How Much Did Early Christians Refer to the Old Testament? - Sept. 2016 version

It is agreed that early Christians accepted the Old Testament, but it is interesting to compare the documented references of the Old Testament to the New. This chart showed who referred to which Old Testament passages and when. The apocrypha and pseudepigrapha are listed in a separate chart.

Rows: red = persecution of Christians, Green = heresy, Orange = schism, Pale blue = Bible manuscripts, pink = strange teacher, brown = Christians persecuting others

W = Books and quotes mentioned by name or by writer G = Quoted as God or Lord says or God's Word I = Implied (i.e. minor vs. 12) blank = not researched yet X = rejected - no reference found

S = Referred to as scripture, law, or prophet said g = Mentions Kings with no allusion or reference E =not scripture but good to read Q = quotes 1 or more verses 1/2 = quote of 1/2 verse A = Allusion

Christian writer, heretic, or Bible manuscript

Pages

Date A.D.

OT

Law

Gn

Ex

Lv

Nm

Dt

Josh

Jdg

Ru

1Sam

2Sam

1 Ki

2 Ki

1Chr

2Chr

Ezr

Neh

Esth

Job

Ps

Pr

Ec

SofS

Isa

Jer

Lam

Eze

Dan

12

Hos

Joel

Am

Ob

Jon

Mic

Nah

Hab

Zeph

Hag

Zech

Mal

Writer

Rahlfs 957 manuscript (Dt 25:1-3, Greek)

<1

200-100 B.C.

-

-

-

-

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Rahlfs 957(Dt 25:1-3, Greek)

Rahlfs 848 ms. (Dt 31:28-30; 32:1-7, Greek)

<1

100-1 B.C.

-

-

-

-

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Rahlfs 848 (Dt 31:28-30; 32:1-7, Greek)

Rahlfs 814 ms. (Gen 14:12-15, Greek Sept.)

<1

150-200 A.D.

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Rahlfs 814 (Gen 14:12-15, Greek Septuagint)

Dead Sea Scrolls manuscripts

before 68

-

-

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

-

-

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls of Genesis 1Q1, 2Q1, 4Q1, 4Q2, 4Q3, 4Q4, 4Q5, 4Q6, 4Q7, 4Q8a, 4Q8b, 4Q8c, 4Q9, 4Q10, 4Q11, 4Q12, 6Q1, 8Q1

before 68

-

-

Q

Q

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philo the Alexandrian Jew

many

20 B.C. to 50

-

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

Q

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Q

-

Philo the Alexandrian Jew

Nero and Domitian persecute Christians

50 & 95/96

Est 500K Christians. Christians were labeled atheists and killed for refusing to worship the emperor and pagan idols.

Nero and Domitian persecutions

Clement of Rome (wrote 1 Clement)

16

96-/98

-

-

S

G

-

Q

Q

Q

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

W

G

-

-

Q

-

-

G

A

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

S

-

-

-

1/2

Clement of Rome (wrote 1 Clement)

Papias of Hierapolis, disciple of John

2

95-110

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Papias of Hierapolis, John's disciple

"Presbyters" (Papias?)

1/2

95-117

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"Presbyters" (Papias?)

Ignatius disciple of John (short version)

13

c.100-117

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

G

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ignatius disciple of John (short version)

Trajan persecutes Christians

 

107-117

Answered Pliny the Younger's letter. Christians are not to be sought after, but only killed if found.

Trajan persecutes Christians

Didache (=Teaching of 12 Apostles)

4

before 125

-

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Didache (=Teaching of 12 Apostles)

Apology of Aristides (Greek version)

4

125or138-161

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Apology of Aristides (Greek version)

Quadratus of Athens fragment

1/8

126

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

-

Quadratus of Athens fragment

Letter to Diognetus (=Mathetes to Diognetus)

5

130-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Q

Letter to Diognetus (=Mathetes to Diognetus)

Hadrian persecutes Christians

 

118 & 134

Hadrian loved Greek culture, and persecuted both Jews and Christians. The Jewish Bar Cochba revolt happened under him.

Hadrian persecutes Christians

Bar Cochba persecutes Christians

 

135

Christians persecuted in Israel because Christians would not join Bar Cochba's revolt.

Bar Cochba persecutes Christians

Epistle of Barnabas

12 1/2

100-150

-

-

G

W

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

G

G

-

G

S

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

S

-

G

-

Epistle of Barnabas

2 Clement (anonymous writer)

5

c.150

-

-

S

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

S

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 Clement (anonymous writer)

Polycarp, John's disciple, to the Philippians

3 1/2

100-155

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polycarp, John's disciple, to the Philippians

Total Apostolic Fathers to 155 A.D.

67.5

-155

0

2

3

3

1

2

2

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

2

0

0

4

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

2

Total Apostolic Fathers, to 155 A.D.

Shepherd of Hermas

46 1/2

c.160

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

Shepherd of Hermas

Justin Martyr, philosopher, apologist

137

c.138-165

I

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

-

A

Q

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

W

-

-

W

W

-

W

W

W

W

S

W

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

W

W

Justin of Neocaesarea, apologist

Evarestus' Martyrdom of Polycarp

5

c.169

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

-

-

-

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-

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-

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-

-

-

-

Evarestus' Martyrdom of Polycarp

Marcion of Pontus, pupil of Cerdo/Cerdon. Apelles & Prepon from Marcion

defore170-

Gnostics all believed the Creator, the God of the Old Testament, was evil or foolish. Rejecting the Old Testament, they made their own scriptures, mixing Greek paganism with Christianity.

Marcion of Pontus, pupil of Cerdo/Cerdon. Apelles & Prepon from Marcion

Menander then Satorninos/ Saturnilus (ascetic Gnostics)

c.150-4th

Cerdo & Menander from Simon in Acts. Encratite gnostics came from Saturnilus.

Menander then Satorninos/ Saturnilus (ascetic Gnostics)

Dionysius of Corinth (against Marcion)

1/3

170

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

-

-

-

-

Dionysius of Corinth

Tatian, pupil of Justin, later Encratite

18+86

died 172

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1/2

-

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tatian, pupil of Justin, later Encratite

Basilides & his pupil Isidorus, changed from Menander's teaching

2.5

132-135-4th

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Basilides & his pupil Isidorus, changed from Menander's teaching

Sethian Gnostics (libertine)

20

?-4th cen.

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Sethian Gnostics (libertine)

Hermetic Gnostics (no mention of Christ)

6

?-4th cen.

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hermetic Gnostics

Valentinians including Heracleon, Colorbasus, Marcus, & Ptolemy

23+12

c.150-4th

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Valentinians including Heracleon, Colorbasus, Marcus, & Ptolemy

Other gnostics: Cainites, Carpocrates, Docetics, Peretae, Cerinthus, Dositheus, Monoimus, Hermogenes, Marcillinians, Melchisedecians, Nicolaus, Ophites, Secundus/Epiphanes

37

c.150-4th century

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

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-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

Other gnostics: Cainites, Carpocrates, Docetics, Peretae, Cerinthus, Dositheus, Monoimus, Hermogenes, Marcillinians, Melchisedecians, Nicolaus, Ophites, Secundus/Epiphanes

Athenagoras (apologist)

33 1/2

177

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

S

-

-

W

W

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Athenagoras (apologist)

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum

6 1/2

177

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

A

-

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-

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-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum

Persecution of Marcus Aurelius

 

162/166-180

Aurelius was a Stoic philosopher. Persecution, mainly in Gaul, ended with his death.

Persecution of Marcus Aurelius

Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis

1/2

160-177/180

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis

Melito/Meleto of Sardis (Quartodec.)

11

170-177/180

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

X

X

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

W

-

-

-

-

Melito/Meleto of Sardis (Quartodec.)

Hegesippus (chronicler)

2 1/2

170-180

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

W

W

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hegesippus (chronicler)

Rhodon (against Marcion & Apelles)

1/2

180

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

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Rhodon (against Marcion & Apelles)

Theophilus of Antioch (to Autolycus)

32

168-181/188

-

-

W

G

-

-

-

-

-

-

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Q

W

W

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W

W

-

W

W

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

W

Theophilus of Antioch (to Autolycus)

Ebionites (O.T. Mt, observe Law, Father, Son) Clementina, Protoevangelium

265 1/2

- 188 -

-

W

Q

W

1/2

W

W

S

A

-

-

-

A

-

-

A

-

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-

-

S

A

A

-

S

S

W

A

A

-

S

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ebionites (O.T. Mt, observe Law, Father, Son)

Irenaeus of Lyons, Polycarp's disciple

284

182-188

W

W

W

W

1/2

W

W

W

S

-

W

Q

Q

A

-

-

-

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-

W

W

-

A

W

W

W

W

W

W

S

S

-

W

Q

-

W

-

-

W

W

Irenaeus of Lyons, Polycarp's disciple

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs

180-202

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs

Maximus of Jerusalem

5

185-196

-

-

-

-

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Maximus of Jerusalem

Polycrates of Ephesus (Quartodec.)

1/2

196

-

-

-

-

-

-

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Polycrates of Ephesus (Quartodec.)

Caius and the Muratorian Canon

3

190-217

W

-

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-

-

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-

-

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Caius and the Muratorian Canon

Sabellian heresy (Praxeas, Noetus, Callistus)

200-257-

Sabellians believed the Father, Son, & Spirit were one person. This view allows that the Father suffered & died on the cross, hence they were also called Patripassians for "passion of the Father".

Sabellian heresy (Praxeas, Noetus)

Persecution of Septimus Severus

202

Est. 2M Christians. Although a Christian helped him through a severe illness, he did not repeal existing laws against Christians.

Persecution of Septimus Severus

Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas

7

c.201/205

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

-

-

Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas

Romans kill first known martyrs in Britain

209

Alban, Julius, and Aaron were formerly thought killed in 304/5 A.D.

Romans kill 1st known martyrs in Britain

Serapion of Antioch (against Marcion)

1/3

200-210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

Serapion of Antioch (against Marcion)

Minucius Felix (The Octavius)

25

210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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Minucius Felix (The Octavius)

Apollonius of Ephesus (against Montanists)

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Apollonius of Ephesus (against Montanists)

Clement of Alexandria

424

193-217/220

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Clement of Alexandria

Tertullian (joined Montanist Church)

736

198-220

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Tertullian (joined Montanist church)

Tertullian's 5 Books Against Marcion

194

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Tertullian's 5 Books Against Marcion

Bardaisan/Bardesan of Syria

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Bardaisan/Bardesan of Syria

Asterius Urbanus (against Montanists)

2

c.232

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Asterius Urbanus (against Montanists)

Elchasaite Ebionites (said Jesus God's Son)

2

-236-

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Elchasaite Ebionites (said Jesus God's Son)

Justin's Book of Baruch-Moses, Heracles, Christ

2.5

188-236

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Justin's Book of Baruch-Moses, Heracles, Christ

Naaseni Gnostics & their Gospel of Thomas

3+6

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Naaseni Gnostics & their Gospel of Thomas

Hippolytus, pupil of Irenaeus (undisputed)

218

222-235/6

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Hippolytus, pupil of Irenaeus (undisputed)

Maximin Thrax persecutes Christians

235-238

First empire-wide persecution, but only of clergy. Persecution stopped when his soldiers assassinated him.

Maximin Thrax persecutes Christians

Theodotus the probable Montanist

7

ca.240

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Theodotus the probable Montanist

Instructions of Commodianus

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Instructions of Commodianus

Julius Africanus (undisputed writings)

9

232-245

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Julius Africanus (undisputed writings)

Heraclas of Alexandria 1st to be called pope

 

232-240

Siricius c.384-399 was the 1st Roman bishop to be called a pope.

Heraclas of Alexandria 1st to be called pope

"Revised Valentinian" Tripartite Tractate

11

200-250

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"Revised Valentinian" Tripartite Tractate

Alexander of Cappadocia (Clem. A'.s pupil)

233-251

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Alexander of Cappadocia (Clem. A'.s pupil)

Origen (heterodox teacher)

742

225-254

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Origen (heterodox teacher)

Severe persecution by Decius and Gallus

250-251 - 253

First Christian schism. Were Christians who did sacrifice but repented doomed forever (Novatian's view), or allowed back into church after a long repentance (Orthodox view).

Severe persecution by Decius and Gallus

Novatian (his schism lasted over 200 years)

38 1/2

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Novatian (his schism lasted over 200 years)

Treatise Against Novatian

6 1/2

254-256

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Treatise Against Novatian

Treatise on Rebaptism

11

c.250-258

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Treatise on Rebaptism

Cyprian of Carthage (against Novatian)

250+

c.246-258

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Cyprian of Carthage (against Novatian)

Roman church leaders (ltr 2,29,30)

1+4

250-251

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Roman church leaders (ltr 2,29,30)

Caldonius to Cyprian (letter 18)

250-251

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Caldonius to Cyprian (letter 18)

Celerinus to Lucian (letter 20)

1

250-251

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