossians 2:15; Revelation 3:21; 5:5; 17:14

 

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Christ overcame. Hymns for the Feast of Epiphany hymn 1 no.12 p.266

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) said that the victory of Christ made all victorious. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.80 p.73.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) mentions conquering and being victorius. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.3 and book 1 part 1 ch.84

Venantius (lived c.530-609 A.D.) "give back the day which flees from us at Thy death. But returning, O holy conqueror!" Poem on Easter p.330

Venantius (lived c.530-609 A.D.) "For in honour of Christ rising triumphant after His descent to the gloomy Tartarus, the grove on every side with its leaves expresses approval, the plants with their flowers express approval." Poem on Easter p.329

 

p17. Grace and truth by Jesus Christ

 

John 1:17

 

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) Synodal Letter p.107 "The grace and truth of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ"

 

p18. Jesus revealed the Father to us

 

John 1:18

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says Christ is the image of the Father, and Jesus said he who has seen Him has seen the Father. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.48 p.208

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "We must understand, therefore, that as the Son, who alone knows the Father, reveals Him to whom He will, so the Holy Spirit, who alone searches the deep things of God, reveals God to whom He will: "For the Spirit bloweth where He listeth." de Principiis book 1 ch.3.3 p.252

 

p19. Jesus the Paschal Lamb

 

1 Corinthians 5:7

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (347 A.D.) says Jesus was the Passover. Festal Letter 19 ch.1 p.344

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) calls Jesus the "Paschal Lamb". Nativity Hymns hymn 3 p.230

 

p20. Jesus baptized with the Holy Spirit & fire

 

Matthew 3:11

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) taught this was the fire of judgment for a Christian’s work in On the Spirit ch.15.36 p.22.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quoted Matthew 3:11 but did not specify a view of fire in Harmony of the Gospels book 2 ch.12.26 p.117.

 

p21. Jesus provided purification

 

Hebrews 1:3

 

Athanasius (329 A.D.) mentions Jesus as the sheep and lamb. His sacrifice was purified by His precious blood. Easter Letter 1 ch.9 p.509

 

p22. Jesus gives us living water

 

John 4:11

 

p23. Jesus came to save the lost

 

Luke 19:10

Luke 15:24,32

Implied Luke 15:4-9

Matthew 10:6; 15:24 lost sheep of Israel

Matthew 18:14 little ones be lost

 

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.)

 

p24. Jesus/Christ rescued us

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Venantius (lived c.530-609 A.D.) Thou [Jesus] rescuest an innumerable people from the prison of death, and they follow in freedom to the place whither their leader approaches. The fierce monster in alarm vomits forth the multitude whom he had swallowed up, and the Lamb withdraws the sheep from the jaw of the wolf." Poem on Easter p.330

 

p25. Do the will of the One who sent Him

 

John 6:38

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) quotes John 6:38. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.20.54 p.377

 

p26. In 1 Jn 2:1 Jesus is our sins’ propitiation

 

1 John 2:1

 

 

The Holy Spirit

 

H1. Mention of the Holy Spirit

 

Matthew 3:11 Luke 1:67; 3:22; 11:13; 12:10; John 1:34; Acts 19:2-3; 2 Corinthians 13:14; Hebrews 2:4; 1 Peter 1:1-2; 2 Peter 1:21; Jude 20

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 1:67; 3:22; 11:13; 12:10; John 1:34

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 1:67; 3:22; 11:13; 12:10; John 1:34

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (339 A.D.) says Jesus told us to "Go ye and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." Circular Letter ch.1 p.92

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. mentions the Holy Spirit as "He". Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit as a person. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit. Nisibine Hymns Hymn 20 no.4 p.190

Ambrose of Milan (381 A.D.) "without doubt the Holy Spirit also is to be adored, since He Who according to the flesh was born of the Holy Spirit is adored. (80) And let no one divert this to the Virgin Mary; Mary was the temple of God, not the God of the temple. And therefore He alone is to be worshipped Who was working in His temple." Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.11 no.79f-80

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) mentions blasphemy against the Holy Spirit. Letter 188 ch.I p.224

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) mentions the Father, the Only-Begotten, and the Holy Spirit. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.61

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) "Cleanse thy vessel, that thou mayest receive grace more abundantly. For though remission of sins is given equally to all, the communion of the Holy Ghost is bestowed in proportion to each man’s faith" (First Catechetical Lecture 1 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.7 also Lecture 6 ch.6 p.34)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) mentions two livings things in the hymn of Habakkuk. He interprets these as Christ and the Holy Spirit. Then he goes on to discuss the Holy Spirit more. de Principiis book 1 ch.3.3 p.253 He also discusses "the Holy Spirit Himself" in de Principiis Preface p.239.

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) refers to the Holy Spirit. Commentary on the Song of Songs ch.1 p.56

Palladius (419-420 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit as a person of the Trinity. [Both Greek and Coptic] Lausiac History 38.11 in Four Desert Fathers. (Chapter: Evagrius Debates Three Demons) p.179

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) "Glory to the Father, Son and Holy Ghost" 12 Books book 2.8 p.208

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) mentions the Holy Ghost" Letter from Cyril of Nestorius p.202

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Peter Chrysologus of Ravenna (406-450 A.D.) "‘Go’, he [Jesus] says, ‘and baptize all nations in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit’ [Matthew 28:19] in remission of sins. If in the remission of sins the Trinity is united in showing mercy, how is the whole Trinity not one in will in the Passion of the Son?" Sermon 72A ch.4 p.4-5

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) mention the Holy Spirit. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.46

Patrick of Ireland (420-461 A.D.) "[T]here is no other God, nor has there been heretofore, nor will there be hereafter, except God the Father unbegotten, without beginning, from whom is all beginning, upholding all things, as we say, and his Son Jesus Christ, whom we likewise to confess to have always been with the Father--before the world’s beginning . . . Jesus Christ is the Lord and God in whom we believe . . . and who has poured out on us abundantly the Holy Spirit . . . whom we confess and adore as one God in the Trinity of the Sacred Name" Confession of St. Patrick 4

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) mentions the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Sermon 68.4 p.181

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit. The Sentence of the Synod p.306 and The Capitula of the Council canon 1 p.312

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.322 (553 A.D.) says that Theodore of Mopsuestia was wrong to deny that Christ did not give the apostles the Holy Spirit.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) extensively discusses the Holy Spirit. Oration on Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit in Letter 1.3.4 p.21

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Baptize in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Letter 3 ch.11.1 p.51

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "confessing, indeed, that the Godhead of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, is all one, while we add thereunto a Trinity of Persons." On the Christian Priesthood book 4 ch.4 p.66

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) teaches on the Holy Spirit. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.29 p.159

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that in the Trinity there is no division, no diversity, and perpetual dearness of love. The Holy Spirit is God, and baptized believers are the Holy Spirit’s temple. On the Creed ch.13 p.374

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Peter Chrysologus of Ravenna (406-450 A.D.) "‘Go’, he [Jesus] says, ‘and baptize all nations in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit’ [Matthew 28:19] in remission of sins. If in the remission of sins the Trinity is united in showing mercy, how is the whole Trinity not one in will in the Passion of the Son?" Sermon 72A ch.4 p.4-5

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) The Holy Spirit is God The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.45-46 p.36-37; book 1 part 1 ch.47 p.38

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "Divine Spirit wishes us to understand [it]" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.38 p.29

Council of Constantinople II (about 153 bishops present) (551/553 A.D.) "In anyone shall not confess that the nature or essence of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is one, as also the force and the power; [if anyone does not confess] a consubstantial Trinity, one Godhead to be worshipped in three subsistences or Persons: let him be anathema. For there is but one God even the Father of whom are all things, and one Lord Jesus Christ..." Capitula of the Council ch.1 p.313

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) mentions the Holy Spirit, but not positively or negatively. Ginza p.549

Creed of Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe … and in one Holy Spirit, the Comforter…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) refers to the Holy Spirit. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.250

 

H2. The Holy Spirit is God

 

Acts 5:3-4

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 5:3-4

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Acts 5:3-4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) "Let them say whether it is more proper to rank Him [the Holy Spirit] with God or to thrust Him forth to the place of the creature. Peter’s word to Sapphira, ‘How is it that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord? Ye have not lied unto men, but unto God,’ show that sins against the Holy Spirit and against God are the same. On the Spirit ch.16.37 p.22.

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) has an entire oration: Oration on Pentecost ch.5 p.378-385

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that in the Trinity there is no division, no diversity, and perpetual dearness of love. The Holy Spirit is God, and baptized believers are the Holy Spirit’s temple. On the Creed ch.13 p.374

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) The Holy Spirit is God The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.45-46 p.36-37; book 1 part 1 ch.47 p.38

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "Divine Spirit wishes us to understand [it]" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.38 p.29

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God is Father and God is Son and God is Holy Spirit. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.309

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.322 (553 A.D.) (implied because accepted the four synods (Nicea, Constantinople I, Ephesus, Chalcedon)

Council of Constantinople II (about 153 bishops present) (551/553 A.D.) "In anyone shall not confess that the nature or essence of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is one, as also the force and the power; [if anyone does not confess] a consubstantial Trinity, one Godhead to be worshipped in three subsistences or Persons: let him be anathema. For there is but one God even the Father of whom are all things, and one Lord Jesus Christ..." Capitula of the Council ch.1 p.313

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) says that the Holy Spirit is a distinct hypostasis in God." He says the Holy Spirit is a distinct person, baptizing in the name of the three. Commentary on Haggai ch.2 p.314

 

H3. Person of the Holy Spirit

 

John 15:26-27; 16:7,12-14

Acts 5:3-5; 15:28

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 5:3-5; 15:28

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Acts 5:3-5; 15:28

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) discusses the Holy Spirit, who is the same as the Paraclete. He makes holy and comforts those who are His recipients. Also, we are adopted as sons. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.29 p.444-445

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. mentions the Holy Spirit as "He". Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit as a person. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that the Holy Spirit is a person. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.19 p.57

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) mentions two livings things in the hymn of Habakkuk. He interprets these as Christ and the Holy Spirit. Then he goes on to discuss the Holy Spirit more. de Principiis book 1 ch.3.3 p.253 He also discusses "the Holy Spirit Himself" in de Principiis Preface p.239.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that in the Trinity there is no division, no diversity, and perpetual dearness of love. The Holy Spirit is God, and baptized believers are the Holy Spirit’s temple. On the Creed ch.13 p.374

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "Divine Spirit wishes us to understand [it]" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.38 p.29

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) mentions that the O.T. people did not yet understand that the Holy Spirit was a person. Commentary on Joel ch.2 p.117

 

H4. Glorify/worship the Holy Spirit

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) says to give glory to the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit very frequently, such as in vol.12 Commentary on 1 Corinthians homily 1 p.5.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "He Who is in the prophets is worshipped, the same Spirit is worshipped." Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.18.143 p.155.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "We serve the Spirit of God. He is, therefore, to be worshiped by us, Whom the Apostle taught that we must serve, and Whom we serve we also adore,…: Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.18.142 p.155.

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) "our Lord Jesus Christ, … to Whom be the glory and worship, with the Father and the Holy Ghost, now and for ever. Amen". Oration on Pentecost ch.18 p.385

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says we worship One God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The City of God book 10 ch.25 p.196

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that they should not suppose that three gods are worshipped by Christians because there is only One God. On Faith and the Creed ch.9.16 p.327

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says the Trinity is to be worshipped in three subsistences or persons. Capitula of the Council canon 1 p.312

 

H5. The Holy Spirit is distinct

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) "He [the heretic Photinus] denies the completeness of the Trinity, and does not believe that there is any Person of God the Word, or any Person of the Holy Ghost. Christ he affirms to be a mere man, whose original was from Mary. Hence he insists with the utmost obstinacy that we are to render worship only to the Person of God the Father, and that we are to honour Christ as man only. This is the doctrine of Photinus." A Commonitory ch.12 p.139

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Father, Son, and Spirit are distinct. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.71 p.64-65

 

H6. Holy Spirit called Spirit of truth

 

John 14:17a; 16:13

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes John 16:13 saying Jesus called the Holy Spirit the Spirit of Truth. Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.11.114 p.129

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) The Holy Spirit is the spirit of truth. Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.329

 

H7. Holy Spirit addressed as "He"

 

John 14:17 "...the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be with you."

John 16:7 "I [Jesus] will send him to you.."

John 16:8 "When he comes, he..."

John 16:13 "he will guide you into all truth. He will not speak on his own, he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come. He will bring glory to me."

Romans 8:16 "The Spirit himself testifies"

Romans 8:26 "but the Spirit himself..."

1 Corinthians 12:11 "All these are the work of one and the same Spirit, and he gives them to each one, just as he determines."

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "3. And since many saints participate in the Holy Spirit, He cannot therefore be understood to be a body, which being divided into corporeal parts, is partaken of by each one of the saints; but He is manifestly a sanctifying power, in which all are said to have a share who have deserved to be sanctified by His grace." de Principiis book 1 ch.1.3 p.242

others too

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) "the Holy Spirit is sometimes spoken of in such a way as if he himself..." Letters of Fulgentius Letter 14 to Ferrandus ch.13 p.514

others too

 

H8. Sevenfold spirit or seven spirits

 

Revelation 1:4; 4:5; 5:6; Zechariah 3:9

 

p10 (= P. Oxyrhynchus 209) Romans 1:1-7 (4th century) has Revelation 1:4

 

H9. The Holy Spirit/Comforter was promised

 

Ephesians 1:13

 

H10. Jesus sent the Holy Spirit

 

John 15:26; 16:7

 

H11. Paraclete or Holy Spirit already present

 

1 Corinthians 12:13

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 12:13

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 12:13

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) (351 A.D.) (implied) "in the Holy Spirit, that is to say the Comforter, whom, having promised to his apostles after his ascension into the heavens, to teach them, and bring all things to their remembrance, he sent; (past tense)" Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56. See also ibid p.57

Athanasius (331 A.D.) discusses the Holy Spirit, who is the same as the Paraclete. He [currently] makes holy and comforts those who are His recipients. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.29 p.444-445

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that the Holy Spirit is the paraclete in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.4 p.145.

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) says that by baptism the Holy Spirit is poured out on us. On Baptism ch.6(2) p.92

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) says that Jesus promised the paraclete (John 15:26) in Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.1.8 p.136. The entire work says that the Spirit dwells in believers now.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "But He [God] gave the Holy Spirit to all, to shed upon the apostles though separated the gift of indivisible grace." Of the Holy Spirit book 1 ch.7.81 p.104.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) says that the Paraclete is the Holy Spirit. de Principiis 2.7.1 p.284; 2.7.3 p.285; 2.7.4 p.285-286

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) The Comforter came to us (John 16:7) Defense Against the Pelagians ch.10 p.128

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says the Holy Spirit was given to us. On the Trinity book 15 ch.17.31 p.217

 

H12. Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit

 

(not just blasphemy against God or Jesus)

 

Matthew 12:31; Mark 3:28-29; Luke 12:10

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions blasphemy against the Holy Spirit (Matthew 12:32; 13:55). Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.12.50 p.335-336

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) mentions blasphemy against the Holy Spirit. Letter 188 ch.I p.224

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "Who, then, is not amazed at the exceeding majesty of the Holy Spirit, when he hears that he who speaks a word against the Son of man may hope for forgiveness; but that he who is guilty of blasphemy against the Holy Spirit has not forgiveness, either in the present world or in that which is to come!" de Principiis book 1 ch.252

 

H13. Holy Spirit dwells/lives in us

 

1 Corinthians 6:19

 

H14. Live in the Spirit

 

Galatians 5:16 Live by the Spirit and you will not gratify the desires of the sinful nature.

 

H15. We can grieve the Holy Spirit

 

Ephesians 4:30

(partial) Hebrews 3:7-8

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) (partial) people can resist the Holy Spirit. Sermon 68.2 p.180

 

 

THE HOLY SPIRIT’s WORK

 

Hw1. The Power of the Holy Spirit

 

1 Corinthians 2:4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "how clearly did the Holy Spirit express His own power!" Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.10.104 p.128

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "And this method of apprehension is undoubtedly suggested to the minds of all by the power of the Holy Spirit." de Principiis book 2 ch.7.2 p.285

 

Hw2. God’s Spirit moved over abyss/waters

 

Genesis 1:2

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) said that the Spirit of God moved over the waters. Homilies on Genesis homily 1 p.47

 

Hw3. The Holy Spirit spoke Scripture

 

Acts 1:16; 1 Peter 1:21

 

Hw4. Sword of the Spirit is the word of God

 

Hw5. Christ born of Mary by the Holy Spirit

 

Luke 1:35

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 1:35

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 1:35

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "He [the Archangel] says, ‘The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the Power of the Highest shall overshadow thee, therefore also that Holy Thing which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God.’" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.32 p.446

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) (partial) says that Christ was begotten without passion. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) says Jesus was born of the virgin and the Holy Spirit. de Principiis book 1 ch.4 p.240

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) &&& City of God

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ was born of the Holy Spirit. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.71 p.55; book 2 ch.1(b) p.198

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Mary is the Holy Virgin, but not the mother of God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.149; Virgin Mary. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.171

 

Hw6. Holy Spirit appeared as a dove

 

Matthew 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:22

John 1:33 (partial)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) (partial, no dove) says the Holy Spirit descended. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.12.47 p.334

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) says the Holy Spirit came down as a dove. Orations on the Holy Lights ch.16 p.358

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says the Holy Spirit came down on Jesus as a dove. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.55 and book 1 part 1 ch.71.

 

Hw7. Holy Spirit came down at Pentecost

 

Acts 2

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 2

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Acts 2

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea canon 20 p.42 (325 A.D.) Mentions Pentecost (partial) No mention of the Holy Spirit here though.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the cloven tongues that appeared as fire when the Holy Spirit came. The City of God book 20 ch.21 p.441

 

Hw8. Holy Spirit gives gifts

 

1 Corinthians 12:7-8,11; Hebrews 2:4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) discusses the Holy Spirit giving gifts. Oration on Pentecost ch.16 p.384

 

Hw9. The Holy Spirit is a gift

 

Acts 1:4-5; 2:38b; 10:45

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) (partial) Jesus is given of the Holy Spirit. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.12.50 p.336

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "gift of the Spirit" de Principiis book 1 ch.3.7 p.248

 

Hw10. Fruit of the Spirit

 

Galatians 5:22

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (334 A.D.) "quotes Galatians 5:22 in Festal Letter 6 ch.5 p.521

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "…The Holy Spirit is to be understood; as e.g., in the expression, ‘Now the fruit of the Spirit if love, joy, and peace;’" de Principiis book 1 ch.4 p.252

 

Hw11. Baptized/washed with the Holy Spirit

 

Matthew 3:11; Luke 1:23; 3:16; John 1:34; Acts 11:16; 1 Corinthians 12:13

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:34

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 1:34

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit baptizing us. Catechetical Lecture 17 ch.36 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.132

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) speaks of the promise of being baptized in the Holy Spirit. Expositions on Psalms Psalm 1.3 p.1

 

Hw12. The Holy Spirit seals believers

 

Ephesians 1:13-14; 2 Corinthians 1:22

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Ephesians 1:13-14

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Ephesians 1:13-14

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit sealing believers. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.12.47 p.337

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) refers to the Holy Spirit giving use the seal at which evil spirits tremble. Catechetical Lecture 17 ch.35 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.132

 

Hw13. Filled with the Holy Spirit

 

Acts 9:17; Ephesians 5:18

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Ephesians 5:18

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels + Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Acts 9:17

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 9:17

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Acts 9:17

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) &&& Holy Spirit. Expositions on Psalms Psalm &&&

 

Hw14. The Holy Spirit directs

 

(implied) Acts 8:29; 13:2

(implied) Acts 15:28

 

Hw15. Holy Spirit taught us

 

1 Corinthians 2:13, John 14:26

Reveals things from God 1 Corinthians 2:10 + 2:16

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) (351 A.D.) "in the Holy Spirit, that is to say the Comforter, whom, having promised to his apostles after his ascension into the heavens, to teach them, and bring all things to their remembrance, he sent;" Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56. See also ibid p.57

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) says the Holy Spirit shall lead us into all truth (John 16:13) in Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.11.114 p.129.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "For He [the Holy Spirit] shall not speak from Himself, but what things He shall hear shall He speak, and He shall declare unto you the thing that are to come." Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.11.115 p.129.

 

Hw16. The Holy Spirit gives knowledge

 

Genesis 41:38-40; Numbers 27:18; Judges 3:10; 6:34; 11:29; 1 Samuel 10:10; 1 Samuel 6:13

 

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) For all knowledge of the Father is obtained by revelation of the Son through the Holy Spirit, de Principiis book 1 ch.3.4 p.&&&

 

Hw17. Spirit gives us guidance/understanding

 

The Spirit of understanding came upon Christ is not included here.

 

John 16:13 "he will guide you into all truth. He will not speak on his own, he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come. He will bring glory to me."

 

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "For if the animal man receive not the things of the Spirit of God, and because he is animal, is unable to admit the understanding of a better, i.e., of a divine nature, it is for this reason perhaps that Paul, wishing to teach us more plainly what that is by means of which we are able to comprehend those things which are of the Spirit, i.e., spiritual things, conjoins and associates with the Holy Spirit an understanding rather than a soul." De Principiis book 2 ch.8.2 p.&&&

 

Hw18. The Comforter/Holy Spirit comforts us

 

John 14:15-18,25-27

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) (351 A.D.) "in the Holy Spirit, that is to say the Comforter" Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56. See also ibid p.57

Rufinus (373-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "but when the Holy Spirit, the Comforter, is come" de Principiis book 1 ch.3.4 p.253

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "Holy Spirit, the Paraclete must be understood in the sense of comforter, inasmuch as He bestows consolation upon the souls to whom He openly reveals the apprehension of spiritual knowledge." de Principiis book 2 ch.7.4 p.285-286

 

Hw19. Disciples received the Holy Spirit

 

John 20:22 Jesus breathed on them and said receive the Holy Spirit

Acts 1:8

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) The Holy Spirit was received by the apostles. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.47 p.334

Rufinus freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "And in the New Testament we have abundant testimonies, as when the Holy Spirit is described as having descended upon Christ, and when the Lord breathed upon His apostles after His resurrection, saying, "Receive the Holy Spirit;" de Principiis book1 ch.3.2 p.&&&

 

Hw20. The Holy Spirit witnesses

 

The Holy Spirit witnessing by scripture (Acts 1:15) is not counted here.

 

John 15:26; Acts 10:19

 

 

The Working of God

 

W1. God made all things in heaven and earth

 

(implied) John 1:3

Acts 17:24; Colossians 1:16; Hebrews 2:10; Revelation 4:11

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) (implied) John 1:3

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) (implied) John 1:3

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Nicea (325 A.D.) says God the Father is the maker of heaven and earth, and all things visible and invisible.

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.82 discusses the divinity and humanity of Christ, the only-begotten of God, the Creator of all things. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.82

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says God made everything. Letter 60 ch.8 p.578

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.76 p.216 "none the less, you do not worship God Himself, but serve the creature rather than God who created all things."

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. says that God made all things. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Gregory of Nyssa (356-397 A.D.) says that God made all things. Against Eunomius book 2 p.309

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) "and are not all things from God?" Letter 1 ch.4.4 p.32

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) says God is the creator of all things. Marcion was wrong to say the Creator was not good. Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.207

Venantius (lived c.530-609 A.D.) says that He who was crucified reigns over all things. All things offer prayer to their Creator. Poem on Easter p.329

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , One God, Father Almighty, made all things, Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that God is the cause of all. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.3 (14) p.71

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says God is the maker of all creation. Against Eunomius 8 ch.1 p.208

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says there was only one Creator of heaven and earth. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.4 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.20

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God is the maker of all things. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.141; 1 p.144

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Everything came into being by the Father through the Son. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.53 p.4

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) (partial) says there is One God, who is the first cause of all things and unchangeable. Candidus’ First Letter ch.1,2 p.54

Creed of Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe in One God, the Father Almighty, of Whom are all things…Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "God, who is the creator and Lord of everything." Commentary on Amos ch.1 p.131

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "God, who is both maker and Lord of all." Commentary on Amos ch.9 p.173

 

W2. Heaven and earth were created good

 

Genesis 1:4a,10b,12b,18b,21b,25b,31a; 1 Timothy 4:4

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Genesis 1:4a; 10b,12b,18b,21b,25b,31a

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Genesis 1:4a, 10b,12b,18b,21b,25b,31a

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.76 p.216 (partial) says that creation is beautiful.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) says that it would be absurd to assert that God made anything hostile to Himself. de Principiis book 3 ch.4.5 p.340

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says creation was originally good. The City of God book 11 ch.21 p.216

 

Among heretics

Tatian (died 172 A.D.) (implied) "But God, if He had prepared these things to effect just what men wish, would be a Producer of evil things; whereas He Himself produced everything which has good qualities, but the profligacy of the demons has made use of the productions of nature for evil purposes, and the appearance of evil which these wear is from them, and not from the perfect God." (apparently written before he became an Encratite) Address to the Greeks ch.17 p.72

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (uncertain date) homily 8 ch.10 p.272 says the only good God made all things well.

 

W3. God created things from nothing

 

~Hebrews 11:3

(partial) Hebrews 11:3

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (339 A.D.) says God created from nothing. Letter 16 ch.4 p.533

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "Not only did He Himself [Christ] bring them out of nothing into being, but Himself sustains them now, so that were they dissevered from His Providence, they were at once undone and destroyed." Homilies on Colossians homily 3 p.271

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) says that God created all things when nothing existed. de Principiis book 1 ch.4 p.240

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (partial) God brought us into existence from nothing. Commentary on Malachi ch.1 p.401

 

W4. Six days of Creation

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions the six days of Creation. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19 p.358

Athanasius (329 A.D.) (implied) "of those six holy and great days, which are the symbol of the creation of this world," Easter Letter 329 A.D. ch.10 p.509

 

W5. God imparted the breath of life

 

W6. Garden of Eden

 

Genesis 2:8-17; Genesis 3; Isaiah 51:3; Ezekiel 28:13; 31:9-18; 36:35; Joel 2:3

 

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns Hymn 58 no.20 p.212

 

W7. Enoch was translated without dying

 

Genesis 5:21-24; Hebrews 11:5; Jude 14

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Genesis 5:21-24

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Genesis 5:21-24

 

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says, "Enoch, for instance was thus translated," Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.28.52 p.422

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Enoch and Elijah did not see death. Nisibine Hymns Hymn 36 no.7 p.196

 

W8. Judgment of Noah’s flood / deluge

 

Genesis 6-9; Isa 54:9; Matthew 24:37-38; Luke 3:36; 17:26-27; Hebrews 11:7; 1 Peter 3:10; 2 Peter 2:5

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.4 p.87 mentions Noah and the flood.

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.3 p.86 mentions Noah’s flood. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.84

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions God warning Noah of seven days before the flood upon the earth. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.28.45 p.419

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) "For lo! It was but as mysteries of Him that those lowly sacrifices gained virtue, which Noah offered, and stayed by them Thy wrath. Be propitiated by the gift upon my altar, and stay from me the deadly flood. So shall both Thy signs bring deliverance to me Thy cross and to Noah Thy bow! Thy cross shall cleave the sea of waters; Thy bow shall stay the flood of rain." Nisibine Hymns hymn 1 no.2 p.167

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) mentions Noah’s flood and the rain of fire on Sodom in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.12 p.126

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions Noah’s flood in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 77 p.464.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "long-suffering of God in the days of Noah, when the ark was preparing" de Principiis book 2 ch.5.3 p.279

Rufinus (c.410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (240 A.D.) (partial) briefly mentions Noe (Noah). Commentary on the Song of Songs ch.1 p.65

 

Among heretics

The Vision of Paul (c.388 A.D. – after Nicea) ch.50 p.165 mention of Noe (Noah) and Noah’s Flood.

 

W9. God’s appearances in the Old Testament

 

Genesis 18 (entire chapter); Exodus 3:4-6; 14:19-20; 19:18-20; 33:17-23

(implied) Acts 7:32-34

1 Corinthians 10:1-4

 

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.83 says that Jesus was one of the three men who appeared to Abraham.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (partial) extensively discusses the three children. "dare we think of His pierced body in that pain and weakness, from which the spirit of faith in Him rescued the glorious and blessed Martyrs?" (ch.46) On the Trinity book 10 ch.45-47 p.194.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) discusses Moses seeing God, in a mystical sense, in Exodus 33:20. de Principiis book 2 ch.4.3 p.277

X Jerome (373-420 A.D.) thought it was not Christ, but rather just an angel who prefigured in type Christ in the fiery furnace in Daniel.

Athanasius (331 A.D.) quotes Exodus 3:2-6 in Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.14 p.401

 

W10. Judgment against Sodom or Gomorrah

 

Genesis 13:10-13; 18:20-19:28; Deuteronomy 29:13; 32:32; Isa 1:9-10; Jer 49:18; 50:40; Amos 4:11; Matthew 10:15; 11:23-24; Luke 10:12; 17:29; Romans 9:29; 2 Peter 2:6; Jude 7

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 10:15; 11:23-24; Luke 10:12; 17:29

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions God raining brimstone and fire down on Sodom and Gomorrah. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.13 p.355 and "in this body offering Himself for all" ch.14 p.355

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.9 p.83 mentions the Lord raining fire down on Sodom and Gomorrah.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 10 no.13 p.178

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) mentions Noah’s flood and the rain of fire on Sodom in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.12 p.126

The Vision of Paul (first ‘found’ c.388 A.D. – after Nicea) ch.39 p.161 speaks of punishment for homosexuals, which was called "the iniquity of Sodom and Gomorrah, the male with the male, for which reason they unceasingly pay penalties". They were "covered with dust, their countenance was like blood, and they were in a pit of pitch and sulphur and running down into a fiery river"

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions the great sin of the Sodomites in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 37 p.247.

 

W11. The burning bush of Moses

 

Exodus 3; Acts 7:30

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) discusses Moses and the bush, saying that the Lord who appeared to Moses was "He who is seen", meaning Christ. On the Trinity book 4 ch.32 p.80-81

 

W12. Plagues of Egypt

 

Exodus 7-12

(partial) Acts 7:36 (says wonders in Egypt, but not specifically plagues)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "Egypt was scourged with ten plagues, to allow the people of God to depart" de Principiis book 4 ch.24 p.&&&

 

W13. Crossing the Red Sea

 

Exodus 14-15; Acts 7:36; Hebrews 11:24-28

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 11:29

p13 (Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17) (225-250 A.D.) speaks of Moses in Hebrews 11:24-28 and the people crossing the Red Sea in Hebrews 11:29

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied, no mention of Moses here) "In the Red Sea Thou didst drown bodies;" in this sea drown my guilt instead of bodies!" Nisibine Hymns hymn 1 no.5 p.167

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) mentions Moses and the Israelites crossing the Red Sea and Joshua and the priests crossing the Jordan. Homilies on Joshua homily 4 ch.1 p.51

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) discusses the Exodus in The City of God book 4 ch.33 p.84-82-83

 

W14. [Moses] destroying Amalekites

 

Exodus 17:8-15

 

W15. Hezekiah and the Assyrian army

 

2 Kings 19; Isaiah 36-37

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (338 A.D.) mentions Hezekiah and the Assyrian army that perished. Easter Letter 10 ch.3 p.528

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.28 p.204 "At least the true angel of the Lord sent against the Assyrian had no need for tumults nor displays from without, nor noises nor rattlings, but in quiet he used his power and forthwith destroyed a hundred and eighty-five thousand."

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (partial, not mention of the Assyrians) Nisibine Hymns hymn 39 no.18 p.202

Aphrahat (337-344 A.D.) (partial) mentions the Assyrians and Hezekiah but does not say anything else. Select Demonstrations book 21 ch.7 p.395

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (implied) speaks of the advancing Assyrians who fled when the angel annihilated vast numbers. Commentary on Zechariah ch.13 p.386. Also Commentary on Habakkuk preface p.266

 

W16. The star [of Bethlehem]

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-650 A.D.) ch.13 p.375 "And some shepherds also affirmed that they had seen angels singing a hymn at midnight, praising and blessing the God of heaven, and saying: There has been born the Saviour of all, who is Christ the Lord, in whom salvation shall be brought back to Israel. Moreover, a great star, large than any that had been seen since the beginning of the world, shone over the cave from the evening till the morning. And the prophets who were in Jerusalem said that this star pointed out the birth of Christ, who should restore the promise not only to Israel, but to all nations."

 

W17. Jesus performed miracles

 

Luke 6:10; 7:14-15

 

John 2:1-11; John 4:46-54; Matthew 8:14-17; Mark 1:29-34; Luke 4:38-41; Matthew 8:23-27; Mark 4:35-41; Luke 8:22-25; Matthew 14:13-21; Mark 6:30-44; Luke 9:10-17; John 6:-14; Matthew 14:22-23; Mark 6:45-52; John 6:16-21; Matthew 15:32-39; Mark 8:1-9; Matthew 17:1-13; Mark 9:2-13; Luke 4:16-31; Luke 9:28-36; Matthew 9:18-26; Mark 5:21-43; Luke 8:40-56; John 9:1-41; John 11:1-44; Matthew 20:29-34; Mark 10:46-52; Luke 18:35-43; Matthew 21:18-19; Mark 11:12-14; Matthew 28:1-10; Mark 16:1-8; Luke 24:1-12; John 20:1-10; Mark 16:12-13; Luke 24:13-35; Mark 16:14; Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-25; John 20:26-31; John 21:1-25; Matthew 28:16-20; Mark 16:29-20; Luke 24:44-53

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 6:10; 7:14-15

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 6:10; 7:14-15

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Juvencus (329 A.D.) said that Jesus performed miracles in his Englynion Introduction.

Athanasius (356-360 A.D.) mentions that Jesus raised Lazarus and open the eyes of a blind man. Letter to the Church of Antioch ch.7 p.485

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) Homilies on Joshua. homily 8 ch.3 p.88

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead. The City of God book 14 ch.9 p.269

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-550 A.D.) Jesus said "uniting with wholesome teaching many evident miracles" p.327

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says that it is the same Jesus Christ who is the Word of God, suffered, was incarnate and made man, and worked miracles. the flesh from Mary, Mother of God. The Capitula of the Council ch.3 p.312

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) (partial) said that Jesus put the demons with him into dead people so that their bodies would rise. Ginza p.549

 

W18. Jesus fed the 5,000

 

John 6:8-12

 

W19. Raising Lazarus from the dead

 

John 11:38-44; 12:1

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 11:38-44; 12:1

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says the Jesus recalled Lazarus’ soul. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.28.46 p.419.

Athanasius (356-360 A.D.) mentions that Jesus raised Lazarus and opened the eyes of a blind man. Letter to the Church of Antioch ch.7 p.485

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) mentions Lazarus coming out of the tomb, and the Lord saying, "Come forth". quotes part of John 11:43 saying that Jesus said it. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 8 ch.14 p.379

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 37 no.6 p.198

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead. The City of God book 14 ch.9 p.269

 

Among heretics

Ebionite: One of the manuscripts of pseudo-Matthew (600-650 A.D.) "And forthwith the dead man rose from his bed, and asked who Jesus was. In place of this chapter, one of the mss. has a number of miracles copied from the canonical Gospels: "the walking on the sea, the feeding of the five thousand, the healing of a blind man, the raising of Lazarus, and the raising of a certain young man."

 

W20. The apostle(s) worked miracles

 

Luke 9:1; Acts 3:1-8; 5:12; 9:40-42

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 9:1

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.13.2-5 p.100 and book 1 ch.13.17 p.101 discusses the apostle Thaddeus going to see King Agabus.

 

W21. Tree of knowledge

 

Genesis 2:16,17

 

W22. Jesus at Cana or turning water to wine

 

John 2:1-12

 

W23. Four rivers leaving the Garden of Eden

 

Genesis 2:10-14

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

(No Athanasius)

 

W24. Ananias or Sapphira killed

 

Acts 5:1-11

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) "Let them say whether it is more proper to rank Him [the Holy Spirit] with God or to thrust Him forth to the place of the creature. Peter’s word to Sapphira, ‘How is it that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord? Ye have not lied unto men, but unto God,’ show that sins against the Holy Spirit and against God are the same. On the Spirit ch.16.37 p.22.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Acts 5:3-4,5 and mentions Ananias and his wife, who were killed by the Holy Spirit. Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.9.56 p.143.

(No Athanasius)

 

W25. Eve from Adam’s rib

 

Genesis 2:22

 

W26. Ark [of the Covenant]

 

W27. Jacob’s ladder

 

W28. Water from the rock

 

1 Corinthians 10:3-4

 

W29. Lot’s wife a pillar of salt

 

Genesis 19:26

 

 

W30. Christ with the 3 youths in Daniel

 

Daniel 3:25 (implied)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (implied) extensively discusses the three children. "dare we think of His pierced body in that pain and weakness, from which the spirit of faith in Him rescued the glorious and blessed Martyrs?" (ch.46) On the Trinity book 10 ch.45-47 p.194.

Athanasius (338 A.D.) (partial, does not refer to the fourth) "And those valiant and blessed three who were tried in Babylon, Hananiah, Hishael, and Azariah, when they were in the safety and the fire became to them as new, gave thanks, praising and saying words of gory to God. I too like them have written, my brethren, having these things in mind;" Letters of Athanasius Paschal Letter 10 ch.3 p.528

X Jerome (373-420 A.D.) thought it was not Christ, but rather just an angel who prefigured in type Christ in the fiery furnace in Daniel.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.)

 

W31. God sends the rain on everyone

 

Acts 14:17b "He has shown kindness by giving you rain from heaven and crops in their seasons, he provides you with plenty of food and fills your hearts with joy."

Zephaniah 10:1 (partial) "rain to men"

 

&&&Rufinus translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) the rain falls in kindness and impartiality de Principiis book 3 ch.&&&

Rufinus translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) bad, to just and unjust, by so doing give a preference to the Holy Spirit over de Principiis book 1 ch.&&&

 

W32. The earth is God’s footstool

 

W33. Jacob wrestled with God/an angel

 

Genesis 32:22-32

 

W34. Abraham’s seed like the stars of heaven

 

Genesis 15:5

 

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) "the seed of Abraham like the stars of heaven," Commentary on Psalms Psalm 113 no.7 p.549

 

 

W35. Manna

 

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.)" down manna from heaven, and with the manna gave them also flesh; who"

 

W36. Noah’s ark

 

Genesis 6:14-8:19

 

W37. Jesus healed the paralytic man

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says that Jesus remitted sins against the paralytic. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.27.40 p.415

 

W38. God blessed the Seventh Day

 

Genesis 2:3a

 

W39. Jesus walked on water/waves/deep

 

John 6:17-22

 

W40. The firstborn of Egypt perished

 

W41. Jesus healed lepers

 

W42. Cloud and/or pillar of fire

 

W43. Zechariah was made mute [temporarily]

 

W44. Scattering after the Tower of Babel

 

W45. Healing the widow’s son

 

W46. Bronze/brazen serpent in the wilderness

 

John 3:14

 

W47. God confused/altered the languages

 

Genesis 11:7-9

 

 

People and the Fall

 

P1. People are made in the image of God

 

Genesis 1:26-27; 1 Corinthians 11:7; James 3:9

Genesis 9:6 (people, not just Adam)

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Genesis 1:26-27

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Genesis 1:26-27

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.4 p.82 says that we were made in the image of Christ. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 ch.2.4 p.83

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) quotes Genesis that people are made in the image of God, and says the image people were made from was that of Christ. On the Trinity book 5 ch.9 p.87

Athanasius (335-354 A.D.) says that God made us in His image. On Luke 10:22 ch.2 p.87

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes Genesis 1:26. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.51 p.209

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says we are made in the image of God. Homilies on John homily 25 ch.2 (vol.14) p.89

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes Genesis 1:26-28 "Let us make man in our image" de Principiis book 3 ch.6.1 p.344

Life of Aphou (399-420? A.D.) says that we are made in the image of God. "Aba Aphou said, ‘Just as it is necessary to believe this, it is also necessary to believe his authority: ‘humankind has been created [according to] the likeness and image of God,’’" Four Desert Fathers. p.185

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) We are made in the image of God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.63 p.59

 

P2. Our bodies die but our souls are immortal

 

God’s Judgment is final and the Lake of Fire is eternal. Revelation 20:10(Mt 25:46); 2 Thessalonians 1:9; Hebrews 6:2; Jude 7

Non-believers have painful consciousness after death. Revelation 20:10; Luke 12:5; 13:28; 16; Ezekiel 32:31-32; Matthew 3:12;5:21;13:42,50;22:13;25:41; Isaiah 50:11

Non-believers will perish. Luke 13:3,5; John 3:16; 2 Thessalonians 1:9, be no more on earth. Psalm 104:35; Deuteronomy 29:20, be destroyed.2 Thessalonians 1:9; 2 Peter 3:16; Matthew 10:28; 1 Corinthians 3:17; Philippians 1:28; James 4:12; Revelation 11:18

Destruction does not mean non-existence; Satan, beast, and false prophet will suffer forever in the lake of fire. Luke 21:16+18; 2 Thessalonians 2:8; Revelation 19:20;20:10.

Unbelievers are eternally punished there too. Matthew 25:41,46; Revelation 14:9-11;~19:3;~22:15

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 25:46

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 25:46

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 25:46

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Chryosotom (died 407 A.D.) "For of the fact that we have an immortal soul, and that we shall hereafter render an account of what we have done here, and stand before a fearful Tribunal, their minds are at once thoroughly persuaded, and they have also regulated their whole course of life by such hopes as these; and have become superior to all worldly show, instructed as they have been by the sacred Scriptures, that ‘all is vanity, yea, vanity of vanities,’ [Ecclesiastes i.2] and they do not greedily long for any of those things which seem to be so splendid." On the Statues ch.19.3 p.465

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) (implied) discusses the immutability of the soul in de Principiis book 3 ch.1.13 p.313-314

Many others too

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Apocalypse of Peter v.25 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.9 p.145-147 (partial) tells in great detail of the tormonets of the wicked after death.

 

P3. Man fell when Adam and Eve ate the fruit

 

Genesis 3; Romans 5:17-19

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Genesis 3

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Genesis 3

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says that death prevailed from Adam to Moses, the earth was cursed, Hades opened, and Paradise shut. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.2 p.87

Athanasius (328 A.D.) (partial) says that man is in need and is fallen. Statement of Faith ch.4 p.85.

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (implied) Adam’s condemnation transmitted to the whole human race. All people have sinned. On Baptism ch.2.1 p.88

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) discusses how mankind fell because Adam sinned. On Baptism ch.1.2 p.87-88 and ch.2.1 p.88

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says that Adam sinned and so the human race sinned. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.26 p.152-153

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says the fall came from the bad use of free will. The City of God book 13 ch.14 p.251. They sinned when they ate the fruit. The City of God book 13 ch.20 p.256

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Mentions the Fall of Adam and eating of the forbidden tree. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.75 p.68-69

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) (partial) mentions Eve taking the fruit. Poem on Easter p.330.

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) (partial) mention Adam and Eve. Ginza p.543

 

P4. Adam & Eve covered themselves for shame

 

P5. We have or inherited a sinful nature

 

Romans 5:12-19; 1 John 1:10

1 Corinthians 15:22-23 (partial)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (34-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) (partial) discusses the spirit vs. the flesh. de Principiis book 3 ch.2.3 p.330

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.)

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Man is sinful. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.92 p.82

Prosper of Aquitaine (426-455 A.D.)

 

P6. Reason/understanding was darkened

 

Job 38:2 (partial)

Matthew 4:16; 6:23; Luke 11:34; John 3:19-20;

John 12:35,40 (implied); 2 Corinthians 4:4-6 (implied)

1 Corinthians 2:14; 2 Corinthians 3:14-16 (Jews when reading Moses)

Romans 1:21; 2:19; Ephesians 4:17-18; 5:8; 6:12; Colossians 1:13; 1 John 1:6-7; 2:9

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (implied John 12:40

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) (implied) Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse &&&

 

P7. People are corrupted/corruptible

 

1 Corinthians 15:42,50,53

 

Saying that a few people, or evil people, are corrupted is not counted here. Corrupt superstitions are also not counted.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (334 A.D.) "quotes 1 Corinthians 15:53. Easter Letter 6 ch.4 p.520

Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria (after 384 A.D.) p.268 "By no means, For as long as this corruptible body weighs us down, and this earthly habitation depresses the sense of our infirmity, many are easily deceived in their imaginations, and think that which is unjust to be just, that to be holy which is impure. The Gibeonites who, by the divine threatenings, were to be utterly destroyed, having one thing in their wishes and another in their voice and mien, were able quickly to deceive Joshua, that just distributor of the land of promise."

 

P8. People have the will to choose

 

Joshus 24:15; (implied) Luke 7:30

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (implied) Luke 7:30

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 7:30

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 7:30

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) Every soul has free will. Origen’s de Principiis preface 5 p.240

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) Mention of free will. Fragment 1 from Origen’s de Principiis p.267

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) believed in free will. Origen’s de Principiis 3.5.5 p.343; 3.5.8 p.344

 

P9. All have sinned

 

Psalm 14:2-3; Psalm 53:2-3;

Romans 3:22-23; 1 John 1:8,10; (partial) Luke 5:8; (partial) James 3:2a;

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (partial) Luke 5:8

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Adam’s condemnation transmitted to the whole human race. All people have sinned. On Baptism ch.2.1 p.88

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) says that all men live a natural life of sin. Commentary on Philippians homily 3 verse 21 p.195

Jerome (373-420 A.D.)

Council of Ephesus (Jun-Sep 431 A.D.)

 

P10. People are hardened

 

Exodus 4:21; 10:20; Psalm 95:8; Proverbs 28:14; Romans 9:18; 11:25; Ephesians 4:18

 

P11. Idolators/sinners are shameful

 

Daniel 9:7-11,16

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) (implied) Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse

 

Balsamon commenting on Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) "even though after their fall they should confess the faith, who, if they are not converted, will undergo more shame and ignominy than others, even as he who laid the foundation, and did not finish the building." Canonical Epistle Canon 10 p.&&&

 

P12. The sinful provoke God

 

Exodus 23:21; Num 14:11,23; 16:30; Deuteronomy 4:25; 9:7,8,18,22; 31:20,29; 32:16,21; Jdg 2:12; 1 Kings 14:9,15,22; 15:30; 16:2,7,13,26,33; 21:22,53; 2 Kings 17:11,17; 21:6,15,17; 23:1,26; 2 Chr 28:25; 33:6; 34:25; Ezr 5:12; Neh 4:5; Job 12:6; Psalm 78:17,40,56,58; 106:29,33,43; Isa 1:4; 65:3; Jer 7:18,19; 8:19; 11:17; 25:6,7; 32:29,30,32; 44:3,8; Ezek 8:17; 16:26; Hos 12:14; Zech 8:14; 1 Corinthians 10:22; Hebrews 3:16

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

P13. We are dead in sin

 

Romans 7:9; Ephesians 2:1,5; Colossians 2:13

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (338 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 2:4,5 in Letter 10 (Paschal Letter) ch.4 p.528.

 

P14. Works of the flesh / sinful nature

 

Galatians 5:19-21

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) lists the works of the flesh. de Principiis book 3 ch.4.2 p.338

 

P15. Ezekiel 18 referring to an individual

 

Ezekiel 18

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.6 p.29 "And concerning this, that (men) are not to suppose that they perish or are defiled by the sins of others, He again cut off their evil thought, and by Ezekiel also the Lord our God spoke thus: ‘And the word of the Lord came unto me, saying: ‘Son of man, why use ye this proverb in the land of Israel, and say: ‘The fathers do eat sour grapes, and their sons’ teeth are on edge?’ As I live, saith the Lord Adonai, there shall no more be any that useth this proverb in Israel. For all the souls are mine: as the soul of the father is mine, so also the soul of the son is mine. The soul that sinneth, the same shall die."

 

spurious works

In the Treatise on Repentance Attributed to Cyprian p.593-594 it refers to Ezekiel 18 in the context of both the individual and nation.

Apostolic Constitutions (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) ch.12,14 p.400 refers to Ezekiel 18 in the context of both the individual and society.

 

P16. We should tremble at God’s Word

 

Isaiah 66:2,5

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory Nazianzen (380/381 A.D.) (partial) says to tremple because of our sins, and tremble with joy because of our hope. Oration 38 On the Theophany ch.1 p.345

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) "be humble and tremble at God’s words" On Penitents ch.6.1 p.76

P17. No way of salvation apart from Christ

 

John 5:40-43; 6:45; 8:24; 10:8; 12:47-48; 14:6; Acts 4:12; 1 Corinthians 15:1-7

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 6:45; 8:24; 10:8; 12:47-48; 14:6

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 5:40-43; 6:45; 8:24; 10:8; 12:47-48; 14:6; Acts 4:12

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 5:40-43; 6:45; 8:24; 10:8; 12:47-38; 14:6; Acts 4:12

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.80 p.217 "And these signs are sufficent to prove that the faith of Christ alone is the true religion."

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "For in It the Lord becomes our guide to the Kingdom of Heaven and to His own Father, saying, ‘I am the way’ and ‘the door,’ and ‘through me all must enter.’" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.61 p.381

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Prosper of Aquitaine (425-465 A.D.)

 

P18. People have guilt

 

Exodus 34:7; Leviticus 5:15; Psalm 3:29; 38:4; Isa 6:7; Jer 2:22; Hebrews 10:2,22; James 2:10

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.)

 

Balsamon interpreting Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) "tormentors, that we may not be the cause of bringing upon them the guilt of"" Canonical Epistle Canon 9 p.&&&

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) "them away, He [Christ] guards the fold of God. Those whom guilty Eve had before infected, He now restores, fed with abundant milk at the bosom of the Church." Poem On Easter p.330

 

Among heretics

Tatian (died 172 A.D.) quotes John

 

P19. Salvation/church for all kinds of people

 

Romans 10:12-13; Galatians 3:28; James 2:1-9

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 5 ch.21.1 p.239 says that the word of salvation was for every race of man.

Athanasius (350 A.D.) "Where our Lord Jesus Christ, who took upon Him to die for all, stretched forth His hands, not somwhere on the earth beneath, but in the air itself, in order that the Salvation effected by the Cross might be shewn to be for all men everywhere;" From Easter Letter 22 p.549

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that the souls of men and women are alike. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.20 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.24

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that salvation is for male, female, slave, free, etc. [Galatians 3:26-28]. On the Trinity book 7 ch.9.12 p.160

 

P20. We are aliens awaiting our eternal home

 

(implied) John 15:19; Philippians 3:20; Hebrews 11:13; 13:13-14; 1 Peter 1:17; 2:11

(partial) Philippians 3:14

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (implied) John 15:19

 

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "He [Jesus] says, ‘I am not of this world.; For, as if He were of a certain other world, He says, ‘I am not of this world.’" de Principiis book 2 ch.3 p.274.

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-550 A.D.) "But, truly, if you thus regard this perishable world, and through your love of a better country deprive yourself of earthly riches and the enjoyment of present things, the prayers of the pious will bring you up in sacred habits, and in the hope of a happy life, amidst severe punishments, will cherish you with heavenly dew, and feed you with the sweetness of the promised good. Until the great favour of God shall recall your happy soul to the heavenly regions, your body being left after the fates of death. Then freed from all labour, then joyfully beholding the angelic choirs, and the blessed companies of saints in perpetual bliss, it shall reign with me in the happy abode of perpetual peace."

 

P21. World’s wisdom is foolishness to God

 

1 Corinthians 3:19a

 

P22. Cross/resurrection is foolish to the world

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says the cross if foolishness to the world. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.43 p.331

 

P23. Soul shares body’s pain and feelings

 

P24. The Gentiles had a law on their hearts

 

Romans 2:14-15

 

P25. Do not trust in man

 

P26. People deceive others

 

P27. People themselves have broken cisterns

 

Jeremiah 2:12-13

 

P28. Some people deceive themselves

 

 

P29. Positive mention of non-Biblical Jews

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) "We must admire the account of Josephus for its agreement with the divine Scriptures in regard to this wonderful event; for he clearly bears witness to the truth in the nineteenth book of his Antiquities," Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 6 ch.10 p.111

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) extensively discusses about Philo "how exceedingly he labored in the scriptures". Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.4-5 p.107-109

 

P30. No profit to gain the whole world and lose your soul

 

P31. People were made of dust

 

Genesis 2:7; Psalm 103:14; 1 Corinthians 15:47-48

 

P32. People are like clay

 

P33. People are enslaved by sin / lust / the devil

 

P34. The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak

 

Matthew 26:41b

 

P35. Kept from the wise/prudent and given to babes

 

Luke 10:21-22

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "And observe, that for this reason divine things have been concealed from the" de Principiis book 3 ch.&&&

 

P36. Those who sin are sin’s servants/slaves

 

John 8:34

 

P37. [Many] Jews rejected Jesus as the Messiah

 

Among heretics

Rev. Moon (b.1954-) The Divine Principle p.&&&

 

P38. The conscience of some is seared

 

1 Timothy 4:2

 

 

Salvation

 

S1. O.T. pointed to salvation in Christ in New

 

Isaiah 53; Luke 2:29-32; 3:4-6; 4:18-19,21

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 2:29-32; 3:4-6; 4:18-19,21

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 2:29-32; 3:4-6; 4:18-19,21

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 2:29-32; 3:4-6; 4:18-19,21

 

S2. Salvation is a gift of God’s grace

 

(implied) John 1:14-17; Romans 5:17; 1 Peter 1:14; 5:10

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Grace is remission of sin, and a gift. On Baptism ch.3.1 p.89

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "lest he should be ignorant that what he possesses has been bestowed on him by favour, but should consider as his own property what flows from the divine liberality, which idea undeobtedly generates arrogance of mind and pride, and finally becomes the cause of the individual’s ruin." [Latin] de Principiis book 3 ch.1.12 p.313

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "gave the grace of the Gospel unto all men" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.86

 

S3. Jesus’ death paid for our sins

 

Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45; Acts 20:28; Romans 5; 1 Timothy 2:6; Hebrews 9:15; 1 Peter 2:24; Revelation 5:9

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Mark 10:45

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45; Acts 20:28

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45; Acts 20:28

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says Jesus "redeeming all by the cross" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.13 p.355 and "in this body offering Himself for all" ch.15.14 p.355

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) Jesus’ blood atoned for out sins. &&&

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus was crucified for our sins. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.10 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.21

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says Christ reconciled us by His cross. The Enchiridion ch.62 p.257

 

S4. Saved by Jesus’ blood or dying for us

 

Mark 4:24; 14:24; Luke 22:20; Acts 20:28; Romans 3:29; 5:9; 1 Corinthians 11:25; Ephesians 1:7; 2:13; Colossians 1:20; Hebrews 9:12-14,22; 10:19; 1 Thessalonians 5:10; 1 Peter 1:2,19; 1 John 1:7; Revelation 1:5; 5:9

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Mark 14:24; Luke 22:20

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Mark 4:24; 14:24; Luke 22:20; Acts 20:28

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Mark 4:24; 14:24; Luke 22:20; Acts 20:28

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "cleansed all of our sins in His own blood." &&&

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (=Apostolic Constitutions) (3rd-5th century, compiled c.380/390 A.D.) book 5 section 3 ch.16 p.446 "‘for you are not your won, but His that bought you’ with His own blood."

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) said that Jesus’ blood made propitiation for our sins. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.2 p.184

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) "…the blood of the Lord has delivered us, redeemed as we are" On Penitents ch.3.2 p.74

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "For the Spirit made us children by adoption, the waterof the sacred Font washed us, the blood of the Lord redeemed us." Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.10.67 p.144

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) says that Christ made peace through His blood. Commentary on the Song of Songs prologue p.52

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions being justified in the blood of Christ and being "reconciled to God by the death of His Son." On the Trinity ch.13 ch.2 p.175

Augustine of Hippo (413-426 A.D.) "…the grace of Christ, who redeemed us by His blood." The City of God book 22 ch.30 p.511

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Pope Celestine to the Synod of Ephesus Letter 18 (432 A.D.) p.221 mentions Jesus purchasing the church with His blood.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ died for us. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.40 p.32

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus died on our behalf. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.80 p.73

 

S5. Even Jews who reject Jesus will perish

 

John 3:36; 5:40,43; 6:45; 8:24; 12:47-48; Acts 3:22-23; 13:45-46+48; 20:21; Romans 9:1-22; 10:1-4; 11:23

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 3:36; 6:45; 8:24; 12:47-48

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 3:35; 5:40; 6:45; 8:24; 12:47-48; Acts 3:22-23; 13:45-46+48, 20:21

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 3:35; 5:40; 6:45; 8:24; 12:47-48; Acts 3:22-23; 13:45-46+48, 20:21

 

S6. Believers God’s Elect

 

Matthew 24:22,31; Mark 13:20,27; Romans 8:33; 11:7; Colossians 3:12; 1 Thessalonians 1:4; 2 Timothy 2:10; Tt 1:1; 1 Peter 1:2; 5:13

(implied) Luke 18:7

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 24:22,31; Mark 13:20,27

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 24:22,31; Mark 13:20.27; Luke 18:8

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 24:22,31; Mark 13:20-27; Luke 18:8

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) speaks of our election. And refers to Acts 9:15. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.27 p.154

There are others too.

 

S7. The reprobate (non-elect) will be lost

 

Romans 9:22

 

S8. Some elect died before knowing Savior

 

John 8:56; (partial) Hebrews 9:18-10:10

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 8:56

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 8:56

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 8:56

 

S9. Some follow Christ for a time, yet perish

 

Matthew 7:19-23; 13:5-7 + 13:20-22; (implied) Matthew 24:13; Mark 4:4-7 + 4:16-19; Luke 8:6-7 + 8:13-14; 2 Peter 2:20-22

Hebrews 6:4-11

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 7:19-23; 13:5-7 + 13:20-22; (implied) Matthew 24:13; Luke 8:6-7 + 8:13-14

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 7:19-23; 13:5-7 + 13:20-22; (implied) Matthew 24:13; Mark 4:4-7 + 4:16; Luke 8:6-7 + 8:13-14

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 7:19-23; 13:5-7 + 13:20-22; (implied) Matthew 24:13; Mark 4:4-7 + 4:16; Luke 8:6-7 + 8:13-14

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (335 A.D.) says that those who have been counted worthy of the heavenly calling, when they grow negligent, become defiled and become like Judas. He refers to Hebrews 10:29 and Matthew 22:12. Easter Letter 9 ch.10 p.527

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.10 p.266 (370/380-425 A.D.) bishop Symeon showed other Christians about to be martyred from the sacred scriptures that their death would be true life, but to live in fear and deny God would be true death.

 

S10. Not saved if living in sin

 

Matthew 7:22-23; Matthew 25:31-46

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 7:22-23; 25:32-46

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 7:22-23; 25:31-46

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 7:22-23; 25:31-46

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (335 A.D.) says that those who have been counted worthy of the heavenly calling, when they grow negligent, become defiled and become like Judas. He refers to Hebrews 10:29 and Matthew 22:12. Easter Letter 9 ch.10 p.527

 

S11. Adoption as sons of God

 

Romans 8:23; 9:4; Ephesians 1:5; Hosea 1:10

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) (implied) Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 &&&

 

S12. We need to have faith

 

Just calling people "faithful" is not counted here, because that could refer to just obedient practice as well as faith.

 

(implied) Matthew 8:10,26; 9:2; 15:28

Matthew 6:30; 9:22; Mark 4:40; 11:22; John 2:11; 7:31; 8:30; 11:45; 12:11; 14:12; Acts 3:16; 20:21; Hebrews 4:3; 5:5; 10:22; 11:1; 11:13; James 2:17; 2 Peter 1:1

Sincere faith 2 Timothy 1:5

Without faith it is impossible to please God Hebrews 11:6

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 9:22; Mark 11:22; John 7:31; 8:30; 11:45; 12:11; 14:12

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Nicene Creed (325 A.D.) starts out as "we believe" and anathematizes those who do not believe the same. p.3

Athanasius (339 A.D.) says, "For faith and godliness are allied to each other, and sisters; and he who believes in Him is godly" Easter Letter 11 ch.9 p.536

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.76 p.216 "We Christians therefore hold the mystery not in the wisdom of Greek arguments, but in the power of faith richly supplied to us by God through Jesus Christ."

Ambrose of Milan (c.384 A.D.) "And the disciples say to the Lord: ‘Increase our faith.’" Concerning Repentance book 1 ch.11 no.48 p.337

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions that we are to have "true faith" Commentary on Philippians Introductory discourse p.183. He also speaks that we are to have faith, but not faith alone but also love in Commentary on Philippians homily 5 verse 2 p.203

 

S13. Live by faith

 

Galatians 2:20; 3:8; Habakkuk 2:4; Romans 5:1; Acts 13:39

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.80 p.217 "Believe, therefore, also yourselves, and you shall see that with us here is no trick of words, but faith through love which is wrought in us towards Christ ... will consider faith in Christ sufficient."

Athanasius (&&&)

 

S14. We are God’s chickens

 

(implied) Psalm 91:4

 

S15. Shipwrecked faith/salvation

 

1 Timothy 1:19

 

S16. Confidence or assurance of salvation

 

(False assurance, confidence in yourself, or confident of some facts is not counted.)

 

Hebrews 10:35 "So do not throw away your confidence, it will be richly rewarded." (NIV)

1 John 5:13-14

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "For I do not think that human nature can alone of itself maintain a contest with angels, and with the powers of the height and of the abyss, and with any other creature; but when it feels the presence of the Lord dwelling within it, confidence in the divine help will lead it to say, "The Lord is my light, and my salvation; whom shall I fear? The Lord is the protector of my life; of whom shall I be afraid? When the enemies draw near to me, to eat my flesh, my enemies who trouble me, they stumbled and fell. Though an host encamp against me, my heart shall not fear; though war should rise against me, in Him shall I be confident." de Principiis book 3 ch.2.5 p.333

 

S17. Hope in God or Christ

 

Job 13:15; Psalm 25:3; 42:5; 62:5; 119:74; 130:5,7; 146:5,11; Isa 40:31; Jer 29:11; Lam 3:21; Romans 8:25; 15:13; 1 Corinthians 15:19; Colossians 1:27; 1 Timothy 4:10; 6:17; Tt 2:13; Hebrews 6:19

hope is an anchor for our soul. Hebrews 6:19

 

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) "You hope to ‘reign with’ Christ" On the Spirit ch.28 p.44

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-550 A.D.) "But, truly, if you thus regard this perishable world, and through your love of a better country deprive yourself of earthly riches and the enjoyment of present things, the prayers of the pious will bring you up in sacred habits, and in the hope of a happy life, amidst severe punishments, will cherish you with heavenly dew, and feed you with the sweetness of the promised good. Until the great favour of God shall recall your happy soul to the heavenly regions, your body being left after the fates of death. Then freed from all labour, then joyfully beholding the angelic choirs, and the blessed companies of saints in perpetual bliss, it shall reign with me in the happy abode of perpetual peace."

 

S18. Our faith is precious

 

Colossians 1:22-23

2 Peter 1:1; and of greater worth than gold 1 Peter 1:7

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.76 p.216 "We Christians therefore hold the mystery not in the wisdom of Greek arguments, but in the power of faith richly supplied to us by God through Jesus Christ."

 

S19. God’s great, glorious, precious promises

 

Galatians 3:21; 2 Peter 1:4; 2 Corinthians 1:18-21

 

S20. Mystery of the Lord/faith

 

Ephesians 3:8-9 "this mystery"

1 Timothy 2:9 "mystery of the faith"

Romans 11:25; 16:25

Ephesians 3:3,4,6; 5:32; 6:19

Colossians 1:26,27; 2:2; 4:3

Revelation 10:7

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.78 p.216 "We Christians therefore hold the mystery not in the wisdom of Greek arguments, but in the power of faith richly supplied to us by God through Jesus Christ."

 

S21. Be born again

 

John 3:3,7

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes John 3:7,9. Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.10.63 p.144. See also ibid ch.10.65 p.144

 

S22. The precious blood of Christ

 

1 Peter 1:19

 

(Saved by the blood of Christ is a different topic and not included here)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (329 A.D.) mentions Jesus as the sheep and lamb. His sacrifice was purified by His precious blood. Easter Letter 1 ch.9 p.509

Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria (after 384 A.D.) p.264 "he feared not to rend asunder the holy Church, which the Son of God redeemed with His precious blood, and to deliver which from the tyranny of the devil He hesitated not to lay down His life."

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) "If we can drink a potion that is able to kill the worms within us and the serpents. ‘And of what nature,’ it will be asked, ‘may this potion be, that hath such power?’ The precious Blood of Christ, if it be received with full assurance," Homilies on Matthew homily 4 ch.15 p.&&&

 

S23. Heirs of salvation / Christ / the Lord

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) (towards the top) "who have received boldness to call the Almighty God Father, as joint heirs and partakers with His Son and His beloved"

 

S24. God has called us

 

(God calling us a particular name or title is not included here)

 

Acts 2:39; Romans 1:6-7; 8:28,30; 11:29; 1 Corinthians 1:2,24,26; 7:15,17; Galatians 1:6; 5:13; Ephesians 1:18; 4:1,4; ~Colossians 3:15; 1 Timothy 6:12; 2 Timothy 1:9; 1 Thessalonians 4:7; 2 Thessalonians 2:14; Hebrews 9:15; 1 Peter 1:15; 2:9; 3:9; 5:10; 2 Peter 1:3,10; Jude 1

 

S25. Predestined or predestination

 

S26. God can raise from stones children of Abraham

 

 

S27. Jesus bestowed remission of sins

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) "Cleanse thy vessel, that thou mayest receive grace more abundantly. For though remission of sins is given equally to all, the communion of the Holy Ghost is bestowed in proportion to each man’s faith" (First Catechetical Lecture 1 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.7 also Lecture 6 ch.6 p.34)

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (partial) Grace is remission of sin, and a gift. On Baptism ch.3.1 p.89

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Peter Chrysologus of Ravenna (406-450 A.D.) "‘Go’, he [Jesus] says, ‘and baptize all nations in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit’ [Matthew 28:19] in remission of sins. If in the remission of sins the Trinity is united in showing mercy, how is the whole Trinity not one in will in the Passion of the Son?" Sermon 72A ch.4 p.4-5

 

Balsamon (in Peter of Alexandria) "For we know that many have obtained the goodness and compassion of God by the prayers of others. Therefore we will pray for them that remission of their sins be granted them by God; and with the others who have lapsed, and have afterwards recanted their error, and confessed godliness, we will communicate, being mindful of those contests which before their fall they sustained for God’s sake, and also of their subsequent worthy repentance, and that they testify that on account of their sin they have been as it were aliens from their city; and we will not only communicate with them, but pray also for their reconciliation, together with other things that are convenient, either with the good works which ought to be done by them-fasting, for instance, almsgiving, and penance; by which things He who is our Advocate makes the Father propitious towards us. Then he makes use of a passage of Holy Scripture, and this is taken from the first catholic epistle of the holy apostle and evangelist John."

 

S28. Many are called but few are chosen

 

Matthew 8:1; Luke 13:29

 

S29. Faith as a mustard seed

 

Matthew 17:19-21; Luke 17:5-6

 

 

End Times

 

E1. The AntiChrist will come -after 125 A.D.

 

2 Thessalonians 2:9

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions that the Christian writer Judas, discoursed on the AntiChrist and the seventy weeks of Daniel. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 6 ch.7 p.254

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) discuess the end times, Gabriel’s message, the fourth beast will speak blasphemous words against the Most High. In ch.14 he refers to 2 Thessalonians 2:9 as by Paul. These false signs by Satan and the AntiChrist will abhor idols and be seated in the Temple of God. Catechetical Lectures Lecture 15 ch.13-15 p.108

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) quotes 2 Thessalonians 2:3,4,8,9 as by the Apostle. Commentary on the Apostles’ Creed ch.34 p.556

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) refers to the AntiChrist and quotes 2 Thessalonians 2:3-4. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.16 p.134

 

E2. Heresies and persecution come before Antichrist or Christ’s return

 

Matthew 24:5,9-11,23-26; Luke 21:1-9,12,16-17

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 24:5,9-11,23-26; Luke 21:1-9,12,16-17

 

E3. Before this will be many lesser antiChrists

 

2 John 7

(implied) Matthew 24:5,23; (implied) Luke 21:8;

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) quotes 1 John 4:2,3 about the AntiChrist as by the Apostle John. Sermon 34.5 p.149

 

E4. Jesus will return in glory -after 125 A.D.

 

Acts 1:9-11; Revelation 1:7; Matthew 24:26-27, 30; Luke 21:27

(implied) 1 Thessalonians 1:10

p47 (=Chester Beatty III) Revelation 9:10-11:3; 11:5-16:15; 16:17-17:2 (125 verses) (partial) Revelation 16:15 One will come like a thief.

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 24:26-27; Luke 21:27

 

E5. Rapture of believers

 

Matthew 24:31,34-42; 1 Thessalonians 4:16-18

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes 1 Thessalonians 4:17. de Principiis book 2 ch.11.5 p.299

 

E6. Resurrection of believers / all

 

Isaiah 25:7; 26:19

Matthew 22:30-32; Luke 20:34-38; 1 Thessalonians 4:16-17; 5:3; 2 Thessalonians 2:1

John 11:24-27 (implied)

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 22:30-32; Luke 20:34-38

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "mentions the resurrection of the dead."

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.7 p.439 "For the Almighty God Himself will raise us up through our Lord Jesus Christ,…"

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that we are resurrected. Against Eunomius book 4 ch.3 p.158

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) mentions the resurrection of the dead. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.27 p.154

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that we are resurrected. City of God book 1 ch.12 p.10

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) looked forward to being resurrected. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.2 p.380

 

After Muslim conquests

Photius (c.858-891 A.D.) commenting on Methodius (c.260-312 A.D.) "And when Origen allegorises that which is said by the prophet Ezekiel concerning the resurrection of the dead, and perverts it to the return of the Israelites form their captivity in Babylon," Discourse on the Resurrection ch.19 p.377. from Bibliotheca cod. 234.

 

Among heretics

The Vision of Paul (c.388 A.D. – after Nicea) ch.41 p.162 mentions special punishments in Hell for those who said Christ did not rise from the dead and that the flesh will not rise again.

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "Christ the Lord would similarly rescue us, not from the slavery of Egypt but from that of death and sin. This he secured for us by the anointing of his own blood: by shedding it for all and undergoing death for us, he effected the resurrection of the dead…" Commentary on Jonah preface p.186

 

E7. Christ will judge all / quick and dead

 

Matthew 21:32; Mark 8:38; 2 Corinthians 5:10

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 21:32; Mark 8:38

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

The Nicene Creed (325 A.D.) Jesus will come to judge the quick and the dead.

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says that Christ will judge all the earth. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.2.8 p.83

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says that Jesus will judge the world On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.7 p.178

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says the Father has given all judgment to the Son. On Luke 10:22 ch.3 p.88

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. says that Christ judges the living and the dead. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Christ will judge both the quick and the dead. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.15 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.22

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus ascends to Heaven and will return to judge the quick and the dead. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "We must also understand in this sense the passage, He [the Father] has given all judgment to the Son [John 5:22]" Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says the Christ will come to judge the quick and the dead. The City of God book 17 ch.18 p.356

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) He [Jesus] suffered, and rose again the third day. He ascended into the heavens, from thence he shall come to judge both the quick and the dead." Letter from Cyril of Nestorius p.202

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ suffered and died and rose and is ready to come to judge the quick and the dead. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.177

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus Christ is a just judge. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.135

 

E8. Believers will judge the world or angels

 

1 Corinthians 6:2-3

 

E9. Believers are sons of God

 

Hosea 1:10; Matthew 5:9; John 1:12-15; Romans 8:14; 9:26; 2 Corinthians 6:18; Galatians 3:26; 4:6-7; Hebrews 12:7; 1 John 3:1

Implied Luke 6:35

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Many

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) We are Sons of God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.59 p.56-57

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) mentions that we are children of God. Longer version of the Letter to the Philadelphians ch.3 p.&&&

 

E10. Believers will reign with Christ

 

2 Timothy 2:12; Revelation 2:26,27; 20:4,6;

Implied Revelation 22:5

Ephesians 2:6; Revelation 3:21 We will sit with Christ on His throne

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) ANF vol.7 p.328 (near the end). "your body being left after the fates of death. Mentions saints you died joyfully seeing the angelic chors, and being in perpetural bless, and reigning with Christ."

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) "You hope to ‘reign with’ Christ" On the Spirit ch.28 p.44

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (440-461 A.D.) quotes 2 Timothy 2:12. Sermons of Leo the Great Sermon 91 ch.2 p.200

 

E11. Jesus returns in [literal] clouds

 

Acts 1:9-11; Revelation 1:7; 19:11-16

 

E12. The Tree of Life

 

Genesis 2:9; Revelation 2:7; 22:2

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) mentions the Tree of Life. Commentary on Psalms Psalm 1 ch.14 p.239

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions the tree of life, and the tree of knowledge. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.25 p.210

 

E13. Fulfillment of the Cosmos has come to us

 

1 Corinthians 10:11

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Macrostitch Creed (344/345 A.D.) (partial, shall come) "and [Jesus] is seated at the right hand of the Father, and shall come at the consummation of the ages, to judge the living and the dead,…" Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 10:11. de Principiis book 4 ch.1.13 p.361

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 10:11 "They [Old Testament blood sacrifices] were figures typifying things still future and were ‘written for our admonition upon whom the ends of the world are come.’" Letter 52 ch.10 p.94

 

E14. The Endtimes tribulation

 

Matthew 24:3-43; Mark; Luke, Revelation

 

E15. Every Knee will bow to Jesus

 

Philippians 2:10

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) quotes Philippians 2. On the Spirit ch.17 p.11

 

E16. Moon will turn to blood

 

Joel 2:31; Acts 2:20; Revelation 6:12

 

E17. Abomination that causes desolation

 

Daniel 9:27; 11:31b; 12:11; Matthew 24:15

 

E18. God’s future temple on earth/in Jerusalem

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) discuess the end times, Gabriel’s message, the fourth beast will speak blasphemous words against the Most High. In ch.14 he refers to 2 Thessalonians 2:9 as by Paul. These false signs by Satan and the AntiChrist will abhor idols and be seated in the Temple of God. Catechetical Lectures Lecture 15 ch.13-15 p.108

 

E19. Christ’s coming like the days of Noah

 

Matthew 24:37

 

E20. Meeting the Lord in the clouds

 

 

Revelation Specific

 

R1. Seven churches in Revelation

 

Revelation 2-3

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) discusses the seven churches in Revelation Letter 1 ch.5.4 p.24

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (225-254 A.D.) mentions John writing to the seven churches. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.3 p.175

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) quotes Revelation 2:2 and on in Against Jovinianus book 2 ch.3 p.390

 

R2. Two witnesses come before Christ returns

 

Revelation 11:3-12

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) quotes Revelatoin 11:7,8 and discusses the two witnesses who are killed. Letter 46 ch.6 p.62

 

R3. The Book of Book of Life / the Living

 

Revelation 3:5; 20:15

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions the books of life in Nisibine Hymns hymn 20 no.3 p.190 and Nisibine Hymns hymn 58 no.20 p.212

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) the Father has given all judgment to the Son. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.15 p.134

 

R4. The Beast or his mark

 

Revelation 13, 15:2; 17

 

R5. The Millennium or the 1,000 years

 

Revelation 20:1-10

 

R6. Devil and followers cast in Lake of Fire

 

Revelation 20:10 (no other places)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes Ezekiel 28:11-19 and refers this to not just Tyre but Lucifer in de Principiis book 1 ch.5.4-5 p.258-259

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) do they not rather hear the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ in the Gospels, preparing fire for the devil and his angels? And how shall that proceeding" de Principiis book 2 ch.5.2 p.279

 

R7. Heavenly (24) elders in Revelation

 

Revelation 4:4,10-11, 5:14; 7:11,13; 11:16-18; 19:4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes Revelation 4:4 as "in the Revelation of John" On the Christian Faith book 5 ch.6.74 p.294

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) quotes Revelation 4:4 about the 24 elders in the holy Apocalypse. Cassian’s Conferences Conference 24 of the Abbot Abraham ch.1 p.531

 

R8. Woman Babylon in Revelation

 

Revelation 17:1-18

 

R9. Two-edged sword out of Christ’s mouth

 

 

Ultimate Things - Heaven and Hell

 

U1. The Kingdom of God

 

Matthew 4:17; 5:5,10; John 3:3,5; Romans 14:7; 1 Corinthians 4:12; 2 Thessalonians 1:5

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 4:17; 5:5,10; John 3:3,5

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.24 p.85 discusses the Book of Daniel, including God’s kindgom, His throne, the river of fire, and ten thousand time sten thousand angels serving God.

Council of Sardica (Greek version) (343/344 A.D.) mentions that Christ’s kingdom remains for ever. Hilary of Poitiers de Synodis ch.34 p.14

 

U2. The Kingdom of Heaven

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.17 p.200 "Nor let us think, as we look at the world, that we have renounced anything of much consequence, for the whole earth is very small compared with all the heaven. Wherefore if it even chanced that we were lords of all the earth and gave it all up, it would be nought worthy of comparison with the kingdom of heaven. For as if a man should despise a copper drachma to gain a hundred drachmas of gold; so if a man were lord of all the earth and were to renounce it, that which he gives up is little, and he receives a hundredfold."

John Chrysostom (392-407 A.D.) discusses baptism and mentions the "kingdom of heaven". Homilies of St. John homily 25 p.87-90

 

U3. Description of God’s throne

 

Isaiah 6:1-7; Ezekiel 1,10; Revelation 4-9

(partial) Revelation 1:4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.24 p.85 discusses the Book of Daniel, including God’s kindgom, His throne, the river of fire, and ten thousand time sten thousand angels serving God.

Athanasius (&&&)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says the cherubim are thrones, and that God sits upon them. Gregory discusses the Seraphim in Isaiah, that they say "Holy, Holy , Holy". Against Eunomius book 1 ch.23 p.64

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) mentiosn Isaiah’s vision with two seraphim. de Principiis book 4 ch.1.26 p.375-376

 

U4. Paul went up to the third heaven

 

2 Corinthians 12:2

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.65 p.213 "Wherefore most earnestly he exhorted, ‘Take up the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day,’ that the enemy, ‘having no evil thing to say against us, may be ashamed.’ And we who have learned this, let us be mindful of the Apostle when he says, ‘whether in the body I know not, or whether out of the body I know not; God knoweth.’ But Paul was caught up unto the third heaven,"

Hilary (355-367/368 A.D.)

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Paul was carried up to the third heaven. Letter 2 ch.8.2 p.37

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) On the Statues homily 1 ch.&&&

 

U6. All who die rejecting Jesus go to Hell

 

Matthew 21:46; John 3:36; 5:40-43; 6:45; 8:24; 10:8; 12:47-48; 14:6; (implied) Acts 4:12; 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 21:46; John 3:36; 6:45; 8:24; 10:8; 12:47-48; 14:6

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) taught that non-believers are cast "into everlasting fire". But see the next quote. Origen believed the fire was everlasting, but a person’s stay in it was not. de Principiis book 3 ch.1.6 p.305

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) Origen’s teaching was eventually rejected by the church because he taught universalism. Origen taught that the lost go to Hell, but that they eventually are redeemed and go to heaven. de Principiis book 1 ch.6.1-2 p.260

 

U5. Reincarnation (transmigration) is wrong

 

Hebrews 9:27

(implied) 2 Samuel 12:23

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) has an entire chapter against transmigration of souls (reincarnation) Against Eunomius book 1 ch.28 p.419-420

Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 3 ch.21 p.90 (c.400-439 A.D.) speaks of Pythagoras and Plato’ teaching on the transmigration of souls as a "ridiculous fancy" that deluded the pagan Emperor Julian.

Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.22 p.25 (c.400-439 A.D.) says Manes (founder of the Manichaeans) believed in transmutation of bodies, as did Empedocles, Pythagoras, and the Egyptians. He also rejected Christi coming in the flesh, and rejected the law and prophets.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) speaks against reincarnation and "cycles". The City of God book 12 ch.10 p.240.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) has an interesting argument that Greeks believed transmigration, mortal bodies are bad things souls should want to escape, and they should revere and worshp the gods who created them and trapped them in mortal bodies. The City of God book 12 ch.26 p.243

 

Among heretics

X Elchesaites (in Hippolytus)held to the tenets of Pythagoras regarding souls being transferred to different bodfies. The Refutation of All Heresies book 9 ch.9 p.132

X Basilides the heretic believed that people suffered for sins in a previous life. This is according to Clement of Alexandria, who taught against Basilides in Stromata book 4 ch.12 p.424.

 

U7. Unquenchable/eternal fire

 

Isaiah 66:24; Mark 9:48; Luke 3:17; Jude 7

(implied) Revelation 20:10

 

In the apocrypha in Judith 16:17 "The Lord Almighty will punish them. He will send fire and worms into their flesh and they shall burn and suffer forever."

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) taught that non-believers are cast "into everlasting fire". But see the next quote. Origen believed the fire was everlasting, but a person’s stay in it was not. de Principiis book 3 ch.1.6 p.305

 

U8. The worm of the lost does not die

 

Isaiah 66:24; Mark 9:44-48

 

In the apocrypha in Judith 16:17 (partial) "The Lord Almighty will punish them. He will send fire and worms into their flesh and they shall burn and suffer forever."

 

U9. Some lost have more severe judgment

 

Matthew 10:15; 11:22-24; Mark 12:40; Luke 12:47-48

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "If one, however, were to object to our statement, that the word of preaching was purposely put aside by certain men of wicked and worthless character, and (were to inquire) why the word was preached to those over whom the Tyrians, ... and that it may, at the same time, be understood and recognised that he receives a heavier sentence of condemnation who has despised the divine benefits conferred upon him than he who has not deserved to obtain or hear them, and that it is a peculiarity of divine compassion, and a mark of the extreme justice of its administration, that it sometimes conceals from certain individuals the opportunity of either seeing or hearing the mysteries of divine power, lest, after beholding the power of the miracles, and recognising and hearing the mysteries of its wisdom, they should, on treating them with contempt and indifference, be punished with greater severity for their impiety." de Principiis [Latin] book 3 ch.1.16 p.320

 

U10. Those who die are with Christ

 

Philippians 1:23

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes Philippians 1:23 about Paul desiring to depart and be with Christ. de Principiis book 2 ch.11.5 p.298.

 

U11. Believers who die have eternal life

 

Implied John 6:37

Partial John 11 (Says never die, but does not say with God forever)

1 Corinthians 9:25; 1 Peter 1:4; Revation 22:5

1 Thessalonians 4:17; 1 John 2:17; (implied) 1 Corinthians 9:25

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (implied) John 6:37

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.16 p.200 For the whole life of man is very short, measured by the ages to come, wherefore all our time is nothing compared with eternal life. And in the world everything is sold at its price, and a man exchanges one equivalent for another; but the promise of eternal life is bought for a trifle."

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that we will never fall in heaven. The City of God book 11 ch.13 p.213

 

U12. Believers have rewards in Heaven

 

1 Corinthians 3:10-15; Ephesians 6:8; Revelation 22:12

(implied) 2 John 8

(partial) Matthew 5:12; Luke 6:23,35 (Could interpret as a varying reward or salvation)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles book 5 ch.6 p.439 (implied) "believing in the one and the only true God and Father, through Jesus Christ, the great High Priest, and Redeemer of our souls, and rewarder of our sufferings."

 

U13. Believers have crowns

 

Philippians 4:1

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) "May one crown be bestowed on you from on high gained from yourself, may another flourish gained from your people." Poem on Easter p.330

 

U14. Flesh & blood not inherit God’s kingdom

 

1 Corinthians 15:50

 

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) "The Apostle having regard to the very sins which come of the corruption of flesh and blood, saith, ‘Flesh and blood shall not posses the kingdom of God.’" Expositions on Psalms Psalm 51.19 p.196

 

U15. We will put on incorruption

 

 

U16. Church/Believers are Christ’s bride

 

(implied) Mark 2:19-20; Luke 5:35,36; (implied) Ephesians 5:22-33

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) says that Jesus is the bridegroom. Nisibine Hymns hymn 19 no.13 p.190

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) "And this is what is meant by the Bridegroom looking at her through the nets of the windows. If, however, we are to expound the passage with reference to Christ and the Church..." Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.13 p.234-235. See also Commentary on the Song of Songs prologue p.44

U17. The wedding banquet

 

 

U18. The earth shall pass away

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) Heaven and earth shall pass away." On Virginity ch.4 p.349.

 

U19. New Heaven and New earth

 

Isaiah 65:17-18; Revelation 21

 

Rufinus translating Origen (225-254 A.D.)

 

U20. New/heavenly Jerusalem

 

Revelation 21: 2; Isaiah 65:17-18

 

U21. Abraham’s Bosom

 

Luke

 

U22. Outer darkness

 

U23. Gates of Hell/Death/Hades

 

Matthew 16:18

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions "hell’s gates" Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 3 ch.29 p.424

 

 

ANGELS

 

Ua1. Angels are servants of God

 

Matthew 25:31; Mark 12:25; Luke 9:26; John 1:51; Hebrews 1:6-7; Jude 9; Revelation 9:13; 10:1,7,15

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Mark 12:25; Luke 9:26

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.83 discusses subordinate angels, angels, and archangels.

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.24 p.85 discusses the Book of Daniel, including God’s kindgom, His throne, the river of fire, and ten thousand time sten thousand angels serving God.

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.35 p.205-206 (implied) "and as the angel did who appeared to the women at the holy sepulchre, and as He did who said to the shepherds in the Gospel, ‘Fear not.’ For their fear arose not from timidity, but from the recognition of the presence of superior beings. Such then is the nature of the visions of the holy ones."

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says that even the angels worship Jesus and quotes Hebrews 1:6. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.16.23 p.361

Athanasius (331 A.D.) discusses God’s angels, incluing Angels, Archangels, Dominions, Powers, Thrones. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.28.51 p.421

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) write of the Law, Moses, Jesus being our mediator, and angels in On the Trinity book 5 ch.23 p.91

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) says that angels surrounded Jesus. Nativity Hymns hymn 3 p.234

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) quotes Hebrews 1:6 "Let all God’s angels worship him." referring to Jesus. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.8 p.112

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) "God’s divine and blessed Angels do the will of God, as David said in his Psalm…" and then he quotes Psalm 103:20. Catechical Lectures Lecture 23 no.14 p.155

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions angels with Jesus. Oration on Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) mentions angels in On the Christian Faith book 5 ch.6.73 p.2930294

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says children have angels that behold the face of the Father [Matthew 18:10]. The City of God book 11 ch.32 p.224

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) describes different classes of angels. The Enchiridion ch.58 p.256

 

Ua2. Holy angel[s]

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

The Book of Enoch (Ethiopic translation) mentions lots of angels. It mentions the good angels Michael, Surafel, and Gabriel in 1 Enoch 9:1, Asuryal in 1 Enoch 10:1; and Uriel in 1 Enoch 19:1. It lists "the holy angels who watch:" Suru’el, Raphael, Raguel, Michael, Saraqa’el, and Gabriel in 1 Enoch 20.

 

Ua3. The heavenly host

 

 

Ua4. The archangel Michael

 

Daniel 10:13,21; Jude 9; Revelation 12:7

 

Ua5. The angel Gabriel

 

Daniel 8:16; 9:21; Luke 1:19,26

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.37 p.206 "For the demons do not take away the fear of their presence as the great archangel Gabriel did for Mary and Zacharias, and as he did who appeared to the women at the tomb; but rather whenever they see men afraid they increase their delusions that men may be terrified the more; and at last attacking they mock them, saying, ‘fall down and worship.’ Thus they deceived the Greeks, and thus by them they were considered gods, falsely so called."

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) discuess the end times, Gabriel’s message, the fourth beast will speak blasphemous words against the Most High. In ch.14 he refers to 2 Thessalonians 2:9 as by Paul. These false signs by Satan and the AntiChrist will abhor idols and be seated in the Temple of God. Catechetical Lectures Lecture 15 ch.13-15 p.108

 

Among heretics

Tatian’s Diatessaron

Mani (262-278 A.D.) "If you, however, mean to say that Mary was actually His mother, you place yourself in a position of considerable peril. For, without any doubt, it would be proved on the same principles that He had brethren also by her. Now tell me whether these brethren were begotten by Joseph or by the same Holy Spirit. For if you say that they were begotten by the same Holy Spirit, it will follow that we have had many Christs. And if you say that these were not begotten by the same Holy Spirit, and yet aver that He had brethren, then without doubt we shall be under the necessity of understanding that, in succession to the Spirit and after Gabriel, the most pure and spotless virgin formed an actual marriage connection with Joseph" (Manes is speaking) Disputation with Manes ch.47 p.223

 

Ua6. Four Living Creatures / Seraphim

 

Ezekiel 1:5-24; Revelation 4:6-9; 5:8; 6:1-7; 19:4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions the principaliteis, power, thrones, Cherubim, and Seraphim. Catechical Lectures Lecture 23 no.6 p.154

 

Ua7. Cherubim

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says the cherubim are thrones, and that God sits upon them. Gregory discusses the Seraphim in Isaiah, that they say "Holy, Holy , Holy". Against Eunomius book 1 ch.23 p.64

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions the principaliteis, power, thrones, Cherubim, and Seraphim. Catechical Lectures Lecture 23 no.6 p.154

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) mentions Cherubim who bore the Son up in glory. Hymns on the Nativity Hymn 13.6 p.248

 

Ua8. Guardian angels

 

Psalm 34:7; Matthew 18:10; Acts 12:15

 

Ua9. Angelic / Heavenly powers

 

Ua10. Angels worship/praise God/Jesus

 

Ua11. Angels rejoice

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.)

 

Ua12. Angelic hymns / choir(s)

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (350-550 A.D.) p.&&& "Then freed from all labour, then joyfully beholding the angelic choirs, and the blessed companies of saints in perpetual bliss, it shall reign with me in the happy abode of perpetual peace."

 

Ua13. Angels visit shepherds at Christ’s birth

 

 

Ua14. Angels announce/preach the gospel

 

 

Ua15. An angel spoke with Cornelius before he was a believer

 

Acts 10:3-7,22, 30-33

 

 

DEMONS

 

Ud1. Satan / Lucifer / the Devil

 

Satan: 1 Chronicles 21:1; Job 1:6-12; 2:1-6; Zechariah 3:1-2; Matthew 12:26; 16:23; Mark 1:13; 3:23,26; 4:15; 8:33; Luke 10:18; 11:18; 13:16; 22:3,31; John 13:27; Acts 5:3; 26:18; Romans 16:20; 1 Corinthians 5:5; 7:5; 2 Corinthians 2:11; 11:14; 12:7; 1 Thessalonians 2:18; 2 Thessalonians 2:9; 1 Timothy 1:20; 5:15; Revelation 2:9,13,24; 12:9; 20:2-3

 

The devil tempted Jesus. Matthew 4:1-11; Luke 4:2-13

 

Devil: Matthew 13:39; 25:41; Luke 8:12; John 8:44; 13:2; Acts 10:38; 13:10; Ephesians 4:27; 6:11; 1 Timothy 3:6-7; 2 Timothy 2:26; Hebrews 2:14; James 4:7; 1 Peter 5:8; 1 John 3:8,10; Jude 9; Revelation 2:10; 12:9-12; 20:2-10

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.37 p.206 "But the Lord did not suffer us to be deceived by the devil, for He rebuked him whenever he framed such delusions against Him, saying: "Get behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve.’"

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says the devil is the father of the "Ario-maniacs" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.30 p.425

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 35 no.1 p.193

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) discusses the devil and demons in Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.209.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 14:12. de Principiis book 1 ch.5.5 p.259. he also refers to Ezekiel 28:11-19 in de Principiis book 1 ch.5.4 p.258

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) discusses the time when Satan was good and walkin in the paradise of God between the cherubim. de Principis book 1 ch.8.3 p.265-266

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) discusses Lucifer’s fall and Ezekiel. The City of God book 11 ch.15 p.213

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Satan wanted to be considered God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.84 p.76

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) mentions Satan. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.70 p.63-64

 

Ud2. Satan/demons fell from heaven

 

Revelation 12:3-13; 2 Peter 2:4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.22 p.202 "‘First, therefore, we must know this: that the demons have not been created like what we mean when we call them by that name; for God made nothing evil, but even they have been made good. Having fallen, however, from the heavenly wisdom, since then they have been grovelling on earth. On the one hand they deceived the Greeks with their displays, while out of envy of us Christians they move all things in their desire to hinder us from entry into the heavens; in order that we should not ascend up thither from whence they fell."

Athanasius (356 A.D.) says that Satan wanted to ascend above the heights of the clouds, but was instead dishonored. He is a creeping serpent, though he an transform himself into an angel of light. To the Bishop of Egypt ch.2 p.224

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) mentions that Jesus said He saw Satan fall from heaven. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.61

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 14:12. de Principiis book 1 ch.5.5 p.259. he also refers to Ezekiel 28:11-19 in de Principiis book 1 ch.5.4 p.258. See also de Principis book 1 ch.8.3 p.265-266

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) mentions demons. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.28(2) p.156-157

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) (partial) discusses the devil and demons in Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.209.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says fallen angels lost their original light. The City of God book 11 ch.12 p.212

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) discusses Lucifer’s fall and Ezekiel. The City of God book 11 ch.15 p.213

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (partial) Satan wanted to be considered God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.84 p.76

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (partial) mention of demons. Commentary on Hosea ch.13 p.94

 

Ud3. Satan deceives

 

Genesis 3:13; 2 Corinthians 11:3; Revelation 20:2-3,10

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony ch.7 p.197 "But Antony having learned from the Scriptures that the devices of the devil are many, zealously continued the discipline, reckoning that though the devil had not been able to deceive his heart by bodily pleasure, he would endeavour to ensnare him by other means."

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.22 p.202 (partial, demons deceive) "‘First, therefore, we must know this: that the demons have not been created like what we mean when we call them by that name; for God made nothing evil, but even they have been made good. Having fallen, however, from the heavenly wisdom, since then they have been grovelling on earth. On the one hand they deceived the Greeks with their displays, while out of envy of us Christians they move all things in their desire to hinder us from entry into the heavens; in order that we should not ascend up thither from whence they fell."

Athanasius (356 A.D.) says that Satan deceived Eve. To the Bishop of Egypt ch.3 p.224

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 55 no.6 p.209

 

Ud4. Serpent beguiled Eve

 

Genesis 3:13b; 2 Corinthians 11:3; 1 Timothy 2:14

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "therefore is it said, ‘This corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.’" de Principiis book 2 ch.3.2 p.372

 

Ud5. Satan is a serpent

 

Revelation 19:9; 20:2-3; Genesis 3:1-15

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (356 A.D.) says that Satan wanted to ascend above the heights of the clouds, but was instead dishonored. He is a creeping serpent, though he an transform himself into an angel of light. To the Bishop of Egypt ch.2 p.224

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says that Satan is a serpent. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.51 p.336

 

Ud6. The Serpent was cursed at the fall

 

Genesis 3:14-15

 

Ud7. Enmity between serpent and Eve’s seed

 

Genesis 3:15

 

Ud8. Satan is a dragon

 

Revelation 12; 20:2-3

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.24 p.202 "‘And he said they often appeared as the Lord revealed the devil to Job, saying, "His eyes are as the morning star. From his mouth proceed burning lamps and hearths of fire are cast forth. The smoke of a furnace blazing with the fire of coals proceeds from his nostrils. His breath is coals and from his mouth issues flame." When the prince of the demons appears in this wise, the crafty one, as I said before, strikes terror by speaking great things, as again the Lord convicted him saying to Job, for "he counteth iron as straw, and brass as rotten wood, yea he counteth the sea as a pot of ointment, and the depth of the abyss as a captive, and the abyss as a covered walk." And by the prophet, "the enemy said, I will pursue and overtake," and again by another, "I will grasp the whole world in my hand as a nest, and take it up as eggs that have been left." Such, in a word, are their boasts and professions that they may deceive the godly. But not even then ought we, the faithful, to fear his appearance or give heed to his words. For he is a liar and speaketh of truth never a word. And though speaking words so many and so great in his boldness, without doubt, like a dragon he was drawn with a hook by the Saviour, and as a beast of burden he received the halter round his nostrils, and as a runaway his nostrils were bound with a ring, and his lips bored with an armlet."

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "Now it is certain that by the dragon is understood the devil himself." de Principis book 1 ch.5.5 p.259

 

Ud9. The prince of this world/air is evil/Satan

 

prince of this world John 12:31; 14:30; 16:11;

ruler of the kingdom of the air Ephesians 2:2

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 12:31; 14:30

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.65 p.213 (implied) "And he remembered that this is what the Apostle said, ‘according to the prince of the power of the air.’"

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) Negatively refers to the Prince of this World. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.15 p.133

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (c.227-c.240 A.D.) "Behold, the prince of this world cometh, and findeth nothing in Me [Jesus]." de Principiis book 2 ch.6.4 p.283

 

Ud10. Satan, a murderer from the beginning

 

John 8:44

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 8:44

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (356 A.D.) says that Satan was a murderer and a liar from the beginning. To the Bishop of Egypt ch.3 p.224

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (partial, does not say from the beginning). Satan was a murderer. Nisibine Hymns hymn 61 no.18 p.214

 

Ud11. Satan looke like an angel of light

 

2 Corinthians 11:14

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (356 A.D.) says that Satan wanted to ascend above the heights of the clouds, but was instead dishonored. He is a creeping serpent, though he an transform himself into an angel of light. To the Bishop of Egypt ch.2 p.224

 

Ud12. Wiles/craftiness of the devil

 

Ephesians 6:11

 

Ud13. Demons

 

Deuteronomy 32:17; Psalm 106:37; Matthew 7:22; 8:31; 9:34; 10:8; 12:24,27,28; Mark 1:34,39; 3:15,22; 5:12,15; 6:13; 9:38; 16:9,17; Luke 4:41; 8:2,30,32,33,35,38; 9:1,49; 10:17; 11:15,18-20; 13:32; Romans 8:38; 1 Corinthians 1019-21; 1 Timothy 4:1; James 2:19; Revelation 9:20; 16:14; 18:2

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.37 p.206 "For the demons do not take away the fear of their presence as the great archangel Gabriel did for Mary and Zacharias, and as he did who appeared to the women at the tomb; but rather whenever they see men afraid they increase their delusions that men may be terrified the more; and at last attacking they mock them, saying, ‘fall down and worship.’ Thus they deceived the Greeks, and thus by them they were considered gods, falsely so called."

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions demons Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29 p.424

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 35 no.2 p.193

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) do they not rather hear the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ in the Gospels, preparing fire for the devil and his angels? And how shall that proceeding" de Principiis book 2 ch.5.2 p.279

Palladius (419-420 A.D.) says that three particular demons tempted Evagrius. [Both Greek and Coptic] Lausiac History 38.11 in Four Desert Fathers. (Chapter: Evagrius Debates Three Demons) p.179

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) discusses the devil and demons in Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.209. He also mentions the "river of fire" ibid homily 6 p.212.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) mentions demons. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.28(2) p.156-157

 

(more also)

 

Ud14. Power/principalities of darkness

 

Colossians 1:13

 

Ud15. Demons are worshipped by pagans

 

1 Corinthians 10:19-20

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.37 p.206 "For the demons do not take away the fear of their presence as the great archangel Gabriel did for Mary and Zacharias, and as he did who appeared to the women at the tomb; but rather whenever they see men afraid they increase their delusions that men may be terrified the more; and at last attacking they mock them, saying, ‘fall down and worship.’ Thus they deceived the Greeks, and thus by them they were considered gods, falsely so called."

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "And next he [Moses] says, ‘They sacrificed unto devils, nto to God, to gods whom they knew not." Four Discourses Against the Arian discourse 2 ch.58 p.380

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.375/390 A.D.) "But do ye abstrain from things offered to idols; for they offer them I honor of demons, that is, to the dishonor of the one God, that ye may not become partners with demons." book 7 section 2.21 p.469

 

Ud16. Demons deceive / delude people

 

 

Ud17. Devil/demons tempt people

 

1 Peter 5:8-9; (implied) Revelation 12:17

Satan tempts (1 Corinthians 7:5)

(partial) 1 Thessalonians 3:5b "the tempter tempted"

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (&&&)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "The power of his [Satan’s] temptations is shown and made clear [in the Book of Job]" Letter 20 no.14 p.424

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.)

Palladius (419-420 A.D.) says that three particular demons tempted Evagrius. [Both Greek and Coptic] Lausiac History 38.11 in Four Desert Fathers. (Chapter: Evagrius Debates Three Demons) p.179

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (503-532/533 A.D.)

 

Ud18. Demons vex/cause harm to people

 

 

Ud19. Demons tremble at/fear Christ

 

 

Ud20. Demons subject to Christ

 

Ud21. Satan can have lying wonders

 

Ud22. Some are delivered over to Satan

 

Ud23. Beelzebub/Baalzebub

 

Matthew 10:25; 12:24-27; Mark 3:22; Luke 11:15-19; 2 Kings 1:2-6,13

 

Ud24. Satan sought to sift Peter as wheat

 

Luke 22:31-32

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) Homilies on Matthew Homily

 

Ud25. Satan entered into Judas

 

Luke 22:3; John 13:27

 

Ud26. The devil / Satan is a personal being

 

Satan, beast, and false prophet will suffer forever in the lake of fire. Luke 21:16+18; 2 Thessalonians 2:8; Revelation 19:20; 20:10.

 

Ud27. There are doctrines of demons / devils

 

1 Timothy 4:1-3

 

 

 

PAtriarch Individiuals

 

Pat1. Adam and/or Eve

 

Pat2. Cain murdered his brother/Abel

 

Genesis 4:1-16

1 John 3:12

(partial) Jude 11; (partial) Hebrews 11:4; (partial) Hebrews 12:24

(partial) Matthew 23:35; Luke 11:51 (Abel’s blood but no mention of Cain)

(partial) Hebrews 11:4

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (partial) Matthew 23:35; (partial) Luke 11:13

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (329 A.D.) mentions the righteous Abel, but does not say Cain murdered him. Easter Letter 1 ch.9 p.509

Athanasius (329 A.D.) mentions that murderers like Cain fled after the murder. Personal Letter 47 p.555

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (partial, mentions Cain and Abel but nothing else) Nisibine Hymns hymn 57 no.3 p.210

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) (implied) mentions the shed blood crying from the ground in Genesis 4:10. de Principiis book 3 ch.5 p.340.

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (partial) mentions Cain and his bad-intention on offering. Commentary on Hosea ch.9 p.77

 

Pat3. Seth [son of Adam and Eve]

 

Genesis 4:25; 5:3-6

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D. ) "in the same manner as we say, according to the sacred history, that the image of Adam is his son Seth." de Principiis book 1 ch.2.5 p.247

 

Pat4. Enoch

 

Hebrews 11:5; Genesis 5:18-21

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says, "Enoch, for instance was thus translated," Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.28.52 p.422

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Enoch and Elijah did not see death. Nisibine Hymns Hymn 36 no.7 p.196

 

Pat5. Noah got drunk

 

Genesis 9:20-23

 

Pat6. Ham [son of Noah]

 

Genesis 6:10; 7:13; 9:18

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) And in the ark, Noah and his two sons who were saved alive, they were blessed; but Ham, his other son, was not (p. 17) blessed, but his seed was cursed; [Gen 9.25] and the animals that went in, animals they came forth.

 

Pat7. Shem [son of Noah]

 

Genesis 6:10; 7:13; 9:18

 

Pat8. Japheth [son of Noah]

 

Genesis 6:10; 7:13; 9:18

 

Pat9. Canaan [son of Ham]

 

Genesis 9:18,22,25

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.6 "And in the ark, Noah and his two sons who were saved alive, they were blessed; but Ham, his other son, was not (p. 17) blessed, but his seed was cursed; [Gen 9.25] and the animals that went in, animals they came forth."

 

Pat10. Job and his sufferings/patience

 

Job

 

Pat11. Abraham, friend of God

 

2 Chronicles 20:7; Isaiah 41:8; James 2:23

Hebrews 11:8 (partial, only mentions Abraham)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Macrostitch Creed (344/345 A.D.) (partial, does not say friend) says it was Christ who appeared to Abraham. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Asterius of Amasea (&&&) "For Abraham was a minister of Christ, and, beyond other men, received the things of the revelation of Christ, and the mystery of the Trinity was adequately bodied forth in the tent of this old man when he entertained the three angels as wayfaring men. In short, after many mystical enigmas, he became the friend of God, who in after time put on flesh and, through the medium of this human veil, openly associated with men. On this account, Christ says that Abraham’s bosom is a sort of fair haven, and sheltered resting-place for the just. For we all have our salvation and expectation of the life to come, in Christ, who, in his human descent, sprang from the flesh of Abraham. And I think the honor in the case of this old man has reference to the Saviour, who is the judge and rewarder of virtue, and who calls the just with a gracious voice, saying: ‘Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you.’" The Rich Man and Lazarus

 

Pat12. Sarai / Sarah

 

Genesis 11:29-31; 16:1-6; 18:6-15

Hebrews 11:11

 

Pat13. Lot or his wife

 

Genesis 19:15-26

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Lot’s wife. Nisibine Hymns hymn 57 no.9 p.210.

 

Pat14. Hagar

 

Genesis 16

 

Pat15. Ishmael

 

Genesis 16:11,15; 17:18,20,23-26

 

Pat16. Isaac

 

Genesis 24:62-66

Romans 9:6 "It is not as though God’s word had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel. Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham’s children. On the contrary, ‘It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned."

Hebrews 11:9

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.13 p.83

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) mentions Jacob, Joseph, Isaac, Rebecca, and Reuben. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 7 ch.3 p.377.

Athanasius (357 A.D.) mentions the "patriarch Isaac". Defense of His Flight ch.15 p.262. See also the "Blessed patriarchs in Defense of His Flight ch.20 p.262

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and all saints live for God. On Baptism ch.6.2 p.93

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "Have you not read what was spoken by God to Moses: I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; He is not a God of the dead, but of the living.’" de Principiis book 2 ch.4.1 p.276

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "To many he assigned names even from their birth, as to Isaac, and Samson, and to those in Isaiah and Hosea" Homilies on John homily 19

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "Lord God of my fathers, the God of Abraham and of Isaac and of Jacob"

 

Pat17. Abraham offered Isaac as a sacrifice

 

Genesis 22; James 2:21

(partial) John 8:33,38; Hebrews 11:2

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (partial) John 8:33

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat (337-344 A.D.) (implied) Abraham bound Isaac on the altar. Select Demonstrations book 21 ch.5 p.394

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) (partial) "Jesus went forth out of the city, bearing Himself the Tree of His own Cross; like another Isaac carrying the wood for the sacrifice." On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) says that Abraham almost sacrificed his first born son. Nisibine Hymns hymn 63 no.1 p.215

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) extensively discusses Abraham willing to sacrifice Isaac in Homilies on Hebrews homily 25 ch.102 p.477-478.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) (partial, does not say which son) discusses Arabaham’s great faith of not even sparing his son for God. de Principiis book 3 ch.2 p.&&&

 

Pat18. Rebecca [wife of Isaac]

 

Genesis 25:20-21

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) mentions Jacob, Joseph, Isaac, Rebecca, and Reuben. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 7 ch.3 p.377.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "in the womb of Rebecca?" de Principiis book 3 ch.&&&

 

 

Pat19. Laban [Jacob’s father-in-law]

 

Genesis 25:20

 

Pat20. Jacob

 

Genesis 25:28; Genesis 27-33; Hebrews 11:9

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions Jacob. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.0 p.82

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.13 p.83

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) mentions Jacob, Joseph, Isaac, Rebecca, and Reuben. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 7 ch.3 p.377.

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions Jacob and Esau. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.17 p.357

Athanasius (357 A.D.) mentions the "patriarch Jacob". Defense of His Flight ch.18 p.281

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) wrote about "blessed Jacob". On the Trinity book 5 ch.20 p.90-91.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 18 no.3 p.187

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and all saints live for God. On Baptism ch.6.2 p.93

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) "after the knowledge of our mother Rachel, may be found worthy to obtain blessings from our spiritual father Jacob." Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.13 p.229-230

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) mentions the blessed Jacob. Commentary on Amos ch.9 p.170

 

Pat21. Rachel [wife of Jacob]

 

Genesis 29:6,9-31; 30:1-25; 31:4,14,19,32-34; 33:1,2,7; 35:16,19-25; 46:19,22,25; 48:7; Ruth 4:11; Matthew 2:18

1 Samuel 10:2 (Rachel’s sepulchre)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions Rachel and Leah. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.57 p.339

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "And not only was she herself barren, but also his mother Sarah, who had borne him; not only was his mother barren and his wife, but also his daughter-in-law, the wife of Jacob, Rachel." homily Against Publishing the Errors of Brethren ch.6

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) "after the knowledge of our mother Rachel, may be found worthy to obtain blessings from our spiritual father Jacob." Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.13 p.229-230

 

Pat22. Leah [wife of Jacob]

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions Rachel and Leah. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.57 p.339

 

Pat23. Esau

 

Genesis 25:25-34; 26:34; 27:1-42; 28:5-9; 32:3-19; 33:1-16; 35:1,29; 36:1-43; Deuteronomy 2:4-8,12,22,29; Joshua 24:4; 1 Chronicles 1:34-35; Jeremiah 49:8,10; Obadiah 6-21; Malachi 1:2-3; Romans 9:13; Hebrews 11:20; 12:16

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions Jacob and Esau. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.17 p.357

 

Pat24. Joseph or his brothers


Genesis 30:24; 37-47

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions Joseph in book 1 ch.6 p.90; book 1 ch.7 p.94; book 1 ch.10 p.97

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-344 A.D.) speaks of Joseph and his persecutors (brothers) bowing before him. Select Demonstrations book 21 ch.9 p.395

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) mentions Jacob, Joseph, Isaac, Rebecca, and Reuben. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 7 ch.3 p.377.

Athanasius (356 A.D.) mentions Joseph. Defense before Constantius ch.12 p.242

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Joseph. Nisibine Hymns hymn 57 no.12 p.210

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) refers to Joseph in Genesis 37:7,9; 41:17-24. Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.327

 

Pat25. Benjamin (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 35:18,24; 42:4,36; 43:14-16,29; 45:12,14,22; 46:19,21; 49:27; Exodus 1:3,36-39; 2:2; 7:60; 10:24; 13:9; 26:31,41; 34:21; Numbers 1:11; Deuteronomy 27:12; 33:12; Joshua 13:11,20-21,28; 21:4,17; Judges 1:21; 5:14; 10:9; 19:14; 20; 21:1-23; 1 Samuel 4:12; 9:1; Esther 2:5; Acts 13:21; Romans 11:1; Philippians 3:5; Revelation 7:8

 

Pat26. Dan (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 30:6; 35:25; 46:23; 49:16-17; Exodus 1:4; 31:6; 35:34; Ezekiel 48:1-2,32

 

Pat27. Ephraim (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 48:20

 

Pat28. Judah (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 29:35; Mathew 1:2

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "your God, and circumcise the foreskin of your heart, ye men of Judah"

 

Pat29. Levi (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 29:34; Hebrews 7:10

 

Pat30. Manasseh (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 48:20

 

Pat31. Naphtali (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 30:8

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "land of Naphtali, the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the"

 

Pat32. Zebulun/Zebulon (patriarch, tribe, or land)

 

Genesis 30:20

 

Pat33. The patriarchs

 

Romans 9:5

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (357 A.D.) mentions the "patriarch Jacob". Defense of His Flight ch.18 p.281

Athanasius (357 A.D.) mentions the "patriarch Isaac". Defense of His Flight ch.15 p.262. See also the "Blessed patriarchs in Defense of His Flight ch.20 p.262

 

Pat34. The twelve tribes [of Israel]

 

 

Exodus to Solomon Individuals

 

ES1. Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt

 

Exodus 12-14; Hebrews 3:16

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caeesarea (323-339/340 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says that even though Moses led the people from Egypt, he was just a man. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.17.26 p.362. See also discourse 2 ch.68 p.485

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (partial) mentions Moses. Nisibine Hymns hymn 57 no.11 p.210

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (partial) Mention of Moses. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 (b) p.204

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (partial) refers to righteous people like Moses and Joshua son of Nun. Commentary on Hosea ch.12 p.92

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (implied) Mentions the Israelites, Moses, Pharaoh, and the Exodus. Commentary on Nahum preface p.246

 

ES2. Miriam, sister of Moses

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) mentions Miriam opposing Moses. vol.9 On the Statues homily 20 ch.10 p.475

 

ES3. Aaron, brother of Moses

 

Exodus 4:14,27,28-30; 5:1,4,20; 6:13,20,23,26-27; 7:1-2,6-10,19-20; 8:5-6,8,12,16-17,25; 9:8,27, etc.

Luke 1:5; Acts 7:40; Hebrews 5:4; 7:11

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions Aaron. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.47 p.333

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 18 no.3 p.187

 

ES4. Pharaoh during the Exodus

 

ES5. Korah

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) primacy and dare to make a schism, he shall inherit the place of Korah

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) of Korah were Levites, and ministered in the tabernacle of witness;

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) there rose up two hundred and fifty men, and they (Korah, &c.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) swallowed up Korah and Dathan and Abiram, and their tents and their

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) making schisms. For the adherents of Korah, Dathan and Abiram were

 

ES6. Balaam or his donkey

 

Numbers 22:5-41; 23:1-30; 24:1-25; 31:8,16; Deuteronomy 23:4-5; Joshua 13:22; 24:9; Micah 6:5; 2 Peter 2:15 (partial), Jude 11 (partial), Revelation 2:14 (partial) Balaam’s teaching

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Balaam. Nisibine Hymns hymn 4 no.9 p.209

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "For so Balaam was an alien both from faith and from a truly good life;" Homilies on Matthew homily 24.

 

ES7. Joshua conquered Canaan

 

Joshua 1-14; 23-24

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.10,12 p.83 (partial) briefly mentions Joshua at Jericho and Joshua encountering the capatin of the Lord’s army.

Athanasius (356 A.D.) mentions Joshua and that zeal for the Lord’s wars did not excuse his theft. To the Bishops of Egypt ch.11 p.228

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) mentions Joshua entering Canaan. Nisibine Hymns hymn 39 no.9 p.201

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (partial) refers to righteous people like Moses and Joshua son of Nun. Commentary on Hosea ch.12 p.92

 

ES8. Rahab of Jericho

 

Joshua 2:1-21; Hebrews 11:31

 

ES9. Jephthah [the judge]

 

Judges 11:1-12:7; Hebrews 11:32

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (356 A.D.) mentions Jephthah’s daughter. Of the Synods ch.51 p.477

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 39 no.15 p.201

 

ES10. Gideon

 

Judges 6-8:35; Hebrews 11:32

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (356 A.D.) mentions Gideon, Samson, and Samuel. Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.21 p.234

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Gideon. Nisibine Hymns hymn 59 no.19 p.212

 

ES11. Samson

 

Judges 13:14-16:30; Hebrews 11:32

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (356 A.D.) mentions Gideon, Samson, and Samuel. Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.21 p.234

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Samson. Nisibine Hymns hymn 39 no.12 p.201

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "To many he assigned names even from their birth, as to Isaac, and Samson, and to those in Isaiah and Hosea" Homilies on John homily 19

 

ES12. Eli [mentor of Samuel]

 

ES13. Samuel

 

1 Samuel 1:20; 2:18-26; 3-4; 7-16, 19, 25:1; 28:3-20; 1 Chronicles 6:28; 9:22; 11:3; 26:28-29; 2 Chronicles 35:18; Psalm 99:6; Jeremiah 15:1; Acts 3:24; 13:20; Hebrews 11:32

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (356 A.D.) mentions Gideon, Samson, and Samuel. Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.21 p.234

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Samuel. Nisibine Hymns hymn 39 no.10 p.201

 

ES14. Saul [son of Kish]

 

1 Samuel 9:2-27; 10:11-26; 11:4-15; 13-24; 25:44; 26-29, 31:2-12; 2 Samuel 1-9, 12:7; 16:5,8; 19:17,24; 21:1-14; 22:1; 1 Chronicles 5:10; 8:33; 9:39; 10:2-13; 11:2; 12:1-2,19,25,29; 13:3; 15:29; 26:28; Psalm 18:title; 52:title; 54:title; 57:title; 59:title; Isa 10:29

 

Athanasius (357 A.D.) mentions Saul. Defense beforeConstantius ch.20 p.246

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Saul. Nisibine Hymns hymn 55 no.8 p.209

&&&OrigenDePrincipiis3 Saul; and in the third book, Micaiah the prophet says, "I saw the Lord of Israel

 

ES15. David

 

2 Samuel 7

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (328-373 A.D.) discusses what David wrote in Psalm 50:3 (LXX); 54:7; 76:11. In Defence of His Flight ch.20 p.262

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) mentions David, Solomon the wisest of all men, and Paul in his Second Theological Oration ch.21 p.296

 

ES16. [King] Saul persecuted David

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) mentions that David did not slay Saul when he was running from him. Commentary on Matthew homily 62 ch.5 p.385

 

ES17. Nathan [the prophet]

 

ES18. Uriah [the Hittite]

 

ES19. Tamar / Thamar

 

ES20. King Solomon was wise

 

1 Kings 3

(partial, only mentions Solomon in his spendor) Matthew 6:29

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.84 says that wisdom was revaled most clearly through Solomon

Athanasius (335 A.D.) refers to Ecclesiastes as by the "wise Solomon" Easter Letter 1 ch.1 p.506

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (partial) says that Solomon was degraded by women. Nisibine Hymns hymn 57 no.20 p.211

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) mentions David, Solomon the wisest of all men, and Paul in his Second Theological Oration ch.21 p.296

 

 

DIVIDED KINGDOM ON OT Individuals

 

DK1. Jeroboam

 

DK2. Ahab

 

DK3. Elijah was a godly prophet

 

1 Kings 18-20; Luke 9:33

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 9:33

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (329 A.D.) mentions "the great and holy Elijah" Easter Letter 1 ch.6 p.508

Athanasius (328-373 A.D.) discusses Elijah and the more than 400 prophets of Baal. In Defence of His Flight (357 A.D.) ch.20 p.262. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (331 A.D.) discourse 3 ch.28.47 p.419 and History of the Arians ch.47 p.287

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Elijah and Elisha. Nisibine Hymns hymn 19 no.8 p.189

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) discussed how Elias [Elijah] the prophet performed his miracles. Oration on Pentecost ch.4 p.380

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that even though Elijah, John the Apostle, or the later saint Thecla were godly, they were not to be worshipped. (Panarion 3.2:5, as quoted [in part] in Examination of the Council of Trent III, p.468, and [in part] by the Tübingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.140)

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) (implied) mentions Moses and Elias [Elijah] on the mount with Jesus [at the Transfiguration]. He also says that Elijah never died but was translated. On the Gospel of John Tractate 124 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.450.

 

DK4. Hezekiah [godly king]

 

Isaiah 38:5-39:7

 

DK5. Elisha

 

1 Kings 19:17,19; 2 Kings 2-9; 13:14-21

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions Elisha and Naaman healed of leprosy. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.2 p.394-395. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.28.47 p.419 and History of the Arians ch.40 p.284.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Elijah and Elisha. Nisibine Hymns hymn 19 no.8 p.189

 

DK6. Naaman [the Syrian leper]

 

DK7. Jonah in the fish or warned Ninevites

 

Jonah; Matthew 12:39-41; (partial) Luke 11:29-32

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 12:39-41; (partial) Luke 11:29-32

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) (partial) discusses Jonah and the tempest at sea. It does not mention the fish though. Homilies on Joshua. homily 23 ch.2 p.196-197

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) (implied) discusses the Ninevites becing warned by one man, but does not say Jonah’s name. None Can Harm Him Who Dot Not Injure Himself ch.14 (NPNF vol.9) p.281.

 

DK8. Sennacherib

 

DK9. Josiah the godly king

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 53 no.17 p.208

 

DK10. Jeconiah/Jechoniah

 

DK11. Nebuchadnezzar [King of Babylon]

 

DK12. Zedekiah

 

DK13. Ezekiel

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (332 A.D.) specifically mentions Ezekiel and says that God desires repentance and not the death of a sinner. Paschal Letter 4 ch.4 p.514

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) was crazy over the number 22. He gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

 

DK14. Daniel

 

Ezekiel 14:14,20; book of Daniel, Matthew 24:15; Mark 13:14

Ezekiel 28:3 (Daniel, probably not the Ugaritic Danel, who was not particularly wise)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions Daniel. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.16 p.386

 

DK15. The Three Youths in Daniel

 

Daniel 3:16-18

 

See also, W30: Chirst with the three youths in Daniel.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) eloquently discusses the three youths his treatise None Can Harm Him Who Dot Not Injure Himself ch.15 (NPNF vol.9) p.281-282.

 

DK16. Cyrus [King of Persia]

 

DK17. Darius [King of Persia]

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (356 A.D.) mentions Darius. On the Councils ch.3 p.452

 

DK18. Artaxerxes [King of Persia]

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "We said, indeed, in the foregoing pages, that certain recollections of good or evil actions were suggested to us either by the act of divine providence or by the opposing powers, as is shown in the book of Esther, when Artaxerxes had not remembered the services of that just man Mordecai, but, when wearied out with his nightly vigils, had it put into his mind by God to require that the annals of his great deeds should be read to him;" de Principiis book 3 ch.2.4 p.332

 

DK19. Ezra the scribe/prophet

 

DK20. Zerubbabel

 

Athanasius (357 A.D.) mentions Zorobabel (Zerubabbel). Defense before Constantius ch.11 p.242

 

DK21. Joshua the high priest (in Zechariah)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) refers to Zechariah 3:1 as by Zechariah. The devil was accusing Joshua. de Principiis book 3 ch.2 p.329

 

DK22. Antiochus [Epiphanes] of Syria

 

 

DK23. The prophets are holy

 

 

New Testament Individuals

 

N1. Herod’s slaughter in Bethlehem

 

Matthew 2:16

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 2:16

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.8.1-7 p.94 tells of Herod’s slaughter of the boys under 2 in Bethlehem.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (partial) mentions Herod. Nativity Hymns hymn 4 p.237

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions Herod’s murder after Jesus was born. Oration on Pentecost ch.5 p.381

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) (partial) alludes to Herod trying to kill the infant. Sermon 34.2 p.148

 

N2. John the Baptist was a godly forerunner

 

Matthew 3:1-15; Mark 1:4-8; 14; Luke 3:1-20; John 1:15,19-35

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 3:1-12; Luke 3:3-20; John 1:25-34

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 59 no.6 p.199

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions approvingly the preaching of John the Baptists and his courage before Herod. Commentary on Philippians homily 5 verse 3 p.205

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) mentions John the Baptist. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.21 (2) p.145-146

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translatin Origen (225-254 A.D.) mentions John the Baptist, Jeremiah as filled with the spirit. Origen’s de Principiis book 3 ch.4.3-5 p.337

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus accepted the baptism of John the Baptist. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71 p.64

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) (partial) positively mentions John the Baptist, but they do not say he was a forerunner. They believe Christ of ROme was a false prophet.. Ginza p.550

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) discusses Mal 3:1 and "the coming of the blessed John the Baptist." Commentary on Malachi ch.3 p.415

 

N3. Simeon [at Jesus’ infancy]

 

Luke 2:25-35

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) mentions Simeon who carried Jesus in Hymns on the Nativity Hymn 3 p.234

 

Among heretics

Protoevangelium of James (partial because in one reading but not in the main one.) 1609 p.&&& "the priests consulted as to whom they should put in his place; and the lot fell upon Simeon.; For it was he who had been warned by the Holy Spirit that he should not see death until he should see the Christ in the flesh."

 

N4. Peter the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 10:2; Mark 3:16; Luke 6:14; Acts 1:13; John 1:42; Matthew 16:13-20; k 8:27-30; Luke 9:18-27; Matthew 17:1-8; Mark 9:2-8; Luke 9:28-36; 2 Peter 1:16-18; Matthew 17:24-27; Matthew 26:31-35; Mark 14:27-31; Luke 22:31-34; John 13:31-38; Matthew 26:69-75; Mark 14:66-72; Luke 22:54-62; John 18:15-27; Acts 10; Acts 11; 15; Acts 12; Ga; 2:11-21; Acts 15

 

(Peter being a disciple before the resurrection is not counted here)

 

Acts 8:14; 10:6-16; 12:13-18; John 21:7-19

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions Cornelius, of Caearea in Palestine, Peter, and later the persecution of Stephen and still later Agabus. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.3.3 p.107

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) talks of Peter in Rome. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.14.4 p.115

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions what Peter taught (Acts 2:22). Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.12 p.354

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) speaks of St. Peter. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.2 p.183

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions Peter saying that Jesus was crucified (Acts 2:36) and that Jesus was the uncreated Word. (Panarion 69, as quoted in Concordia Triglotta, p.1125)

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) mentions Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother in Homilies on John homily 18 ch.3 v.40 p.64

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) believed the church was built on Peter and the gates of Hell would not prevail against him. Origen’s de Principiis 3.2.5 p.333.

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) mentions Peter. Commentary on the Song of Songs prologue p.53

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says that Peter was the rock and foundation of the church. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.23 p.148

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) speaks of the blessed apostle Peter in Sermon 25.6 p.136

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (partial) appeal to Peter quoting scripture. Commentary on Zechariah ch.9 p.368

 

N5. Philip the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14; John 1:43-48; 14:8; Acts 1:13

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions Philip the disciple. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.11 p.313; ch.34 p.334

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) mentions Philip the disciple. Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.328-329

 

N6. Thomas the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; John 11:16; 14:5; 20:24-29; 21:2; Acts 1:13

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; John 11:16; 14:5; 20:24-29

Vaticanus (B) Most of Old Testament all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; John 11:16; 14:5; 20:24-29; 21:2; Acts 1:13

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "And when Thomas said to Him [Jesus], ‘My Lord and my God,’, He allows his words, or ratehr accepts him instead of hindering him." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.16 p.361

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) "The bag of Thomas has slain me, for the secret strength tht dwells in it tortures me" Nisibine Hymns hymn 42 no.2 p.205

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) teaches on Thomas seeing Jesus after Jesus’ resurrection and saying to Jesus, "My Lord and My God." On the Gospel of John Tractate 121 ch.20.5 vol.7 p.438.

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions Thomas seeing Jesus after the resurrection and saying to Christ My Lord and My God" The Capitula of the Council ch.12 p.315

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.323 (553 A.D.) mentions Thomas the Apostle.

 

N7. Mary Magdalene

 

Matthew 27:56,61; 28:1; Mark 15:40,47; 16:1,9; Luke 8:2; 24:10

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 27:56,61; 18:1; Mark 15:40,47; 16:1,9; Luke 8:2; 24:10

Vaticanus (B) Most of Old Testament all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 27:56,61; 28:1; Mark 15:40,47; 16:1,9; Luke 8:2; 24:10

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes John 20:17 where Mary Magdalene is mentioned as not to touch Jesus for He has not yet ascended to His Father. On the Christian Faith book 4 ch.2.25 p.265

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) &&&

 

N8. Mary was blessed

 

Luke 1:48b

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) ""

 

N9. Judas betrayed Jesus

 

Matthew 26:47-48; 27:3; Mark 14:43-44; Luke 22:47-48; John 18:2-3; Acts 1:16

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 26:47-48; 27:3; Mark 14:43-44; Luke 22:47-48; John 18:2-3

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (335 A.D.) says that those who have been counted worthy of the heavenly calling, when they grow negligent, become defiled and become like Judas. He refers to Hebrews 10:29 and Matthew 22:12. Easter Letter 9 ch.10 p.527

Athanasius (356 A.D.) mentions Judas. Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.21 p.234

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (partial, no mention of betrayal) mentions Iscariot’s bag Nisibine Hymns hymn 35 no.17 p.195 and hymn 42 no.2 p.205. See also Nativity Hymns hymn 3 p.230

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) "…Judas, who, after being so long Christ’s disciple, for a mean gain sold his Master, and got a halter for himself. Learn the, brother, that it is not he who beings well who is perfect. It is he who ends well who is approve din God’s sight." Basil to Julian Letter 41.2 p.144

Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria (after 384 A.D.) p.267 "they came to the church of the most blessed mother of God, and Ever-Virgin Mary, which, as we began to say, he had constructed in the western quarter, in a suburb, for a cemetery of the martyrs."

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) "Judas was a son of perdition [destruction]" Against Eunomius book 3 ch.6 p.148

Cyril of Alexandria (c.349-381 A.D.) mentions that Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss. Lecture 6.20 p.39

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says Judas was seized by Satan and betrayed jesus for thrity pieces of silver. Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.210-211.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) mentions "the apostate apostle" according to the footnote "almost certainly meaning Judas." Defense Against the Pelagians ch.16 p.135

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) discusses Judas’ iniquitous betrayal. City of God book 1 ch.17 p.12. See also book 17 ch.18 p.356

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) says that Judas as covetousness and betrayed our Lord. Conference of the Bishop Paphnutius ch.5 p.321

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says that Judas was criminal and unhappy in Sermon 54.3 p.155

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-550 A.D.) (partial) refers to the virgin birth, Christ’s death on a dreadful cross, pretended kisses of a client/disciple, Pilate p.327

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-250 A.D.) book 1 ch.60 p.&&& (partial) mentions that Matthias replaced Judas.

 

N10. High Priest Caiaphas/Herod tried Jesus

 

Matthew 26:57-67; Acts 4:27

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 26:57-67

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.10.4 p.97 (implied) Caiaphas was the High Priest when Jesus was tried.

Athanasius (c.371 A.D.) speaks of the trials of Pilate and Caiaphas Personal Letter 61 (To Maximus) ch.1 p.578

Athanasius (331 A.D.) (partial) mentions Caiaphas, but does not say whether or not he tried Jesus. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.18.40 p.369

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions that Jesus did not feel terror before Herod and Pilate. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29.54 p.423

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) Nisibine Hymns hymn 58 no.14 p.211

 

N11. Pontius Pilate sentenced Jesus

 

Luke 23:4-25; John 18:28-19:26

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 23:4-25; John 18:28-31

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions that Pilate, at Christ’s trial washed his hands. History of the Arians ch.68 p.295

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) mentions Pontius Pilate at Jesus’ trial. First Catechetical Lecture 5 ch.12 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.32

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) (implied) discusses the role of the scribes and Pilate. de Principiis book 3 ch.2.5 p.332

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Theodoret of Cyrus (423-458 A.D.) mentions Pontius Pilate in quoting from Irenaeus in Dialogues p.175

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) mentions that Jesus was sentenced by Pontius Pilate in Sermon 55.6 p.166

 

N12. Matthias

 

Acts 1:20

(partial) Psalm 109:8

 

N13. James the Lord’s brother was godly

 

Acts 15:13-18; 1 Corinthians 15:7

 

Note that no mention is made of James never drinking alcohol or having his hair cut from birth except in Eusebius quoting what Hegesippus wrote.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.12 p.96 mentions James, the Savior’s brother.

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) mentions James bishop of the church [and brother of Jesus]. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.28 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.25

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) refers to "the blessed James in the Acts of the Holy Apostles" Commentary on Amos ch.9 p.172

 

N14. Ethiopian eunuch

 

Acts 8:26-40

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) mentions that Ethiopian Eunuch. History of the Arians part 5 ch.38 p.283

 

N15. Stephen the martyr

 

Acts 7:59-60

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) Most of Old Testament all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 7:59-60

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions Cornelius, of Caearea in Palestine, Peter, and later the persecution of Stephen and still later Agabus. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.3.3 p.107

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) mentions that the blessed Stephen saw the Lord standing on [God’s] right hand. Letters of Athanasius Letter 60 ch.5 p.576

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions Stephen the deacon as the first to wear the martyr’s crown. Against Jovinianus book 1 ch.35 p.373

 

N16. Cornelius the centurion was saved

 

Acts 10:24-48

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions Cornelius, of Caearea in Palestine, Peter, and later the persecution of Stephen and still later Agabus. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.3.3 p.107

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-250 A.D.) book 10 ch.55 p.&&& mentions Cornelius the Centurion

 

N17. Barnabas, companion of Paul

 

Acts 13:2; 14:1-3; 15:22; Galatians 2:1

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) Most of Old Testament all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 13:2; 14:1-3; 15:22; Galatians 2:1

 

N18. Paul was a godly apostle

 

Acts 15:22; Galatians 1:1; 2 Peter 3:15-16

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius Against the Heathen (318-373 A.D.) ch.5 p.6 speaks of the "blessed Paul" and quotes Philippians 3:14.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) speaks of "the Apostle Paul". Against Eunomius book 6 ch.2 p.183. See also Against Eunomius book 1 ch.23 p.64.

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Paul was carried up to the third heaven. Letter 2 ch.8.2 p.37

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (c.225-254 A.D.) If we listen to the words of Paul, they are the words of God. Origen’s de Principiis book 4 ch.1.22 p.371

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) says that there was no one like Paul, who was blessed. Commentary on Philippians homily 1 verse 7 p.187

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) mentions the apostles Peter and Paul in Sermon 82.4 p.195

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

The spurious Acts of Peter (4th century?) ch.1-3 says that Paul traveled to Spain.

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (implied) alludes to Hebrews 7:11 as by the blessed Paul. Commentary on Hosea ch.24 p.56 and Hebrews 9:13 as by Paul in Commentary on Jonah preface p.187

 

N19. Apollos

 

Acts 18:24-28; 19:1; 1 Corinthians 1:12; 3:4-6; 4:6; 16:12; Tt 3:13

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-39- A.D.) mentions Apollos quoting 1 Corinthians 3:5,6 in On the Christian Faith book 5 ch.8 p.285.

Rufinus (374-406) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "of agriculture what is actually written: "I planted, Apollos watered; but God" de Principiis book 3 ch.&&&

 

N20. Jesus’ seventy disciples

 

N21. Anna

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Anna. Nativity Hymns hymn 4 p.236

 

N22. Silas, companion of Paul

 

Acts 15:22,27-34,40; 16:19,25,29; 17:4,10,14,15; 18:5; 2 Corinthians 1:19; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1; 1 Peter 5:12

Note Silas is called Silvanus in the KJV outside of Acts

 

N23. Zechariah, husband of Elizabeth

 

Luke 1:5-25

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) says Zechariah and Elizabeth are the father and mother of John the Baptist. Ginza p.550

 

N24. Magi came to Christ

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions the Magi from the east who came to worship Christ. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.8.1 p.94

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions the Magi at Christ’s birth. Nativity Hymns hymn 3 p.233

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says the Magi worshipped Jesus. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.19 p.308. See also On Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions Jesus being from the virgin, the angels glorifying Jesus, and calls Jesus the Lamb and the Shepherd. The star led the Magi to worship and offer gifts. Jesus was baptized, and fasted, and was tempted. Devils were cast out and diseases healed. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.24 p.210

 

N25. Andrew the disciple/apostle

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) mentions Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother in Homilies on John homily 18 ch.3 v.40 p.64

 

N26. Zacchaeus

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.)

 

N27. John the Baptist lept in Elizabeth’s womb

 

N28. Saul of Tarsus persecuted the church

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (&&&) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "When, therefore, Paul is found to have acted contrary to religion, in having persecuted the Church of God, and Peter to have committed so grave a sin as," de Principiis book 1 ch.8.2 p.&&&

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) says that Saul of Tarsus ravished the church. On the Statues homily 5.6 p.373

 

N29. Paul was in prison/bonds

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) write that Paul was in prison. Commentary on Romans The &&& p.336

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) says that Paul was in chains in prison. On the Statues homily 1.30 p.342

 

N30. Elizabeth [mother of John the Baptist]

 

Luke 1:5,7,13,24,40-45,57

 

N31. Martha

 

Luke 10:38-42

 

N32. [Samaritan] Woman at the well

 

John 4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.)

Rufinus (&&&) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "these words to the Samaritan woman, saying to her, who thought, agreeably to the" de Principiis book 1 ch.&&&

 

N33. Barabbas

 

Luke 23:18-19

(partial) Acts 3:14

 

N34. Paul was persecuted besides prison

 

Acts 13:50; 14:19; 16:22-23; 17:5

 

N35. James son of Zebedee the disciple/apostle

 

James the Lord’s brother is a different person. James son of Alphaeus is a different person.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions James the apostle being killed by Herod. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.9.1 p.110

 

N36. Shepherds at Jesus’ birth

 

Luke 1:8-20

 

N37. Timothy the individual (not just the book)

 

N38. Judas hanged himself

 

Matthew 27:5-6; Acts 1

 

 

Experiencing God

 

X1. Our bodies are God’s temple/temples

 

1 Corinthians 6:19 (individual)

(partial) Hebrews 3:6 we are God’s house

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 6:19

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 3:16 about our bodies being a Temple. Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.12.90 p.148

 

X2. God/Christ lives inside of Christians

 

John 14:23; 1 John 4:12,15

Romans 9:10-18 Spirit of Christ lives in us; Christ lives in us.

(implied Holy Spirit dwells in us) 1 Corinthians 6:19

 

(implied, because accept all believers) Romans 8:9-11

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 14:23

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 14:23

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 3:16 the Holy Spirit dwelling in us. Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.12.90 p.148

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God dwells in people. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.59 p.56

 

X3. We are friends of Christ

 

John 15:15

 

X8. Seek wisdom from God or His word

 

Proverbs 9:1-6; 10:1; 13:1; Ephesians 1:17; James 1:5

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Ephesians 1:17

 

X9. The Lord disciplines or corrects us

 

Isaiah 26:16; Hebrews 12:5-11

 

X10. Be peaceful, kind, gentle, or good

 

Matthew 5( peacemakers)

Ephesians 4:31-32; Philippians 4:8; Hebrews 12:14; 1 Peter 3:11

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 5

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Philippians 4:8

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 2 ch.1 p.396 mentions meekness and being gentle.

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) showed that it was good to be gentle Ginza p.540

 

X11. Please the Lord

 

1 Corinthians 7:32; 2 Corinthians 5:9; 12:1; 14:18; Galatians 1:10; 6:8; Ephesians 5:10; Philippians 4:18; 1 Colossians 1:10; 3:2; Thessalonians 2:4; 4:1; Hebrews 11:5-6

(implied) Romans 8:8

Isaiah 56:4 "To the eunuchs who keep my Sabbaths, who choose what pleases me..."

 

X12. God renews us

 

X13. God strengthens us

 

(Not referring to marriage or strengthened by reading the word)

 

Ephesians 3:16

2 Thessalonians 2:17 Father and Son strengthen us

 

X14. Glory in the Lord

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says God is our strength. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.13 p.407

 

X15. Christians escape corruption

 

X16. Be strong/strengthened

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) "May this people, free from stain, be strengthened" Poem on Easter p.330

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) showed that it was good to be gentle Ginza p.540

 

X17. God’s people mourn

 

2 Corinthians 7:9,11

 

Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria (after 384 A.D.) p.262"And although he [Peter of Alexandria] was in hiding, yet, so far as his strength permitted, directing everywhere his exhortations, and preaching up the unity of the Church, he strengthened men to withstand the ignorance and nefarious temerity of Meletius."

 

X23. Believers are set free

 

Psalm 118:5; 119:32; 146:7; Luke 4:18; John 8:32,36; Romans 6:18; 8:2; 2 Corinthians 3:17; Galatians 5:1; James 1:25

1 Peter 2:16 (implied)

 

X24. Fear of the Lord/God

 

The fear of the Lord is Wisdom. Job 28:28; Psalm 111:10a; Proverbs 1:7; 9:10

Leviticus 19:14,32; 25:!7,36,43; Deuteronomy 4:10; 5:29; 6:2,13,24; 8:6; 10:12,20; 13:4; 4:23; 17:19; 28:58; 31:12, 31:13; Joshua 4:24; 24:14; 1 Samuel 12:14; 12:242 Samuel 23:3; 1 Kings 18:12; 2 Kings 4:1; 17:28; 17:32-41; 1 Chronicles 16:25; 16:30; 2 Chronicles 19:7,9; Nehemiah 1:11; 5:9; 5:15; 7:2; Psalm 2:11; 5:7; 15:4; 19:9; 22:23; 22:25; 25:14; 33:8; 33;18; 34:7; 34:9; 34:11; 40:3; 52:6; 66:16; 67:7; 89:7; 96:4; 96:9; 102:15; 103:11; 103:13; 103:17; 111:5; 112:1; 115:11; 115:13; 118:4; 128:1; 128:4; 130:4; 135:20; 145:19; Proverbs 1:29; 2:5; 3:7; 8:13; 22:4; 23:17; 24:21; Ecclesiastes 3:14; 5:7; 8:12; 12:13; Isaiah 29:23; 33:6; 50:10a; Jeremiah 32:39; 32:40; Hosea 3:5; Jonah 1:9; Haggai 1:12; Malachi 1:6; 3:5; 4:2; Matthew 10:28; Luke 1:50; 12:5; Acts 10:35; 13:16; 13:26; 2 Corinthians 7:1; 7:117:15; Ephesians 5:21; 6:5; 1 Peter 2:17; Revelation 11:18; 14:7; 15:4

(Implied) Genesis 22:12; Deuteronomy 25:18; Job 1:1; 1:8; 2:3; Psalm 25:12; 36:1 55:19; 76:8; 85:9; 86:11; 119:74; 119:120; 119:63; 119:74; 147:11; Proverbs 10:27; 14:2; 14:16; 28:14; 31:30; 14:26; 14:27; 15:16; 15:33; 16:6; 19:23; Ecclesiasates 7:18; Isaiah 41:5; 50:10; 57:11; Jeremiah 5:22; Jonah 1:16; Malachi 2:5; 3:16; Luke 18:4; 23:40; Acts 9:31; 10:22; 19:17; Romans 3:18; Philippians 2:12

(Implied) Exodus 20:20; 1 Samuel 11:7 2 Chronicles 14:14; 17:10; 20:29; Job 6:14; Psalm 114:7; Proverbs 13:13; Isaiah 2:10; 2:19; 2:21

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.)says we should fear God. Nisibine Hymns hymn 5 no.5 p.173

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) Commentary on Psalms Psalm 73

 

X20. We adore/glory in the cross

 

Galatians 6:14

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.)

 

X21. God’s holy people

 

 

X22. Speaking of shame

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) speaks of shame in discussing Romans. Commentary on Romans homily 12 p.417

 

X23. Put unrighteousness/adversary to shame

 

X24. Do not be ashamed of the cross/Christ

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) (implied) speaks about not being ashamed of the cross of Christ. Commentary on Matthew homily 5 ch.6 p.338

 

X35. Faith/Kingdom of Heaven like a mustard seed

 

Matthew 13:31

 

X30. None shall separate us from God’s love

 

Romans 8:35a

 

Rufinus translating OrigenDePrincipiis3 able to say, ‘Who shall separate us from the love of God which is in Christ

Rufinus translating OrigenDePrincipiis3 nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor power, nor any

 

X31. We are children of light

 

Ephesians 5:8-13; 1 Thessalonians 5:5-7

 

X32. Put the adversary/unrighteousness to shame

 

X26. Flesh and spirit war against each other

 

 

X27. The peace of God

 

 

X28. There is sin unto death

 

 

PRAYER AND FASTING

 

Pr1. Prayer to God is important

 

Matthew 6:9-13; Mark 11:25; 1 Thessalonians 5:25; James 5:13,17,18

(partial) Matthew 26:26 (Jesus prayed in Gethsemane)

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 6:9; Mark 11:25

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 6:9-13; Mark 11:25; 1 Thessalonians 5:25

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.56 p.211 And with those who suffered he sympathised and prayed."

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) says that even though the Philippians advanced in faith, Paul did not cease praying for them. Commentary on Philippians homily 1 verse 3 p.185

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-550 A.D.) &&&

Venantius (lived c.530-609 A.D.) says that He who was crucified reigns over all things. All things offer prayer to their Creator. Poem on Easter p.329

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (implied) Mention of prayer in the 71st Psalm. Commentary on Zechariah ch.9 p.370

 

X4. Pure in heart will see God

 

Rufinus (410 A.D.) translatins Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes Matthew 5:8. de PRincipiis book 1 ch.2.8 p.245

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 2 ch.1 p.396 Matthew 5:8

 

Pr2. Pray to the Father

 

Pr3. Pray to Jesus

 

Acts 7:59

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 7:59

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria (after 386 A.D.) Praying to Jesus

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) says to pray to Jesus. Seven Books book 7.1 p.604

 

Pr4. Pray at all times or in any place

 

1 Thessalonians 5:17; Hebrews 13:15; Psalm 86:3b

Example:s Acts 1:14; 16:25; Romans 1:10; Ephesians 6:18; Colossians 1:9; 4:12; 2 Timothy 1:3

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 16:25; 1 Thessalonians 5:17

 

Pr5. Pray daily

 

Pr6. Praise God

 

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) "The light, the heaven, the fields, and the sea duly praise the God ascending above the stars, having crushed the laws of hell. Behold, He who was crucified reigns as God over all things, and all created objects offer prayer to their Creator." Poem on Easter p.&&&

 

X6. Thankfulness/gratitude to God

 

2 Chr 5:13; 7:3,6; 20:21; 32:2

John 6:11; Acts 27:35; Romans 1:21; 14:6; 16:4; 1 Corinthians 10:30; 11:24; 15:57; 16:4-8,34-41; 2 Corinthians 2:14; 9:15; Philippians 1:3; 4:6; Colossians 3:15; 1 Thessalonians 3:9; 5:18; 2 Thessalonians 1:3; Hebrews 12:28

(implied) 1 Thessalonians 4:3

 

Come before God with thanksgiving Psalm 95:2; 110:4

Thanks God when times are tough. Dan 2:23;

Always give thanks Ephesians 5:20; 1 Thessalonians 5:18

Thank God every day 1 Chr 23:30 (Levites)

Give thanks before eating Matthew 14:19; 15:36; 26:26-27; Mark 6:41; 8:6; 14:22-23; Luke 9:16; 22:17,19; 24:30; John 6:11,23; 1 Corinthians 11:24; 1 Timothy 4:3-4

 

Offer God a sacrifice of thanksgiving Leviticus 7:12-15; 7:12; 22:29; Psalm 50:14,23; 56:12; 107:22; 116:17

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 6:11

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 6:11; Acts 27:35; Romans 1:21; 14:6; 16:4; 1 Corinthians 10:30; 11:24; 15:57; 2 Corinthians 2:14; 9:15; Philippians 1:3; 4:6; Colossians 3:15; 1 Thessalonians 3:9; 5:18; 2 Thessalonians 1:3

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (332 A.D.) "knowing that the Lord loves the thankful, never cease to praise Him, ever giving thanks unto the Lord." Easter Letter 332 A.D. Letter 3 ch.5 p.514.

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Micah has a thankfulness towards God. Commentary on Micah ch.7 p.244

 

Pr8. Confess to God

 

1 John 1:9; James 5:16; Psalms 32:5; 38:18

 

Pr8. Forgive us as we forgive others

 

Matthew 6:12a

 

Pr10. Not into temptation

 

Pr11. Deliver us from evil

 

Pr12. The Lord’s Prayer

 

Matthew 6:9-13; Luke 11:2-4

 

Pr13. Lift up hands to God

 

Pr14. Bless or pray for those who persecute you

 

Bless those who persecute you. Romans 12:14

Repay evil with blessing. 1 Peter 3:9

Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you. Matthew 5:44

Love your enemies, bless those who curse you; pray for those who mistreat you. Luke 6:27-28

Example of Stephen: Acts 7:60

Example of Jesus: Luke 23:34

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Romans 12:14

 

Pr15. Pray for rulers and those in authority

 

1 Timothy 2:1-3

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) 1 Timothy 2:1-3

 

Pr16. Incense of the prayers of the saints

 

Revelation 5:8; 8:3-4

 

Pr17. Pray for God’s kingdom to come

 

Pr18. Pray for others / intercessory prayer

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria (after 386 A.D.) p.264 "Pray for me, my brothers; you will not see me longer living in this life with you."

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "And she cannot please God, nor is she obedient to His ministry, so as to be constantly praying and making intercession, because her mind is quite taken captive by the greed of avarice."

 

Pr19. Pray for God’s mercy for us

 

Asking Jesus on earth for mercy is not counted here.

 

Psalm 41:4; 4:1; Luke 18:1

 

Pr20. Fasting to God is good

 

Matthew 6:16; Acts 13:2; 14:23

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 6:16; Acts 13:2; 14:23

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (356-360 A.D.) says that we are fed on the Word of God and fast on external things. Easter Letter 1 ch.6 p.508. See also Letter 19 (347 A.D.) ch.19 p.548.

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) "He [Jesus] taught us that evil cannot be easily overcome except by our fasting, saying: ‘This kind of devil is not cast out but by prayer and fasting.’" Letter 63 no.15 p.459

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) mentions fasting. Memra 13 ch.3 p.130

 

Pr21. Pray in secret

 

Matthew 6:6

 

 

NOT OF THIS WORLD

 

n1. We need to repent and come to God

 

Ezekiel 18:23;32

Matthew 3:2; 3:8,11; 4:17; 11:20; 21:32

Mark 1:4,15; 6:12

Luke 3:3,5,8; 5:32; 15:7,10; 16:30; 24:37

Acts 2:38; 3:19; 5:31; 8:22; 11:18; 13:24; 17:30; 19:4; 20:21; 26:20

Romans 2:4

2 Corinthians 7:9,10

2 Timothy 2:25

Hebrews 6:1,6

2 Peter 3:9

Revelation 2:5,16; 2:21,22; 3:3; 3:19; 9:20,21; 16:9,11

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 3:8

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 3:8; 5:31; Acts 2:38; 3:19; 17:30; 26:20

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 3:8; 5:31; Acts 2:38; 3:19; 17:30; 26:20

 

n2. Obey or love God

 

Luke 10:27; John 1:15,23; 1 John 2:15,17

Do what Jesus says Luke 6:46-49

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 10:37

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 10:27; John 1:15,23

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says to remember the poor, be kind to strangers, and to love God with all our soul, might and strength, and our neighbor as ourselves. Easter Letter 1 ch.11 p.510

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) quotes John 14:22. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 p.211

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) says the greatest commandment is to love God with all your heart, soul, and mind. de Principiis book 2 ch.4.2 p.276

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says we should love God with all our heart, soul, and mind, and love our neighbor as ourself. On Faith and the Creed ch.9.21 p.331

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) quotes the two greatest commandments. Commentary on Micah ch.6 p.237

 

n3. Follow Jesus or His example

 

John 10:4-5; 1 John 2:6

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 10:4-5

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1-0:4-5

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating &&&Origen (225-254 A.D.) de Principiis book 1 Gerizim, the Saviour answered that he who would follow the Lord must lay aside

 

n4. Bear/Take up the cross, and follow Christ

 

Matthew 10:38; 16:24; Mark 8:34; 10:21; Luke 9:23; 14:27

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 10:38; Mark 8:34; 10:21; Luke 9:23; 14:27

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 10:38; 16:24; Mark 8:34; 10:21; Luke 9:23; 14:27

 

n5. Struggle to live a victorious life

 

1 Corinthians 15:57; 1 John 5:4; Revelation 2:7,11,17,26; 3:5,12,21;15:2

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 15:57

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "But this power which is given us to enable us to conquer may be used, according to our faculty of free-will, either in a diligent manner, and then we prove victorious, or in a slothful manner, and then we are defeated. For if such a power were wholly given us as that we must by all means prove victorious, and never be defeated, what further reason for a struggle could remain to him who cannot be overcome? Or what merit is there in a victory, where the power of successful resistance" de Principiis book 3 ch.2.3 p.331

 

n6. Put on the armor of God/righteousness

 

Ephesians 6:11-18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Ephesians 6:11-18

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.65 p.213 "Wherefore most earnestly he exhorted, ‘Take up the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day,’ that the enemy, ‘having no evil thing to say against us, may be ashamed.’ And we who have learned this, let us be mindful of the Apostle when he says, ‘whether in the body I know not, or whether out of the body I know not; God knoweth.’ But Paul was caught up unto the third heaven,"

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "you have the breastplate of righteousness, which protects the body with spiritual armour, the shielf of faith with which to ward off wounds, and the helmet of salvation, for there is the defence of our salvation where Christ is, …" Concerning Virgins book 2 ch.4.29 p.378

 

n7. Faithful Christians still get sick

 

Galatians 4:13; Philippians 2:25-27; 1 Timothy 5:23

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Galatians 4:13; Philippians 2:25-27

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) twice mentions plague breaking out in a city. Christians helped care for the sick and dying, even as they got sick and died themselves.

John Chryosostom (-407 A.D.) discusses Timothy having to drink some wine because of his frequent illnesses.

 

n8. Suffer persecution or martyrdom

 

Mk 8:35; John 12:25&&&; 16:2; Romans 8:36-37; 12:14; 1 Thessalonians 3:2-4; Hebrews 10:32-33; 1 Peter 1:6; 5:9-10; Revelation 9:20-11:3; 11:5-16:15

All who want to live a godly life will be persecuted. 2 Timothy 3:12

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Mark 8:35; John 12:25; 16:2

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Mark 8:35; John 12:25; 16:2; Romans 8:36-37; 12:14; 1 Thessalonians 3:2-4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1.1 p.81 is one place that speaks of martyrdom of Christians

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.79 p.217 "And this no one doubts when he sees the martyr despising death for the sake of Christ, when he sees for Christ’s sake the virgins of theChurch keeping themselves pure and undefiled."

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions "Holy martyrs" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29 p.424

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "we suffer with Him [Christ], that we may be also glorified together." Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.8.83 p.124. See also Concerning Repentance book 1 ch.11 no.49-50 p.337

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) says we are to be ready to suffer for Christ. Commentary on Philippians Introductory discourse p.182

 

n9. No sorcery, witchcraft, or magic

 

Leviticus 19:26,31;20:6-8;27; Deuteronomy 18:9-14; Jeremiah 27:9; Ezekiel 13:18; Micah 5:12; Revelation 9:21

(implied) Acts 19:19

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 36 p.151 "They who are of the priesthood, or of the clergy, shall not be magicians, enchanters, mathematicians, or astologers; nor shall they make what are called amulets, which are chains for their own souls. And those who wear such, we command to be cast ou of the Church."

 

n10. Exorcism or casting out devils

 

Luke 8:28-33; Acts 16:18

Matthew 9:33; 11:18; 17:14-20; 4:24; 8:16,28,33; 9:32; 12:22; 7:22; 8:31; 9:34; 10:8; 12:24,27,28; Mark 1:32,34,39; 3:15,22; 5:12,16,18; 6:13; 7:26,29,30; 9:38; 16:9,17; Luke 4:33,35,41; 7:33; 8:2,27,29-30,32,33,35-36,38; 9:1,42,49; 10:17; 11:14-15,18,19,20; 13:32; John 8:48-49,52; 10:21; 7:20; 10:20;

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 9:33; 11:18; etc. Luke 8:28-33

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 8:28-33; Acts 16:18

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Synod of Laodicea 343-381 A.D. canon 24 p.144 (implied) mentions presbyters, deacons, subdeacons, readers, singers, exorcists, and door-keepers, and that they should never enter a tavern.

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) Jesus was baptized, and fasted, and was tempted. Devils were cast out and diseases healed. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.24 p.210

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) (partial) says that the devil can enter into people’s souls. Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.210.

 

n11. Live a worthy life

 

Note that taking the Lord’s supper unworthily (1 Corinthians 11:27-32) is a separate topic not included here.

Worthily can also mean acknowledging the proper worth of something, and that is not included here.

 

Ephesians 4:1; Philippians 1:27; Colossians 1:10

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (335 A.D.) says that those who have been counted worthy of the heavenly calling, when they grow negligent, become defiled and become like Judas. He refers to Hebrews 10:29 and Matthew 22:12. Easter Letter 9 ch.10 p.527

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 11:27 as by Paul to the Corinthians about taking the Lord’s supper unworthily. On Penitents ch.7.3 p.78

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) in talking about riches says, "In order then to become worthy of the things of Heaven, I bid thee laugh to scorn things present." in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 4 p.30.

 

n12. Mortify earthly nature/deeds of the body

 

Colossians 3:5; Galatians 5:24; Ephesians 4:22

 

n13. Be clothed with/in Christ

 

Romans 13:14; Galatians 3:27

Revelation 3:18 (partial) (does not say Christ)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "body must receive the clothing of incorruption-a soul possessing in itself incorruptibitity, because it has been clothed with Christ," de Principiis book 2 ch.3.2 p.271-272

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) (partial, Holy Spirit, not Christ) " even one that is spiritually clothed with the Holy Spirit of God"

 

n14. You cannot serve two masters

 

Matthew 6:24b; Luke 16:13b

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 7 ch.1 p.465 quotes the last part of Matthew 6:24.

 

n15. Martyrs are blessed

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) (implied) Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse

 

n16. Losing your life and finding it

 

Matthew 16:25

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria (after 384 A.D.) p.261 mentions Peter "to have been crowned with a martyr’s laurel."

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) quotes Matthew 16:26-26. Commentary on Matthew homily 55 ch.3 p.340

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

(parents, Catena, save life)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.19 p.&&& "And again you find it written: ‘Every one that loveth his father or his mother more than me, is not worthy of me and everyone that loveth his son or his daughter more than me, is not worthy of me; and every one that taketh not up his cross rejoicing and glad and cometh after me, is not worthy of life; and every one that shall lose his life for my sake, shall find it; and every one that shall save his life, by denying, shall lose it.’"

 

n17. Believers are servants of God

 

n18. We must persevere

 

1 Thessalonians 1:3; 2 Thesalonians 3:5; James 1:3-4

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "Wherefore, assist those who are young, that they may persevere in chastity unto God. And do thou accordingly, O bishop, bestow care upon these."

 

n19. We are the light of the world

 

n20. Jacob’s ladder

 

n21. We wrestle against the devil or sin

 

n22. Confess your sins to others

 

James 5:16

 

Balsamon (in Peter of Alexandria) "For we know that many have obtained the goodness and compassion of God by the prayers of others. Therefore we will pray for them that remission of their sins be granted them by God; and with the others who have lapsed, and have afterwards recanted their error, and confessed godliness, we will communicate, being mindful of those contests which before their fall they sustained for God’s sake, and also of their subsequent worthy repentance, and that they testify that on account of their sin they have been as it were aliens from their city; and we will not only communicate with them, but pray also for their reconciliation, together with other things that are convenient, either with the good works which ought to be done by them-fasting, for instance, almsgiving, and penance; by which things He who is our Advocate makes the Father propitious towards us. Then he makes use of a passage of Holy Scripture, and this is taken from the first catholic epistle of the holy apostle and evangelist John."

 

n23. Keep away from works of darkness

 

Ephesians 5:11a

 

n24. Christians do not fear death more than God

 

n25. Believers are transformed [now]

 

Future physical transformation is not counted here.

 

n26. The Kingdom of God is within you

 

Luke 17:21

 

n27. Walk in newness of life

 

n28. Don’t be bitter

 

n29. Some are worthy of martyrdom

 

n30. If we deny Christ He will deny us

 

2 Timothy 2:12b; Matthew 32-33

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.4 p.438 quotes Matthew 10:33 and Luke 9:26 about Christ denying before men. It also quotes Matthew 10:37; 16:26 about not loving family more than Jesus.

 

 

Individual Practice

 

I1. Do not worship other gods

 

Deuteronomy 27:15; Psalm 97:7

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 6:13 about worshipping God alone. Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.18.133 p.154

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) do not worship any other gods. Commentary on Hosea ch.2 p.50

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) no worship of idols. Commentary on Hosea ch.8 p.75

 

I2. Stars have no influence on people

 

(implied) Isaiah 47:13; Jeremiah 10:2

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) says there is no Zodiac we should follow. Nisibine Hymns hymn 40 no.8 p.203.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 36 p.151 says that none who are in the priesthood shall be magicians, enchanters, mathematicians, or astrologers. (Perhaps this is because Pythagorean math and philosophy were intertwined.)

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) said that the signs of the zodiac have no bearing to the body. Memoir to Augustine on the Error of Priscillianists and Origenists p.170

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "This [famine] was not the fault of the earth, we impute no evil influence to the stars." Letter 17 no.14 p.416

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) critically mentions the astrology of the Chaldeans and Indians. de Principiis book 3 ch.3.2 p.335

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that stars do not determine our fate. The City of God book 5 ch.1-2 p.84-85

 

I3. Have patience or self-control

 

1 Corinthians 5:10-11; Titus 1:8; 2:5,6; 1 Peter 1:13; 4:7; 5:8; 2 Peter 1:6

(implied) 1 Corinthians 7:37

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 5:10-11; Tt 1:8; 2:5,6

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "treasuring up for thyself wrath on the day of judgment and of the revelation of the just judgment of God, who will render to every one according to his work: to those who by patient continuance in well-doing seek for glory and immortality, eternal life;" [both Greek and Latin] de Principiis book 3 ch.1.5 p.306

 

I4. Don’t let the sun go down on your anger

 

Ephesians 4:26

Partial Matthew 5:22

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) eph 4:26

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) ""Whoever is angry against the one who has injured him, but reconciles with him [at] suset doesnot sin like that one who is angry against whoever sins against him, but does not reconcile with him [at] sunset. ‘If you are angry, do not sin.’" (reference to Ephesians 4:26) Memra 24 ch.6 p.287

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) (partial) Says not to be angry with your brother. de Principiis book 3 ch.1.6 p.305

 

I5. Have pure speech

 

Partial Matthew

Proverbs 4:24; 15:2; Luke 6:45; 1 Corinthians 5:10-11; Ephesians 4:29; James 3:2-12

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 5:10-11; Ephesians 4:29

 

I6. Forsake lies

 

Ephesians 4:25; Proverbs 12:19-20

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Ephesians 4:25

 

I7. Do not get drunk

 

Ephesians 5:18; Titus 1:7

(implied) Titus 2:3

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Ephesians 5:18; Tt 1:7

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) lists together fornication, hatred, idolatry, quarreling, envying, drunkenness, and other sins. de Principiis book 3 ch.4.2 p.338

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (339 A.D.) says that adultery and drunkenness are wrong. Easter Letter 11 ch.8 p.536. Also Against the Heathen ch.6 p.6

Synod of Laodicea 343-381 A.D. Canon 24 p.144 No one in the priesthood, from presbyters, deacons, subdeacons, readers, singers, exorcists, door-keepers, etc. should enter a tavern.

Synod of Laodicea 343-381 A.D. canon 55 p.157. Neither members of the priesthood, nor clergy, nor laymen "may club together for drinking entertainments."

 

I8. Eating meat is fine

 

Matthew 14:17-21; 15:29-38; Mark 7:15-23; John 21:10-13; Acts 10:12-13

Colossians 2:21 (implied)

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 14:17-21; 15:29-38; Mark 7:15-23; John 21:10-13

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 14:17-21; 15:29-38; Mark 7:15-23; John 21:10-13; Acts 10:12-13

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.4 p.87 says that all foods are OK for us to eat.

Athanasius (335 A.D.) declares that eating meat is fine and quotes 1 Corinthians 6:13 as by Paul. Easter Letter 7 ch.2 p.524

The Council of Gangra canon 2 p.92 (325-381 A.D.) says that anyone who condemns eating meat, which does not have blood and was not offered to idols, is anathema.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that drinking wine and eating meat is OK. Lecture 4 ch.27 p.25

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History (370/380-425 A.D.) book 3 ch.14 p.293 tells of renegade monks who condemned marriage, people who ate animal food. Many women were deluded by them and left their husbands, but unable to remain celibate, fell into adultery. Some women arrayed themselves in men’s apparel.

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) Homilies on Matthew homily 51 ch.&&&

Augustine of Hippo (388-8/28/430 A.D.) says in Acts of the Apostles the angel told Peter to arise, kill, and eat.

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) eating meat is fine ("kill and eat"). Discusses Acts 10:9-13 and Peter seeing the cloth from heaven. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.251

 

I9. Do not be a glutton or slave of your belly

 

Philippians 3:19a; Proverbs 28:7

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Philippians 3:19a

 

I10. Vanity, or avoid vain things

 

Ecclesiastes; Jeremian 2:5; Ephesians 4:17; 2 Peter 2:18

 

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.)

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

I11. Virtue of prudence

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.17 p.200 "Why not rather get those things which we can take away with us—to wit, prudence, justice, temperance, courage, understanding, love, kindness to the poor, faith in Christ, freedom from wrath, hospitality? If we possess these, we shall find them of themselves preparing for us a welcome there in the land of the meek-hearted."

 

I12. Do not provoke God

 

I13. Work hard, don’t be lazy

 

Prov 6:6-11; 12:11,24,27; 15:19; 18:9; 21:25; Ecc 11:6; Colossians 3:23; 1 Thessalonians 5:14; 2 Thessalonians 3:6-12; Tt 3:14

Implied Proverbs 31:17

Partial Proverbs 22:29

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says we should have no sloth or idleness. Nisibine Hymns hymn 41 no.5 p.204.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "And the consequence of this is, that it lies within ourselves and in our own actions to possess either happiness or holiness; or by sloth and negligence to fall from happiness into wickedness and ruin," de Principiis book 1 ch.5.5 p.260

Apostolic Constitutions (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 2 section 8 p.425 quotes Ecclesiastes 10:18 and 2 Thessalonians 3:10.

 

I14. Be godly

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (339 A.D.) says, "For faith and godliness are allied to each other, and sisters; and he who believes in Him is godly" Easter Letter 11 ch.9 p.536

 

I15. Don’t use flattery (on others)

 

1 Thessalonians 2:5,6,7

 

I16. Eating meats forbidden to Jews OK

 

Mark 7:17-23, especially 7:19; Acts 10:9-16; Colossians 2:16; Acts 15:28-29

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.4 p.87 says that all foods are OK for us to eat.

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) Homilies on Matthew homily 51 ch.&&&

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) eating meat is fine ("kill and eat"). He then discusses Acts 10:9-13 and Peter seeing the cloth from heaven. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.251

 

I17. Depart from evil

 

(Departing from evil people is not included here.)

 

I18. Worship God in spirit and truth

 

John 4:24b

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes all of John 4:24. de Principiis book 1 ch.1 p.242.

 

I19. Keep the commandments of Christ/God

 

(Only times after the resurrection are counted, not times before that.)

 

1 John 3:22-24

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (503-532/533 A.D.) says to keep the commandments. On Forgiveness ch.3.7.1-2 p.156

 

I20. It’s bad to be a hypocrite

 

Matthew 15:3 "you hypocrites!";

Jesus likewise called the Pharisees snakes and a brood of vipers condemned to Hell in Matthew 23:33; hypocrites (Matthew 23:29)

 

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.)

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) beam that is in thine own eye? Thou hypocrite, cast out first the

 

After Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

Anastasius Bibliothecarius (858-878 A.D.) freely translating Peter of Alexandria "Arius, in the meanwhile, having as yet been endowed only with the dignity of a Levite, and fearing lest, after the death of so great a father, he should noways be able to get reconciled to the Church, came to those who held the chief place amongst the clergy, and, hypocrite that he was, by his sorrowful entreaties and plausible discourse, endeavoured to persuade the holy archbishop to extend to him his compassion, and to release him from the ban of excommunication. But what is more deceptive than a feigned heart?" Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria

 

I21. Do not worship any images or idols

 

Deuteronomy 27:15; Psalm 31:6; Psalm 97:7; Jon 2:8 (implied); Acts 4:15;

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 9 no.6 p.177

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says "Let the saints be in honor, and their rest in glory. It is not, however, fitting to honor the saints more highly than is proper, but rather to honor their Lord. ... The honor which the saints in their time showed to God has become for others who did not see it truth turned into error." (Panarion, as quoted in Examination of the Council of Trent III, p.467)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that images (of Mary or otherwise) for adoration is committing adultery against the one and only God. (Panarion 3.2:4, as quoted [in part] in Examination of the Council of Trent III, p.468, and [in part] by the Tübingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.141)

John Chrysostom (c.388 A.D.) says to worship no idols but God only. vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 36 p.240. He also has an entire work On the Statues against images. The occasion was the erection of statues in Antioch to the Emperor and Empress. They people were not worshipping the Emperor and Empress per se, but Chrysostom was against the venerating of them with statues. Here is an example: For many after having had success in wars, and set up trophies, and built cities, and done divers other benefits of this kind to the people of those times, came to be esteemed gods by the multitude, and were honoured with temples, and altars; and the whole catalogue of the Grecian gods is made up of such men. That this, therefore, may not be done towards the Saints, God permitted them constantly to be banished,- to be scourged, - to fall into diseases; that the abundance of bodily infirmity, and the multiplicity of those temptations, might convince those who were then with them, both that they were men, who wrought such wonders, and that they contributed nothing of their own power; but that it was mere grace, that wrought through them all these miracles." Concerning the Statues homily 1 ch.17 p.338

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) lists together fornication, hatred, idolatry, quarreling, envying, drunkenness, and other sins. de Principiis book 3 ch.4.2 p.338

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says we are not to worship any images. City of God book 4 ch.31 p.81-82

 

I22. Rule of faith / truth

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "And this is a point which I wish impressed upon those who peruse these pages, that with respect to topics of such difficulty and obscurity we use our utmost endeavor, not so much to ascertain clearly the solutions of the questions (for every one will do this as the Spirit gives him utterance), as to maintain the rule of faith in the most unmistakable manner," de Principiis [Latin translation] book 3 ch.1.17 p319

 

I23. Submit to God

 

 

Loving Others

 

L1. Love all / your neighbor as yourself

 

Leviticus 19:18b; Mark 12:31; Luke 10:27a

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 12:31

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) says loving others is the second greatest commandment. de Principiis book 2 ch.4.2 p.276

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says we should love God with all our heart, soul, and mind, and love our neighbor as ourself. On Faith and the Creed ch.9.21 p.331

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) quotes the two greatest commandments. Commentary on Micah ch.6 p.237

 

L2. Forgive others/enemies; turn other cheek

 

Matthew 5:44; Luke 6:27-30,35; Colossians 3:13

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 6:27-30,35

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says we are to love our enemies. The City of God book 8 ch.17 p.156

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says we are to forgive others who sin against us. On the Trinity book 12 ch.12.18 p.162

 

L3. Do not get revenge

 

Romans 12:19; Leviticus 19:18; 1 Peter 3:19

(implied) Matthew 5:38-46; Luke 3:27-36

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (implied) Matthew 5:38-46; Luke 3:27-36

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that God will judge us if we get revenge for despising God. On the Statues homily 20 ch.9 p.475.

 

L4. Do not be a gossip or chatterer

 

Note that while slander and backbiting are forms of gossip, they alone are not counted here; this refers to all gossip.

 

Proverbs 11:13; 16:28; 18:8; 20:19; 26:20,22; 2 Corinthians 12:20; 3John 10; Romans 1:29; 1 Timothy 5:13

(partial) 1 Peter 2:1; 3:16

(partial) Matthew 12:36

 

p72 (=Bodmer 7,8) All of 1,2 Peter, Jude 191 verses (ca.300 A.D.) (partial) Rid yourself of slander. 1 Peter 2:1; 3:16

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (partial) Matthew 12:36

 

L5. Do to others as you would them do to you

 

Matthew 7:12; Luke 6:31

Partial Leviticus 19:33-34

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 6:31

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says to remember the poor, be kind to strangers, and to love God with all our soul, might and strength, and our neighbor as ourselves. Easter Letter 1 ch.11 p.510

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.)

 

L6. Do not murder

 

Matthew 5:21; Mark 10:19; Exodus 20:13; Deuteronomy 5:17

(implied) Matthew 30:30-32;37

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 5:21; Matthew 10:19

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-339/340 A.D.)

Council of Sardica (Greek version) (343/344 A.D.)

Athanasius (329 A.D.) mentions that murderers like Cain fled after the murder. Personal Letter 47 p.555

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quote Exodus 20:12-15. The City of God book 18 ch.41 p.385

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (implied) talked about Jezebel behaving in a vile and murderous way. Commentary on Amos ch.4 p.144

 

L7. Abortion is evil/murder

 

Exodus 21:22-23

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) (partial) "Again, on the other hand, no one who can reflect will imagine an after-birth of the soul, i.e. that it is younger than the moulding of the body; for every one can see for himself that not one amongst all the things that are inanimate or soulless possesses ay power of motion or of growth." On the Soul and the Resurrection p.458-459

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378 A.D.) "The woman who purposely destroys her unborn child is guilty of murder. With us there is no nice enquiry as to its being formed or unformed. … the punishment [i.e. being forbidden from communion in the church] should not be for life, but for the term of ten years. And let their treatment depend not on mere lapse of time, but on the character of their repentance." Letter 188 ch.2 p.225.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378 A.D.) Women also who administer drugs to cause abortion, as well as those who take poisons to destroy unborn children, are murderesses. So much on this subject." Letter 188 ch.8 p.226-227

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378 A.D.) Canonical Letter of Basil to Amphilochius Canon 2 Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.14 p.604 "Let her that procures abortion undergo ten years’ penance, whether the embryo were perfectly formed, or not."

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378 A.D.) Canonical Letter of Basil to Amphilochius Canon 2 Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.14 p.605 "says that man or woman is a murderer "they who take medicines to procure abortion; and so are they who kill on the highway,…"

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) Hexaemaron book 5 ch.18.58

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) homily 32 in his Commentary on Romans

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) was against abortion. Letter 22 ch.13.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) regarding abortive conceptions, "For if we shall decide that these are to rise again, we cannot object to any conclusion that may be drawn in regard to those which are fully formed. Now who is there that is not rather disposed to think that unformed abortions perish, like seeds that have never fructified? But who will dare to deny, though he may not dare to affirm, that at the resurrection every defect in the form shall be supplied, and that thus the perfection which time would have brought shall not be wanting" Enchiridion ch.85 p.265.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) "And therefore the following question may be very carefully inquired into and discussed by learned men, though I do not know whether it is in man’s power to resolve it: At what time the infant begins to live in the womb: whether life exists in a latent form before it manifests itself in the motions of the living being. To deny that the young who are cut out limb by limb from the womb, lest if they were left there dead the mother should die too, have never been alive, seems too audacious…" Enchiridion ch.86 p.265 See also question on Exodus 9.80 and question on the Heptateuch ch.2.

Council of Quinisext (692 A.D.) canon 91 p.404 "Those who give drugs for procuring abortion, and those who receive poisons to kill the foetus, are subjected to the penalty of murder."

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Apostolic Constitutions (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) Book 7 section 1 ch.3 p.466 "You shall not slay your child by causing abortion, nor kill the baby that is born. For ‘everything that is shaped and has received a soul from God, if it is slain, shall be avenged, as being unjustly destroyed’" (quoted form Ezek 21:23 Septuagint) (quoted from A Dictionary of Early Christian Beliefs. David W. Bercot, ed. p.3)

 

L8. Care for the sick

 

Matthew 25:36,39,43,44

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 25:36,39,43,44

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.)

 

L9. Practice hospitality

 

Matthew 25:38,40; Romans 12:13; 16:23; 1 Timothy 3:2; 5:10; Tt 1:8; Hebrews 13:1-2; 1 Peter 4:9; 3 John 8,10

Preparing the guest room for Paul Philemon 22

Entertaining angels unawares Hebrews 13:2

Job 31:32; Ezekiel 16:39 not showing hospitality to a stranger is a sin.

(But no hospitality to heretics 2 John 10-11)

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 25:38,40

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says to remember the poor, be kind to strangers, and to love God with all our soul, might and strength, and our neighbor as ourselves. Easter Letter 1 ch.11 p.510. He also says we should have hospitality in Life of Antony ch.17 p.201

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.17 p.200 "Why not rather get those things which we can take away with us—to wit, prudence, justice, temperance, courage, understanding, love, kindness to the poor, faith in Christ, freedom from wrath, hospitality? If we possess these, we shall find them of themselves preparing for us a welcome there in the land of the meek-hearted."

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.)

 

L10. Love covers a multitude of sins

 

James 5:20b; 1 Peter 4:8

 

L11. Show mercy to others

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) show mercy to others. On Forgiveness book 3 ch.6.2-3 p.154-155

 

L12. Slandering people is bad

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) spoke against slander. On the Statues homily 3.&&&

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) quarrels, slanders, murmurings, contentions, controversies, accusations,

 

L13. We should be peacemakers or bring/seek peace

Having peace and praying for peace are not included here.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 2 ch.1 p.396 mentions peacemakers

 

L14. Cruelty is bad

 

L15. Visit those in prison

 

 

MONEY AND CONTENTMENT

 

M1. Do not love money

 

Matthew 6:19-21,24; (partial) Luke 9:3; (partial) Luke 10:4; Hebrews 13:5; 1 Timothy 6:10; 1 Peter 5:2

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (partial) Luke 9:3

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.5 p.196-197 "First of all he [the devil] tried to lead him [Antony] away from the discipline, whispering to him the remembrance of his wealth, care for his sister, claims of kindred, love of money, love of glory, the various pleasures of the table and the other relaxations of life, and at last the difficulty of virtue and the labour of it; he suggested also the infirmity of the body and the length of the time."

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) says not to let Mammon lord over us. Nisibine Hymns hymn 21 no.6 p.191

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "Thus, when men at first for a little desire money, covetousness begins to grow as the passion increases, and finally the fall into avarice takes place." de Principiis book 3 ch.2.2. p.330

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says you cannot serve God and money or have two masters. Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.211

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) teaches that we are not to love money. City of God book 1 ch.10 p.7

 

M2. No stealing or financial dishonesty

 

1 Corinthians 5:10-11; Ephesians 4:28; Tt 1:7,11; 1 Peter 4:15

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of Old Testament all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 5:10-11; Ephesians 4:28

 

M3. Help the poor

 

Prov 21:13; 22:9; 31:9,20; Luke 14:13; Acts 9:36; 10:4; 24:17; Romans 15:26; Galatians 2:10; James 2:15-16; 1 John 3:17

(implied) 1 Corinthians 13:3

 

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) (partial, costly perfume) John 12:5-8

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels + Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Matthew 21:34-35; Luke 12:33

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 14:13

Vaticanus (B) Most of Old Testament all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 14:13; Acts 9:36; 10:4; 24:17; Romans 15:26; Galatians 2:10

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says to remember the poor, be kind to strangers, and to love God with all our soul, might and strength, and our neighbor as ourselves. Easter Letter 1 ch.11 p.510. He also says to be kind to the poor in Life of Antony ch.17 p.201.

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.17 p.200 "Why not rather get those things which we can take away with us—to wit, prudence, justice, temperance, courage, understanding, love, kindness to the poor, faith in Christ, freedom from wrath, hospitality? If we possess these, we shall find them of themselves preparing for us a welcome there in the land of the meek-hearted."

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.3 p.196 And again as he went into the church, hearing the Lord say in the Gospel, ‘be not anxious for the morrow,’ he could stay no longer, but went out and gave those things also to the poor."

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) mentions helping the poor in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 36 p.240, as well as in Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.211

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) (implied) mention an individual giving alms. Ginza p.554

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (implied) Wrong to have injustice to the needy/poor. Commentary on Amos ch.4 p.145, ch.8 p.165

 

M4. Help widows or orphans

 

Leviticus 24:22; Deuteronomy 24:17,19-21; 14:29; 26:12-13; 27:19; Jer 22:3; 7:6; Zech 7:10

Psalm 94:6; 146:9; Mal 3:5

Evil people do not belp orphans and widows Isa 1:23

1 Timothy 5:3; James 1:27

(partial) Exodus 22:21-22

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) Most of Old Testament, including all of Deuteronomy, and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15; 1 Timothy 5:3

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Sardica (343/344 A.D.) canon 7 p.421-422 "and does not (as ought to be done and as is fitting) assist and help the poor and the laity or the widows, but is intriguing to obtain worldly dignities and offices for certain person. These evil causes enfeeblement, not without some scandal and balme to us. But I account it quite proper for a bishop to give assistance to one oppressed by some one, or to a widow suffering injustice, or, again, an orphan robbed of his estate, always provided that those persons have a just cause of petition."

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) (implied) mention helping the widows and orphans. Ginza p.554

 

M5. Heavenly treasure; don’t fear earthly loss

 

Treasure in heaven. Matthew 6:19-21,24; 19:23; Luke 12:15-21; 1 Timothy 6:19; Revelation 3:11

(implied) Romans 8:18

Do not be afraid to lose your earthly treasures for God. Hebrews 10:34; Matthew 6:19-21; Luke 2:15-18,33-34; Acts 4:32-37.

p13 (Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17) (225-250 A.D.) (partial) Hebrews 11:35

 

Crown of righteousness 2 Timothy 4:8

crown of life James 1:12; Revelation 2:10b

Paul’s crown is people saved through Him 1 Thessalonians 2:19; Philippians 4:1

But crowns can be lost or taken away Revelation 3:11

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) (implied) Romans 8:18

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels + Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Luke 12:15,21; Luke 12:33

p75 Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) Luke 12:15,21,33

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 12:15,21,33

Vaticanus (B) Most of Old Testament all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 12:15,21,33

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.17 p.200 "Nor let us think, as we look at the world, that we have renounced anything of much consequence, for the whole earth is very small compared with all the heaven. Wherefore if it even chanced that we were lords of all the earth and gave it all up, it would be nought worthy of comparison with the kingdom of heaven. For as if a man should despise a copper drachma to gain a hundred drachmas of gold; so if a man were lord of all the earth and were to renounce it, that which he gives up is little, and he receives a hundredfold."

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) quotes and discusses Romans 8:18 in Life of Antony ch.17 p.200

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Store up treasure in heaven. Memra 3 ch.7 p.28

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) in talking about riches says, "In order then to become worthy of the things of Heaven, I bid thee laugh to scorn things present." in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 4 p.30.

 

M6. Do not envy or be jealous

 

Matthew 20:9-16

Luke 15:25-31

James 3:14-16

Timothy 6:4

Do not be conceited, envying or gloating over others. Galatians 5:20-26; Mark 7:22; Romans 1:29b; 1 Corinthians 13:4; Titus 3:3; 1 Peter 2:1; Proverbs 3:31; 23:17; 24:1,17. Envy is unhealthy. Proverbs 14:30; Job 5:2.

No dissensions, jealousy, or quarreling. Romans 13:13; 1 Corinthians 3:3; 2 Corinthians 12:20

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) "There is no envy or jealousy, among the members of the body; for in love they give ear to him [the pastor], with tenderness they are visited by him." Nisibine Hymns hymn 18 no.4 p.187-188

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes Galatians 5:17 "…hatred, contentions, emulations, wrath, quarrelling, dissensions, heresies, sects, envyings, drunkenness, revellings, and the like;" de Principiis book 3 ch.4.2 p.338

 

M7. Do not covet

 

M8. Be humble or not proud

 

Matthew 20:24-28; Luke 14:8-10; Romans 12:10; 1 Corinthians 13:4; James 4:6; 1 Peter 3:8; 5:5-6; Prov 3:34

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 14:8-10

Vaticanus (B) Most of Old Testament all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 20:24-28; Luke 14:8-10; Romans 12:10; 1 Corinthians 13:4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.19 p.84 mentions "ungoverned pride"

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.67 p.214 "Added to this he was tolerant in disposition and humble in spirit."

Council of Gangra (345-381 A.D.) Epilogue p.101 (partial) We do, assuredly, admire virginity accompanied by himility… we honor the holy companionship of marriage"

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions that we are to have deep humility and not be haughty. Commentary on Philippians homily 5 verse 3 p.205. Also ibid homily 6 p.208

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says "for there is hardly a page of Scripture on which it is not clearly written that God resisteth the proud and giveth grace to the humble." [James 4:6 and 1 Peter 5:6] On Christian Doctrine book 3 ch.23 p.565

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) should not be arrogant. Commentary on Amos ch.8 p.165-166

 

M9. Be content with what you have

 

Hebrews 13:5

(implied) Matthew 6:25-34

 

M10. We rejoice when afflicted

 

Matthew 5:11-12; Luke 6:22-23; Colossians 1:24; Hebrews 10:34; James 1:2-4; 1 Peter 4:13

Rejoice in suffering the Philippian Jailer

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 5:11-12; Luke 6:22-23

Vaticanus (B) Most of Old Testament all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 5:11-12; Luke 6:22-23; Colossians 1:24

 

M11. We rejoice – besides being afflicted

 

Luke 10:20; John 16:22,24; 17:13; Acts 16:34; Philippians 3:1; 1 Thessalonians 5:16; 2 Corinthians 2:3

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 10:20; John 16:22,24; 17:13

Vaticanus (B) Most of Old Testament all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 10:20; John 16:22,24; 17:13; Acts 16:34; Philippians 3:1; 1 Thessalonians 5:16

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.4.10 p.88 discusses our religion as good.

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) mentions saints you died joyfully seeing the angelic chors, and being in perpetural bless, and reigning with Christ. (near the end) p.&&&

Athanasius (339 A.D.) "We are all filled in the morning with Thy favour, and we rejoice and are made glad in our days." Easter Letter 11 ch.11 p.537.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) "The olive which with its oil gladdens the face, with its leaf gladdened their countenances: for me the river whereof to drink is want to make joyful, Lo! O Lord, by its flood it makes me mournful." Nisibine Hymns hymn 1 no.4 p.167

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 36 no.18 p.198

Rufinus (410 A.D.) translation of Origen (240 A.D.) says that God will sitr us up with gladness. Commentary on the Song of Songs ch.1 p.65

 

M12. No selfish ambition

 

Galatians 5:26; Philippians 2:3; James 3:14-16

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Galatians 5:26; Philippians 2:3

 

M13. No bribes

 

We should hate receiving bribes (Proverbs 15:27; 17:23; Psalm 15:5; Exodus 23:8; Deuteronomy 16:19; Ecclesiastes 7:7; 1 Samuel 12:3; Isaiah 1:23; Amos 5:12; 2 Chronicles 19:7), because they can corrupt our hearts (Deuteronomy 16:19; Proverbs 15:27; 28:16; Psalm 15:5; Ecclesiastes 7:7; Isaiah 5:13; 1 Samuel 4:3-4)

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

M14. No usury / lending to needy with interest

 

M15. Don’t be wise in your own eyes/conceit

 

Proverbs 3:7; 26:5,12; 28:11; Isaiah 5:21

(implied) Proverbs 3:5

 

M16. Cannot serve both God and Mammon

 

Matthew 6:24b; Luke 16:13b

 

Sinaitic (Old Syriac) Luke 16:13b

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) says not to let Mammon lord over us. Nisibine Hymns hymn 21 no.6 p.191

 

M17. Love of money root of all evils

 

1 Timothy 6:10

 

M18. Strive for godliness, not gain

 

Mark 8:36; Luke 9:25; 1 Timothy 6:5

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.17 p.200 Instead of riches, "Why not rather get those things which we can take away with us—to wit, prudence, justice, temperance, courage, understanding, love, kindness to the poor, faith in Christ, freedom from wrath, hospitality? If we possess these, we shall find them of themselves preparing for us a welcome there in the land of the meek-hearted."

 

M19. Lazarus and the rich man

 

Luke 16:19-31

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (338 A.D.) mentions Lazarus finding rest in heaven. Easter Letter 10 ch.6 p.530

Asterius of Amasea (&&&) wrote an entire work The Rich Man and Lazarus

 

M20. Offering money/possessions to God

 

(implied) John 12:5-8; Romans 12:8; 2 Corinthians 8:2-15; 9:2-5

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (implied) John 12:5-8

 

M21. God’s house not to be a den of robbers / thieves

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "For when there are found many that sin, evil waxes strong; and whereas they that sin are not corrected and reproved that they should repent, this becomes to all an inducement to sin: and that which is said is fulfilled: ‘My house is called a house of prayer, but ye have made it a den of thieves.’" [Matthew 21.13; Luke 19.46]

 

M22. Blessed are the poor

 

Matthew 5:3

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen "meek, for they shall inherit the earth;’ and, ‘Blessed are the poor in spirit, for they shall inherit the kingdom of heaven;’ de Principiis book 2 ch.&&&

 

M23. Give in secret

 

Matthew 6:1-4

 

 

Assembling Together

 

Ca1. Christians met together on Sunday

 

1 Corinthians 16:2 – collection on the first day

Acts 20:7 - met to break bread and hear Paul’s preaching

partial (Lord’s day) Revelation 1:10. Christians needed no other explanation to know which day that was.

 

There has been a false claim by Seventh Day Adventists that Christians did not worship on Sunday until a decree of Constantine. This false claim was in the pamphlet Authorized Questions on the Sabbath and Sunday and the radio program Voice of Prophets.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) "These men, moreover, thought that it was necessary to reject all the epistles of the apostle, whom they called an apostate from the law; and they used only the so-called Gospel according to the Hebrews and made small account of the rest. The Sabbath and the rest of the discipline of the Jews they observed just like them, but at the same time, like us, they celebrated the Lord’s days as a memorial of the resurrection of the Saviour. Wherefore, in consequence of such a course they received the name of Ebionites,". Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 3 ch.27 p.159-160

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) (implied) "Christians must not judaize by resting on the Sabbath, but must work on that day, rather honoring the Lord’s Day; and, if they can, resting then as Christians. But if any shall be found to be judaizers, let them be anathema from Christ." Canon 29 p.148

(no confirmation) Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) "The Gospels are to be read on the Sabbath [i.e. Saturday], with the other Scriptures." Canon 16 p.133

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) "During Lent the Bread must not be offered except on the Sabbath Day and on the Lord’s Day only" Canon 49 p.155

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) "The nativities of Martyrs are not to be celebrated in Lent, but commemorations of the holy Martyrs are to be made on the Sabbaths and Lord’s days." Canon 51 p.156

Athanasius (358-360) (implied) "As we have caused him to be invited by the Emperor, in opposition to your wishes, so to-morrow, though it be contrary to your desire, Arius shall have communion with us in this Church.’ It was the Sabbath when they said this." (Eusebius the Arian is speaking to Bishop Alexander) Letters of Athanasius Letter 54.2 p.365

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386) "It is necessary that the eight day, on which Christ appeared to Thomas, should be the Lord’s Day. Therefore holy assemblies are rightly held in the church on the eighth day," In John book 12 ch.58

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions assemblies for communion held on the fourth day, on the Sabbath evening, and the Lord’s Day. (Panarion 3.22, as quoted in Concordia Triglotta, p.385)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translationg Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "But if it be clear from the Holy Scriptures that God rained manna from heaven on the Lord’s Day, and rained none on the Sabbath Day, let the Jews understand that from that time our Lord’s Day was set above the true Sabbath." Homilies on Exodus (translated by Rufinus, who translated very freely) homily 7 ch.5 p.308

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) (implied) "Today I had intended to complete my discussion on the topic on which I spoke to you a few days ago; I wished to present you with even clearer proof that God’s nature is more than our minds can grasp. Last Sunday I spoke on this at great length and I brought forward as my witnesses Isaiah, David, and Paul." Homilies Against the Jews Book 1 homily 1.

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) "On the Lord’s Day only they proceeded to the church beside which they lived…" Letter 108 ch.20 p.206

Augustine of Hippo (390 A.D.) "The Lord’s Day has been explained by Christians by the resurrection of Christ, and from this it began to have its festive character. Letter 19 p.236. See also The City of God (413-426 A.D.) book 22 ch.30 p.511 and Word of the Apostles sermon 15. &&&

Augustine of Hippo (410 A.D.) "Some receive the body and blood of the Lord daily, others take it on certain days. In some places not a single day passes on which it is not offered, elsewhere it is offered only on Saturday and Sunday, in still other places only on the Lord’s Day. This whole class of things has free observances." Letter 118. &&&

(From Examination of the Council of Trent part 4 p.420)

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Quinisext (692 A.D.) "It behooves those who preside over the churches, every day but especially on Lord’s days, to teach all the clergy and people words of piety and of right religion, gathering out of holy Scripture meditations and determinations of the truth, and not going beyond the limits now fixed, nor varying from the tradition of the God-bearing fathers." Canon 19 p.374

Council of Quinisext (692 A.D.) canons 88, 89, 90 p.403 mentions that the Sabbath was made for man. Christians ought to fast until midnight of the Great Sabbath. Canon 90 says "that in honour of Christ’s resurrection, we are not to kneel on Sundays.". It mentions going to the Altar for Vespers on Saturdays. No one shall kneel in prayer until the evening of Sunday.

 

Among heretics

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (Ebionite) (c.375/390 A.D.) "But keep the Sabbath and the Lord’s day festival; because the former is the memorial of the creation, and the latter of the resurrection." Book 7 section 2.23 p.469

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (Ebionite) (c.375/390 A.D.) "but assemble yourselves together every day, morning and evening, singing psalms and praying in the Lord’s house: in the morning saying the sixty-second Psalm, and in the evening the hundred and fortieth, but principally on the Sabbath-day. And on the day of our Lord’s resurrection, which is the Lord’s day, meet more diligently, sending praised to God that made the universe by Jesus, …" book 2 ch.8.59 p.423

 

Ca2. Sing hymns to God, the Father, or Jesus

 

(implied) Matthew 26:30; (implied) Mark 14:26

Acts 16:25; Revelation 5:9-10

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (implied) Matthew 26:30; (implied Mark 14:26

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Synod of Laodicea 343-381 A.D. Canon 24 p.144 (implied) mentions presbyters, deacons, sub-deacons, readers, singers, exorcists, and door-keepers, and that they should never enter a tavern.

&&&Lexicon ascribed to Cyril of Alexandria (444 A. D. ): (psalmos): "A musical composition, as when the instrument is rhythmically played according to the harmonic scale."

Basil the Great (Hem. in Ps. 44): "For it is a song and not a psalm, because it is rendered with musical expression by the voice alone, without the accompaniment of the instrument."

Basil (Hem. in Ps. 29: 1): "The psalm is a musical discourse when it is played rhythmically on the instrument with harmonic sounds."

Gregory of Nyssa in Ps. c.3 ("this is not 100:3, but chapter three on the headings on the psalms"): "A psalm is singing which is effected with the aid of instrumental music."

Lucian (160 A.D.) "It is impossible to pipe without a pipe or to psallein without a lyre or to ride without a horse."

Athanasius (230 A.D.) "Being very talented he could play on the harp with the bare hand without a plectrum."

Philostratus (317 A.D.) "Now those who come to the Pythian festival are, they say, escorted with sound of pipe and song and lyre, and are honoured with shows of comedies and tragedies; and then last of all they are presented..."

http://www.ahnog.us/music 

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) sing songs and hymns to God. Commentary on Hakakkuk ch.3 p.284-285

 

Ca3. Practice water baptism

 

Mark 16:16; Luke 3:21; John 3:22; 4:1; Acts 2:38; 10:47-48; 1 Peter 3:21

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 16:16; Luke 3:21; John 3:22; 4:1

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 6 ch.5 p.252 tells of the Christian woman Potomiaena who was martyred. A Roman soldier named Basilides led her to her death, but he drove back her insulters. She said that after her departure she would pray for him and he would receive a reward for his kindness. Not long afterwards, Basilides told other soldiers he could not swear because he was a Christian. At first they thought he was joking, but he said he saw Potomiaena at night three days after her martyrdom. The brothers came and talked with him in prison, and gave him the seal of the Lord (i.e. water baptism). [Of course there was no permission to immerse him in a prison. Then he was beheaded.

Athanasius (339 A.D.) says Jesus told us to "Go ye and make disciples of allnations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." Circular Letter ch.1 p.92

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Baptize in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Letter 3 ch.11.1 p.51

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) appeals to scripture as his authority on baptism. On Baptism ch.1.1 p.87

John Chrysostom (392-407 A.D.) discusses water and baptism. Homilies of St. John homily 25 p.87-90

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.6 p.263 (370/380-425 A.D.) says that when the people became Christians, they should be baptized and subsequently gathered into churches.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) speaks of baptism. Expositions on Psalms Psalm 3.7 p.6

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.322 (553 A.D.) mentions baptizing in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Acts of Paul and Thecla (150-200 A.D.) p.490 "And when she had finished her prayer, she turned and saw a ditch full of water, and said: Now it is time to wash myself. And she threw herself in, saying: In the name of Jesus Christ I am baptized on my last day."

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) (partial) said that Jesus perverted the living baptism. Ginza p.549

 

Ca4. Observe the Lord’s Supper

 

Matthew 26:20-30; Mark 14:12-26; Luke 22:1-23; John 13:1-30; 1 Corinthians 11:17-34

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 26:30-30; Mark 14:12-26; Luke 22:1-23; John 13:1-30

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) Canon 1 p.108 mentions the Eucharist (Lord’s Supper) .

Athanasius (333 A.D.) discusses the Lord’s Supper Easter Letter 5 ch.3 p.518

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions assemblies for communion held on the fourth day, on the Sabbath evening, and the Lord’s Day. (Panarion 3.22, as quoted in Concordia Triglotta, p.385)

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says the Lord’s Supper is the figure of Christ’s body and blood. Expositions on Psalms Psalm 3.5 p.5

 

Ca5. No more animal or blood sacrifices

 

Hebrews 10:18-20

(partial) Hebrews 8:13

 

Ca6. No need to celebrate the Sabbath (except can fast)

 

Hosea 2:11

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

X Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.375/390 A.D.) "But keep the Sabbath and the Lord’s day festival; because the former is the memorial of the creation, and the latter of the resurrection." book 7 section 2.23 p.469

X Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.375/390 A.D.) "but assemble yourselves together every day, morning and evening, singing psalms and praying in the Lord’s house: in the morning saying the sixty-second Psalm, and in the evening the hundred and fortieth, but principally on the Sabbath-day. And on the day of our Lord’s resurrection, which is the Lord’s day, meet more diligently, sending praised to God that made the universe by Jesus, …" book 2 ch.8.59 p.423

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) "Christians must not judaize by resting on the Sabbath, but must work on that day, rather honoring the Lord’s Day; and, if they can, resting then as Christians. But if any shall be found to be judaizers, let them be anathema from Christ." Canon 29 p.148

X Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions assemblies for communion held on the fourth day, on the Sabbath evening, and the Lord’s Day. (Panarion 3.22, as quoted in Concordia Triglotta, p.385)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "By the grace, then, of the Holy Spirit, along with numerous other results, this most glorious consequence is clearly demonstrated, that with regard to those things which were written in the prophets or in the law of Moses, it was only a few persons at that time, viz., the prophets themselves, and scarcely another individual out of the whole nation, who were able to look beyond the mere corporeal meaning and discover something greater, i.e., something spiritual, in the law or in the prophets; but now there are countless multitudes of believers who, although unable to unfold methodically and clearly the results of their spiritual understanding, are nevertheless most firmly persuaded that neither ought circumcision to be understood literally, nor the rest of the Sabbath, nor the pouring out of the blood of an animal, nor that answers were given by God to Moses on these points. And this method of apprehension is undoubtedly suggested to the minds of all by the power of the Holy Spirit." de Principiis book 2 ch.7.2 p.285

 

From Mulsim conquests to present

Waldenses (1176-) "My name is T. , Waldensian Minister in Italy, in charge – by our Board, to answer to your letter. If you are interested in the Waldensian Churches in Italy (North, Center, and South Italy) and in Uruguay and Argentina, in past and present you can try to find and study the following books: Giorgio Tourn, You are my witnesses – The Waldensians across 800 years , Claudiana Editor 1989 – Distributed in North America by P.O. Box 37844 – CINCINNATI, OH 45222 (USA). Prescot Stephens, The Waldensians Story – A study in Faith, intolerance and survival, The Book Guild Ltd – Lewes, Sussex, 1998.

The Waldensian Churches are Reformed Presbyterian Churches: they were called in Latin: Mater Reformationis (=Mother of the Reformation) as they were before an old Middle Ages movement, but NOT a Church . They adopted the Huguenot Confession of faith, so called "De la Rochelle" of 1559 (but really of the Paris Synod, their first Huguenot General Assembly), but in 1655 the Waldensian Churches had its own Confession of Faith, hurriedly drafted in Italian immediately after the massacre of the Waldenses called "Piedmonts Easters". This was simply a shortened version in Italian of the Huguenot Confession of faith of 1559: it confirmed that in theology the Waldenses were in the mainstream of Presbyterian Calvinism . It is still the basis to this day of Waldensian beliefs, which the Candidates have to undersign in front of the General Assembly before becoming Ministers in our churches.

The Waldensians did not keep the Sabbath and were not guardians of the "Sabbath Truth" as you call it. The Waldensians never followed the Seventh-day Adventist but they follow more: Romans 14,5-8 then other truths.

We can therefore say very clearly that the Waldensians were not Seventh-day Sabbath keepers and they were not persecuted for keeping Saturday as the Sabbath!" http://loudcry.org/sda/archives/4806

 

 

Ca7. Learn from prior church writers/councils

 

Acts 15

 

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.12.3 p.99 mention Clement [of Alexandria and his Hypotyposes. See also book 2 ch.9.1 p.110-111

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 5 ch.5.4 p.220 refers to Claudius Apolinarius, bishop of Hierapolis, and Tertullian.

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 5 ch.11 p.225-226 talks about Clement of Alexandria

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 5 ch.13 p.227 discusses Rhodo, who studied under Tatian, and wrote an apology against Marcion,and the sects derived from him.

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 5 ch.5.8-9 p.220 says that Irenaeus in his your was a hearer of Polycarp.

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions bishop "Alexander of blessed memory" in Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.16.19 p.358

Athanasius (after 347 A.D.) discusses the canon of the church and councils. Defence Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.30 p.115. He appeals to the prior church council especially of the 300 [Nicea]. Defense Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.25 p.113

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) mentions Dionysius, Cyprian, and Firmilianius Letter 188 ch.I p.224

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) mentions the interpretation of Clement [of Rome]. But from what Clement seems to indicate when he says, ‘The ocean is impassable to men, and those worlds which are behind it,’ speaking in the plural number of the worlds which are behind it, which he intimates are administered and governed by the same providence of the Most High God, he appears to throw out to us some germs of that view by which the whole universe of existing things, celestial and super-celestial, earthly and infernal, is generally called one perfect world, within which, or by which, other worlds, if any there are, must be supposed to be contained. de Principiis book 2 ch.3.6 p.273

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) uses one of Tertullian’s arguments. The City of God book 7 ch.1 p.123

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Mention of Ambrose. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.217

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Theophilus of Alexandria. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.231

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) 318 bishops at Nicea. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.87

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Speaks well of Gregory the Divine and Athanasius. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.200

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.321 (553 A.D.) mentions the church of God.

 

Ca8. Cheer up/encourage other believers

 

Philippians 2:19; 1 Thessalonians 5:11,14; Hebrews 3:13

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) (implied) mentions how Onesiphorus cheered up Paul in de Principiis book 3 ch.1 p.324

 

Ca9. Correct other believers

 

1 Corinthians 14:20; 1 Thessalonians 5:14

 

Ca10. Calling ourselves Christians

 

Acts 11:26b; 1 Peter 4:16; Acts 26:27-29

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.3.6 p.82 (implied) "If any one should assert that all those who have enjoyed the testimony of righteousness, from Abraham himself back to the firs tman, were Christians in fact if not in name, he would not go beyond the rtuh. For that which the name indicates, that the Christian man, through the knowledge and the teaching of Christ, is distinguished for temperance and righteousness, … - all that was zealously practiced by them not less than by us.

Athanasius (c.339 A.D.) "… an apostate from Christianity" Circular Letter ch.5 p.95

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.4 p.438 "But he that denies himself to be a Christian, that he may not be hated of men, and so loves his own life more than he does the Lord, in whose hand his breath is, is wretched and miserable, as being detestable and abominable, who desires to be the friend of men, but is the enemy of God, having no longer his portion with the saints, but with those that are accursed; choosing instead of the kingdom of the blessed, that eternal fire which is prepared for the devil and his angels: not being any longer hated by men, but rejected by God, and cast out from His presence."

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 29 p.148 "Christians must not judaize by resting on the Sabbath, but must work on that day, rather honouring the Lord’s Day; and if they can, resting then as Christians."

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Pacian says, "‘Christian’ is my first name, and ‘Catholic’ is my surname." Letter 1 ch.4 p.21

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) "For if Paul was a more considerable person than Plato, many probably would object that it was not by grace, but by excellency of speech that he prevailed; so that the Christian’s assertion made for the Greek." vol.12 Commentary on 1 Corinthians homily 3 p.14.

 

Ca11. Mention of Easter/Pascha[l]

 

From Wikipedia: The word for Easter in almost all languages comes from the Greek word Pascha, which comes from the Hebrew Pesach, meaning Passover. The main exceptions are the Slavic languages and English. Slavic languages call this festival the "Great Night" or "Great Day". The English word Easter came from the month of the German calendar called Eostre-monath. The name for the month came from the Anglo-Saxon goddess Eostre, similar to how the names January, March, and June came from Roman deities.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Countil of Nicea (325 A.D.) discussed when to keep Holy Easter in The Synodal Letter p.54

Athanasius (333 A.D.) wrote Easter Letters

Others

 

After Ephesus 431 A.D.)

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) wrote a poem on Easter

 

Ca12. Calling the Lord’s Supper the Eucharist

 

 

Ca13. Shun alleged believers persisting in sin

 

Matthew 18:17 (partial)

1 Corinthians 5:5-13

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of Old Testament all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 5:11

 

Ca14. The Church is the body of Christ

 

1 Corinthians 12:27; Ephesians 4:12; 5:23

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (c.240 A.D.) says that we are the body of Christ. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 2 ch.7 p.145

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) A Commonitory ch.20.48 p.146

 

Ca15. Footwashing

 

Ca16. Baptize in the name of the Father, Son, Holy Spirit

 

Matthew 28:19

 

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.)

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

Bezae Cantabrigiensis (5th century)

Italic (4th to 7th centuries)

Freer Gospels (c.500 A.D.)

Syriac

Sahidic Coptic

Bohairic Coptic

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) discusses that Orthodox Christians baptize in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit while Arians do not. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.18.42 p.371

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) quotes Matthew 28:19 in On the Trinity book 2 ch.1 p.52.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes Matthew 28:16-20 in harmony of the Gospels ch.81 p.222

There are other writers too.

 

Among heretics

X Mandaeans (>350?) said it was wrong to Jesus to command baptizing in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Ginza p.549

 

Ca17. We are the flock of Christ

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 20 no.3 p.190

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) mention of the sheep of Christ Memra 12 ch.6 p.124-125

 

After Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

Anastasius Bibliothecarius (858-878 A.D.) freely translating Peter of Alexandria "I commend also to thy glorious patronage the flock of Christ’s worshippers which was committed to my pastoral care;" Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria p.&&&

 

Ca18. Musical choir

 

Ca19. Church(es) of God

 

Church of God Acts 20:28; 1 Corinthians 1:2; 10:32; 11:22; 2 Corinthians 1:1; Galatians 1:13; 1 Timothy 3:5;

Church of the Living God 1 Timothy 3:15

Churches of God 1 Corinthians 11:16; 1 Thessalonians 2:!4; 2 Thessalonians 1:4

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.321 (553 A.D.) mentions the church of God.

 

Ca20. Church(es) of Christ

 

Church of Christ Romans 16:16 (no other verses)

(implied) Matthew 16:18 (Jesus spoke of my church)

(implied) Christ is the head of the church Ephesians 5:23

 

 

Church Leadership

 

C1. Obey authority of godly church leaders

 

1 Thessalonians 5:12-23; Hebrews 13:7,17; (partial) 1 Peter 5:2-3

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) "Ther eis no envy or jealousy, among the members of the body; for in love they give ear to him [the pastor], with tenderness they are visited by him." Nisibine Hymns hymn 18 no.4 p.187-188

 

C2. The Church/Christians should have unity

 

John 17:3; 20-21,23; 1 Corinthians 3:1-10; 12:12-29; Ephesians 4:3-5

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 17:3; 20:21,23

p18 (4th entury) Acts 4:32 (implied)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) mentions "the unity of the Catholic faith" On the Councils ch.80 p.25

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (partial) Do not try to make progress [in the church] by contention. Letter 2 ch.6.1 p.33

 

C3. Excommunicate or separate from heretics

 

2 Timothy 3:1-5

No hospitality to heretics 2 John 10-11

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (&&&) Anathematize Arian heretics. Against Arians ch.58 p.131

 

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) Canon 1 p.108 (partial) says to excommunicate those who keep Easter at the same time as the Jews. They viewed the quartodecimians as heretics!

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canons 31-33 p.149 do not get married with heretics, receive the blessing from heretics, or join in prayers with heretics. Canon 34 p.150 says not to comfort the martyrs of heretics.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) excommunicates those who deny that Christ was one person, fully God and fully man. The Capitula of the Council ch.8 p.313-314

 

C4. Bishop(s)

 

Philippians 1:1; 1 Peter 5:4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (c.339 A.D.) "… Bishop or Presbyter" Circular Letter ch.2 p.93. See also Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.20 p.163

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) Canon 1 p.108 mentions bishops, elders, deacons, and laity.

The Council of Gangra canon 4 p.92 (325-381 A.D.) says that married presbyters are fine.

Council of Sardica canon 7 p.421 (343/344 A.D.) discusses that a bishop should help the oppressed.

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) mentions bishops, presbyters, and deacons Catechetical Lecture 17 ch.35 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.132

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) mention of the bishop in the church. Letter 1 ch.7.2 p.26

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions the presbytery, bishops, and deacons. Commentary on Philippians homily 1 p.184

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.23 p.256 (370/380-425 A.D.) discusses the bishops, presbyters, deacons, and sub-deacons.

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions bishops. Session 1 p.303. Sessio 7 p.305

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 2 ch.1 p.396 mentions the bishop.

 

C5. Church leaders should accept each other

 

(implied) John 13:20; (implied) Romans 15:7; 2 John 9-10

(implied, because accept all believers) Romans 15:7

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (implied) John 13:20

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Cyril wrote to other bishops. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.131-132

 

C6. Reject unchristian church leader authority

 

2 Timothy 3:1-5; 2 John 9-11 (implied)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) Canon 4 p.110 reject bishops who set aside ecclesiastical rules.

 

C7. Remove leaders fallen in gross sin/heresy

 

(implied, if remove any Christian from the church that includes leaders) 1 Corinthians 5:9-11; 2 John 9-11 (implied)

 

C8. Concept of one universal church

 

Ephesians 4:3-5; 1 Corinthians 12:13

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1.1 p.81 speaks of the "church"

Athanasius (c.339 A.D.) "… against us and against the Church" Circular Letter ch.2 p.93

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 2 no.6 p.167. See also Nisibine Hymns hymn 6 no.14 p.175.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) speaks of "a doctrine in the church" and "anywhere at all in the church" Against Eunomius book 1 ch.34 p.80

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) refers to the "Catholic truth" and "source of the original church" in Letter 1 ch.1 p.17

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "the Father called the Gentiles to the Church. Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.10.101 p.127.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) says that Jesus promised the paraclete (John 15:26) in Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.1.8 p.136.

Philastrius of Brescia (381-397 A.D.) "It has been ordained by the apostles and their successors, that nothing be read in the Catholic Church, except the law, and the prophets, and the Gospels." On Heresies (ante A.D. 387).

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) mentions the fathers of the church de Principiis book 1 ch.6.1 p.260

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) "And this is what is meant by the Bridegroom looking at her through the nets of the windows. If, however, we are to expound the passage with reference to Christ and the Church..." Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.13 p.234-235

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) discusses the Holy Church, which is Catholic [i.e. universal]. On Faith and the Creed ch.10.21 p.331

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Pope Celestine to the Synod of Ephesus Letter 18 (432 A.D.) p.221 speaks of the "security of the whole church."

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) speaks of what "the Holy Church has taught from the beginning." The Capitula of the Council ch.9 p.314

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.321 (553 A.D.) mentions the church of God.

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) "them away, He [Christ] guards the fold of God. Those whom guilty Eve had before infected, He now restores, fed with abundant milk at the bosom of the Church." Poem On Easter p.330

 

C9. Churches should greet other churches

 

Romans 16:16

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

&&&Athanasius (325-373 A.D.)

 

C10. Tradition of the apostles or the church

 

Ephesians 2:20

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

"It is my purpose to write an account of the successions of the holy apostles, as well as of the times which have elapsed from the days of our Saviour to our own; and to relate the many important events which are said to have occurred in the history of the Church; and to mention those who have governed and presided over the Church in the most prominent parishes, and those who in each generation have proclaimed the divine word either orally or in writing... When Nero was in the eighth year of his reign, Annianus succeeded Mark the evangelist in the administration of the parish of Alexandria...Linus ...was Peter’s successor in the episcopate of the church there...Clement also, who was appointed third bishop of the church at Rome." Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History,1:1,2:24, (A.D. 325).

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1.1 p.81-82 speaks of the memory of succession of the apostles.

"Lo! In these three successions, as in a mystery and a figure ... Under the three pastors,--there were manifold shepherds" Ephraem, Nisbene Hymns, The Bishops of Nisibis (Jacob, Babu, Valgesh), 13,14 (A.D. 350).

"[W]hile before your election you lived to yourself, after it, you live for your flock. And before you had received the grace of the episcopate, no one knew you; but after you became one, the laity expect you to bring them food, namely instruction from the Scriptures ... For if all were of the same mind as your present advisers, how would you have become a Christian, since there would be no bishops? Or if our successors are to inherit this state of mind, how will the Churches be able to hold together?" Athanasius, To Dracontius, Epistle 49 (A.D. 355).

"[B]elieve as we believe, we, who are, by succession from the blessed apostles, bishops; confess as we and they have confessed, the only Son of God, and thus shalt thou obtain forgiveness for thy numerous crimes." Lucifer of Calaris, On St. Athanasius (A.D. 361).

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) "[W]e shall not recede from the faith ... as once laid it continues even to this say, through the tradition of the fathers, according to the succession from the apostles, even to the discussion had at Nicea against the heresy which had, at that period, sprung up." History Fragment 7 (ante A.D. 367).

"[D]uring the days of that Anicetus, bishop of Rome, who succeeded Pius and his predecessors, For, in Rome, Peter and Paul were the first both apostles and bishops; then came Linus, then Cletus ... However the succession of the bishops in Rome was in the following order. Peter and Paul, and Cletus, Clement..." Epiphanius, Panarion, 27:6 (A.D. 377).

"He [St. Athanasius] is led up to the throne of Saint Mark, to succeed him in piety, no less than in office; in the latter indeed at a great distance from him, in the former, which is the genuine right of succession, following him closely. For unity in doctrine deserves unity in office; and a rival teacher sets up a rival throne; the one is a successor in reality, the other but in name. For it is not the intruder, but he whose rights are intruded upon, who is the successor, not the lawbreaker, but the lawfully appointed, not the man of contrary opinions, but the man of the same faith; if this is not what we mean by successor, he succeeds in the same sense as disease to health, darkness to light, storm to calm, and frenzy to sound sense." Gregory of Nazianzen, Oration 21:8 (A.D. 380).

"For they [Novatians] have not the succession of Peter, who hold not the chair of Peter, which they rend by wicked schism; and this, too, they do, wickedly denying that sins can be forgiven even in the Church, whereas it was said to Peter: ‘I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven. and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound also in heaven, and whatsoever thou shall loose on earth shall be loosed also in heaven.’" Ambrose, Concerning Repentance, 7:33 (A.D. 384).

Philastrius of Brescia (381-397 A.D.) "It has been ordained by the apostles and their successors, that nothing be read in the Catholic Church, except the law, and the prophets, and the Gospels." On Heresies (ante A.D. 387).

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "yet as the teaching of the church, transmitted in orderly succession from the apostles, and remaining in the Churches to the present day, is still preserved, that alone is to be accepted as truth which differs in no respect from ecclesiastical and apostolical tradition." de Principiis Preface ch.2 p.239

"If the lineal succession of bishops is to be considered with how much more benefit to the Church do we reckon from Peter himself, to whom, as bearing in a figure the whole Church, the Lord said: Upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not conquer it!’ For to Peter succeeded Linus, Clement...Damsus, Sircius, Anastasius. In this order of succession no Donatist bishop is too be found." Augustine, To Generosus, Epistle 53:2 (A.D. 400).

"Let a bishop be ordained by three or two bishops; but if any one be ordained by one bishop, let him be deprived, both himself and he that ordained him. But if there be a necessity that he have only one to ordain him, because more bishops cannot come together, as in time of persecution, or for such like causes, let him bring the suffrage of permission from more bishops." Apostolic Constitutions, 8:27 (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.).

"For if the lineal succession of bishops is to be taken into account, with how much more certainty and benefit to the Church do we reckon back till we reach Peter himself, to whom, as bearing in a figure the whole Church, the Lord said: ‘Upon this rock will I build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it !’ The successor of Peter was Linus, and his successors in unbroken continuity were these: -- Clement, Anacletus, Evaristus, Alexander, Sixtus, Telesphorus, Iginus, Anicetus, Pius, Soter, Eleutherius, Victor, Zephirinus, Calixtus, Urbanus, Pontianus, Antherus, Fabianus, Cornelius, Lucius, Stephanus, Xystus, Dionysius, Felix, Eutychianus, Gaius, Marcellinus, Marcellus, Eusebius, Miltiades, Sylvester, Marcus, Julius, Liberius, Damasus, and Siricius, whose successor is the present Bishop Anastasius. In this order of succession no Donatist bishop is found. But, reversing the natural course of things, the Donatists sent to Rome from Africa an ordained bishop, who, putting himself at the head of a few Africans in the great metropolis, gave some notoriety to the name of "mountain men," or Cutzupits, by which they were known." Augustine, To Generosus, Epistle 53:2 (A.D. 400).

"‘To the fellow-Bishops and Deacons." What is this? Were there several Bishops of one city? Certainly not; but he called the Presbyters so. For then they still interchanged the titles, and the Bishop was called a Deacon. For this cause in writing to Timothy, he said, "Fulfill thy ministry,’ when he was a Bishop. For that he was a Bishop appears by his saying to him, ‘Lay hands hastily on no man.’ (1 Tim. v. 22.) And again, ‘Which was given thee with the laying on of the hands of the Presbytery.’ (1 Tim. iv. 14.) Yet Presbyters would not have laid hands on a Bishop. And again, in writing to Titus, he says, ‘For this cause I left thee in Crete, that thou shouldest appoint elders in every city, as I gave thee charge. If any man is blameless, the husband of one wife’ (Tit. i. 5, 6); which he says of the Bishop. And after saying this, he adds immediately, ‘For the Bishop must be blameless, as God’s steward, not self willed:’ (Tit. i. 7.)" John Chrysostom, Homilies on Phillipians, 1:1 (A.D. 404).

"And to Timothy he says: ‘Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery.’… For even at Alexandria from the time of Mark the Evangelist until the episcopates of Heraclas and Dionysius the presbyters always named as bishop one of their own number chosen by themselves and set in a more exalted position, just as an army elects a general, or as deacons appoint one of themselves whom they know to be diligent and call him archdeacon. For what function excepting ordination, belongs to a bishop that does not also belong to a presbyter? It is not the case that there is one church at Rome and another in all the world beside. Gaul and Britain, Africa and Persia, India and the East worship one Christ and observe one rule of truth. If you ask for authority, the world outweighs its capital. Wherever there is a bishop, whether it be at Rome or at Engubium, whether it be at Constantinople or at Rhegium, whether it be at Alexandria or at Zoan, his dignity is one and his priesthood is one. Neither the command of wealth nor the lowliness of poverty makes him more a bishop or less a bishop. All alike are successors of the apostles." Jerome, To Evangelus, Epistle 146:1 (ante A.D. 420).

Pope Celestine to the Synod of Ephesus Letter 18 (431 A.D.) p.220 "We must strive therefore in common to keep the faith which has come down to us to-day, through the Apostolic Succession."

"Examples there are without number: but to be brief, we will take one, and that, in preference to others, from the Apostolic See, so that it may be clearer than day to every one with how great energy, with how great zeal, with how great earnestness, the blessed successors of the blessed apostles have constantly defended the integrity of the religion which they have once received." Vincent of Lerins, Commonitory for the Antiquity and Universality of the Catholic Faith 6:15 (A.D. 434).

"Moreover, with respect to a certain bishop who, as the aforesaid magnificent men have told us, is prevented by infirmity of the head from administering his office, we have written to our brother and fellow-bishop Etherius, that if he should have intervals of freedom from this infirmity, he should make petition, declaring that he is not competent to fill his own place, and requesting that another be ordained to his Church. For during the life of a bishop, whom not his own fault but sickness, withdraws from the administration of his office, the sacred canons by no means allow another to be ordained in his place. But, if he at no time recovers the exercise of a sound mind, a person should be sought adorned with good life and conversation, who may be able both to take charge of souls, and look with salutary control after the causes and interests of the same church; and he should be such as may succeed to the bishop’s place in case of his surviving him. But, if there are any to be promoted to a sacred order, or to any clerical ministry, we have ordained that the matter is to be reserved and announced to our aforesaid most reverend brother Etherius, provided it belong to his diocese, so that, enquiry having then been made, if the persons are subject to no fault which the sacred canons denounce, he himself may ordain them. Pope Gregory the Great [regn. A.D. 590-604], Epistle 6 (A.D. 602

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions the holy fathers Athanasius, Basil, Gregory the Theologian [of Nazianzen], Gregory of Nyssa, Ambrose, Theophilus, John (Chrysostom), Cyril, Augustine, Proclus, Leo. It says the Theodore of Mopsuestia and Nestorius are heretics. Session 1 p.303. It mentions the 318 holy Fathers at the Nice [Nicea] Sentence of the Synod p.307

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Refers to "Tertullian himself – not after he had fallen into heresy" Letter 3 ch.24.2 p.66

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) mentions the blessed martyr and teacher Cyprian. Letter 1 ch.3.4 p.21.He calls Cyprian a "holy man" in Letter 2 ch.3.1 p.28

 

C11. Don’t muzzle an ox while treading grain

 

1 Timothy 5:18a; Deuteronomy 5:4; 1 Corinthians 9:9,14

 

C12. Priesthood of all believers

 

1 Peter 2:9; Exodus 19:6; Revelation 1:6; 5:10

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Apostolic Constitutions (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 7 p.495 &&&(partial) "Let him who teaches, teach. This is true even if he is one of the laity – if he is skillful in the Word and serious in his living."

 

C13. Christ the head of the Church

 

Ephesians 5:23

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius ()

 

C14. Church leaders are shepherds

 

John 21:15-17; 1 Peter 5:2

 

C15. The episcopate [office of bishop]

 

C16. Elders/presbyters

 

1 Timothy 3:1-2; 1 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:5; Philippians 1:1; 1 Peter 5:4

 

C17. Deacons

 

Acts 6:2-6; 1 Timothy 3:1-2; 1 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:5; Philippians 1:1; 1 Peter 5:4

 

 

C18. Sub-deacons

 

-

 

Synod of Laodicea 343-381 A.D. Canon 24 p.144 (implied) mentions presbyters, deacons, sub-deacons, readers, singers, exorcists, and door-keepers, and that they should never enter a tavern.

 

C19. Catechumens

 

C20. Must be worthy of being a bishop/priest

 

C21. Ordination [of bishops]

 

 

Family and Marriage

 

F1. Honor marriage, no extra-marital relations

 

Matthew 5:27-28; Romans 13:9; Hebrews 12:16; 13:4; James 2:11

Matthew 5:31-32; 19:9; Mark 10:11-12; Luke 16:18; (Divorce)

(implied) Revelation 17:2 (kings of the earth committed adultery with Babylon)

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 5:27-28,31-32; 19:9; Mark 10:11-12; Luke 16:18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 5:27-28; Romans 13:9

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (339 A.D.) says that adultery and drunkenness are wrong. Easter Letter 11 ch.8 p.536

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 5.28 p.463 quotes the first half of Hebrews 13:4 that marriage is honorable.

The Council of Gangra canon 1 p.92 (325-381 A.D.) says that anyone who condemns marriage or marriage relations is anathema.

The Council of Gangra canon 9 p.95 (325-381 A.D.) says that abstaining from marriage because of the beauty or holiness of virginity is fine. But if anyone abstains from marriage because they abhor marriage, let them be anathema.

The Council of Gangra canon 14 p.98 (325-381 A.D.) says that if a woman forsakes her husband because she abhors marriage, let her be anathema.

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that marriage is fine. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.25 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.25

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that the church "admires and praises "virginity", praises widowhood, and "honors and accepts" the chaste bond of marriage. However, fornication, adultery, and other lusts are abominable and condemned. Panarion 2.1:48, as quoted in Examination of the Council of Trent III, p.36

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) lists together fornication, hatred, idolatry, quarreling, envying, drunkenness, and other sins. de Principiis book 3 ch.4.2 p.338. See also de Principiis book 3 ch.1.6 p.305-306

Rufiness (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes 1 Timothy 4:1-3 and says that some fall into the doctrine of demons and forbid to marry. de Principiis book 2 ch.7.3 p.285

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) (implied) teaches that it is wrong to commit adultery. Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.210.

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History (370/380-425 A.D.) book 3 ch.14 p.293 tells of renegade monks who condemned marriage, people who ate animal food. Many women were deluded by them and left their husbands, but unable to remain celibate, fell into adultery. Some women arrayed themselves in men’s apparel.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quote Exodus 20:12-15. The City of God book 18 ch.41 p.385. See also Commentary on Psalms

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (implied) Against licentiousness. Commentary on Amos ch.2 p.139

 

F2. No divorce, except for unfaithfullness

 

Matthew 5:31-32; 19:9; Mark 10:11-12; Luke 16:18; Romans 7:2,3; 1 Corinthians 7:10,11

(partial) 1 Corinthians 7:10-11; 39

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 5:31-32; 19:9; Mark 10:11-12; Luke 16:18

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 5:31-32; 19:9; Mark 10:11-12; Luke 16:18; Romans 7:2,3; 1 Corinthians 7:10,11

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (c.340 A.D.) (partial) "‘Art thou bound unto a wife? Seek not to be loosed.’ For if this expression applies to a wife, how much more does it apply to a Church, and to the same Episcopate." Defence Against the Arians ch.6 p.104

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) discusses what Malachi says about not dismissing your wives. Commentary on Malachi ch.2 p.411-413

 

F3. We should be pure

 

Ephesians 5:3-4; Matthew 5:28

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 5:28

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 5:28; Ephesians 5:3-4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.79 p.217 "And this no one doubts when he sees the martyr despising death for the sake of Christ, when he sees for Christ’s sake the virgins of theChurch keeping themselves pure and undefiled."

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History (370/380-425 A.D.) book 3 ch.14 p.293 tells of renegade monks who condemned marriage, people who ate animal food. Many women were deluded by them and left their husbands, but unable to remain celibate, fell into adultery. Some women arrayed themselves in men’s apparel.

 

F4. Do not watch violent or lewd shows

 

(implied) Job 31:1; Prov 6:25; Matthew 5:28; 2 Peter 2:14

Philippians 4:8-9

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (implied Matthew 5:28

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Philippians 4:8-9

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says we are not to go to spectacles. City of God book 2 ch.4 p.25 and that the theatre was a moral pestilence. City of God book 1 ch.32 p.20

 

F5. No homosexuality

 

Romans 1:26-27; 1 Corinthians 6:9-11; Leviticus 20:13

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Romans 1:26-27; 1 Corinthians 6:9-11

 

Note that if only boys are mentioned, this is counted as Partial, because while teens could be of marriageable age, they could be younger too.

 

Among heretics and apocryphal books

The Vision of Paul (first ‘found’ c.388 A.D. – after Nicea) ch.39 p.161 speaks of punishment for homosexuals, which was called "the iniquity of Sodom and Gomorrah, the male with the male, for which reason they unceasingly pay penalties". They were "covered with dust, their countenance was like blood, and they were in a pit of pitch and sulphur and running down into a fiery river"

 

F6. We should honor our parents

 

Exodus 20:12; Deuteronomy 5:16

Mark 7:10-12 (Corban)

(implied) Ephesians 6:1-2

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 7:10-12

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament, including all of Deuteronomy, and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Mark 7:10-12

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

The Council of Gangra canon 16 p.99 (325-381 A.D.) says that if children under the excuse of piety shall forsake their parents, or withhold reverencing their parents, "let them be anathema."

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) says we should honor our father and mother. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.7 p.193

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quote Exodus 20:12-15. The City of God book 18 ch.41 p.385

 

F7. Cherish and nurture our family

 

1 Corinthians 7:33-34; Titus 2:4

(implied) Ephesians 6:1-4

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 7:33-34; Titus 2:4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

The Council of Gangra canon 15 p.98 (325-381 A.D.) says, "If anyone shall forsake his own children and shall not nurture them, nor so far as in him lies, rear them in becoming piety, but shall neglect them, under pretence of ascetism, let him be anathema."

 

F8. Having kids is fine within marriage

 

(implied) Ephesians 6:1-4; Titus 2:4

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) eph 6:1-2; Titus 2:4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that bodily desire is not unnatural, but was given for procreating children. Panarion 1.3:45, as quoted in Examination of the Council of Trent III, p.32-33

Athanasius (354 A.D.) "The lawful use which God permitted when He said, ‘Increase and multiply, and replenish the earth,’ and whith the Apostle approves in the words, ‘Marriage is honourable and the bed undefiled,’" Letter 18 to Amun p.557

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) (partial) quotes 1 Timothy 4:1-3 and says that some fall into the doctrine of demons and forbid to marry. de Principiis book 2 ch.7.3 p.285

X Jerome (373-420 A.D.) "The truth is that, in view of the purity of the body of Christ, all sexual intercourse is unclean." Against Jovianus book 1 ch.20 p.361

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that marriage and "the connexion of fellowship in children, which is the one alone worthy fruit". On the Good of Marriage ch.1 p.399

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) having kids within marriage is find. Commentary on Malachi ch.2 p.411

 

F9. Celibacy is better than marriage

 

1 Corinthians 7:1-9; 25-35

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 7:1-9; 25-35

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) Some parents would not let their daughters listen to Ambrose because of his expounding on the merits of living in celibacy for the Lord.

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that the church "admires and praises "virginity", praises widowhood, and "honors and accepts" the chaste bond of marriage. However, fornication, adultery, and other lusts are abominable and condemned. Panarion 2.1:48, as quoted in Examination of the Council of Trent III, p.36

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History (370/380-425 A.D.) book 6 ch.33-34 p.370-371 mentions the good works of the monks.

Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 4 ch.23 p.106 (c.400-439 A.D.) mentions what Paul wrote in Corinthians about the advantages of chastity vs. marriage.

 

F10. Remarriage OK after death of spouse

 

Romans 7:1-3; 1 Corinthians 7:39

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Romans 7:1-3; 1 Corinthians 7:39

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that a second marriage after death of a spouse is fine. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.26 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.25

 

F11. No incestual relations

 

Leviticus 20:17-19

 

F12. Do not love family more than Jesus

 

(implied) Matthew 10:21

Luke 8:20-21

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (implied) Matthew 10:21; Luke 8:20-21

Vaticanus (B) Most of Old Testament all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 8:20-21

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.4 p.438 quotes Matthew 10:37; 16:26 about not loving family more than Jesus.

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) (implied) "The explanation of these things surely is the same as that which underlies the words, ‘Honor thy father and thy mother, and, He that hated not his father and mother, etc. – namely, that obviously excess of love generates the opposite disposition towards God in those who oppose him;" Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.7 p.193

 

F13. Do not kill/expose infants

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Apostolic Constitutions (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 7 section 1 ch.3 p.466"You shall not slay your child by causing abortion, nor kill the baby that is born. For ‘everything that is shaped and has received a soul from God, if it is slain, shall be avenged, as being unjustly destroyed.’"

 

F14. Two become one flesh

 

Genesis 2:23

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) two become one flesh. Commentary on Malachi ch.2 p.411

 

F15. No gladiators

 

F16. We should be modest

 

(Modesty explicitly referring to only humbleness is not included here.)

 

Ephesians 5:3-4; Matthew 5:28

Job 31:1 Job made a covenant with his eyes not to look lustfully at a girl

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 5:28

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 5:28; Ephesians 5:3-4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) discusses not lloking after a woman to lust after her. Concerning Repentance book 1 ch.14 no.70 p.340

 

F17. Train your kids in the Lord

 

Deuteronomy 6:4-9; Psalm 78:4; Proverbs 22:6; Ephesians 6:4

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

F18. Eve was Adam’s bone and flesh

 

F19. Do not lust (sexually)

 

 

King, Government, and LAws

 

K1. Honor the king or government

 

Matthew 22:17-21; Luke 20:22-25; Romans 13:1-5; 1 Peter 2:17

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 22:17-21; Luke 20:22-25

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 22:17-21; Luke 20:22-25; Romans 13:1-5; 1 Peter 2:17

 

K2. Obey government [when not against God]

 

Romans 13:1-5; 1 Peter 2:17

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Romans 13:1-5; 1 Peter 2:17

 

K3. Do not aid in persecuting Christians

 

1 Corinthians 13:7 (always protects)

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 13:7

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (357-373 A.D.) says that even if it were wrong to flee, it is worse to persecute. In Defense of His Flight ch.8 p.257. However Jesus’ family fled to Egypt to escape Herod ch.12 p.259

 

K4. Pay taxes

 

Mk 12:14-17; Luke 20:22-25; Romans 13:6-7

(implied) Matthew 17:24-27 (Temple tax)

We pay taxes. Romans 13:6-7; Matthew 17:24-27;22:15-21; Mark 12:13-17; Luke 20:22-25

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Mark 12:14-17; Luke 20:22-25

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Mark 12:14-17; Luke 20:22-25; Romans 13:6-7

 

K7. Officials ought to be just

 

Leviticus 19:15; Romans 13:3-4

(partial) 1 Peter 3:13

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Romans 13:3-4

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) (implied) "the prophet Micah will prove when he says: ‘If it has been announced to thee, O man, what is good, or what does the Lord require of thee, except to do justice and to love mercy?’" [in both Latin and Greek] de Principiis book 3 ch.1.6 p.305

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (implied) Discusses how kingships and governments should not be lawless. Commentary on Hosea ch.9 p.74

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (implied) Wrong to have injustice to the needy/poor. Commentary on Amos ch.4 p.145, ch.8 p.165

 

K8. Disobey or change unjust laws

 

Leviticus 19:15 (implied); Acts 4:19; 5:29

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 4:19; 5:29

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Sardica canon 7 p.421 (343/344 A.D.) discusses that a bishop should "give assistance to one oppressed by some one, or to a widow suffering injustice, or, again, to an orphan robbed of his estate, always provided that these persons have a just cause of petition."

 

K9. Providence, or God governing the world

 

Isaiah 46:10

(partial) Luke 12:24

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (partial) Luke 12:24

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) (partial) Luke 12:24

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions that some Christians had endured persecution by the "Providence of God" Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 6 ch.8.7 p.255

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) refers to "heavenly providence" Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 3 ch.2 p.106

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.8 p.198 "But by the Providence of God—for the Lord never overlooks them that hope in Him—the next day his acquaintance came bringing him the loaves."

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "Not only did He Himself [Christ] bring them out of nothing into being, but Himself sustains them now, so that were they dissevered from His Providence, they were at once undone and destroyed." Homilies on Colossians homily 3 p.271

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) mentions the Providence of God. de Principiis book 1 ch.3.1 p.251-252.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) mentions Divine Providence. A Commonitory ch.10 p.138 ahd ch.12 p.139.

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-550 A.D.) "But, truly, if you thus regard this perishable world, and through your love of a better country deprive yourself of earthly riches and the enjoyment of present things, the prayers of the pious will bring you up in sacred habits, and in the hope of a happy life, amidst severe punishments, will cherish you with heavenly dew, and feed you with the sweetness of the promised good. Until the great favour of God shall recall your happy soul to the heavenly regions, your body being left after the fates of death. Then freed from all labour, then joyfully beholding the angelic choirs, and the blessed companies of saints in perpetual bliss, it shall reign with me in the happy abode of perpetual peace."

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Providence of God. Commentary on Malachi ch.2 p.409

 

K10. Christ is king, or kingdom of Christ

 

John 1:49; 18:36; Revelation 11:15

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 18:36

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:49; 18:36

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.5 p.82 mentions that Christ is King of all created things.

Athanasius (356 A.D.) says Jesus Christ is our Lord, Saviour, God, and universal King. To the Bishops of Egypt ch.23 p.235

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says that Christ is sovereign of all. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.17 p.357

Council of Sardica (Greek version) (343/344 A.D.) mentions that Christ’s kingdom remains for ever. Hilary of Poitiers de Synodis ch.34 p.14

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. says that Christ will come in His kingdom. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Christ is king. Nisibine Hymns hymn 36 no.17 p.197. See also Nisibine Hymns hymn 36.18 p.198.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that Jesus is proclaimed a king. On the Holy Trinity p.329

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) says that the Son of God is king of all that exists. de Principiis book 4 ch.3.1 p.362

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says Christ is our King. Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.210. See also Homilies on John homily 25 ch.3 p.89

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) says that Christ reigns. Commentary on the Song of Songs prologue p.52

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) King of Kings and Lord of Lords. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.221

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) refers to Christ’s kingdom. Commentary on Zechariah ch.9 p.368. Also Commentary on Micah ch.5 p.227

 

K11. Christians should not be in lawsuits

 

1 Corinthians 6:1-8

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (partial) canon 24 p.120 "so that neither the Church may suffer loss, nor the bishop beinjured under pretext of the Church’s interest, or those who belong to him fall into lawsuites, and himself, after his death, be brought under reproach."

Apostolic Constitutions (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.)

 

K12. Citizens of Heaven

 

Philippians 3:20

 

 

 

KERYGMATIC AND IRENIC EVANGELISM

 

k1. Preach the gospel to others

 

(Mentioning the Preacher, the author of Ecclesiastes, is not counted.)

 

Luke 7:22; 8:1; 9:6,60; 2 Timothy 4:2

The word "preach" is used 118 times in the New Testament

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 7:22; 8:1; 9:6,60

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 8:1; 7:22; 9:6,60

p18 (4th entury) "testify" Acts 4:33

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.1.7 p.87 says we are to proclaim the divine Word.

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.3 p.86 says that Christ preached the gospel to the poor.

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) talks of Paul commanding the Philippians to preach the gospel. Commentary on Philippians homily 2 verse 19 p.191 Also ibid homily 7 p.214

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says there were many things that hindered Jesus from preaching the gospel. Bazaar of Heracleides ch.74 p.68

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Acts of Paul and Thecla (150-200 A.D.) p.487,488 Paul preached the gospel boldly.

 

k2. Bold proclamation of truth

 

Jeremiah 7; Luke 3:18-19; John 6:53-60; 8:54-56; Acts 4:8-13; 4:29,31; 9:27,28; 13:46; 14:3; 28:31; Galatians 2:14-15; (implied) 1 Peter 4:11a

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 3:18-19; John 6:53-60; 8:54-56

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 6:53-60; 8:54-56; Acts 4:8-13; 4:29,31; 9:27,28; 14:3; Galatians 2:14-15

 

k3. Quoting God’s word to unbelievers

 

(While Satan can be considered an unbeliever, quoting God’s word to Satan is not counted.)

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 11:10; 19:4-5; John 10:4; etc.

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 10:34

 

k4. Sharing personal testimonies

 

Acts 15:12-13; 26:2-29; Hebrews 11

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 15:12-13; 26:2-29

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius (318-339/340 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo ()

 

k5. Creative allegories or metaphors

 

James 3:4-6; 2 Timothy 2:20-21

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.1.3 p.81 "From afar they raise their voices like torches, and they cry out, as from some lofty and conspicuous watch-tower, admonishing us where to walk and how to direct the course of our work steadily and safely. … and having plucked like flower from a meadow the appropriate passages from ancient writers,…"

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) has a creative interpretation of Psalm 127:1 He says that Jesusis entitiled governor of all inthings and the ruler of the ground of the city. de Principiis book 3 ch.1 p.321. He also compares unpleased things to a physican not immediately removing a poison to track a hidden poison. de Principiis book 3 ch.1.13 p.314

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-550 A.D.) "adore the venerable wood of the cross, and with lowly countenance stooping to the earth, which is wet with innocent blood" p.327

Ephraem the Syrian (350 A.D.) creatively compares the cross of Christ to the rainbow of Noah. Nisibene Hymns ch.1.1-3 p.67

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says the first tree, of the knowledge of good and evil, brought death, but the second tree, the cross, brought life. Nisibine Hymns Hymn 14 no.6 p.182

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) has Satan and death arguing over who is greater. Nisibine Hymns hymn 52-56 p.206-210

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) says that the herbs smile in the blossoms at the resurrection of Christ. Poem on Easter p.329.

 

k6. Quoting poetry to share truth

 

Quoting poetry in the Bible, and merely mentioning non-Biblical poets is not counted here. Rather, this refers to quoting non-Biblical poetry to show truth.

 

Acts 17:28

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 17:28

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

A Strain of the Prophet Jonah (date unknown)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) created the poetry of the Nisibine Hymns to illustrate theology.

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) mentions Paul quoting a Greek poet (Acts 17:28-29) in "Acts of the Apostles" Letter 4.2 p.31

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-550 A.D.) refers to the virgin birth, Christ’s death on a dreadful cross, pretended kisses of a client/disciple, Pilate p.327

Venantius (lived c.530-609 A.D.) wrote a Poem on Easter p.329-330

 

k7. Promises of heaven or God’s love

 

Philippians 3:14

Luke 10:20; John 3:16b; 1 Corinthians 2:9; Revelation 19-21

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 10:20; John 3:16b

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 10:20; John 3:16b; 1 Corinthians 2:9; Philippians 3:14

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) mentions saints you died joyfully seeing the angelic choirs, and being in perpetural bless, and reigning with Christ. (near the end) p.&&&

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.17 p.200 "Nor let us think, as we look at the world, that we have renounced anything of much consequence, for the whole earth is very small compared with all the heaven. Wherefore if it even chanced that we were lords of all the earth and gave it all up, it would be nought worthy of comparison with the kingdom of heaven. For as if a man should despise a copper drachma to gain a hundred drachmas of gold; so if a man were lord of all the earth and were to renounce it, that which he gives up is little, and he receives a hundredfold."

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 2:9 that no eye has seen, no ear has heard…" On Baptism ch.7.3 p.94

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) refers to the pleasures of being with Christ. Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.211

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) "Tell me, whilst expecting such good things as ‘eye hath not seen, nor ear hath heard, nor have entered the heart of man,’ dost thou demur about this enjoytment, and art negligent and slothful;" On the Statues 5.5 p.372

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) paraphrases 1 John 3:2 de Principiis book 3 ch.5.8 p.344

 

k8. Threats of Hell or God’s wrath

 

Matthew 3:10,12; 25:41-44; Luke 10:15; John 8:23-24; 15:6; Romans 1:18; 9:22; Revelation 19-21

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 3:10,12; 25:41-44; Luke 10:15; John 8:23-24; 15:6

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 25:41-44; Luke 10:15; Mh 8:23-24; 15:6; Romans 1:18; 9:22

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) discusses the punishment of Hell and says, "For this does God threaten Hell". Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.211,212

 

Among heretics

Mani (262-278 A.D.) threatens with eternal fire. Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.187

 

k9. Mortal life is fleeting/short

 

Job 14:1-2; Psalm 62:9; 103:13-16; Isaiah 40:6,7; (partial 1 Corinthians 7:31); James 1:10-11; 1 Peter 1:23-24

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-550 A.D.) "world, from the fleeting shadow of earthly beauty, the result will be, that you" p.328

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-550 A.D.) "enjoyments of fickle fortune, and to place your hope in the fleeting years of" p.328

 

k10. Martyrs blood is a testimony

 

Hebrews 10:36-39; Revelation 6:10-11

 

k11. Use of Catena of 3 or more verses

 

Hebrews 1:5-13; Romans 3:10-18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Hebrews 1:5-13

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Catena of Psalm 120:7; Galatians 6:1-2; Romans 9:3; 1 Corinthians 9:22

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) in proving that the world began in time quotes Psalm 102:26-27; Matthew 19:4; Matthew 24:35; Romans 8:20-21; and 1 Corinthians 7:31. de Principiis book 3 ch.5.1 p.341

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Catena of Hos 4:12; Psalm 51:12; Num 14:24. Commentary on Hosea ch.12 p.89

 

k12. Moses is older than Homer

 

The prophets are older than the majority of Greek writers, and Moses (1445 B.C.) is older than Homer, about 1000 B.C. But some of the prophets were younger than Homer.

 

Parables of Jesus

 

Par1. Christ speaking in parables

 

Jesus spoke 39 parables.

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Christ spoke in parables. Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.329

 

Par2. Parable of the sheep and the goats

 

Luke 10:15

 

Par3. Parable of the prodigal son

 

Luke 15:11-32

 

Par4. Parable of the wineskins/bottles

 

 

Par5. Parable of the wheat and tares

 

Matthew 13:24-30

 

 

APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM

 

a1. Answering questions of others

 

Mark 10:17-21; Luke 12:14-17; John 3:4-15; 9:1; Acts 8:34-35; 1 Corinthians 7

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 10:17-21; Luke 12:14-17; John 3:4-15; 9:1

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Mark 10:17-21; Luke 12:14-17; John 3:4-15; Acts 8:34-35; 1 Corinthians 7

 

a2. Using questions

 

Haggai 1:4,5,9; 2:11-13; Malachi 3:7,8

Matthew 15:3-6; Mark 12:35-37; Luke 6:33-34,38,41,42,46; 13:3-5; John 10:34; 11:9

Romans 3:1,9,27; 4:1; 6:1,15; 7:1, 13; 9:19,20,22; 10:14,19; 11:1,7,11

 

Rhetorical questions, where no answer was expected. Luke 17:17; John 8:10

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 15:3-6; Matthew 12:35-37; Luke 6:33-34,38,41,42,46; 13:3-5; John 10:34; 11:9

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 15:3-6; Mark 12:35-37; etc.

p8 (4th entury) Acts 5:3-4

 

After 325 A.D.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) On the Spirit chapter 15:35 p.22 "Hence it follows that the answer to our question why the water was associated with the Spirit is clear: the reason is because in baptism two ends were proposed; on the one hand, the destroying of the body of sin, that it may never bear fruit unto death; on the other hand, our living unto the Spirit, and having our fruit in holiness…"

 

a3. Showing misconceptions/contradictions

(Not just saying it is wrong, but proving it is wrong, following the ramifications, appeal to others, etc.)

 

Luke 6:2-5; John 10:34-38; Galatians 2:14

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 10:34-38

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 6:2-5; John 10:34-38; Galatians 2:14

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) quotes Genesis 4:9 then immediately says "But it may be objected, that the Gentile allows nothing of this sort. Come then, let us discuss this point, and as we have done with respect to the creation, having carried on the warfare against these objectors not only by the help of the Scriptures, but of reason, so also let us now do with respect to consicence." On the Statues homily 12 ch.11-12 p.423

 

a4. Psalm 110:1-2 can only refer to Christ

 

Matthew 22:44; Acts 1:34-35; Hebrews 1:13

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 22:44

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 22:44; Acts 1:34-35; Hebrews 1:13

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) quotes Psalm 110 as referring to Christ. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.3.16 p.16

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes Psalm 110:1 as referring to Christ. On the Christian Faith book 2 ch.12.103 p.237

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "For thus says holy Scripture, ‘The Lord said to My Lord, Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool.’" de Principiis book 1 ch.6.1 p.260

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Psalm 110 1 openly refers to Christ. The City of God book 17 ch.17 p.355

 

a5. Nature witnesses to God

 

Psalm 19; Romans 1:18-20

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Romans 1:18-20

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that God is revealed in nature. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.19 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.24

Venantius (lived 530-609 A.D.) says that the plants with their flowers express their approval of Christ rising from the dead. Poem on Easter p.329

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) before Christ "everyone knew of God and creation but nothing further" Commentary on Haggai ch.2 p.314

 

a6. Appeal to science

 

a7. First Cause (cosmological argument)

 

See also the related topic that God created everything.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.3 p.82 says that all things were created through Christ. He says that the first cause of all was the pre-existent Word.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) calls God "the first CausE" and says God Himself is without cause. Against Eunomius Second Book p.263 and p.264.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "apostle therefore, with remarkable insight, referring to the general first cause of bodily matter" de Principiis book 2 ch.3 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.271

 

a8. Only One is supreme

 

a9. Morality vs. evil in other religions

 

Leviticus 20:2-5

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.75 p.216 mentions Cronos eating his own children and slaughtering his father.

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.76 p.216 "But if, as I hear, you wish to say that these things are spoken of by you as legends, and you allegorize the rape of the maiden Persephone of the earth; … none the less, you do not worship God Himself, but serve the creature rather than God who created all things."

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) extensively discusses shortcomings of pagan deities in many places. One place is City of God book 4 ch.16-32 p.72-82

 

a10. Appeal to historians

 

Jasher (Upright one) Joshua 10:13; 2 Samuel 1:18

Wars of the Lord Numbers 21:14

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.5.3 p.88 mentions at length Josephus Flavius. He quotes the "Testimonium Flavium" in book 1 ch.11.7-9 p.98

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) appeals to the historian Sallust in many places in City of God.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) appeals to Philo. Against Eunomius book 9 ch.1 p.212

 

a11. Using chronology in apologetics

 

a12. Genesis 49:10 refers to Christ

 

Genesis 49:10

 

a13. Isaiah 7:14 refers to Christ

 

Matthew 1:22-23

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 6:10; 7:14-15

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 37 no.4 p.198

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 7:14-15 as referring to Christ and His virgin birth. On Baptism ch.3(2) p.87

 

a14. Isaiah 53 refers to Christ

 

In the Middle Ages, the Jew Nachmanides, in his debate with a Catholic, said that Isaiah 53 referred to the Messiah, but claimed that the Messiah was willing to die, but did not actually die. (Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus vol.2 p.226).

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (329 A.D.) says that Isaiah 53:7 refers to Christ. Festal Letter 1 ch.9 p.509.

 

a15. Daniels’ 70 weeks messianic prophecy

 

Daniel 9:27-29 + Nehemiah 2:1-10 (445/4 B.C.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.6 p.90 says that Daniel prophesied the number of weeks before the coming of Christ.

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 6 ch.7 p.254 mentions that the Christian writer Judas discoursed on the AntiChrist and the seventy weeks of Daniel.

Eusebius says the seventy weeks refer to Christ in Demonstratio Evangelica 126 (http://www.intratest.com/X/ENG0882)

Apollinaris of Laodicea (ca.360 A.D.) in Jerome’s Commentary on Daniel

Athanasius (331 A.D.) says the Jews could find the right reason for when the Messiah would come by reading Daniel. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.16 p.356. Also, Jesus said that Moses wrote of Jesus in To the Bishops of Egypt ch.4 p.224

X Julius Hilarianus (ca.397 A.D.) (non-Messianic view of Daniel 9) Chronologia sive Libellus de Mundi Duratione preserved in Jerome’s Commentary on Daniel

Jerome (407 A.D.) Commentary on Daniel

Augustine 407-430 A.D.)

 

a16. Zechariah 12:10-12 refers to Christ

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 section 3 ch.19 p.447-448 quotes part of Zechariah 12:10 as referring to Christ.

 

Among heretics and spurious works

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) wrote an entire commentary on the book of Zechariah.

 

a17. Micah refers to Christ

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) refers to Micah and the prophecy of Bethlehem. Nativity Hymns hymn 1 p.223

 

 

HARSHER EVANGELISTIC METHODS

 

h1. Debate and argument in witnessing

 

John 8:13-19; 10:34-39; Acts 15:2; Romans 7:1-4; 9:19-22

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 8:13-19; 10:34-39

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 8:13-19; 10:34-39; Acts 15:2; Romans 7:1-4; 9:19-22

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.73 p.215 "And again others such as these met him in the outer mountain and thought to mock him because he had not learned letters. And Antony said to them, ‘What say ye? which is first, mind or letters? And which is the cause of which—mind of letters or letters of mind?’ And when they answered mind is first and the inventor of letters, Antony said, ‘Whoever, therefore, hath a sound mind hath not need of letters.’ This answer amazed both the bystanders and the philosophers, and they departed marvelling that they had seen so much understanding in an ignorant man. For his manners were not rough as though he had been reared in the mountain and there grown old, but graceful and polite, and his speech was seasoned with the divine salt, so that no one was envious, but rather all rejoiced over him who visited him."

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that heretics have the "presumption of impety. Of the Synods ch.17 p.8

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) quotes Genesis 4:9 then immediately says "But it may be objected, that the Gentile allows nothing of this sort. Come then, let us discuss this point, and as we have done with respect to the creation, having carried on the warfare against these objectors not only by the help of the Scriptures, but of reason, so also let us now do with respect to consicence." On the Statues homily 12 ch.11-12 p.423

 

h2. Do not throw pearls before swine

 

Matthew 7:6

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 7:6

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 7:6

 

h3. Don’t give what is holy to the dogs

 

Matthew 7:6

 

From Nicea to Ephesus

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 3 ch.5 p.427 quotes Matthew 7:6.

 

h4. Calling other beliefs delusion(s)

 

2 Thessalonians 2:11; Isaiah 66:4

Romans 1:25 (partial) lie

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) 2 Thessalonians 2:11

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.37 p.206 "For the demons do not take away the fear of their presence as the great archangel Gabriel did for Mary and Zacharias, and as he did who appeared to the women at the tomb; but rather whenever they see men afraid they increase their delusions that men may be terrified the more; and at last attacking they mock them, saying, ‘fall down and worship.’ Thus they deceived the Greeks, and thus by them they were considered gods, falsely so called."

 

h5. Apologetic use of Plato’s Timaeus

 

h6. Apologetic use of the tomb of Jupiter/Zeus

 

h7. Pointing out adulteries of Greek gods

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.76 p.216 "But if, as I hear, you wish to say that these things are spoken of by you as legends, and you allegorize the rape of the maiden Persephone of the earth; … none the less, you do not worship God Himself, but serve the creature rather than God who created all things."

 

h8. Humor or wit in witnessing

 

Acts 26:29

 

(Dark humor, puns, etc.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia

 

h9. Harsh rebuke in witnessing

(Satanic, evil, going to Hell, etc.)

 

Matthew 3:8-10; Luke 6:24-26; John 8:44,55; 9:41; Galatians 1:6-9; Philippians 3:2

 

Jesus and Paul commanded us to rebuke people in Luke 17:3; 1 Timothy 5:20; Titus 1:13; 2:15

2 Timothy 4:2 says, "Preach the Word; be prepared in season and out of season; correct, rebuke and encourage – with great patience and careful instruction." (NIV)

John the Baptist called some of the people who came out to see him a "brood of vipers" in Luke 3:7.

Jesus likewise called the Pharisees snakes and a brood of vipers condemned to Hell in Matthew 23:33; hypocrites (Matthew 23:29)

Paul harshly rebuked Elymas, who was opposing the Gospel, in Acts 13:10-12.

Paul spoke harshly about Judaizers, even calling them dogs, in Philippians 3:2

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 3:8-10; Luke 6:24-26; John 8:44,55; 9:41

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 3:8-10; Luke 6:24-26; John 8:44,55; 9:41; Galatians 1:6-9; Philippians 3:2

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Patrick of Ireland

he reputation of our women?" Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.34 p.&&&

 

h10. Calling people names

 

Amos 4:1 cows of Bashan

Psalm 22:12-13

Matthew 15:3 "you hypocrites!";

Matthew 23:25,33; Luke 3:7; 11:40

Philippians 3:2 dogs

John 8:55; 1 John 5:10; Revelation 3:9 "liar"

 

Partial Ezekiel 36:18 (The Expositor’s Bible Commentary volume 6 p.921 says this word, gillulim, is a favorite word of Ezekiel’s for idols. It might be derived from the word gel, for dung, and thus Ezekiel is calling the idols "dung-things".)

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 15:3; 23:25,33; Luke 3:7; 11:40; John 8:55

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 15:3; 23:25,33; Luke 3:7; 11:40; John 8:55; Philippians 3:2

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) "O heretic!" On the Trinity book 8 ch.21 p.144

Council of Sardica (Greek version) (343/344 A.D.) (partial) name calling

Athanasius calls Arians Aro-maniacs

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) calls Arians "blasphemers" in On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.8.56 p.209 and "heretics" in On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.10.63 p.211

 

h11. Ridicule or sarcasm in witnessing

 

1 Kings 18:27; Galatians 5:12

2 Corinthians 11:21

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Galatians 5:12

 

h12. Thyestean [cannibalistic banquet]

 

h13. Mention of Oedipus

 

h14. Calling other beliefs fables

 

h15. Calling other beliefs superstition

 

h16. Incest of Zeus/Jupiter

 

 

Refute Heretical Groups

 

r1. Dispute with Ebionites (Judaizers)

 

(partial) Colossians 2:16-17 (Does not mention Ebionites or Judaizers by name).

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) briefly writes against the heresies of the Jews, Dositheus, the Samaritans, Sadducees, Praxeas, Simon Magus, Menander, Nicolaus, Ebion, Apelles, Marcion, Valentinus, Cerdo, Cataphrygians, Novatians, Theodotus, Montanus, and Priscillian. Pacian’s Letter 1 ch.2 p17-18

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Against the Ebionites. Commentary on Zechariah 13 p.317

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 2 p.452 is against the Ebionites.

 

r2. Simon Magus and his heresy/error

 

(partial) Acts 8:9-23, 18-24 (Does not say whether or not he persisted though)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) mentions Simon Magus, Valentinians, Basilidians, Manichees, and their followers. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.1.3 p.307

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) briefly writes against the heresies of the Jews, Dositheus, the Samaritans, Sadducees, Praxeas, Simon Magus, Menander, Nicolaus, Ebion, Apelles, Marcion, Valentinus, Cerdo, Cataphrygians, Novatians, Theodotus, Montanus, and Priscillian. Pacian’s Letter 1 ch.2 p17-18

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 2 p.453 speaks against the "authors of absurd doctrines: Cerinthus, and Marcus, and Menander, and Basilides, and Saturnilus. … such as those who are falely called Nicolaitans. And Simon meeting me Peter,…"

 

r3. Against Marcion

 

(partial) 1 John 4:2; 2 John 7 (Does not specifically mention Marcion or Gnostics though)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 5 ch.13 p.227 discusses Rhodo, who studied under Tatian, and wrote an apology against Marcion,and the sects derived from him.

Athanasius (331 A.D.) briefly mentions Marcion, Valentinus, and Basilides, and accuses the Arians of being of their pedigree. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.1.3 p.307; discourse 2 ch.16.21 p.359

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) briefly writes against the heresies of the Jews, Dositheus, the Samaritans, Sadducees, Praxeas, Simon Magus, Menander, Nicolaus, Ebion, Apelles, Marcion, Valentinus, Cerdo, Cataphrygians, Novatians, Theodotus, Montanus, and Priscillian. Pacian’s Letter 1 ch.2 p17-18

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) speaks agains Marcion, Valentinians, Montanists, and the Encratites. Letter 188 ch.I p.224

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) speaks against many Gnostic groups, including Valentinus, Cerinthus, Basilides, Marcion in Against Eunomius book 1 ch.5 p.238. For Marcion also see Against Eunomius book 11 ch.2 p.231

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) speaks of the Macrionites. Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.213

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) (partial, only Marcion and Valentinus) mentions the errors of Arius, Marcion of Pontus, Sabellius, Valentinus, Manes, Paul of Samosata, and others. Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.206

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) (partial, does not mention multiple heresies) mentions heretics such as the Manichaeans, Epicureans, and Marcionites.

 

r4. Dispute against Valentinian Gnostics

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) briefly mentions Marcion, Valentinus, and Basilides, and accuses the Arians of being of their pedigree. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.1.3 p.307; discourse 2 ch.16.21 p.359

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) briefly writes against the heresies of the Jews, Dositheus, the Samaritans, Sadducees, Praxeas, Simon Magus, Menander, Nicolaus, Ebion, Apelles, Marcion, Valentinus, Cerdo, Cataphrygians, Novatians, Theodotus, Montanus, and Priscillian. Pacian’s Letter 1 ch.2 p17-18

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) speaks agains Marcion, Valentinians, Montanists, and the Encratites. Letter 188 ch.I p.224

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) speaks against many Gnostic groups, including Valentinus, Cerinthus, Basilides, Marcion in Against Eunomius book 1 ch.5 p.238.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) speaks against Marcion and Valentinus. de Principiis book 2 ch.7 p.284-285 and book 2 ch.9 p.291

 

r5. Dispute against Sethians or Ophites

 

r6. Dispute against Encratite Gnostics

 

(partial) 1 Timothy 4:3

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) speaks agains Marcion, Valentinians, Montanists, and the Encratites. Letter 188 ch.I p.224

 

r7. Dispute against other Gnostics

 

(partial) 1 John 4:7

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) briefly mentions Marcion, Valentinus, and Basilides, and accuses the Arians of being of their pedigree. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.1.3 p.307; discourse 2 ch.16.21 p.359

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) speaks against many Gnostic groups, including Valentinus, Cerinthus, Basilides, Marcion in Against Eunomius book 1 ch.5 p.238.

 

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) list 80 heresies:

Before Christ:

1. Barbarism (Adam to Noah)

2. Scythianism (Noah until the tower of Babel)

3. Hellenism (started in Serug’s time)

3. Hellenism, including 6. Pythagoreans or Peripatetics, 7. Platonists, 8. Stoics, 9. Epicureans

4. Judaism, including 14. scribes, 15. Pharisees, 16. Sadducees, 17. Hemerobaptists (must be baptized every day for eternal life), 18. Ossaeans, 19. Nasaraeans (no eat meat [=Mandaeans, except Mandaeans did not practive Judaims? ),20. Herodians (Jews who thought that Herod was Christ)

5. Samaritanism, including 10. Gorothenese, 11. Sebuaeans, 12. Essenes, 13. Dositheans

After Christ:

1. Simonians

2. Menandrians

3. Satornilians

4. Basilideans

5. Nicolaitans

6. Gnostics (=Stratiotics, = Phibionites)

7. Carpocratians

8. Cerinthians (=Merinthians)

9. Nazoraeans,

10. Ebionites

11. Valentinians

12. Secundians

13. Ptolemaeans

14. Marcosians

15. Colorbasians

16. Heracleonites

17. Ophites

18. Cainites

19. Sethians

20. Archontics

21. Cerdonians

22. Marcionites

23. Lucianists

24. Apelleans

25. Severians

26. Tatianists

27. Encratites (he lists different from Tatianists)

28. Phrygians (=Montanists, = Tascodrugians)

29. Pepuzians (=Priscillianists, = Quintilianists)

30. Quartodecimians

31. Alogi (do not accept John’s Gospel and Revelation)

32. Adamians

33. Sampsaeans (=Elkasaites)

34. Theodotianists

35. Melchizedekians,

36. Bardesianists

37. Noetianists

38. Valesians

39. Catharists (=Navatians) [=Novatianists"?]

40. Angelics

41. Apostolics (=Apotactics)

42. Sabellians

43. Origenists who are immoral as well

44. Origenists (=followers of Adamantius)

45. Paul of Samosata

46. Manichaeans (=Acuanites)

47. Hierakites

48. Melitians (of Egypt)

49. Arians (=Ariomanites)

50. Audian schism

51. Photinians

52. Marcellians

53. Semi-Arians

54. Pneumatomachi (=Macedonians, = disciples of Eleusius)

55. Aerians

56. Aetians (=Anhomoeans

57. Dimoirites (+Apollinarians)

58. Ones he calls Antidicomarians (says Mary had sex with Joseph after Jesus)

59. Collyridians ("those who offer a load in the name of the Virgin Mary, they are called Collyridians") The Panarion Proem 1 p.5

60. Massalians

 

The Panarion Proem 1 p.4-6

 

r8. No mixing Christ and other religions

 

1 John 4:3; Galatians 1:8-9

 

r9. Avoid Docetic belief – not suffer in flesh

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says the Crucified was God. The Son of God was in the body, while it suffered. Letter 59 ch.10 p.574

 

r10. Dispute against Sabellians (type of Oneness)

 

Matthew 3:16-17; Luke 3:21-22; John 1:1;6:38;14:31;15:26;16:28;17:5; Acts 5:31-32; Hebrews 5:7-8

1 Corinthians 11:3; 15:25-28; Matthew 12:18; Ephesians 1:17; John 1:33; 14:16,26,28; 20:17; Romans 8:26-27; 1 Peter 1:3-4

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (implied) Matthew 3:16-17

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

The Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) (implied) extensively discusses the Trinity, without using the name. Athanasius’ On the Councils (=de Synodis) part 1 ch.26 p.462-464

3rd Council at Antioch (345 AD) "Those who say that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are the same person, impiously understanding the three names to refer to one and the same person, we expel with good reason from the Church."

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) (partial)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) argues that the Sabellians are heretics. On the Trinity book 8 ch.40 p.149

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says there is no question that the Father is greater than Jesus. Of the Synods ch.8 p.6. See also Of the Synods ch.15 p.8 and ch.20 p.9.

Athanasius (331 A.D.) "For lest a man, perceiving that the Son has all that the Father hath, from the exact likeness and identity of that He hath, should wander into the irreligion of Sabellius, considering Him to be the Father, therefore He has said ‘Was given unto Me,’ and ‘I received,’ and ‘Were delivered to Me,’ only to shew that He is not the Father, but the Father’s Word, and the Eternal Son, who because of His likeness to the Father, has eternally what He has from Him, and because He is the Son, has from the Father what He has eternally. Moreover that ‘Was given’ and ‘Were delivered,’ and the like, do not impair the Godhead of the Son, but rather shew Him to be truly Son, we may learn from the passages themselves. For if all things are delivered unto Him, first, He is other than that all which He has received; next, being Heir of all things, He alone is the Son and proper according to the Essence of the Father. For if He were one of all, then He were not ‘heir of all,’ but every one had received according as the Father willed and gave. But now, as receiving all things, He is other than them all, and alone proper to the Father." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.26 (ch.36) p.413

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says that both the Sabellians and the Jews are wrong. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89. Seel also Four Discourses Against the Arians (331 A.D.) discourse 4 ch.9 p.436

Athanasius (356-360 A.D.) refers to the Holy Trinity in Letter to the Church of Antioch ch.3 p.484

Athanasius (331 A.D.) discusses how the Father and Son are distinct. If not, then God would be His own Father and Son. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.6 p.434-435

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) "We neither separate the Holy Trinity, like some; nor do we as Sebellius work confusion." Catechetical Letters Lecture 16 ch.4 p.116

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) mentions the Trinity twice and discusses it. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.21 p.309

Gregory of Nyssa (356-397 A.D.) speaks agains Sabellius in Against Eunomius book 2 p.254

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) (implied) discusses in detail about the distinctness in the Trinity in de Principiis book 1 ch.7 p.254-255

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions the errors of Arius, Marcion of Pontus, Sabellius, Valentinus, Manes, Paul of Samosata, and others. Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.206

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) briefly writes against the heresies of the Jews, Dositheus, the Samaritans, Sadducees, Praxeas, Simon Magus, Menander, Nicolaus, Ebion, Apelles, Marcion, Valentinus, Cerdo, Cataphrygians, Novatians, Theodotus, Montanus, and Priscillian. Pacian’s Letter 1 ch.2 p17-18

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) &&&?

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) speaks against the Sabellians. The City of God book 10 ch.24 p.194-195; book 11 ch.10 p.210

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity, only one God, distinction between the three but the same substance in indivisible equality. Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.4.7 p.20

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) lists as heretics Novatian, Sabellius, Donatus, ARius, Eunomius, Macedonius, Photinus, Apollinaris, Priscillian, Iovinian, Pelagius, Celestius, and Nestorius. A Commonitory ch.2 p.132.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) wrote against the Sabellians in The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.52 p.43-44

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Father, Son, and Spirit are distinct. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71 p.64-65

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) spoke of the incarnation and the Trinity. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1fs ch.1.34 p.25

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (partial) "God the Word is unchangeable and immortal and He is continuously that where He is in the eternity of the Father. … there was not when he was not." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.82

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says the divine Trinity is to be honored and worshipped in Letter 37 p.50

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says that the Trinity has no division. Sermon 68.1 p.180

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost in a consubstantial Trinity, one Godhead to be worshipped in three substances. The Capitula of the Council canon 1 p.312

 

r11. Beware of wolves/ false prophets

 

Matthew 7:15-16; 24:24

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.1.2 p.81 mentions to watch out for "fierce wolves".

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) To the bishops of Egypt ch.3 p.224

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) A Commonitory ch.25.66 p.150

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 14 p.456 quotes Matthew 7:15 and 24:24.

 

r12. Against Heracleon [the Valentinian]

 

r13. Against the Gnostic heretic Apelles

 

r14. The heretic Cerinthus

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) speaks against many Gnostic groups, including Valentinus, Cerinthus, Basilides, Marcion in Against Eunomius book 1 ch.5 p.238. For Marcion also see Against Eunomius book 11 ch.2 p.231

 

r15. Heretic Basilides

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 2 p.453 speaks against the "authors of absurd doctrines: Cerinthus, and Marcus, and Menander, and Basilides, and Saturnilus. … such as those who are falely called Nicolaitans. And Simon meeting me Peter,…"

 

r16. Against Menander, disciple of Simon Magus

 

A Greek comic poet named Menander is a different person, not included here.

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 2 p.453 speaks against the "authors of absurd doctrines: Cerinthus, and Marcus, and Menander, and Basilides, and Saturnilus. … such as those who are falely called Nicolaitans. And Simon meeting me Peter,…"

 

r17. Against Carpocrates, who came from Simon Magus

 

r18. Nicolaitans

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (c.384 A.D.) discusses the Apocalypse and says some hold to the docrines of the Nicolaitans. Concerning Repentance book 1 ch.10 no.46 p.337

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 2 p.453 speaks against the "authors of absurd doctrines: Cerinthus, and Marcus, and Menander, and Basilides, and Saturnilus. … such as those who are falely called Nicolaitans. And Simon meeting me Peter,…"

 

r19. Be on guard against error

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "that, from the time the divine word or reason has begun to show them internally the difference between good and evil, they ought to avoid and guard against that which is wicked: "For to him who knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is sin." de Principiis book 1 ch.3.6 p.254

 

r20. Against Saturninus/Saturnilus [the Encratite]

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 2 p.453 speaks against the "authors of absurd doctrines: Cerinthus, and Marcus, and Menander, and Basilides, and Saturnilus. … such as those who are falely called Nicolaitans. And Simon meeting me Peter,…"

 

 

Dispute Against Other Errors

 

D1. Do not judge/condemn others

 

Matthew 7:1-5; Luke 6:37; Romans 2:1; 14:4,7,13; 1 Corinthians 4:3

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 6:37

 

D2. Dispute against Judaism

 

John 6:45; 8:24; 12:47-48; Acts 3:23; 13:45-46+48; 20:21; Romans 9:1-2; 10:1-3; 11:23

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 6:45; 8:24; 12:47-48

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) says that both the Sabellians and the Jews are wrong. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that the blasphemy of heretics is worse than the Jewish unbelief. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.21 p.59-60. He also speaks against Judaism in Against Eunomius book 1 ch.5 p.238.

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) briefly writes against the heresies of the Jews, Dositheus, the Samaritans, Sadducees, Praxeas, Simon Magus, Menander, Nicolaus, Ebion, Apelles, Marcion, Valentinus, Cerdo, Cataphrygians, Novatians, Theodotus, Montanus, and Priscillian. Pacian’s Letter 1 ch.2 p17-18

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) was against Judaism. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.2 p.376

 

D3. Dispute against Greco-Roman paganism

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) mentions that the Greco-Roman gods are wrong. Against Eunomius book 7 ch.3 p.197

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) mentions the demon called python in de Principiis book3 ch.3.5 p.337

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) extensively discusses shortcomings of pagan deities in many places. One place is City of God book 4 ch.16-32 p.72-82

 

D4. Dispute philosophy that denies one God

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) suggests that Marcellus took a false doctrine from the Stoics. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 5 ch.13 p.437

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.76 p.216 "We Christians therefore hold the mystery not in the wisdom of Greek arguments, but in the power of faith richly supplied to us by God through Jesus Christ."

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (implied) says that if any man says that the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit are three Gods; let him be anathema. On the Councils ch.38 Canon 22 of the Council of Sirmium p.15

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. (implied) One God, Father Almighty. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) discusses Stoics, Epicureans in Against Eunomius book 4 ch.9 p.171. He speaks about Aristotle in Against Eunomius book 9 ch.2 p.213 and Aristotelian philosophy in Against Eunomius book 7 ch.1 p.192. He compares the Arian heretic Eunomius to Demosthenes in Against Eunomius book 12 ch.5 p.247.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the wicked and reprehensible acts of the Greek gods. City of God book 2 ch.10 p.28

 

D5. Dispute against the Magi / Zoroastrians

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (318 A.D.) mentions the inconsistencies of Arabian, Syrian, Egyptian, Phoenician, Persian, and Indian religions. Against the Heathen ch.25 p.17

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) speaks against the Persian gods. The City of God book 5 ch.21 p.102

 

D6. Dispute against Indian Bra[c]hmans

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) disputed against the Chaldean and Indian religions. The City of God book 10 ch.32 p.202

 

D7. Dispute Egyptian myths

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (partial) has Satan saying the Egyptians even worshipped onion and garlic. (However, this is not actually true.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 60 no.23 p.213

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) speaks against Egyptian mythology. Against Eunomius book 12 ch.3 p.246

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) speaks of the error of Egyptian religion. On ChristianDoctrine book 2 ch.40.20 p.554

 

D8. Dispute Chaldean/Babylonian religion

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) critiques the philosophy of the Chaldeans, Indians, and Greek philosophers de Principiis book 3 ch.3.2 p.335

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) discusses the errors of the Chaldean religion. The City of God book 10 ch.9-10 p.186-187; book 10 ch.27 p.197; book 10 ch.32 p.202

 

D9. Dispute Syrian or Arabian religions

 

D10. Dispute Druid or other European myths

 

D11. Dispute against Epicureans

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) discusses Stoics, Epicureans in Against Eunomius book 4 ch.9 p.171. He speaks about Aristotle in Against Eunomius book 9 ch.2 p.213 and Aristotelian philosophy in Against Eunomius book 7 ch.1 p.192. He compares the Arian heretic Eunomius to Demosthenes in Against Eunomius book 12 ch.5 p.247.

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions heretics such as the Manichaeans, Epicureans, and Marcionites.

 

D12. Errors of the Sadducees

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) "And what is the Law to the Sadducees if they receive not the prophets?" To the Bishops of Egypt ch.4 p.224

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions the faults of the Sadducees. Nisibine Hymns hymn 39 no.8 p.201

Epiphanius of Salamis (390 A.D.) in Heresies 1,14 claims the term "Sadducees" came from the Hebrew word sadiq, meaning "righteous". However, the Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.1500 says there is a problem explaining how the vowel would changes from i (carot) in sadiq to u (carot) in seduqim.

Jerome, also apparently said the Sadducees only observed the Torah, according to The New International Dictionary of the Bible p.884-885.

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 2 p.452 "For even the Jewish nation had wicked heresies: for of them were the Sadducees, who do not confess the resurrection of the dead; and the Pharisees, who ascribe the practice of sinners to fortune and fate; …"

 

D13. Against Pythagoras

 

D14. Errors of Aristotle

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) discusses Stoics, Epicureans in Against Eunomius book 4 ch.9 p.171. He speaks about Aristotle in Against Eunomius book 9 ch.2 p.213 and Aristotelian philosophy in Against Eunomius book 7 ch.1 p.192. He compares the Arian heretic Eunomius to Demosthenes in Against Eunomius book 12 ch.5 p.247.

 

D15. Against Stoics

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) suggests that Marcellus took a false doctrine from the Stoics. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 5 ch.13 p.437

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) discusses Stoics, Epicureans in Against Eunomius book 4 ch.9 p.171. He speaks about Aristotle in Against Eunomius book 9 ch.2 p.213 and Aristotelian philosophy in Against Eunomius book 7 ch.1 p.192. He compares the Arian heretic Eunomius to Demosthenes in Against Eunomius book 12 ch.5 p.247.

 

D16. Against Mithras

 

D17. Against Cynic philosophy

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions that Jesuint Martyr refuted cynics. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 4 ch.16.1-2 p.193

 

D18. Against the Pharisees

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 2 p.452 "For even the Jewish nation had wicked heresies: for of them were the Sadducees, who do not confess the resurrection of the dead; and the Pharisees, who ascribe the practice of sinners to fortune and fate; …"

 

D19. Sadducees were wrong to deny resurrection

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 2 p.452 "For even the Jewish nation had wicked heresies: for of them were the Sadducees, who do not confess the resurrection of the dead; and the Pharisees, who ascribe the practice of sinners to fortune and fate; …"

 

D20. Religion can be bad

 

 

D21. No Spiritism or the Occult

 

Deuteronomy 18:10-12; Galatians 5:19-21; Revelation 21:8

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

D22. Against the religion of Scythians

 

 

D23. Against Pyrrho the philosopher

 

D24. Socrates even said he had a demon

 

D25. Against [Phrygian] Great Mother

 

 

MANY Christians would Agree

 

m1. God is timeless or before/ beyond time

 

[References saying that God is eternal, or always existed are not included here, if they do not specifically say God is outside of time.]

 

Titus 1:2 (before the beginning of time)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Macrostitch Creed (344/345 A.D.) "but God only who without time begat him [Jesus Christ]; for both times and ages were made through him." Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.45

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) (implied. If Jesus was begotten without time, that implies God is beyond time.) It says that the Word of God had two nativities: one from all eternity of the Father, without time and body, and the other in the flesh from Mary, Mother of God. The Capitula of the Council canon 2 p.312

John Wesley (1831) "There is no such thing as either foreknowledge or afterknowledge in God. All time, or rather all eternity (for time is only a small fragment of eternity which is allotted to the children of men), being present to God at once, He does not know one thing before another, or one thing after another; but sees all things in one point of view, from everlasting to everlasting. As all time, with every thing that exists therein, is present with Him at once, so he sees as once whatever was, is or will be to the end of time." Sermons on Several Occasions, 1831, p.39.

 

m2. Jesus appeared on earth prior to His birth

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.83 says that Jesus was one of the three men who appeared to Abraham.

Athanasius (331 A.D.) that Abraham worshipped Jesus as Lord and quotes Genesis 19:24. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.13 p.355

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) (partial) discusses at length who appeared to Abraham, Lot, and Moses in the Old Testament. He concludes that Scripture does not explicitly say whether it was just the Father, Son, Holy Spirit or all three members of the Trinity. On the Trinity book 2 ch.10-15 no.17-26 p.45-50

 

Among heretics

X Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) It is "utter stupidity, or more truthfully insanity, that when the Old Testament mentions an angel of the Lord, it refers by this to the Son of God." Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.329

 

m3. Mention of the laity or clergy

 

Nicea and After

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) canon 1 p.8 mentions the clergy. Canon 5 p.13 mentions both clergy and laity.

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.90 p.220 "And Antony often urged the bishops to give commandment to the people on this matter. In like manner he taught the laity and reproved the women, saying, ‘that this thing was neither lawful nor holy at all. For the bodies of the patriarchs and prophets are until now preserved in tombs, and the very body of the Lord was laid in a tomb, and a stone was laid upon it, and hid it until He rose on the third day."

Synod of Laodicea 343-381 A.D. Canon 24 p.144 (implied) mentions presbyters, deacons, subdeacons, readers, singers, exorcists, and door-keepers, and that they should never enter a tavern.

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions the presbytery and bishops. Commentary on Philippians homily 1 verse 2 p.184

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 2 section 7 p.421 "and let the deacons stand near at hand, … let the laity sit on the other side, with all quietness and good order. And let the women sit by themselves, they also keeping silence."

 

m4. The church can be called the city of God

 

Hebrews 11:10; 12:22-23

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) talks of the kingdo of Heaven and the city which is above. Homilies on John homily 25 ch.3 (vol.14) p.89

 

Augustine wrote a massive book called the City of God.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-250 A.D.) book 1 ch.51 p.&&& (partial) mentions the heavenly city of Jerusalem.

 

m5. People have free will / choice

 

Luke 7:30; Joshua 24:14-22; Jonah 2:8

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 7:30

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) Every soul has free will. Origen’s de Principiis preface 5 p.240

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) Mention of free will. Fragment 1 from Origen’s de Principiis p.267

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) believed in free will. Origen’s de Principiis 3.5.5 p.343; 3.5.8 p.344

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says the fall came from the bad use of free will. The City of God book 13 ch.14 p.251. They sinned when they ate the fruit. The City of God book 13 ch.20 p.256

 

m6. Babylon refers to Rome

 

1 Peter 5:13

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (388-410 A.D.) "But since Grecian affairs are much better known to us than Assyrian, and those who have diligently investigated the antiquity of the Roman nation’s origin have followed the order of time through the Greeks to the Latins, and from them to the Romans, who themselves are Latins, we ought on this account, where it is needful, to mention the Assyrian kings, that it may appear how Babylon, like a first Rome, ran its course along with the city of God, which is a stranger in this world. But the things proper for insertion in this work in comparing the two cities, that is, the earthly and heavenly, ought to be taken mostly from the Greek and Latin kingdoms, where Rome herself is like a second Babylon. " City of God book 18 ch.2 p.362

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Catholic Cardinal Cajetan, an opponent of Martin Luther, believed Babylon would be the Catholic Church in the future.

Catholic Cardinal Gibbons in his book, Faith of our Fathers in the 1917 edition on page 106 says, "The penetration of the religion of Babylon became so general and well known that Rome was called the New Babylon." http://www.666man.net/BabylonSymbolForRomel Nov 2007

The Catholic Encyclopedia equates Rome with Babylon. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11744a (nov 2007) "St. Peters First Epistle was written almost undoubtedly from Rome, since the salutation at the end reads: "The church that is in Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you: and so doth my son Mark" (5:13). Babylon must here be identified with the Roman capital; since Babylon on the Euphrates, which lay in ruins, or New Babylon (Seleucia) on the Tigris, or the Egyptian Babylon near Memphis, or Jerusalem cannot be meant, the reference must be to Rome, the only city which is called Babylon elsewhere in ancient Christian literature (Revelation 17:5; 18:10; "Oracula Sibyl.", V, verses 143 and 159, ed. Geffcken, Leipzig, 1902, 111)"

 

m7. There are greater/mortal and lesser sins

 

Matthew 11:21-24 - more toleable on the day of judgment for some

John 19:11b; 1 John 5:16b-17; Ezekiel 8:6,13,15

Matthew 12:31; Mark 3:28-29 Blasphemy against the Holy spirit

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 12:31; Mark 3:28-29

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) (implied) says that those who confess a sin unto death and do penance are not shut out from pardon. Concerning Repentance book 2 ch.3.17 p.347

 

m8. Christians can lose their salvation

 

Note that most Baptists, Bible church people, Reformed, and Calvinists believe that genuine Christians cannot lose their salvation. Most conservative Lutherans, Christian & Missionary Alliance, Church of God Anderson, Calvary Chapel, Assembly of God and other Charismatics, Church of Christ, Nazarenes, conservative Methodists, and Christians who are Catholic, Orthodox, and Coptic believe a person can, and they are the numerical majority.

 

(partial) Hebrews 6:4-6; 10:26-31; 2 Peter 2:20-22

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says essentially that while John 10:28 says that no one can take us out of Christ, we can still jump out ourselves and lose our salvation. Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.209.

Rufinus (37-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) (partial) sort of discusses loss of salvation. de Principiis book 3 ch.1.8 p.309

There are others too.

 

m9. God knows all things in the future

 

Psalm 139:16

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "firmness of his perseverance made known, not so much to God, who knows all things before they happen," de Principiis book 3 ch.1.12 [Greek] p.312 (Latin) p.313

 

m10. Jesus preached to the dead

 

1 Peter 3:19; 4:6

 

m11. Religion is/can be good

 

James 1:27

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius (331 A.D.) commends those who admonish others to be religious. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.30 p.425

 

m12. Drinking wine is OK

 

1 Timothy 5:23; Titus 2:3

 

m13. No food sacrificed to idols

 

Acts 15:29; 21:25

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

The Council of Gangra canon 2 p.92 (325-381 A.D.) (implied) says that anyone who condemns eating meat, which does not have blood and was not offered to idols, is anathema.

 

 

ERRORS

 

e1. Incorrect references to Bible verses

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) refers to Zech 1:8 as by Jeremiah. Commentary on Zechariah 2 p.49

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions the murder of Mephibosheth when he should have said Ishbosh. Commentary on Philippians homily 5 verse 3 p.206

 

e2. Misquoted or unknown Bible verses

 

e3. Over-allegorical Bible interpretation

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) "Because women defiled him [Noah] not, whereof in the ark he joined together, all pairs in the yoke of wedlock. The olive which with its oil gladdens the face, with its leaf gladdened their countenances: for me the river whereof to drink is want to make joyful, Lo! O Lord, by its flood it makes me mournful." Nisibine Hymns hymn 1 no.4 p.167

 

e4. Four elements make up the world

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "Now there are, it should be know, foru elements: earth... water... air ... file." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith ch.12 p.31

 

e5. Atoms do not really exist

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (410 A.D.) ridicules the absurdity of Cicero’s writing on atoms. Letters of Augustine Letter 118 p.449

 

e6. Errors on hyena, phoenix, or other animals

 

The Greek historian Herodotus in his History book 2 ch.73 p.64 reports the story of the phoenix, though Herodotus did not necessarily believe it. Herodotus does not say the phoenix burned itself to death, but that the young phoenix brought the bones of its parent to a temple in Egypt every 500 years.

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) says that since the phoenix bird dies after 500 years, and is resurrected by the rejuvenating juices of its flesh. On Belief in the Resurrection book 2 ch.59 p.183

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Wild Cretan goats, when pierced with poisoned arrows, pluck the stalk of the Dittany plant and that expels the poison. On Penitents ch.11.1 p.83

The Didascalia (after 452 A.D.) ch.170 p.&&& mentions the phoenix.

The Phoenix (400-600 A.D.) There is a whole 3-page poem on the Phoenix dying and rising again, as a type of Christ. The Phoenix was attributed to the pre-Nicene church writer Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.), but it was probably written after his time.

 

e7. Errors on geography or tribes

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) has Satan saying the Egyptians even worshipped onion and garlic. Nisibine Hymns hymn 60 no.23 p.213

 

e8. Collective guilt of the Jews

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (415 A.D.) "The true image of the Hebrew is Judas Iscariot, who sells the Lord for silver. The Jew can never understand the Scriptures and forever will bear the guilt for the death of Jesus." &&&

 

e9. Errors on people

 

Disputed PArts

 

d1. Miracle healings in post-Acts church

 

[Healing of transgressions, of Christ healing while on earth are not included here.]

 

d2. Seventy Septuagint translators

 

Seventy Septuagint translators (6) Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Hippolytus, Theonas of Alexandria, Anatolius of Laodicea

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 5 ch.8.11-13 p.223-224 mentions what he learned reading Irenaeus about Seventy Jewish translators Ptolemy had translate the Old Testament into Greek.

Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) quotes Jeremiah 31:22 as "which Jeremiah says, according to the edition of the seventy translators" Statement of Faith ch.3 p.85

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) (partial) "we ourselves keep to what the Seventy interpreters wrote in every case." Commentary on the Song of Songs book 1 ch.3 p.74

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) mentions the Old Testament, the Seventy translators of divine scripture. Commentary on Zephaniah ch.1 p.289. He speaks "About the inerrancy of the Seventy" in ch.3 p.300.

 

d3. God is not composite

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) speaks of the simplicity of the divine nature and it is not composite or differeing. de Principiis book 1 ch.6 p.244

 

d4. God is impassable (without passion)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (356-397 A.D.) "and yet it is plain to every one who has given any attention to the uses of words, that the word incorruption denotes by the privative particle that neither corruption nor birth appertains to God : just as many other words of like formation denote the absence of what is not inherent rather than the presence of what is; e.g. harmless, painless, guileless, undisturbed, passionless, sleepless, undiseased, impassible, unblamable, and the like. For all these terms are truly applicable to God,…" Against Eunomius book 2 p.264. See also Against Eunomius book 6 ch.1 p.182

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says that God is impassible. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.45

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (implied) "What after all is the nature in this natural union which you predicate? Is it that of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, an impassible nature, immortal, eternal, and without needs? Of is it [a nature] mortal and passible and with needs, which came into being yesterday and to-day and which belongs neither to men nor to God nor to any other nature, but is mixed from two natures for the completion fo one nature? Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.46

 

d5. Some fallen angels sinned with women

 

(partial) Genesis 6:2-5

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) suggests that some fallen angels had relations with women. City of God book 3 ch.5 p.45

 

d6. Against jewelry or false/dyed hair

 

d7. Christians must fast on certain days

 

d8. No drinking or eating blood

 

Acts 15:29; 21:25

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 15:29

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Acts 15:29

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 5 ch.1.26 p.214 Blandina says that they would not eat even the blood of irrational animals.

 

d9. No worshipping true God with images

 

Deuteronomy 4:15-19; (implied) Deuteronomy 27:15

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that images for adoration is committing adultery against the one and only God. (Panarion 3.2:4, as quoted [in part] in Examination of the Council of Trent III, p.468, and [in part] by the Tübingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.141)

 

From my searching of John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.), I see no evidence that he knew anything about venerating images or icons either, except that he seemed to be against statues in general, in his work On the Statues. However, I have not read all of Chrysostom (he wrote a lot of stuff), so I cannot say for certain. Do you have any evidence that out of the massive amount of sermons and writings John Chrysostom had, he thought it important enough to tell his listeners about veneration or praying through icons at least one time???

 

d10. Prophets proclaimed 2 advents of Christ

 

d11. Prophesy in church after Acts

 

d12. Number of nations according to angels

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-421 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) "Other nations, moreover, are called a part of the angels; since ‘when the Most High divided the nations, and dispersed the sons of Adam, He fixed the boundaries of the nations according to the number of the angels of God.’" de Principiis book 1 ch.5.2 p.257

 

d13. Christ appeared as/can be called an angel

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

X Athanasius (331 A.D.) has an entire chapter on why any appearance of an angel is not an appearance of God. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.14 p.402-402

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/268 A.D.) "…when angels and sons of God shall worship Him Who is God’s Angel and His Son. On the Trinity book 4 ch.33 p.81

 

Among heretics

Gnostics often said Christ was an angel.

 

In modern times

An article from Trinity Evangelical Seminary in Deerfield, Illinois mentions that Christ could be called an angel.

1001 Baffling Bible Questions Answered p.403-404 says that in the Old testament when they saw the angel of the LORD, it was God Himself.

 

Writers Not Included and Reasons:

Apostolic Constitutions (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) was a work written at various times, and it is not sure how much they have been edited, so this work was not counted.

We do not know when the first edition of the Didascalia was written. However, in what we have preserved, it references not marrying Nestorians, so I have assigned it a date after 431 A.D.

 

d13. Tread on serpents and scorpions

 

d14. God is ineffable or indescribable

 

d15. The angel Raphael

 

 

d16. Angels for nations

 

Deuteronomy 32:8-9 (Septuagint)

 

d17. Non-believers can have a worthiness related to salvation

 

(partial) Acts 10:30-31,35 (no mention of worthy though)

 

d18. Tobias

 

In the apocryphal Book of Tobit

 

d19. Susannah

 

Didascalia (after 431 A.D.)

 

For further Reading

 

Most of these references were taken from the following.

 

Roberts, Alexander, and James Donaldson (editors) Ante-Nicene Fathers vols. 1-9 + 10 (Annotated Index) Hendrickson Publishers 1886, 1994

 

Hill, Robert C. (translator) Theodore of Mopsuestia : Commentary on the Twelve Prophets. The Catholic University of America press. 2004

 

 

Not classified in the proper categories yet

 

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Implied that we should seek the Lord. Commentary on Zephaniah ch.1 p.290

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Grace of God. Commentary on Haggai preface p.307

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Elijah will come first. Commentary on Malachi ch.4 p.422

 

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (partial) mentions the appearing of Christ for the common salvation of all human beings. Commentary on Amos preface p.126

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "Christ the Lord would similarly rescue us, not from the slavery of Egypt but from that of death and sin. This he secured for us by the anointing of his own blood: by shedding it for all and undergoing death for us, he effected the resurrection of the dead…" Commentary on Jonah preface p.186

 

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "Holding fast to worship of Him [God]… and completely abstain from devotion to the idols. Commentary on Hosea ch.12 p.91

 

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (c.19 pages. Was c.23 pages)

Hanson, Craig L. (translator) Pacian of Barcelona Orosius of Braga The Catholic University of America Press 1999

 

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Christ took upon Himself the nature of man. On Baptism ch.3.1 p.89

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Christ, the Son of God, did not fulfill Satan’s tempting commands. On Baptism ch.3.2 p.89

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes Romans 5:8-9 including "Christ died for us." Letter 3 ch.9.3 p.50

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Christ is "our ‘advocate with the Father’" Letter 3 ch.9.3 p.50

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Jesus calls himself the vine (quoting John 15:1-2) Letter 3 ch.16.1 p.57

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Calls Jesus "Lord" and mentions His Father in heaven. Letter 3 ch.5.1 p.44

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) The Lord was casting out demons and doing miraculous deeds. Letter 3 ch.15.3 p.56

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) refers to the Holy Spirit as our comforter who taught us. Letter 1 ch.3.4 p.21

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) The Holy Spirit knows all languages. Letter 2 ch.4.2 p.31

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit. Letter 3 ch.15.3 p.56

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (implied) quotes Proverbs 20:9 (Septuagint) and implies that no one has a pure heart or is free from sins. Letter 3 ch.21.1 p.62-63

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) mentions "eternal punishment" Letter 3 ch.7.2 p.47

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes Psalm 92:1 as by David. Letter 3 ch.17.2 p.59

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) alludes to Prov 18:19 as by Solomon. Letter 3 ch.20.2 p.62

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (partial) Even the heretics call themselves Christians. Letter 1 ch.3.3 p.20

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Jesus is the cornerstone. Letter 3 ch.13.1 p.54

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) "we all might be one in Christ, Jew and Greek, slave and free." Letter 3 ch.13.1 p.54

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Catholics endure persecution. Letter 2 ch.5.1 p.32

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) says we are to be obedient to God. Letter 1 ch.4 p.21

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Kick out of the church those in sin. Letter 3 ch.18.1-2 p.59

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) mentions the devil. Letter 1 ch.5.2 p.23; Letter 3 ch.10.1 p.50

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Against the Novatianists: Peter denied and repented after he was baptized. Thomas had doubts after the resurrection. Letter 3 ch.10.2 p.50-51

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Godly sorrow produces penance, enduring unto salvation. Letter 1 ch.5.4 p.24. Also performing penance in Letter 1 ch.6.1 p.25

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) mentions baptism. Letter 1 ch.6.1 p.25 and Letter 3 ch.7.3 p.47

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Simon Magus Letter 2 ch.5.2 p.33

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Do not serve idols. On Baptism ch.6.2 p.92

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and all saints live for God. On Baptism ch.6.2 p.93

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Appeal to David as an authority and quoting Psalm 146:7-8. On Baptism ch.7.2 p.93

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Victory of our Lord Jesus Christ. On Baptism ch.7.2 p.93

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) David was guilty of murder and adultery, but afterwards he was penitent. Letter 1 ch.5.3 p.23

 

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Future judgment of Christ. Letter 1 ch.7.2 p.26

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (partial) Quotes Matthew 16:18-19 where Christ spoke to Peter. Letter 3 ch.11.2 p.52

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) God "did not devise death nor rejoices in the destruction of the living". (Allusion to Wisdom 1:13 and Ezekiel 18:32; 33:11) On Penitents ch.6.1 p.76

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) The law said, do not commit adultery, kill, or covet. On Baptism ch.2.1 p.88

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes Romans 5:13 and says, "Before the Law sin slew man with a sheathed sword, and under the Law, with a drawn sword. What hope did man have?" On Baptism ch.2.1 p.88

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 11:27 as by Paul to the Corinthians about taking the Lord’s supper unworthily. On Penitents ch.7.3 p.78

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Paul was carried up to the third heaven. Letter 2 ch.8.2 p.37

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) "We are admitted into the eternal kingdom." On Baptism ch.7.3 p.94

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Angels in heaven rejoice over a sinner who repents. On Penitents ch.12.3 p.86

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) We are set free through Christ. On Baptism ch.7.2 p.93

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) punishment of the rich man’s soul in the gospel. On Penitents ch.11.4 p.84-85

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) By prayer Daniel removed the sword over the wise men of Babylon. Letter 3 ch.24.1 p.66

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Daughters of Lot. Letter 3 ch.20.1 p.62

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Against the Novatianist’s view that the church cannot forgive mortal sin after baptism. Letter 3 ch.1.1 p.38

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) "the Church is people born again of the water and the Holy Spirit" Letter 3 ch.2.2 p.40

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) The church has martyrs. Letter 3 ch.3.2 p.41

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes Matthew 5:44 "pray for those who persecute [us]" and ‘to bless those who curse’" Letter 1 ch.1.1 p.27

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) God sends some delusions. On Penitents ch.11.2 p.83

 

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) The Church is built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets. Letter 3 ch.26.1 p.67-68

 

* Quotes 1 Corinthians 11:27 as by Paul to the Corinthians about taking the Lord’s supper unworthily. On Penitents ch.7.3 p.78

* Angels in heaven rejoice over a sinner who repents. On Penitents ch.12.3 p.86

* We are set free through Christ. On Baptism ch.7.2 p.93

 

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) quotes "It is the final hour" in 1 John 2:18 as by John. Commentary on Zechariah 12 p.306

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Lord Almighty. Commentary on Zechariah 8 p.197

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Appeals to scripture to establish the foretelling of the AntiChrist. Commentary on Zechariah 11 p.282

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Son of God. Commentary on Zechariah 8 p.198

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Messiah is the word of life. Commentary on Zechariah 8 p.199

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Incarnation of the Savior. Commentary on Zechariah 10 p.233

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Emmanuel Commentary on Zechariah 8 p.197

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Crossing the Red Sea. Commentary on Zechariah 13 p.316

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Quotes Romans 11 against homosexuality. Commentary on Zechariah 11 p.262

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) We shall judge angels. Commentary on Zechariah 1 p.37

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Virgin, Father. Commentary on Zechariah 8 p.197

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Holy Spirit. Commentary on Zechariah 8 p.197

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) Catena of Psalm 33:17; 20:7-8; Exodus 15:1; Psalm 76:7. Commentary on Zechariah 10 p.239

 

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Christians should pray three times a day. Memra 13 ch.3 p.130

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Enoch did not taste death. Memra 13 ch.4 p.131

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Crucify the flesh. Memra 13 ch.5 p.143

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Take up your cross and follow me. Memra 3 ch.6 p.38

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Love his neighbor as himself. Memra 13 ch.8 p.133

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Pure in heart. Memra 4 ch.7 p.44

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Quotes Galatians 6:10 as scripture. Memra 4 ch.1 p.24

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Give to the poor. Memra 3 ch.6 p.27

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Love God more than yourself and love neighbors as yourself. Memra 11 ch.1 p.113

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Son of God. Memra 9 ch.17 p.100

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Mention of the Holy Spirit. Memra 13 ch.3 p.129

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Do not be a glutton, drunkard, or boastful. Memra 13 ch.3 p.129

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) We need to repent. Memra 22 ch.10 p.259

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Angels and saints serve God. Memra 12 ch.1 p.120

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Forgive others. Memra 11 ch.3 p.115

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Hoses rebuked those who abandoned the commandments of the Lord their God. Memra 1 ch.6 p.12

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Lord Jesus Memra 9 ch.15 p.100

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) stuggle against the world and against Satan. Memra 12 ch.7 p.125

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Do not have pride. Memra 1 ch.2 p.8; also Memra 2 ch.4 .17

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) "He whose hands are clean and is pure in his heart. This one will receive a blessing from the Lord and righteousness from God our Savior, who is our Lord Jesus Christ. Praise be to him forever and ever. Aman." Memra 12 ch.7 p.126

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Mention of Sodom. Memra 9 ch.8 p.95

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) plagues of Egypt

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Abraham almost sacrificed his son. Memra 1 ch.5 p.11

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Jacob and Esau. Memra 9 ch.20 p.102

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Mention of Rahab the harlot who became righteous. Memra 5 ch.3 p.47

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Mention of David and Solomon Memra 9 ch.7 p.94

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Elijah Memra 9 ch.9 p.95

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Elisha Memra 9 ch.10 p.96

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) gifts in the church: perfect, prophets, strong, teachers, builders, etc. Memra 9 ch.14 p.99

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) mention of the sheep of Christ Memra 12 ch.6 p.124-125

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Joseph and his brothers. Memra 9 ch.21 p.102-103

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) some to be celibate Memra 9 ch.19 p.102

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Concept of one single church. Memra 12 ch.2 p.120

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Inheriting the Kingdom of Heaven. Memra 2 ch.4 p.16

 

Wrong Teaching

 

Here are historical examples, that all Christians today should agree are wrong. The point of bringing this up is not to look down on people who have said these errors, but to make sure we don’t make other mistakes for the same reason.

Mixing up names: John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) mentions the murder of Mephibosheth when he should have said Ishbosh. Commentary on Philippians homily 5 verse 3 p.206

Restricting beyond what scripture says: The Anabaptist Conrad Grebel (1498-1526 A.D.) believed that no singing was allowed in church. Colossians 3:16 says "...sing psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs with gratitude in your hearts to God." However, Conrad interpreted "in your hearts" to mean you were not supposed to sing out loud.

Equating your views with Scripture: Cyprian of Carthage (c.248-256 A.D.) (Letters of Cyprian Letter 58.2 p.353), Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.), Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.), and Prosper of Aquitaine (c.390-455) (On Forgiveness of Sin 5:25,26-28-29, and Baptism ch.26-30, 33-35) all taught that baptized babies who die definitely go to heaven, and unbaptized babies who die definitely go to Hell.

Extrapolating from what scripture modestly states: Athanasius (326-373 A.D.) taught that Jeremiah and John the Baptist were born with no sinful nature.

Adding your spiritual views into Scripture: Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D.) believed in the pre-existence of souls in de Principiis. (He did not believe in reincarnation though.)

Putting your prejudices in God’s Word: Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.) calls men strong and more robust, and women weaker and more feeble. The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.16 p.29. Athanasius (318 A.D.) wrote: "For even women, whom it is not safe to admit to deliberation about public affairs, they worship and serve with the honor due to God, such as those enjoined by Theseus as above stated," Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.10.2 p.9. John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) was anti-Semitic; he wrote an entire work against the Jews. It was not just critical of the Jewish religion, but against the Jews themselves.

Lack of Forgiveness: Novatian (250/254-256/257 A.D.) started a schism within the church. Novatianists believed just like other Christians, except that if a person ever denied the faith, even under duress, Novatianists taught that they had lost their salvation forever and could never get it back.

Adding superstition to God’s word: The Lutheran Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560) believed in the usefulness of astrology and palm-reading. (Luther rejected those things though.)

Lack of Charity: Martin Luther believed that all Anabaptists should be killed. (He changed his view in the last sermon he gave though.). Augustine supported the torture of heretics, such as Priscillian.

But genuine Christians can still have errors of the same magnitude as above. We need to have right doctrine as well as be in tune with the Spirit. As one modern Christian writer quipped: "If you have doctrine without the Spirit you dry up, if you have the Spirit without doctrine you blow up, and if you have both you grow up."

 

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) some call Tatian’s Diatessaron the Gospel according to the Hebrews. The Panarion section 3 ch.46 p.349

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments. The Panarion section 3 scholion 1 and 5 p.334

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) quotes Sirach 13:16 as Scripture. The Panarion section 2 End of the Letter to Flora p.204

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) alludes to the Wisdom of Solomon 14:12. The Panarion section 1 ch.8,2,1 p.23

 

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Noah’s flood (2262 years after Adam) The Panarion section 1.1 p.14

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Against transmigration (reincarnation) The Panarion section 1.5 p.21

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Gnostics had a Gospel of Perfection and a Gospel of Eve. The Panarion section 2 ch.26 p.84

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that Tatian is "empty-headed". The Panarion section 3 ch.46 p.350

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "Strange about Tatian, when he knows – as I too have found in the literature – that our Lord Jesus Christ was crucified on Golgotha, the very place where Adam’s body lay buried. For after leaving Paradise, living opposite it for a long while and growing old, Adam later came and died in this place, I mean Jerusalem, and was buried there, on the site of Golgotha. This is likely how the place, which translates, ‘place of the Skull,’ got the name – since the shape of the place shows no likeness to the name." The Panarion section 3 ch.46 p.351

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) (implied) Against Tatian who said that marriage was unlawful. The Panarion section 3 ch.46 p.350

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) They were expelled from Paradise for one transgression. The Panarion section 3 ch.46 p.350

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Christ raised the dead. Mentioned the Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit. The Panarion section 3 ch.46 p.350

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Christ died and rose on the third day. The Panarion section 3 scholion 15 and 23 p.327

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Shame of Marcion. The Panarion section 3 scholion 15 and 23 p.327

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "faith in Christ" The Panarion section 3 ch.46 p.348

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Savior’s ascension The Panarion section 3 ch.44 p.345

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Man made in the image of God. The Panarion section 3 ch.44 p.342

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Divine Word, the only-begotten Son, begotten of him without beginning and not in time. The Panarion section44 p.243

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Cretan liars and Zeus’ tomb. The Panarion section 3 scholion 12 and 20 p.325

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) God is good and just. The Panarion section 3 scholion 7 and 15 p.32-

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "love your neighbor as yourself." The Panarion section 3 scholion 4 p.315

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Works of the flesh are adultery, fornication, uncleanness, … witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, factions, envyings, drunkenness, revellings" The Panarion section 3 scholion 5 section 6 p.316

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) We need to crucify the flesh. The Panarion section 3 scholion 5 p.316

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "But anyone in his right mind must see that this is all (from) folly’s scummy workshop." The Panarion section 2 ch.27,8,1 p.106

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "The man is crazy, arguing like that!" The Panarion section 2 ch.28,2,1 p.107

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Ebionites rejected the canonical prophets. The Panarion section 2 footnote 39 p.134

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) The savior rose from the dead and ate broiled fish. The virgin shall conceive. The Panarion section 2 ch.30,19,4 p.135

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Order of succession of bishops of Rome: Peter and Paul, Linus and Cletus, Clement, Evaristus, Alexander, Xystus, Telesphorus, Hyginus, Pius, Anicetus. The Panarion section 2 ch.27,6,7 p.104

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Cain killed Abel. The Panarion section 3 ch.39,5,4 p.257

 

God cannot lie. Confession of Faith ch.2 p.151

"In accordance with the teaching of the scriptures" Apologetic Letter ch.12 p.49

"We believe in one God, the Father almighty, from whom are all things; and in one only-begotten Son of God, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things; And in one holy Spirit, the Counsellor in whom is given to each of the saints an apportionment of every grace according to measure for the common good." Apologetic Letter ch.5 p.30

"essential faith", Sabellius the Libyan, Photinus, "in their mad rage" Apologetic Letter ch.6 p.39

Says that God alone is good. Apologetic Letter ch.21 p.61

"Father is greater than I" Apologetic Letter ch.10 p.47

"I AM" and only true God. Apologetic Letter ch.17 p.55

Cynics far removed from Christianity. The "blessed Paul" Apologetic Letter ch.19 p.57

"unbegotten and begotten, light from light, and life from life Apologetic Letter ch.19 p.39

Jesus was the obedient son. Apologetic Letter ch.26 p.71

"In these last days he [Jesus] was born of a holy Virgin, lived in holiness in accordance with human laws, was crucified, died, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. He will come again to judge both the living and the dead by a righteous retribution of both faith and works, and he will reign as king forever." Apologetic Letter ch.26 p.71

All things made through Christ. Apologetic Letter ch.24 p.65

"for surely it would be both ridiculous and silly for the same thing to occupy first place at one time and third at another" Apologetic Letter ch.25 p.67

Jesus Christ is "Only-begotten God" Apologetic Letter ch.25 p.69

Godhead. Confession of Faith ch.2 p.151

Jesus the firstborn of all creation, begotten life, true light, , gloried with the Father before the ages. King of Glory, Son of God. Confession of Faith ch.3 p.153

Christ is the image of God. Apologetic Letter ch.24 p.65

Mediator in doctrine and law. Confession of Faith ch.3 p.155

Holy spirit a person, who "inspires those who pray" Confession of Faith ch.4 p.157.

Physical resurrection of believers. Confession of Faith ch.5 p.159

(partial) Could be an allusion to Plato’s Timaeus 37c-39e. Apologetic Letter ch.9 p.54

 

pseudo-Zephyrinus of Rome (199-217 A.D.) has two letters purportedly by him. However, these are thought now to be ninth century frauds.

 

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) prays for the annihilation of the Jewish people, according to the English translation of On Pascha p.27

 

Photius (9th century) "And, when Origen allegorises that which is said by the prophet Ezekiel concerning the resurrection of the dead, and perverts it to the return of the Israelites from their captivity in Babylon," Bibliotheca vol.6 p.380

 

Notes:

References to Pope Athanasius Defence Against the Arians ch.69 p.130, ch.67-68 p.135, as well as Pope Julius Defence Against the Arians ch.58 p.130

 

Furius Dionysius Philocalus (354 A.D.) wrote the Philocalian Chronology (=Liberion Catalogue) which is a list of Roman bishops

 

PROGRESS:

 

From Nicea to Ephesus

Done: Council of Nicea, Council of Antioch in Encaeniis, Council of Gangra, Council of Sardica, Pacian of Barcelona, Orosius/Hosius

 

Among heretics and spurious works

Done: Nestorius’ Bazaar of Heracleides,